SUBTITLE VII - US CODE - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart i - general

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 401 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

49 USC 40101 - Policy

(a) Economic Regulation.— 
In carrying out subpart II of this part and those provisions of subpart IV applicable in carrying out subpart II, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider the following matters, among others, as being in the public interest and consistent with public convenience and necessity:
(1) assigning and maintaining safety as the highest priority in air commerce.
(2) before authorizing new air transportation services, evaluating the safety implications of those services.
(3) preventing deterioration in established safety procedures, recognizing the clear intent, encouragement, and dedication of Congress to further the highest degree of safety in air transportation and air commerce, and to maintain the safety vigilance that has evolved in air transportation and air commerce and has come to be expected by the traveling and shipping public.
(4) the availability of a variety of adequate, economic, efficient, and low-priced services without unreasonable discrimination or unfair or deceptive practices.
(5) coordinating transportation by, and improving relations among, air carriers, and encouraging fair wages and working conditions.
(6) placing maximum reliance on competitive market forces and on actual and potential competition
(A) to provide the needed air transportation system; and
(B) to encourage efficient and well-managed air carriers to earn adequate profits and attract capital, considering any material differences between interstate air transportation and foreign air transportation.
(7) developing and maintaining a sound regulatory system that is responsive to the needs of the public and in which decisions are reached promptly to make it easier to adapt the air transportation system to the present and future needs of
(A) the commerce of the United States;
(B) the United States Postal Service; and
(C) the national defense.
(8) encouraging air transportation at major urban areas through secondary or satellite airports if consistent with regional airport plans of regional and local authorities, and if endorsed by appropriate State authorities
(A) encouraging the transportation by air carriers that provide, in a specific market, transportation exclusively at those airports; and
(B) fostering an environment that allows those carriers to establish themselves and develop secondary or satellite airport services.
(9) preventing unfair, deceptive, predatory, or anticompetitive practices in air transportation.
(10) avoiding unreasonable industry concentration, excessive market domination, monopoly powers, and other conditions that would tend to allow at least one air carrier or foreign air carrier unreasonably to increase prices, reduce services, or exclude competition in air transportation.
(11) maintaining a complete and convenient system of continuous scheduled interstate air transportation for small communities and isolated areas with direct financial assistance from the United States Government when appropriate.
(12) encouraging, developing, and maintaining an air transportation system relying on actual and potential competition
(A) to provide efficiency, innovation, and low prices; and
(B) to decide on the variety and quality of, and determine prices for, air transportation services.
(13) encouraging entry into air transportation markets by new and existing air carriers and the continued strengthening of small air carriers to ensure a more effective and competitive airline industry.
(14) promoting, encouraging, and developing civil aeronautics and a viable, privately-owned United States air transport industry.
(15) strengthening the competitive position of air carriers to at least ensure equality with foreign air carriers, including the attainment of the opportunity for air carriers to maintain and increase their profitability in foreign air transportation.
(16) ensuring that consumers in all regions of the United States, including those in small communities and rural and remote areas, have access to affordable, regularly scheduled air service.
(b) All-Cargo Air Transportation Considerations.— 
In carrying out subpart II of this part and those provisions of subpart IV applicable in carrying out subpart II, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider the following matters, among others and in addition to the matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section, as being in the public interest for all-cargo air transportation:
(1) encouraging and developing an expedited all-cargo air transportation system provided by private enterprise and responsive to
(A) the present and future needs of shippers;
(B) the commerce of the United States; and
(C) the national defense.
(2) encouraging and developing an integrated transportation system relying on competitive market forces to decide the extent, variety, quality, and price of services provided.
(3) providing services without unreasonable discrimination, unfair or deceptive practices, or predatory pricing.
(c) General Safety Considerations.— 
In carrying out subpart III of this part and those provisions of subpart IV applicable in carrying out subpart III, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consider the following matters:
(1) the requirements of national defense and commercial and general aviation.
(2) the public right of freedom of transit through the navigable airspace.
(d) Safety Considerations in Public Interest.— 
In carrying out subpart III of this part and those provisions of subpart IV applicable in carrying out subpart III, the Administrator shall consider the following matters, among others, as being in the public interest:
(1) assigning, maintaining, and enhancing safety and security as the highest priorities in air commerce.
(2) regulating air commerce in a way that best promotes safety and fulfills national defense requirements.
(3) encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology.
(4) controlling the use of the navigable airspace and regulating civil and military operations in that airspace in the interest of the safety and efficiency of both of those operations.
(5) consolidating research and development for air navigation facilities and the installation and operation of those facilities.
(6) developing and operating a common system of air traffic control and navigation for military and civil aircraft.
(7) providing assistance to law enforcement agencies in the enforcement of laws related to regulation of controlled substances, to the extent consistent with aviation safety.
(e) International Air Transportation.— 
In formulating United States international air transportation policy, the Secretaries of State and Transportation shall develop a negotiating policy emphasizing the greatest degree of competition compatible with a well-functioning international air transportation system, including the following:
(1) strengthening the competitive position of air carriers to ensure at least equality with foreign air carriers, including the attainment of the opportunity for air carriers to maintain and increase their profitability in foreign air transportation.
(2) freedom of air carriers and foreign air carriers to offer prices that correspond to consumer demand.
(3) the fewest possible restrictions on charter air transportation.
(4) the maximum degree of multiple and permissive international authority for air carriers so that they will be able to respond quickly to a shift in market demand.
(5) eliminating operational and marketing restrictions to the greatest extent possible.
(6) integrating domestic and international air transportation.
(7) increasing the number of nonstop United States gateway cities.
(8) opportunities for carriers of foreign countries to increase their access to places in the United States if exchanged for benefits of similar magnitude for air carriers or the traveling public with permanent linkage between rights granted and rights given away.
(9) eliminating discrimination and unfair competitive practices faced by United States airlines in foreign air transportation, including
(A) excessive landing and user fees;
(B) unreasonable ground handling requirements;
(C) unreasonable restrictions on operations;
(D) prohibitions against change of gauge; and
(E) similar restrictive practices.
(10) promoting, encouraging, and developing civil aeronautics and a viable, privately-owned United States air transport industry.
(f) Strengthening Competition.— 
In selecting an air carrier to provide foreign air transportation from among competing applicants, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider, in addition to the matters specified in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the strengthening of competition among air carriers operating in the United States to prevent unreasonable concentration in the air carrier industry.

49 USC 40102 - Definitions

(a) General Definitions.— 
In this part
(1) aeronautics means the science and art of flight.
(2) air carrier means a citizen of the United States undertaking by any means, directly or indirectly, to provide air transportation.
(3) air commerce means foreign air commerce, interstate air commerce, the transportation of mail by aircraft, the operation of aircraft within the limits of a Federal airway, or the operation of aircraft that directly affects, or may endanger safety in, foreign or interstate air commerce.
(4) air navigation facility means a facility used, available for use, or designed for use, in aid of air navigation, including
(A) a landing area;
(B) a light;
(C) apparatus or equipment for distributing weather information, signaling, radio-directional finding, or radio or other electromagnetic communication; and
(D) another structure or mechanism for guiding or controlling flight in the air or the landing and takeoff of aircraft.
(5) air transportation means foreign air transportation, interstate air transportation, or the transportation of mail by aircraft.
(6) aircraft means any contrivance invented, used, or designed to navigate, or fly in, the air.
(7) aircraft engine means an engine used, or intended to be used, to propel an aircraft, including a part, appurtenance, and accessory of the engine, except a propeller.
(8) airman means an individual
(A) in command, or as pilot, mechanic, or member of the crew, who navigates aircraft when under way;
(B) except to the extent the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may provide otherwise for individuals employed outside the United States, who is directly in charge of inspecting, maintaining, overhauling, or repairing aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances; or
(C) who serves as an aircraft dispatcher or air traffic control-tower operator.
(9) airport means a landing area used regularly by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.
(10) all-cargo air transportation means the transportation by aircraft in interstate air transportation of only property or only mail, or both.
(11) appliance means an instrument, equipment, apparatus, a part, an appurtenance, or an accessory used, capable of being used, or intended to be used, in operating or controlling aircraft in flight, including a parachute, communication equipment, and another mechanism installed in or attached to aircraft during flight, and not a part of an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller.
(12) cargo means property, mail, or both.
(13) charter air carrier means an air carrier holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity that authorizes it to provide charter air transportation.
(14) charter air transportation means charter trips in air transportation authorized under this part.
(15) citizen of the United States means
(A) an individual who is a citizen of the United States;
(B) a partnership each of whose partners is an individual who is a citizen of the United States; or
(C) a corporation or association organized under the laws of the United States or a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory or possession of the United States, of which the president and at least two-thirds of the board of directors and other managing officers are citizens of the United States, which is under the actual control of citizens of the United States, and in which at least 75 percent of the voting interest is owned or controlled by persons that are citizens of the United States.
(16) civil aircraft means an aircraft except a public aircraft.
(17) civil aircraft of the United States means an aircraft registered under chapter 441 of this title.
(18) conditional sales contract means a contract
(A) for the sale of an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or spare part, under which the buyer takes possession of the property but title to the property vests in the buyer at a later time on
(i) paying any part of the purchase price;
(ii) performing another condition; or
(iii) the happening of a contingency; or
(B) to bail or lease an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or spare part, under which the bailee or lessee
(i) agrees to pay an amount substantially equal to the value of the property; and
(ii) is to become, or has the option of becoming, the owner of the property on complying with the contract.
(19) conveyance means an instrument, including a conditional sales contract, affecting title to, or an interest in, property.
(20) Federal airway means a part of the navigable airspace that the Administrator designates as a Federal airway.
(21) foreign air carrier means a person, not a citizen of the United States, undertaking by any means, directly or indirectly, to provide foreign air transportation.
(22) foreign air commerce means the transportation of passengers or property by aircraft for compensation, the transportation of mail by aircraft, or the operation of aircraft in furthering a business or vocation, between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States when any part of the transportation or operation is by aircraft.
(23) foreign air transportation means the transportation of passengers or property by aircraft as a common carrier for compensation, or the transportation of mail by aircraft, between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States when any part of the transportation is by aircraft.
(24) interstate air commerce means the transportation of passengers or property by aircraft for compensation, the transportation of mail by aircraft, or the operation of aircraft in furthering a business or vocation
(A) between a place in
(i) a State, territory, or possession of the United States and a place in the District of Columbia or another State, territory, or possession of the United States;
(ii) a State and another place in the same State through the airspace over a place outside the State;
(iii) the District of Columbia and another place in the District of Columbia; or
(iv) a territory or possession of the United States and another place in the same territory or possession; and
(B) when any part of the transportation or operation is by aircraft.
(25) interstate air transportation means the transportation of passengers or property by aircraft as a common carrier for compensation, or the transportation of mail by aircraft
(A) between a place in
(i) a State, territory, or possession of the United States and a place in the District of Columbia or another State, territory, or possession of the United States;
(ii) Hawaii and another place in Hawaii through the airspace over a place outside Hawaii;
(iii) the District of Columbia and another place in the District of Columbia; or
(iv) a territory or possession of the United States and another place in the same territory or possession; and
(B) when any part of the transportation is by aircraft.
(26) intrastate air carrier means a citizen of the United States undertaking by any means to provide only intrastate air transportation.
(27) intrastate air transportation means the transportation by a common carrier of passengers or property for compensation, entirely in the same State, by turbojet-powered aircraft capable of carrying at least 30 passengers.
(28) landing area means a place on land or water, including an airport or intermediate landing field, used, or intended to be used, for the takeoff and landing of aircraft, even when facilities are not provided for sheltering, servicing, or repairing aircraft, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.
(29) large hub airport means a commercial service airport (as defined in section 47102) that has at least 1.0 percent of the passenger boardings.
(30) mail means United States mail and foreign transit mail.
(31) medium hub airport means a commercial service airport (as defined in section 47102) that has at least 0.25 percent but less than 1.0 percent of the passenger boardings.
(32) navigable airspace means airspace above the minimum altitudes of flight prescribed by regulations under this subpart and subpart III of this part, including airspace needed to ensure safety in the takeoff and landing of aircraft.
(33) navigate aircraft and navigation of aircraft include piloting aircraft.
(34) nonhub airport means a commercial service airport (as defined in section 47102) that has less than 0.05 percent of the passenger boardings.
(35) operate aircraft and operation of aircraft mean using aircraft for the purposes of air navigation, including
(A) the navigation of aircraft; and
(B) causing or authorizing the operation of aircraft with or without the right of legal control of the aircraft.
(36) passenger boardings
(A) means, unless the context indicates otherwise, revenue passenger boardings in the United States in the prior calendar year on an aircraft in service in air commerce, as the Secretary determines under regulations the Secretary prescribes; and
(B) includes passengers who continue on an aircraft in international flight that stops at an airport in the 48 contiguous States, Alaska, or Hawaii for a nontraffic purpose.
(37) person, in addition to its meaning under section 1 of title 1, includes a governmental authority and a trustee, receiver, assignee, and other similar representative.
(38) predatory means a practice that violates the antitrust laws as defined in the first section of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 12).
(39) price means a rate, fare, or charge.
(40) propeller includes a part, appurtenance, and accessory of a propeller.
(41) public aircraft means any of the following:
(A) Except with respect to an aircraft described in subparagraph (E), an aircraft used only for the United States Government, except as provided in section 40125 (b).
(B) An aircraft owned by the Government and operated by any person for purposes related to crew training, equipment development, or demonstration, except as provided in section 40125 (b).
(C) An aircraft owned and operated by the government of a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory or possession of the United States or a political subdivision of one of these governments, except as provided in section 40125 (b).
(D) An aircraft exclusively leased for at least 90 continuous days by the government of a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory or possession of the United States or a political subdivision of one of these governments, except as provided in section 40125 (b).
(E) An aircraft owned or operated by the armed forces or chartered to provide transportation to the armed forces under the conditions specified by section 40125 (c).
(42) small hub airport means a commercial service airport (as defined in section 47102) that has at least 0.05 percent but less than 0.25 percent of the passenger boardings.
(43) spare part means an accessory, appurtenance, or part of an aircraft (except an aircraft engine or propeller), aircraft engine (except a propeller), propeller, or appliance, that is to be installed at a later time in an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance.
(44) State authority means an authority of a State designated under State law
(A) to receive notice required to be given a State authority under subpart II of this part; or
(B) as the representative of the State before the Secretary of Transportation in any matter about which the Secretary is required to consult with or consider the views of a State authority under subpart II of this part.
(45) ticket agent means a person (except an air carrier, a foreign air carrier, or an employee of an air carrier or foreign air carrier) that as a principal or agent sells, offers for sale, negotiates for, or holds itself out as selling, providing, or arranging for, air transportation.
(46) United States means the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the territories and possessions of the United States, including the territorial sea and the overlying airspace.
(47) air traffic control system means the combination of elements used to safely and efficiently monitor, direct, control, and guide aircraft in the United States and United States-assigned airspace, including
(A) allocated electromagnetic spectrum and physical, real, personal, and intellectual property assets making up facilities, equipment, and systems employed to detect, track, and guide aircraft movement;
(B) laws, regulations, orders, directives, agreements, and licenses;
(C) published procedures that explain required actions, activities, and techniques used to ensure adequate aircraft separation; and
(D) trained personnel with specific technical capabilities to satisfy the operational, engineering, management, and planning requirements for air traffic control.
(b) Limited Definition.— 
In subpart II of this part, control means control by any means.

49 USC 40103 - Sovereignty and use of airspace

(a) Sovereignty and Public Right of Transit.— 

(1) The United States Government has exclusive sovereignty of airspace of the United States.
(2) A citizen of the United States has a public right of transit through the navigable airspace. To further that right, the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board established under section 502 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 792) before prescribing a regulation or issuing an order or procedure that will have a significant impact on the accessibility of commercial airports or commercial air transportation for handicapped individuals.
(b) Use of Airspace.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall develop plans and policy for the use of the navigable airspace and assign by regulation or order the use of the airspace necessary to ensure the safety of aircraft and the efficient use of airspace. The Administrator may modify or revoke an assignment when required in the public interest.
(2) The Administrator shall prescribe air traffic regulations on the flight of aircraft (including regulations on safe altitudes) for
(A) navigating, protecting, and identifying aircraft;
(B) protecting individuals and property on the ground;
(C) using the navigable airspace efficiently; and
(D) preventing collision between aircraft, between aircraft and land or water vehicles, and between aircraft and airborne objects.
(3) To establish security provisions that will encourage and allow maximum use of the navigable airspace by civil aircraft consistent with national security, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall
(A) establish areas in the airspace the Administrator decides are necessary in the interest of national defense; and
(B) by regulation or order, restrict or prohibit flight of civil aircraft that the Administrator cannot identify, locate, and control with available facilities in those areas.
(4) Notwithstanding the military exception in section 553 (a)(1) of title 5, subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 applies to a regulation prescribed under this subsection.
(c) Foreign Aircraft.— 
A foreign aircraft, not part of the armed forces of a foreign country, may be navigated in the United States as provided in section 41703 of this title.
(d) Aircraft of Armed Forces of Foreign Countries.— 
Aircraft of the armed forces of a foreign country may be navigated in the United States only when authorized by the Secretary of State.
(e) No Exclusive Rights at Certain Facilities.— 
A person does not have an exclusive right to use an air navigation facility on which Government money has been expended. However, providing services at an airport by only one fixed-based operator is not an exclusive right if
(1) it is unreasonably costly, burdensome, or impractical for more than one fixed-based operator to provide the services; and
(2) allowing more than one fixed-based operator to provide the services requires a reduction in space leased under an agreement existing on September 3, 1982, between the operator and the airport.

49 USC 40104 - Promotion of civil aeronautics and safety of air commerce

(a) Developing Civil Aeronautics and Safety of Air Commerce.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall encourage the development of civil aeronautics and safety of air commerce in and outside the United States. In carrying out this subsection, the Administrator shall take action that the Administrator considers necessary to establish, within available resources, a program to distribute civil aviation information in each region served by the Administration. The program shall provide, on request, informational material and expertise on civil aviation to State and local school administrators, college and university officials, and officers of other interested organizations.
(b) International Role of the FAA.— 
The Administrator shall promote and achieve global improvements in the safety, efficiency, and environmental effect of air travel by exercising leadership with the Administrators foreign counterparts, in the International Civil Aviation Organization and its subsidiary organizations, and other international organizations and fora, and with the private sector.
(c) Airport Capacity Enhancement Projects at Congested Airports.— 
In carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator shall take action to encourage the construction of airport capacity enhancement projects at congested airports as those terms are defined in section 47176.[1]
[1] See References in Text note below.

49 USC 40105 - International negotiations, agreements, and obligations

(a) Advice and Consultation.— 
The Secretary of State shall advise the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Secretaries of Transportation and Commerce, and consult with them as appropriate, about negotiations for an agreement with a government of a foreign country to establish or develop air navigation, including air routes and services. The Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the Secretary of State in carrying out this part to the extent this part is related to foreign air transportation.
(b) Actions of Secretary and Administrator.— 

(1) In carrying out this part, the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator
(A) shall act consistently with obligations of the United States Government under an international agreement;
(B) shall consider applicable laws and requirements of a foreign country; and
(C) may not limit compliance by an air carrier with obligations or liabilities imposed by the government of a foreign country when the Secretary takes any action related to a certificate of public convenience and necessity issued under chapter 411 of this title.
(2) This subsection does not apply to an agreement between an air carrier or an officer or representative of an air carrier and the government of a foreign country, if the Secretary of Transportation disapproves the agreement because it is not in the public interest. Section 40106 (b)(2) of this title applies to this subsection.
(c) Consultation on International Air Transportation Policy.— 
In carrying out section 40101 (e) of this title, the Secretaries of State and Transportation, to the maximum extent practicable, shall consult on broad policy goals and individual negotiations with
(1) the Secretaries of Commerce and Defense;
(2) airport operators;
(3) scheduled air carriers;
(4) charter air carriers;
(5) airline labor;
(6) consumer interest groups;
(7) travel agents and tour organizers; and
(8) other groups, institutions, and governmental authorities affected by international aviation policy.
(d) Congressional Observers at International Aviation Negotiations.— 
The President shall grant to at least one representative of each House of Congress the privilege of attending international aviation negotiations as an observer if the privilege is requested in advance in writing.

49 USC 40106 - Emergency powers

(a) Deviations From Regulations.— 
Appropriate military authority may authorize aircraft of the armed forces of the United States to deviate from air traffic regulations prescribed under section 40103 (b)(1) and (2) of this title when the authority decides the deviation is essential to the national defense because of a military emergency or urgent military necessity. The authority shall
(1) give the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration prior notice of the deviation at the earliest practicable time; and
(2) to the extent time and circumstances allow, make every reasonable effort to consult with the Administrator and arrange for the deviation in advance on a mutually agreeable basis.
(b) Suspension of Authority.— 

(1) When the President decides that the government of a foreign country is acting inconsistently with the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft or that the government of a foreign country allows territory under its jurisdiction to be used as a base of operations or training of, or as a sanctuary for, or arms, aids, or abets, a terrorist organization that knowingly uses the unlawful seizure, or the threat of an unlawful seizure, of an aircraft as an instrument of policy, the President may suspend the authority of
(A) an air carrier or foreign air carrier to provide foreign air transportation to and from that foreign country;
(B) a person to operate aircraft in foreign air commerce to and from that foreign country;
(C) a foreign air carrier to provide foreign air transportation between the United States and another country that maintains air service with the foreign country; and
(D) a foreign person to operate aircraft in foreign air commerce between the United States and another country that maintains air service with the foreign country.
(2) The President may act under this subsection without notice or a hearing. The suspension remains in effect for as long as the President decides is necessary to ensure the security of aircraft against unlawful seizure. Notwithstanding section 40105 (b) of this title, the authority of the President to suspend rights under this subsection is a condition to a certificate of public convenience and necessity, air carrier operating certificate, foreign air carrier or foreign aircraft permit, or foreign air carrier operating specification issued by the Secretary of Transportation under this part.
(3) An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not provide foreign air transportation, and a person may not operate aircraft in foreign air commerce, in violation of a suspension of authority under this subsection.

49 USC 40107 - Presidential transfers

(a) General Authority.— 
The President may transfer to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration a duty, power, activity, or facility of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive branch of the United States Government, or an officer or unit of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive branch, related primarily to selecting, developing, testing, evaluating, establishing, operating, or maintaining a system, procedure, facility, or device for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control. In making a transfer, the President may transfer records and property and make officers and employees from the department, agency, instrumentality, or unit available to the Administrator.
(b) During War.— 
If war occurs, the President by executive order may transfer to the Secretary of Defense a duty, power, activity, or facility of the Administrator. In making the transfer, the President may transfer records, property, officers, and employees of the Administration to the Department of Defense.

49 USC 40108 - Training schools

(a) Authority To Operate.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may operate schools to train officers and employees of the Administration to carry out duties, powers, and activities of the Administrator.
(b) Attendance.— 
The Administrator may authorize officers and employees of other departments, agencies, or instrumentalities of the United States Government, officers and employees of governments of foreign countries, and individuals from the aeronautics industry to attend those schools. However, if the attendance of any of those officers, employees, or individuals increases the cost of operating the schools, the Administrator may require the payment or transfer of amounts or other consideration to offset the additional cost. The amount received may be credited to the appropriation current when the expenditures are or were paid, the appropriation current when the amount is received, or both.

49 USC 40109 - Authority to exempt

(a) Air Carriers and Foreign Air Carriers Not Engaged Directly in Operating Aircraft.— 

(1) The Secretary of Transportation may exempt from subpart II of this part
(A) an air carrier not engaged directly in operating aircraft in air transportation; or
(B) a foreign air carrier not engaged directly in operating aircraft in foreign air transportation.
(2) The exemption is effective to the extent and for periods that the Secretary decides are in the public interest.
(b) Safety Regulation.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may grant an exemption from a regulation prescribed in carrying out sections 40103 (b)(1) and (2), 40119, 44901, 44903, 44906, and 44935–44937 of this title when the Administrator decides the exemption is in the public interest.
(c) Other Economic Regulation.— 
Except as provided in this section, the Secretary may exempt to the extent the Secretary considers necessary a person or class of persons from a provision of chapter 411, chapter 413 (except sections 41307 and 41310 (b)(f)), chapter 415 (except sections 41502, 41505, and 41507–41509), chapter 417 (except sections 41703, 41704, 41710, 41713, and 41714), chapter 419, subchapter II of chapter 421, and sections 44909 and 46301 (b) of this title, or a regulation or term prescribed under any of those provisions, when the Secretary decides that the exemption is consistent with the public interest.
(d) Labor Requirements.— 
The Secretary may not exempt an air carrier from section 42112 of this title. However, the Secretary may exempt from section 42112 (b)(1) and (2) an air carrier not providing scheduled air transportation, and the operations conducted during daylight hours by an air carrier providing scheduled air transportation, when the Secretary decides that
(1) because of the limited extent of, or unusual circumstances affecting, the operation of the air carrier, the enforcement of section 42112 (b)(1) and (2) of this title is or would be an unreasonable burden on the air carrier that would obstruct its development and prevent it from beginning or continuing operations; and
(2) the exemption would not affect adversely the public interest.
(e) Maximum Flying Hours.— 
The Secretary may not exempt an air carrier under this section from a provision referred to in subsection (c) of this section, or a regulation or term prescribed under any of those provisions, that sets maximum flying hours for pilots or copilots.
(f) Smaller Aircraft.— 

(1) An air carrier is exempt from section 41101 (a)(1) of this title, and the Secretary may exempt an air carrier from another provision of subpart II of this part, if the air carrier
(A) 
(i) provides passenger transportation only with aircraft having a maximum capacity of 55 passengers; or
(ii) provides the transportation of cargo only with aircraft having a maximum payload of less than 18,000 pounds; and
(B) complies with liability insurance requirements and other regulations the Secretary prescribes.
(2) The Secretary may increase the passenger or payload capacities when the public interest requires.
(3) 
(A) An exemption under this subsection applies to an air carrier providing air transportation between 2 places in Alaska, or between Alaska and Canada, only if the carrier is authorized by Alaska to provide the transportation.
(B) The Secretary may limit the number or location of places that may be served by an air carrier providing transportation only in Alaska under an exemption from section 41101 (a)(1) of this title, or the frequency with which the transportation may be provided, only when the Secretary decides that providing the transportation substantially impairs the ability of an air carrier holding a certificate issued by the Secretary to provide its authorized transportation, including the minimum transportation requirement for Alaska specified under section 41732 (b)(1)(B) of this title.
(g) Emergency Air Transportation by Foreign Air Carriers.— 

(1) To the extent that the Secretary decides an exemption is in the public interest, the Secretary may exempt by order a foreign air carrier from the requirements and limitations of this part for not more than 30 days to allow the foreign air carrier to carry passengers or cargo in interstate air transportation in certain markets if the Secretary finds that
(A) because of an emergency created by unusual circumstances not arising in the normal course of business, air carriers holding certificates under section 41102 of this title cannot accommodate traffic in those markets;
(B) all possible efforts have been made to accommodate the traffic by using the resources of the air carriers, including the use of
(i) foreign aircraft, or sections of foreign aircraft, under lease or charter to the air carriers; and
(ii) the air carriers reservations systems to the extent practicable;
(C) the exemption is necessary to avoid unreasonable hardship for the traffic in the markets that cannot be accommodated by the air carriers; and
(D) granting the exemption will not result in an unreasonable advantage to any party in a labor dispute where the inability to accommodate traffic in a market is a result of the dispute.
(2) When the Secretary grants an exemption to a foreign air carrier under this subsection, the Secretary shall
(A) ensure that air transportation that the foreign air carrier provides under the exemption is made available on reasonable terms;
(B) monitor continuously the passenger load factor of air carriers in the market that hold certificates under section 41102 of this title; and
(C) review the exemption at least every 30 days to ensure that the unusual circumstances that established the need for the exemption still exist.
(3) The Secretary may renew an exemption (including renewals) under this subsection for not more than 30 days. An exemption may continue for not more than 5 days after the unusual circumstances that established the need for the exemption cease.
(h) Notice and Opportunity for Hearing.— 
The Secretary may act under subsections (d) and (f)(3)(B) of this section only after giving the air carrier notice and an opportunity for a hearing.

49 USC 40110 - General procurement authority

(a) General.— 
In carrying out this part, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration
(1) to the extent that amounts are available for obligation, may acquire services or, by condemnation or otherwise, an interest in property, including an interest in airspace immediately adjacent to and needed for airports and other air navigation facilities owned by the United States Government and operated by the Administrator;
(2) may dispose of an interest in property for adequate compensation; and
(3) may construct and improve laboratories and other test facilities.
(b) Purchase of Housing Units.— 

(1) Authority.— 
In carrying out this part, the Administrator may purchase a housing unit (including a condominium or a housing unit in a building owned by a cooperative) that is located outside the contiguous United States if the cost of the unit is $300,000 or less.
(2) Adjustments for inflation.— 
For fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1997, the Administrator may adjust the dollar amount specified in paragraph (1) to take into account increases in local housing costs.
(3) Continuing obligations.— 
Notwithstanding section 1341 of title 31, the Administrator may purchase a housing unit under paragraph (1) even if there is an obligation thereafter to pay necessary and reasonable fees duly assessed upon such unit, including fees related to operation, maintenance, taxes, and insurance.
(4) Certification to congress.— 
The Administrator may purchase a housing unit under paragraph (1) only if, at least 30 days before completing the purchase, the Administrator transmits to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report containing
(A) a description of the housing unit and its price;
(B) a certification that the price does not exceed the median price of housing units in the area; and
(C) a certification that purchasing the housing unit is the most cost-beneficial means of providing necessary accommodations in carrying out this part.
(5) Payment of fees.— 
The Administrator may pay, when due, fees resulting from the purchase of a housing unit under this subsection from any amounts made available to the Administrator.
(c) Duties and Powers.— 
When carrying out subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may
(1) notwithstanding section 1341 (a)(1) of title 31, lease an interest in property for not more than 20 years;
(2) consider the reasonable probable future use of the underlying land in making an award for a condemnation of an interest in airspace;
(3) construct, or acquire an interest in, a public building (as defined in section 3301 (a) of title 40) only under a delegation of authority from the Administrator of General Services;
(4) use procedures other than competitive procedures only when the property or services needed by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration are available from only one responsible source or only from a limited number of responsible sources and no other type of property or services will satisfy the needs of the Administrator; and
(5) dispose of property under subsection (a)(2) of this section, except for airport and airway property and technical equipment used for the special purposes of the Administration, only under sections 121, 123, and 126 and chapter 5 of title 40.
(d) Acquisition Management System.— 

(1) In general.— 
In consultation with such non-governmental experts in acquisition management systems as the Administrator may employ, and notwithstanding provisions of Federal acquisition law, the Administrator shall develop and implement an acquisition management system for the Administration that addresses the unique needs of the agency and, at a minimum, provides for
(A) more timely and cost-effective acquisitions of equipment, services, property, and materials; and
(B) the resolution of bid protests and contract disputes related thereto, using consensual alternative dispute resolution techniques to the maximum extent practicable.
(2) Applicability of federal acquisition law.— 
The following provisions of Federal acquisition law shall not apply to the new acquisition management system developed and implemented pursuant to paragraph (1):
(A) Title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 252–266).
(B) The Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).
(C) The Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 (Public Law 103355), except for section 315 (41 U.S.C. 265). For the purpose of applying section 315 of that Act to the system, the term executive agency is deemed to refer to the Federal Aviation Administration.
(D) The Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 631 et seq.), except that all reasonable opportunities to be awarded contracts shall be provided to small business concerns and small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals.
(E) The Competition in Contracting Act.
(F) Subchapter V of chapter 35 of title 31, relating to the procurement protest system.
(G) The Federal Acquisition Regulation and any laws not listed in subparagraphs (A) through (F) providing authority to promulgate regulations in the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(3) Certain provisions of the office of federal procurement policy act.— 
Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(B), section 27 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 423) shall apply to the new acquisition management system developed and implemented under paragraph (1) with the following modifications:
(A) Subsections (f) and (g) shall not apply.
(B) Within 90 days after the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, the Administrator shall adopt definitions for the acquisition management system that are consistent with the purpose and intent of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act.
(C) After the adoption of those definitions, the criminal, civil, and administrative remedies provided under the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act apply to the acquisition management system.
(D) In the administration of the acquisition management system, the Administrator may take adverse personnel action under section 27(e)(3)(A)(iv) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act in accordance with the procedures contained in the Administrations personnel management system.
(4) Adjudication of certain bid protests and contract disputes.— 
A bid protest or contract dispute that is not addressed or resolved through alternative dispute resolution shall be adjudicated by the Administrator through Dispute Resolution Officers or Special Masters of the Federal Aviation Administration Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition, acting pursuant to sections 46102, 46104, 46105, 46106 and 46107 and shall be subject to judicial review under section 46110 and to section 504 of title 5.
(e) Prohibition on Release of Offeror Proposals.— 

(1) General rule.— 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), a proposal in the possession or control of the Administrator may not be made available to any person under section 552 of title 5.
(2) Exception.— 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any portion of a proposal of an offeror the disclosure of which is authorized by the Administrator pursuant to procedures published in the Federal Register. The Administrator shall provide an opportunity for public comment on the procedures for a period of not less than 30 days beginning on the date of such publication in order to receive and consider the views of all interested parties on the procedures. The procedures shall not take effect before the 60th day following the date of such publication.
(3) Proposal defined.— 
In this subsection, the term proposal means information contained in or originating from any proposal, including a technical, management, or cost proposal, submitted by an offeror in response to the requirements of a solicitation for a competitive proposal.

49 USC 40111 - Multiyear procurement contracts for services and related items

(a) General Authority.— 
Notwithstanding section 1341 (a)(1)(B) of title 31, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make a contract of not more than 5 years for the following types of services and items of supply related to those services for which amounts otherwise would be available for obligation only in the fiscal year for which appropriated:
(1) operation, maintenance, and support of facilities and installations.
(2) operation, maintenance, and modification of aircraft, vehicles, and other highly complex equipment.
(3) specialized training requiring high quality instructor skills, including training of pilots and aircrew members and foreign language training.
(4) base services, including ground maintenance, aircraft refueling, bus transportation, and refuse collection and disposal.
(b) Required Findings.— 
The Administrator may make a contract under this section only if the Administrator finds that
(1) there will be a continuing requirement for the service consistent with current plans for the proposed contract period;
(2) providing the service will require a substantial initial investment in plant or equipment, or will incur a substantial contingent liability for assembling, training, or transporting a specialized workforce; and
(3) the contract will promote the best interests of the United States by encouraging effective competition and promoting economies in operation.
(c) Considerations.— 
When making a contract under this section, the Administrator shall be guided by the following:
(1) The part of the cost of a plant or equipment amortized as a cost of contract performance may not be more than the ratio between the period of contract performance and the anticipated useful commercial life (instead of physical life) of the plant or equipment, considering the location and specialized nature of the plant or equipment, obsolescence, and other similar factors.
(2) The Administrator shall consider the desirability of
(A) obtaining an option to renew the contract for a reasonable period of not more than 3 years, at a price that does not include charges for nonrecurring costs already amortized; and
(B) reserving in the Administrator the right, on payment of the unamortized part of the cost of the plant or equipment, to take title to the plant or equipment under appropriate circumstances.
(d) Ending Contracts.— 
A contract made under this section shall be ended if amounts are not made available to continue the contract into a subsequent fiscal year. The cost of ending the contract may be paid from
(1) an appropriation originally available for carrying out the contract;
(2) an appropriation currently available for procuring the type of service concerned and not otherwise obligated; or
(3) amounts appropriated for payments to end the contract.

49 USC 40112 - Multiyear procurement contracts for property

(a) General Authority.— 
Notwithstanding section 1341 (a)(1)(B) of title 31 and to the extent that amounts otherwise are available for obligation, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make a contract of more than one but not more than 5 fiscal years to purchase property, except a contract to construct, alter, or make a major repair or improvement to real property.
(b) Required Findings.— 
The Administrator may make a contract under this section if the Administrator finds that
(1) the contract will promote the safety or efficiency of the national airspace system and will result in reduced total contract costs;
(2) the minimum need for the property to be purchased is expected to remain substantially unchanged during the proposed contract period in terms of production rate, procurement rate, and total quantities;
(3) there is a reasonable expectation that throughout the proposed contract period the Administrator will request appropriations for the contract at the level required to avoid cancellation;
(4) there is a stable design for the property to be acquired and the technical risks associated with the property are not excessive; and
(5) the estimates of the contract costs and the anticipated savings from the contract are realistic.
(c) Regulations.— 
The Administrator shall prescribe regulations for acquiring property under this section to promote the use of contracts under this section in a way that will allow the most efficient use of those contracts. The regulations may provide for a cancellation provision in the contract to the extent the provision is necessary and in the best interest of the United States. The provision may include consideration of recurring and nonrecurring costs of the contractor associated with producing the item to be delivered under the contract. The regulations shall provide that, to the extent practicable
(1) to broaden the aviation industrial base
(A) a contract under this section shall be used to seek, retain, and promote the use under that contract of subcontractors, vendors, or suppliers; and
(B) on accrual of a payment or other benefit accruing on a contract under this section to a subcontractor, vendor, or supplier participating in the contract, the payment or benefit shall be delivered in the most expeditious way practicable; and
(2) this section and regulations prescribed under this section may not be carried out in a way that precludes or curtails the existing ability of the Administrator to provide for
(A) competition in producing items to be delivered under a contract under this section; or
(B) ending a prime contract when performance is deficient with respect to cost, quality, or schedule.
(d) Contract Provisions.— 

(1) A contract under this section may
(A) be used for the advance procurement of components, parts, and material necessary to manufacture equipment to be used in the national airspace system;
(B) provide that performance under the contract after the first year is subject to amounts being appropriated; and
(C) contain a negotiated priced option for varying the number of end items to be procured over the period of the contract.
(2) If feasible and practicable, an advance procurement contract may be made to achieve economic-lot purchases and more efficient production rates.
(e) Cancellation Payment and Notice of Cancellation Ceiling.— 

(1) If a contract under this section provides that performance is subject to an appropriation being made, it also may provide for a cancellation payment to be made to the contractor if the appropriation is not made.
(2) Before awarding a contract under this section containing a cancellation ceiling of more than $100,000,000, the Administrator shall give written notice of the proposed contract and cancellation ceiling to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives. The contract may not be awarded until the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the notice.
(f) Ending Contracts.— 
A contract made under this section shall be ended if amounts are not made available to continue the contract into a subsequent fiscal year. The cost of ending the contract may be paid from
(1) an appropriation originally available for carrying out the contract;
(2) an appropriation currently available for procuring the type of property concerned and not otherwise obligated; or
(3) amounts appropriated for payments to end the contract.

49 USC 40113 - Administrative

(a) General Authority.— 
The Secretary of Transportation (or the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security with respect to security duties and powers designated to be carried out by the Under Secretary or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration with respect to aviation safety duties and powers designated to be carried out by the Administrator) may take action the Secretary, Under Secretary, or Administrator, as appropriate, considers necessary to carry out this part, including conducting investigations, prescribing regulations, standards, and procedures, and issuing orders.
(b) Hazardous Material.— 
In carrying out this part, the Secretary has the same authority to regulate the transportation of hazardous material by air that the Secretary has under section 5103 of this title. However, this subsection does not prohibit or regulate the transportation of a firearm (as defined in section 232 of title 18) or ammunition for a firearm, when transported by an individual for personal use.
(c) Governmental Assistance.— 
The Secretary (or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration with respect to aviation safety duties and powers designated to be carried out by the Administrator) may use the assistance of the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and any research or technical department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government on matters related to aircraft fuel and oil, and to the design, material, workmanship, construction, performance, maintenance, and operation of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and air navigation facilities. Each department, agency, and instrumentality may conduct scientific and technical research, investigations, and tests necessary to assist the Secretary or Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration in carrying out this part. This part does not authorize duplicating laboratory research activities of a department, agency, or instrumentality.
(d) Indemnification.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may indemnify an officer or employee of the Transportation Security Administration or Federal Aviation Administration, as the case may be, against a claim or judgment arising out of an act that the Under Secretary or Administrator, as the case may be, decides was committed within the scope of the official duties of the officer or employee.
(e) Assistance to Foreign Aviation Authorities.— 

(1) Safety-related training and operational services.— 
The Administrator may provide safety-related training and operational services to foreign aviation authorities with or without reimbursement, if the Administrator determines that providing such services promotes aviation safety. To the extent practicable, air travel reimbursed under this subsection shall be conducted on United States air carriers.
(2) Reimbursement sought.— 
The Administrator shall actively seek reimbursement for services provided under this subsection from foreign aviation authorities capable of providing such reimbursement.
(3) Crediting appropriations.— 
Funds received by the Administrator pursuant to this section shall be credited to the appropriation from which the expenses were incurred in providing such services.
(4) Reporting.— 
Not later than December 31, 1995, and annually thereafter, the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a list of the foreign aviation authorities to which the Administrator provided services under this subsection in the preceding fiscal year. Such list shall specify the dollar value of such services and any reimbursement received for such services.
(f) Application of Certain Regulations to Alaska.— 
In amending title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, in a manner affecting intrastate aviation in Alaska, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consider the extent to which Alaska is not served by transportation modes other than aviation, and shall establish such regulatory distinctions as the Administrator considers appropriate.

49 USC 40114 - Reports and records

(a) Written Reports.— 

(1) Except as provided in this part, the Secretary of Transportation (or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration with respect to aviation safety duties and powers designated to be carried out by the Administrator) shall make a written report of each proceeding and investigation under this part in which a formal hearing was held and shall provide a copy to each party to the proceeding or investigation. The report shall include the decision, conclusions, order, and requirements of the Secretary or Administrator as appropriate.
(2) The Secretary (or the Administrator with respect to aviation safety duties and powers designated to be carried out by the Administrator) shall have all reports, orders, decisions, and regulations the Secretary or Administrator, as appropriate, issues or prescribes published in the form and way best adapted for public use. A publication of the Secretary or Administrator is competent evidence of its contents.
(b) Public Records.— 
Except as provided in subpart II of this part, copies of tariffs and arrangements filed with the Secretary under subpart II, and the statistics, tables, and figures contained in reports made to the Secretary under subpart II, are public records. The Secretary is the custodian of those records. A public record, or a copy or extract of it, certified by the Secretary under the seal of the Department of Transportation is competent evidence in an investigation by the Secretary and in a judicial proceeding.

49 USC 40115 - Withholding information

(a) Objections to Disclosure.— 

(1) A person may object to the public disclosure of information
(A) in a record filed under this part; or
(B) obtained under this part by the Secretary of Transportation or State or the United States Postal Service.
(2) An objection must be in writing and must state the reasons for the objection. The Secretary of Transportation or State or the Postal Service shall order the information withheld from public disclosure when the appropriate Secretary or the Postal Service decides that disclosure of the information would
(A) prejudice the United States Government in preparing and presenting its position in international negotiations; or
(B) have an adverse effect on the competitive position of an air carrier in foreign air transportation.
(b) Withholding Information From Congress.— 
This section does not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of Congress authorized to have the information.

49 USC 40116 - State taxation

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, State includes the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, and a political authority of at least 2 States.
(b) Prohibitions.— 
Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section and section 40117 of this title, a State, a political subdivision of a State, and any person that has purchased or leased an airport under section 47134 of this title may not levy or collect a tax, fee, head charge, or other charge on
(1) an individual traveling in air commerce;
(2) the transportation of an individual traveling in air commerce;
(3) the sale of air transportation; or
(4) the gross receipts from that air commerce or transportation.
(c) Aircraft Taking Off or Landing in State.— 
A State or political subdivision of a State may levy or collect a tax on or related to a flight of a commercial aircraft or an activity or service on the aircraft only if the aircraft takes off or lands in the State or political subdivision as part of the flight.
(d) Unreasonable Burdens and Discrimination Against Interstate Commerce.— 

(1) In this subsection
(A) air carrier transportation property means property (as defined by the Secretary of Transportation) that an air carrier providing air transportation owns or uses.
(B) assessment means valuation for a property tax levied by a taxing district.
(C) assessment jurisdiction means a geographical area in a State used in determining the assessed value of property for ad valorem taxation.
(D) commercial and industrial property means property (except transportation property and land used primarily for agriculture or timber growing) devoted to a commercial or industrial use and subject to a property tax levy.
(2) 
(A) A State, political subdivision of a State, or authority acting for a State or political subdivision may not do any of the following acts because those acts unreasonably burden and discriminate against interstate commerce:
(i) assess air carrier transportation property at a value that has a higher ratio to the true market value of the property than the ratio that the assessed value of other commercial and industrial property of the same type in the same assessment jurisdiction has to the true market value of the other commercial and industrial property.
(ii) levy or collect a tax on an assessment that may not be made under clause (i) of this subparagraph.
(iii) levy or collect an ad valorem property tax on air carrier transportation property at a tax rate greater than the tax rate applicable to commercial and industrial property in the same assessment jurisdiction.
(iv) levy or collect a tax, fee, or charge, first taking effect after August 23, 1994, exclusively upon any business located at a commercial service airport or operating as a permittee of such an airport other than a tax, fee, or charge wholly utilized for airport or aeronautical purposes.
(B) Subparagraph (A) of this paragraph does not apply to an in lieu tax completely used for airport and aeronautical purposes.
(e) Other Allowable Taxes and Charges.— 
Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, a State or political subdivision of a State may levy or collect
(1) taxes (except those taxes enumerated in subsection (b) of this section), including property taxes, net income taxes, franchise taxes, and sales or use taxes on the sale of goods or services; and
(2) reasonable rental charges, landing fees, and other service charges from aircraft operators for using airport facilities of an airport owned or operated by that State or subdivision.
(f) Pay of Air Carrier Employees.— 

(1) In this subsection
(A) pay means money received by an employee for services.
(B) State means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and a territory or possession of the United States.
(C) an employee is deemed to have earned 50 percent of the employees pay in a State or political subdivision of a State in which the scheduled flight time of the employee in the State or subdivision is more than 50 percent of the total scheduled flight time of the employee when employed during the calendar year.
(2) The pay of an employee of an air carrier having regularly assigned duties on aircraft in at least 2 States is subject to the income tax laws of only the following:
(A) the State or political subdivision of the State that is the residence of the employee.
(B) the State or political subdivision of the State in which the employee earns more than 50 percent of the pay received by the employee from the carrier.
(3) Compensation paid by an air carrier to an employee described in subsection (a) in connection with such employees authorized leave or other authorized absence from regular duties on the carriers aircraft in order to perform services on behalf of the employees airline union shall be subject to the income tax laws of only the following:
(A) The State or political subdivision of the State that is the residence of the employee.
(B) The State or political subdivision of the State in which the employees scheduled flight time would have been more than 50 percent of the employees total scheduled flight time for the calendar year had the employee been engaged full time in the performance of regularly assigned duties on the carriers aircraft.

49 USC 40117 - Passenger facility fees

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) Airport, commercial service airport, and public agency.— 
The terms airport, commercial service airport, and public agency have the meaning those terms have under section 47102.
(2) Eligible agency.— 
The term eligible agency means a public agency that controls a commercial service airport.
(3) Eligible airport-related project.— 
The term eligible airport-related project means any of the following projects:
(A) A project for airport development or airport planning under subchapter I of chapter 471.
(B) A project for terminal development described in section 47110 (d).
(C) A project for costs of terminal development referred to in subparagraph (B) incurred after August 1, 1986, at an airport that did not have more than .25 percent of the total annual passenger boardings in the United States in the most recent calendar year for which data is available and at which total passenger boardings declined by at least 16 percent between calendar year 1989 and calendar year 1997.
(D) A project for airport noise capability planning under section 47505.
(E) A project to carry out noise compatibility measures eligible for assistance under section 47504, whether or not a program for those measures has been approved under section 47504.
(F) A project for constructing gates and related areas at which passengers board or exit aircraft. In the case of a project required to enable additional air service by an air carrier with less than 50 percent of the annual passenger boardings at an airport, the project for constructing gates and related areas may include structural foundations and floor systems, exterior building walls and load-bearing interior columns or walls, windows, door and roof systems, building utilities (including heating, air conditioning, ventilation, plumbing, and electrical service), and aircraft fueling facilities adjacent to the gate.
(G) A project for converting vehicles and ground support equipment used at a commercial service airport to low-emission technology (as defined in section 47102) or to use cleaner burning conventional fuels, retrofitting of any such vehicles or equipment that are powered by a diesel or gasoline engine with emission control technologies certified or verified by the Environmental Protection Agency to reduce emissions, or acquiring for use at a commercial service airport vehicles and ground support equipment that include low-emission technology or use cleaner burning fuels if the airport is located in an air quality nonattainment area (as defined in section 171(2) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7501 (2))) or a maintenance area referred to in section 175A of such Act (42 U.S.C. 7505a) and if such project will result in an airport receiving appropriate emission credits as described in section 47139.
(4) Ground support equipment.— 
The term ground support equipment means service and maintenance equipment used at an airport to support aeronautical operations and related activities.
(5) Passenger facility fee.— 
The term passenger facility fee means a fee imposed under this section.
(6) Passenger facility revenue.— 
The term passenger facility revenue means revenue derived from a passenger facility fee.
(b) General Authority.— 

(1) The Secretary of Transportation may authorize under this section an eligible agency to impose a passenger facility fee of $1, $2, or $3 on each paying passenger of an air carrier or foreign air carrier boarding an aircraft at an airport the agency controls to finance an eligible airport-related project, including making payments for debt service on indebtedness incurred to carry out the project, to be carried out in connection with the airport or any other airport the agency controls.
(2) A State, political subdivision of a State, or authority of a State or political subdivision that is not the eligible agency may not regulate or prohibit the imposition or collection of a passenger facility fee or the use of the passenger facility revenue.
(3) A passenger facility fee may be imposed on a passenger of an air carrier or foreign air carrier originating or connecting at the commercial service airport that the agency controls.
(4) In lieu of authorizing a fee under paragraph (1), the Secretary may authorize under this section an eligible agency to impose a passenger facility fee of $4.00 or $4.50 on each paying passenger of an air carrier or foreign air carrier boarding an aircraft at an airport the agency controls to finance an eligible airport-related project, including making payments for debt service on indebtedness incurred to carry out the project, if the Secretary finds
(A) in the case of an airport that has more than .25 percent of the total number of annual boardings in the United States, that the project will make a significant contribution to improving air safety and security, increasing competition among air carriers, reducing current or anticipated congestion, or reducing the impact of aviation noise on people living near the airport; and
(B) that the project cannot be paid for from funds reasonably expected to be available for the programs referred to in section 48103.
(5) Maximum cost for certain low-emission technology projects.— 
The maximum cost that may be financed by imposition of a passenger facility fee under this section for a project described in subsection (a)(3)(G) with respect to a vehicle or ground support equipment may not exceed the incremental amount of the project cost that is greater than the cost of acquiring a vehicle or equipment that is not low-emission and would be used for the same purpose, or the cost of low-emission retrofitting, as determined by the Secretary.
(6) Debt service for certain projects.— 
In addition to the uses specified in paragraphs (1) and (4), the Secretary may authorize a passenger facility fee imposed under paragraph (1) or (4) to be used for making payments for debt service on indebtedness incurred to carry out at the airport a project that is not an eligible airport-related project if the Secretary determines that such use is necessary due to the financial need of the airport.
(c) Applications.— 

(1) An eligible agency must submit to the Secretary an application for authority to impose a passenger facility fee. The application shall contain information and be in the form that the Secretary may require by regulation.
(2) Before submitting an application, the eligible agency must provide reasonable notice to, and an opportunity for consultation with, air carriers and foreign air carriers operating at the airport. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations that define reasonable notice and contain at least the following requirements:
(A) The agency must provide written notice of individual projects being considered for financing by a passenger facility fee and the date and location of a meeting to present the projects to air carriers and foreign air carriers operating at the airport.
(B) Not later than 30 days after written notice is provided under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, each air carrier and foreign air carrier operating at the airport must provide to the agency written notice of receipt of the notice. Failure of a carrier to provide the notice may be deemed certification of agreement with the project by the carrier under subparagraph (D) of this paragraph.
(C) Not later than 45 days after written notice is provided under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the agency must conduct a meeting to provide air carriers and foreign air carriers with descriptions of projects and justifications and a detailed financial plan for projects.
(D) Not later than 30 days after the meeting, each air carrier and foreign air carrier must provide to the agency certification of agreement or disagreement with projects (or total plan for the projects). Failure to provide the certification is deemed certification of agreement with the project by the carrier. A certification of disagreement is void if it does not contain the reasons for the disagreement.
(E) The agency must include in its application or notice submitted under subparagraph (A) copies of all certifications of agreement or disagreement received under subparagraph (D).
(F) For the purpose of this section, an eligible agency providing notice and an opportunity for consultation to an air carrier or foreign air carrier is deemed to have satisfied the requirements of this paragraph if the eligible agency limits such notices and consultations to air carriers and foreign air carriers that have a significant business interest at the airport. In the subparagraph, the term significant business interest means an air carrier or foreign air carrier that had no less than 1.0 percent of passenger boardings at the airport in the prior calendar year, had at least 25,000 passenger boardings at the airport in the prior calendar year, or provides scheduled service at the airport.
(3) Before submitting an application, the eligible agency must provide reasonable notice and an opportunity for public comment. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations that define reasonable notice and provide for at least the following under this paragraph:
(A) A requirement that the eligible agency provide public notice of intent to collect a passenger facility fee so as to inform those interested persons and agencies that may be affected. The public notice may include
(i) publication in local newspapers of general circulation;
(ii) publication in other local media; and
(iii) posting the notice on the agencys Internet website.
(B) A requirement for submission of public comments no sooner than 30 days, and no later than 45 days, after the date of the publication of the notice.
(C) A requirement that the agency include in its application or notice submitted under subparagraph (A) copies of all comments received under subparagraph (B).
(4) After receiving an application, the Secretary may provide notice and an opportunity to air carriers, foreign air carriers, and other interested persons to comment on the application. The Secretary shall make a final decision on the application not later than 120 days after receiving it.
(d) Limitations on Approving Applications.— 
The Secretary may approve an application that an eligible agency has submitted under subsection (c) of this section to finance a specific project only if the Secretary finds, based on the application, that
(1) the amount and duration of the proposed passenger facility fee will result in revenue (including interest and other returns on the revenue) that is not more than the amount necessary to finance the specific project;
(2) each project is an eligible airport-related project that will
(A) preserve or enhance capacity, safety, or security of the national air transportation system;
(B) reduce noise resulting from an airport that is part of the system; or
(C) provide an opportunity for enhanced competition between or among air carriers and foreign air carriers;
(3) the application includes adequate justification for each of the specific projects; and
(4) in the case of an application to impose a fee of more than $3.00 for an eligible surface transportation or terminal project, the agency has made adequate provision for financing the airside needs of the airport, including runways, taxiways, aprons, and aircraft gates.
(e) Limitations on Imposing Fees.— 

(1) An eligible agency may impose a passenger facility fee only
(A) if the Secretary approves an application that the agency has submitted under subsection (c) of this section; and
(B) subject to terms the Secretary may prescribe to carry out the objectives of this section.
(2) A passenger facility fee may not be collected from a passenger
(A) for more than 2 boardings on a one-way trip or a trip in each direction of a round trip;
(B) for the boarding to an eligible place under subchapter II of chapter 417 of this title for which essential air service compensation is paid under subchapter II;
(C) enplaning at an airport if the passenger did not pay for the air transportation which resulted in such enplanement, including any case in which the passenger obtained the ticket for the air transportation with a frequent flier award coupon without monetary payment;
(D) on flights, including flight segments, between 2 or more points in Hawaii;
(E) in Alaska aboard an aircraft having a seating capacity of less than 60 passengers; and
(F) enplaning at an airport if the passenger did not pay for the air transportation which resulted in such enplanement due to charter arrangements and payment by the Department of Defense.
(f) Limitations on Contracts, Leases, and Use Agreements.— 

(1) A contract between an air carrier or foreign air carrier and an eligible agency made at any time may not impair the authority of the agency to impose a passenger facility fee or to use the passenger facility revenue as provided in this section.
(2) A project financed with a passenger facility fee may not be subject to an exclusive long-term lease or use agreement of an air carrier or foreign air carrier, as defined by regulations of the Secretary.
(3) A lease or use agreement of an air carrier or foreign air carrier related to a project whose construction or expansion was financed with a passenger facility fee may not restrict the eligible agency from financing, developing, or assigning new capacity at the airport with passenger facility revenue.
(g) Treatment of Revenue.— 

(1) Passenger facility revenue is not airport revenue for purposes of establishing a price under a contract between an eligible agency and an air carrier or foreign air carrier.
(2) An eligible agency may not include in its price base the part of the capital costs of a project paid for by using passenger facility revenue to establish a price under a contract between the agency and an air carrier or foreign air carrier.
(3) For a project for terminal development, gates and related areas, or a facility occupied or used by at least one air carrier or foreign air carrier on an exclusive or preferential basis, a price payable by an air carrier or foreign air carrier using the facilities must at least equal the price paid by an air carrier or foreign air carrier using a similar facility at the airport that was not financed with passenger facility revenue.
(4) Passenger facility revenues that are held by an air carrier or an agent of the carrier after collection of a passenger facility fee constitute a trust fund that is held by the air carrier or agent for the beneficial interest of the eligible agency imposing the fee. Such carrier or agent holds neither legal nor equitable interest in the passenger facility revenues except for any handling fee or retention of interest collected on unremitted proceeds as may be allowed by the Secretary.
(h) Compliance.— 

(1) As necessary to ensure compliance with this section, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations requiring recordkeeping and auditing of accounts maintained by an air carrier or foreign air carrier and its agent collecting a passenger facility fee and by the eligible agency imposing the fee.
(2) The Secretary periodically shall audit and review the use by an eligible agency of passenger facility revenue. After review and a public hearing, the Secretary may end any part of the authority of the agency to impose a passenger facility fee to the extent the Secretary decides that the revenue is not being used as provided in this section.
(3) The Secretary may set off amounts necessary to ensure compliance with this section against amounts otherwise payable to an eligible agency under subchapter I of chapter 471 of this title if the Secretary decides a passenger facility fee is excessive or that passenger facility revenue is not being used as provided in this section.
(i) Regulations.— 
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations necessary to carry out this section. The regulations
(1) may prescribe the time and form by which a passenger facility fee takes effect;
(2) shall
(A) require an air carrier or foreign air carrier and its agent to collect a passenger facility fee that an eligible agency imposes under this section;
(B) establish procedures for handling and remitting money collected;
(C) ensure that the money, less a uniform amount the Secretary determines reflects the average necessary and reasonable expenses (net of interest accruing to the carrier and agent after collection and before remittance) incurred in collecting and handling the fee, is paid promptly to the eligible agency for which they are collected; and
(D) require that the amount collected for any air transportation be noted on the ticket for that air transportation; and
(3) may permit an eligible agency to request that collection of a passenger facility fee be waived for
(A) passengers enplaned by any class of air carrier or foreign air carrier if the number of passengers enplaned by the carriers in the class constitutes not more than one percent of the total number of passengers enplaned annually at the airport at which the fee is imposed; or
(B) passengers enplaned on a flight to an airport
(i) that has fewer than 2,500 passenger boardings each year and receives scheduled passenger service; or
(ii) in a community which has a population of less than 10,000 and is not connected by a land highway or vehicular way to the land-connected National Highway System within a State.
(j) Limitation on Certain Actions.— 
A State, political subdivision of a State, or authority of a State or political subdivision that is not the eligible agency may not tax, regulate, or prohibit or otherwise attempt to control in any manner, the imposition or collection of a passenger facility fee or the use of the revenue from the passenger facility fee.
(k) Competition Plans.— 

(1) In general.— 
Beginning in fiscal year 2001, no eligible agency may impose a passenger facility fee under this section with respect to a covered airport (as such term is defined in section 47106 (f)) unless the agency has submitted to the Secretary a written competition plan in accordance with such section. This subsection does not apply to passenger facility fees in effect before the date of the enactment of this subsection.
(2) Secretary shall ensure implementation and compliance.— 
The Secretary shall review any plan submitted under paragraph (1) to ensure that it meets the requirements of this section, and shall review its implementation from time-to-time to ensure that each covered airport successfully implements its plan.
(l) Pilot Program for Passenger Facility Fee Authorizations at Nonhub Airports.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary shall establish a pilot program to test alternative procedures for authorizing eligible agencies for nonhub airports to impose passenger facility fees. An eligible agency may impose in accordance with the provisions of this subsection a passenger facility fee under this section. For purposes of the pilot program, the procedures in this subsection shall apply instead of the procedures otherwise provided in this section.
(2) Notice and opportunity for consultation.— 
The eligible agency must provide reasonable notice and an opportunity for consultation to air carriers and foreign air carriers in accordance with subsection (c)(2) and must provide reasonable notice and opportunity for public comment in accordance with subsection (c)(3).
(3) Notice of intention.— 
The eligible agency must submit to the Secretary a notice of intention to impose a passenger facility fee under this subsection. The notice shall include
(A) information that the Secretary may require by regulation on each project for which authority to impose a passenger facility fee is sought;
(B) the amount of revenue from passenger facility fees that is proposed to be collected for each project; and
(C) the level of the passenger facility fee that is proposed.
(4) Acknowledgement of receipt and indication of objection.— 
The Secretary shall acknowledge receipt of the notice and indicate any objection to the imposition of a passenger facility fee under this subsection for any project identified in the notice within 30 days after receipt of the eligible agencys notice.
(5) Authority to impose fee.— 
Unless the Secretary objects within 30 days after receipt of the eligible agencys notice, the eligible agency is authorized to impose a passenger facility fee in accordance with the terms of its notice under this subsection.
(6) Regulations.— 
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall propose such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.
(7) Sunset.— 
This subsection shall cease to be effective beginning on the date that is 3 years after the date of issuance of regulations to carry out this subsection.
(8) Acknowledgement not an order.— 
An acknowledgement issued under paragraph (4) shall not be considered an order issued by the Secretary for purposes of section 46110.
(m) Financial Management of Fees.— 

(1) Handling of fees.— 
A covered air carrier shall segregate in a separate account passenger facility revenue equal to the average monthly liability for fees collected under this section by such carrier or any of its agents for the benefit of the eligible agencies entitled to such revenue.
(2) Trust fund status.— 
If a covered air carrier or its agent fails to segregate passenger facility revenue in violation of the subsection, the trust fund status of such revenue shall not be defeated by an inability of any party to identify and trace the precise funds in the accounts of the air carrier.
(3) Prohibition.— 
A covered air carrier and its agents may not grant to any third party any security or other interest in passenger facility revenue.
(4) Compensation to eligible entities.— 
A covered air carrier that fails to comply with any requirement of this subsection, or otherwise unnecessarily causes an eligible entity to expend funds, through litigation or otherwise, to recover or retain payment of passenger facility revenue to which the eligible entity is otherwise entitled shall be required to compensate the eligible agency for the costs so incurred.
(5) Interest on amounts.— 
A covered air carrier that collects passenger facility fees is entitled to receive the interest on passenger facility fee accounts if the accounts are established and maintained in compliance with this subsection.
(6) Existing regulations.— 
The provisions of section 158.49 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, that permit the commingling of passenger facility fees with other air carrier revenue shall not apply to a covered air carrier.
(7) Covered air carrier defined.— 
In this section, the term covered air carrier means an air carrier that files for chapter 7 or chapter 11 of title 11 bankruptcy protection, or has an involuntary chapter 7 of title 11 bankruptcy proceeding commenced against it, after the date of enactment of this subsection.

49 USC 40118 - Government-financed air transportation

(a) Transportation by Air Carriers Holding Certificates.— 
A department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government shall take necessary steps to ensure that the transportation of passengers and property by air is provided by an air carrier holding a certificate under section 41102 of this title if
(1) the department, agency, or instrumentality
(A) obtains the transportation for itself or in carrying out an arrangement under which payment is made by the Government or payment is made from amounts provided for the use of the Government; or
(B) provides the transportation to or for a foreign country or international or other organization without reimbursement;
(2) the transportation is authorized by the certificate or by regulation or exemption of the Secretary of Transportation; and
(3) the air carrier is
(A) available, if the transportation is between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States; or
(B) reasonably available, if the transportation is between 2 places outside the United States.
(b) Transportation by Foreign Air Carriers.— 
This section does not preclude the transportation of passengers and property by a foreign air carrier if the transportation is provided under a bilateral or multilateral air transportation agreement to which the Government and the government of a foreign country are parties if the agreement
(1) is consistent with the goals for international aviation policy of section 40101 (e) of this title; and
(2) provides for the exchange of rights or benefits of similar magnitude.
(c) Proof.— 
The Administrator of General Services shall prescribe regulations under which agencies may allow the expenditure of an appropriation for transportation in violation of this section only when satisfactory proof is presented showing the necessity for the transportation.
(d) Certain Transportation by Air Outside the United States.— 
Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (c) of this section, any amount appropriated to the Secretary of State or the Administrator of the Agency for International Development may be used to pay for the transportation of an officer or employee of the Department of State or one of those agencies, a dependent of the officer or employee, and accompanying baggage, by a foreign air carrier when the transportation is between 2 places outside the United States.
(e) Relationship to Other Laws.— 
This section does not affect the application of the antidiscrimination provisions of this part.
(f) Prohibition of Certification or Contract Clause.— 

(1) No certification by a contractor, and no contract clause, may be required in the case of a contract for the transportation of commercial items in order to implement a requirement in this section.
(2) In paragraph (1), the term commercial item has the meaning given such term in section 4(12) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403 (12)), except that it shall not include a contract for the transportation by air of passengers.

49 USC 40119 - Security and research and development activities

(a) General Requirements.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration each shall conduct research (including behavioral research) and development activities appropriate to develop, modify, test, and evaluate a system, procedure, facility, or device to protect passengers and property against acts of criminal violence, aircraft piracy, and terrorism and to ensure security.
(b) Disclosure.— 

(1) Notwithstanding section 552 of title 5 and the establishment of a Department of Homeland Security, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations prohibiting disclosure of information obtained or developed in ensuring security under this title if the Secretary of Transportation decides disclosing the information would
(A) be an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy;
(B) reveal a trade secret or privileged or confidential commercial or financial information; or
(C) be detrimental to transportation safety.
(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection does not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of Congress authorized to have the information.
(c) Transfers of Duties and Powers Prohibited.— 
Except as otherwise provided by law, the Under Secretary may not transfer a duty or power under this section to another department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government.

49 USC 40120 - Relationship to other laws

(a) Nonapplication.— 
Except as provided in the International Navigational Rules Act of 1977 (33 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), the navigation and shipping laws of the United States and the rules for the prevention of collisions do not apply to aircraft or to the navigation of vessels related to those aircraft.
(b) Extending Application Outside United States.— 
The President may extend (in the way and for periods the President considers necessary) the application of this part to outside the United States when
(1) an international arrangement gives the United States Government authority to make the extension; and
(2) the President decides the extension is in the national interest.
(c) Additional Remedies.— 
A remedy under this part is in addition to any other remedies provided by law.

49 USC 40121 - Air traffic control modernization reviews

(a) Required Terminations of Acquisitions.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall terminate any acquisition program initiated after the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996 and funded under the Facilities and Equipment account that
(1) is more than 50 percent over the cost goal established for the program;
(2) fails to achieve at least 50 percent of the performance goals established for the program; or
(3) is more than 50 percent behind schedule as determined in accordance with the schedule goal established for the program.
(b) Authorized Termination of Acquisition Programs.— 
The Administrator shall consider terminating, under the authority of subsection (a), any substantial acquisition program that
(1) is more than 10 percent over the cost goal established for the program;
(2) fails to achieve at least 90 percent of the performance goals established for the program; or
(3) is more than 10 percent behind schedule as determined in accordance with the schedule goal established for the program.
(c) Exceptions and Report.— 

(1) Continuance of program, etc.— 
Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Administrator may continue an acquisitions program required to be terminated under subsection (a) if the Administrator determines that termination would be inconsistent with the development or operation of the national air transportation system in a safe and efficient manner.
(2) Department of defense.— 
The Department of Defense shall have the same exemptions from acquisition laws as are waived by the Administrator under section 40110 (d)(2) of this title when engaged in joint actions to improve or replenish the national air traffic control system. The Administration may acquire real property, goods, and services through the Department of Defense, or other appropriate agencies, but is bound by the acquisition laws and regulations governing those cases.
(3) Report.— 
If the Administrator makes a determination under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall transmit a copy of the determination, together with a statement of the basis for the determination, to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

49 USC 40122 - Federal Aviation Administration personnel management system

(a) In General.— 

(1) Consultation and negotiation.— 
In developing and making changes to the personnel management system initially implemented by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration on April 1, 1996, the Administrator shall negotiate with the exclusive bargaining representatives of employees of the Administration certified under section 7111 of title 5 and consult with other employees of the Administration.
(2) Mediation.— 
If the Administrator does not reach an agreement under paragraph (1) with the exclusive bargaining representatives, the services of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service shall be used to attempt to reach such agreement. If the services of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service do not lead to an agreement, the Administrators proposed change to the personnel management system shall not take effect until 60 days have elapsed after the Administrator has transmitted the proposed change, along with the objections of the exclusive bargaining representatives to the change, and the reasons for such objections, to Congress. The 60-day period shall not include any period during which Congress has adjourned sine die.
(3) Cost savings and productivity goals.— 
The Administration and the exclusive bargaining representatives of the employees shall use every reasonable effort to find cost savings and to increase productivity within each of the affected bargaining units.
(4) Annual budget discussions.— 
The Administration and the exclusive bargaining representatives of the employees shall meet annually for the purpose of finding additional cost savings within the Administrations annual budget as it applies to each of the affected bargaining units and throughout the agency.
(b) Expert Evaluation.— 
On the date that is 3 years after the personnel management system is implemented, the Administration shall employ outside experts to provide an independent evaluation of the effectiveness of the system within 3 months after such date. For this purpose, the Administrator may utilize the services of experts and consultants under section 3109 of title 5 without regard to the limitation imposed by the last sentence of section 3109(b) of such title, and may contract on a sole source basis, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary.
(c) Pay Restriction.— 
No officer or employee of the Administration may receive an annual rate of basic pay in excess of the annual rate of basic pay payable to the Administrator.
(d) Ethics.— 
The Administration shall be subject to Executive Order No. 12674 and regulations and opinions promulgated by the Office of Government Ethics, including those set forth in section 2635 of title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(e) Employee Protections.— 
Until July 1, 1999, basic wages (including locality pay) and operational differential pay provided employees of the Administration shall not be involuntarily adversely affected by reason of the enactment of this section, except for unacceptable performance or by reason of a reduction in force or reorganization or by agreement between the Administration and the affected employees exclusive bargaining representative.
(f) Labor-Management Agreements.— 
Except as otherwise provided by this title, all labor-management agreements covering employees of the Administration that are in effect on the effective date of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996 shall remain in effect until their normal expiration date, unless the Administrator and the exclusive bargaining representative agree to the contrary.
(g) Personnel Management System.— 

(1) In general.— 
In consultation with the employees of the Administration and such non-governmental experts in personnel management systems as he may employ, and notwithstanding the provisions of title 5 and other Federal personnel laws, the Administrator shall develop and implement, not later than January 1, 1996, a personnel management system for the Administration that addresses the unique demands on the agencys workforce. Such a new system shall, at a minimum, provide for greater flexibility in the hiring, training, compensation, and location of personnel.
(2) Applicability of title 5.— 
The provisions of title 5 shall not apply to the new personnel management system developed and implemented pursuant to paragraph (1), with the exception of
(A) section 2302 (b), relating to whistleblower protection, including the provisions for investigation and enforcement as provided in chapter 12 of title 5;
(B) sections 3308–3320, relating to veterans preference;
(C) chapter 71, relating to labor-management relations;
(D) section 7204, relating to antidiscrimination;
(E) chapter 73, relating to suitability, security, and conduct;
(F) chapter 81, relating to compensation for work injury;
(G) chapters 8385, 87, and 89, relating to retirement, unemployment compensation, and insurance coverage; and
(H) sections 1204, 1211–1218, 1221, and 7701–7703, relating to the Merit Systems Protection Board.
(3) Appeals to merit systems protection board.— 
Under the new personnel management system developed and implemented under paragraph (1), an employee of the Administration may submit an appeal to the Merit Systems Protection Board and may seek judicial review of any resulting final orders or decisions of the Board from any action that was appealable to the Board under any law, rule, or regulation as of March 31, 1996.
(4) Effective date.— 
This subsection shall take effect on April 1, 1996.
(h) Right To Contest Adverse Personnel Actions.— 
An employee of the Federal Aviation Administration who is the subject of a major adverse personnel action may contest the action either through any contractual grievance procedure that is applicable to the employee as a member of the collective bargaining unit or through the Administrations internal process relating to review of major adverse personnel actions of the Administration, known as Guaranteed Fair Treatment, or under section 40122 (g)(3).
(i) Election of Forum.— 
Where a major adverse personnel action may be contested through more than one of the indicated forums (such as the contractual grievance procedure, the Federal Aviation Administrations internal process, or that of the Merit Systems Protection Board), an employee must elect the forum through which the matter will be contested. Nothing in this section is intended to allow an employee to contest an action through more than one forum unless otherwise allowed by law.
(j) Definition.— 
In this section, the term major adverse personnel action means a suspension of more than 14 days, a reduction in pay or grade, a removal for conduct or performance, a nondisciplinary removal, a furlough of 30 days or less (but not including placement in a nonpay status as the result of a lapse of appropriations or an enactment by Congress), or a reduction in force action.

49 USC 40123 - Protection of voluntarily submitted information

(a) In General.— 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, neither the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, nor any agency receiving information from the Administrator, shall disclose voluntarily-provided safety or security related information if the Administrator finds that
(1) the disclosure of the information would inhibit the voluntary provision of that type of information and that the receipt of that type of information aids in fulfilling the Administrators safety and security responsibilities; and
(2) withholding such information from disclosure would be consistent with the Administrators safety and security responsibilities.
(b) Regulations.— 
The Administrator shall issue regulations to carry out this section.

49 USC 40124 - Interstate agreements for airport facilities

Congress consents to a State making an agreement, not in conflict with a law of the United States, with another State to develop or operate an airport facility.

49 USC 40125 - Qualifications for public aircraft status

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) Commercial purposes.— 
The term commercial purposes means the transportation of persons or property for compensation or hire, but does not include the operation of an aircraft by the armed forces for reimbursement when that reimbursement is required by any Federal statute, regulation, or directive, in effect on November 1, 1999, or by one government on behalf of another government under a cost reimbursement agreement if the government on whose behalf the operation is conducted certifies to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration that the operation is necessary to respond to a significant and imminent threat to life or property (including natural resources) and that no service by a private operator is reasonably available to meet the threat.
(2) Governmental function.— 
The term governmental function means an activity undertaken by a government, such as national defense, intelligence missions, firefighting, search and rescue, law enforcement (including transport of prisoners, detainees, and illegal aliens), aeronautical research, or biological or geological resource management.
(3) Qualified non-crewmember.— 
The term qualified non-crewmember means an individual, other than a member of the crew, aboard an aircraft
(A) operated by the armed forces or an intelligence agency of the United States Government; or
(B) whose presence is required to perform, or is associated with the performance of, a governmental function.
(4) Armed forces.— 
The term armed forces has the meaning given such term by section 101 of title 10.
(b) Aircraft Owned by Governments.— 
An aircraft described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of section 40102 (a)(37)1 does not qualify as a public aircraft under such section when the aircraft is used for commercial purposes or to carry an individual other than a crewmember or a qualified non-crewmember.
(c) Aircraft Owned or Operated by the Armed Forces.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subject to paragraph (2), an aircraft described in section 40102 (a)(37)(E)1 qualifies as a public aircraft if
(A) the aircraft is operated in accordance with title 10;
(B) the aircraft is operated in the performance of a governmental function under title 14, 31, 32, or 50 and the aircraft is not used for commercial purposes; or
(C) the aircraft is chartered to provide transportation to the armed forces and the Secretary of Defense (or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating) designates the operation of the aircraft as being required in the national interest.
(2) Limitation.— 
An aircraft that meets the criteria set forth in paragraph (1) and that is owned or operated by the National Guard of a State, the District of Columbia, or any territory or possession of the United States, qualifies as a public aircraft only to the extent that it is operated under the direct control of the Department of Defense.
[1] See References in Text note below.

49 USC 40126 - Severable services contracts for periods crossing fiscal years

(a) In General.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may enter into a contract for procurement of severable services for a period that begins in 1 fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year if (without regard to any option to extend the period of the contract) the contract period does not exceed 1 year.
(b) Obligation of Funds.— 
Funds made available for a fiscal year may be obligated for the total amount of a contract entered into under the authority of subsection (a).

49 USC 40127 - Prohibitions on discrimination

(a) Persons in Air Transportation.— 
An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not subject a person in air transportation to discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, or ancestry.
(b) Use of Private Airports.— 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no State or local government may prohibit the use or full enjoyment of a private airport within its jurisdiction by any person on the basis of that persons race, color, national origin, religion, sex, or ancestry.

49 USC 40128 - Overflights of national parks

(a) In General.— 

(1) General requirements.— 
A commercial air tour operator may not conduct commercial air tour operations over a national park or tribal lands, as defined by this section, except
(A) in accordance with this section;
(B) in accordance with conditions and limitations prescribed for that operator by the Administrator; and
(C) in accordance with any applicable air tour management plan for the park or tribal lands.
(2) Application for operating authority.— 

(A) Application required.— 
Before commencing commercial air tour operations over a national park or tribal lands, a commercial air tour operator shall apply to the Administrator for authority to conduct the operations over the park or tribal lands.
(B) Competitive bidding for limited capacity parks.— 
Whenever an air tour management plan limits the number of commercial air tour operations over a national park during a specified time frame, the Administrator, in cooperation with the Director, shall issue operation specifications to commercial air tour operators that conduct such operations. The operation specifications shall include such terms and conditions as the Administrator and the Director find necessary for management of commercial air tour operations over the park. The Administrator, in cooperation with the Director, shall develop an open competitive process for evaluating proposals from persons interested in providing commercial air tour operations over the park. In making a selection from among various proposals submitted, the Administrator, in cooperation with the Director, shall consider relevant factors, including
(i) the safety record of the person submitting the proposal or pilots employed by the person;
(ii) any quiet aircraft technology proposed to be used by the person submitting the proposal;
(iii) the experience of the person submitting the proposal with commercial air tour operations over other national parks or scenic areas;
(iv) the financial capability of the person submitting the proposal;
(v) any training programs for pilots provided by the person submitting the proposal; and
(vi) responsiveness of the person submitting the proposal to any relevant criteria developed by the National Park Service for the affected park.
(C) Number of operations authorized.— 
In determining the number of authorizations to issue to provide commercial air tour operations over a national park, the Administrator, in cooperation with the Director, shall take into consideration the provisions of the air tour management plan, the number of existing commercial air tour operators and current level of service and equipment provided by any such operators, and the financial viability of each commercial air tour operation.
(D) Cooperation with nps.— 
Before granting an application under this paragraph, the Administrator, in cooperation with the Director, shall develop an air tour management plan in accordance with subsection (b) and implement such plan.
(E) Time limit on response to atmp applications.— 
The Administrator shall make every effort to act on any application under this paragraph and issue a decision on the application not later than 24 months after it is received or amended.
(F) Priority.— 
In acting on applications under this paragraph to provide commercial air tour operations over a national park, the Administrator shall give priority to an application under this paragraph in any case in which a new entrant commercial air tour operator is seeking operating authority with respect to that national park.
(3) Exception.— 
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), commercial air tour operators may conduct commercial air tour operations over a national park under part 91 of the title 14, Code of Federal Regulations if
(A) such activity is permitted under part 119 of such title;
(B) the operator secures a letter of agreement from the Administrator and the national park superintendent for that national park describing the conditions under which the operations will be conducted; and
(C) the total number of operations under this exception is limited to not more than five flights in any 30-day period over a particular park.
(4) Special rule for safety requirements.— 
Notwithstanding subsection (c), an existing commercial air tour operator shall apply, not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this section, for operating authority under part 119, 121, or 135 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations. A new entrant commercial air tour operator shall apply for such authority before conducting commercial air tour operations over a national park or tribal lands. The Administrator shall make every effort to act on any such application for a new entrant and issue a decision on the application not later than 24 months after it is received or amended.
(b) Air Tour Management Plans.— 

(1) Establishment.— 

(A) In general.— 
The Administrator, in cooperation with the Director, shall establish an air tour management plan for any national park or tribal land for which such a plan is not in effect whenever a person applies for authority to conduct a commercial air tour operation over the park. The air tour management plan shall be developed by means of a public process in accordance with paragraph (4).
(B) Objective.— 
The objective of any air tour management plan shall be to develop acceptable and effective measures to mitigate or prevent the significant adverse impacts, if any, of commercial air tour operations upon the natural and cultural resources, visitor experiences, and tribal lands.
(2) Environmental determination.— 
In establishing an air tour management plan under this subsection, the Administrator and the Director shall each sign the environmental decision document required by section 102 of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332) which may include a finding of no significant impact, an environmental assessment, or an environmental impact statement and the record of decision for the air tour management plan.
(3) Contents.— 
An air tour management plan for a national park
(A) may prohibit commercial air tour operations over a national park in whole or in part;
(B) may establish conditions for the conduct of commercial air tour operations over a national park, including commercial air tour routes, maximum or minimum altitudes, time-of-day restrictions, restrictions for particular events, maximum number of flights per unit of time, intrusions on privacy on tribal lands, and mitigation of noise, visual, or other impacts;
(C) shall apply to all commercial air tour operations over a national park that are also within 1/2 mile outside the boundary of a national park;
(D) shall include incentives (such as preferred commercial air tour routes and altitudes, relief from caps and curfews) for the adoption of quiet aircraft technology by commercial air tour operators conducting commercial air tour operations over a national park;
(E) shall provide for the initial allocation of opportunities to conduct commercial air tour operations over a national park if the plan includes a limitation on the number of commercial air tour operations for any time period; and
(F) shall justify and document the need for measures taken pursuant to subparagraphs (A) through (E) and include such justifications in the record of decision.
(4) Procedure.— 
In establishing an air tour management plan for a national park or tribal lands, the Administrator and the Director shall
(A) hold at least one public meeting with interested parties to develop the air tour management plan;
(B) publish the proposed plan in the Federal Register for notice and comment and make copies of the proposed plan available to the public;
(C) comply with the regulations set forth in sections 1501.3 and 1501.5 through 1501.8 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (for purposes of complying with the regulations, the Federal Aviation Administration shall be the lead agency and the National Park Service is a cooperating agency); and
(D) solicit the participation of any Indian tribe whose tribal lands are, or may be, overflown by aircraft involved in a commercial air tour operation over the park or tribal lands to which the plan applies, as a cooperating agency under the regulations referred to in subparagraph (C).
(5) Judicial review.— 
An air tour management plan developed under this subsection shall be subject to judicial review.
(6) Amendments.— 
The Administrator, in cooperation with the Director, may make amendments to an air tour management plan. Any such amendments shall be published in the Federal Register for notice and comment. A request for amendment of an air tour management plan shall be made in such form and manner as the Administrator may prescribe.
(c) Interim Operating Authority.— 

(1) In general.— 
Upon application for operating authority, the Administrator shall grant interim operating authority under this subsection to a commercial air tour operator for commercial air tour operations over a national park or tribal lands for which the operator is an existing commercial air tour operator.
(2) Requirements and limitations.— 
Interim operating authority granted under this subsection
(A) shall provide annual authorization only for the greater of
(i) the number of flights used by the operator to provide the commercial air tour operations over a national park within the 12-month period prior to the date of the enactment of this section; or
(ii) the average number of flights per 12-month period used by the operator to provide such operations within the 36-month period prior to such date of enactment, and, for seasonal operations, the number of flights so used during the season or seasons covered by that 12-month period;
(B) may not provide for an increase in the number of commercial air tour operations over a national park conducted during any time period by the commercial air tour operator above the number that the air tour operator was originally granted unless such an increase is agreed to by the Administrator and the Director;
(C) shall be published in the Federal Register to provide notice and opportunity for comment;
(D) may be revoked by the Administrator for cause;
(E) shall terminate 180 days after the date on which an air tour management plan is established for the park or tribal lands;
(F) shall promote protection of national park resources, visitor experiences, and tribal lands;
(G) shall promote safe commercial air tour operations;
(H) shall promote the adoption of quiet technology, as appropriate; and
(I) shall allow for modifications of the interim operating authority based on experience if the modification improves protection of national park resources and values and of tribal lands.
(3) New entrant air tour operators.— 

(A) In general.— 
The Administrator, in cooperation with the Director, may grant interim operating authority under this paragraph to an air tour operator for a national park or tribal lands for which that operator is a new entrant air tour operator if the Administrator determines the authority is necessary to ensure competition in the provision of commercial air tour operations over the park or tribal lands.
(B) Safety limitation.— 
The Administrator may not grant interim operating authority under subparagraph (A) if the Administrator determines that it would create a safety problem at the park or on the tribal lands, or the Director determines that it would create a noise problem at the park or on the tribal lands.
(C) ATMP limitation.— 
The Administrator may grant interim operating authority under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph only if the air tour management plan for the park or tribal lands to which the application relates has not been developed within 24 months after the date of the enactment of this section.
(d) Exemptions.— 
This section shall not apply to
(1) the Grand Canyon National Park; or
(2) tribal lands within or abutting the Grand Canyon National Park.
(e) Lake Mead.— 
This section shall not apply to any air tour operator while flying over or near the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, solely as a transportation route, to conduct an air tour over the Grand Canyon National Park. For purposes of this subsection, an air tour operator flying over the Hoover Dam in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area en route to the Grand Canyon National Park shall be deemed to be flying solely as a transportation route.
(f) Definitions.— 
In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) Commercial air tour operator.— 
The term commercial air tour operator means any person who conducts a commercial air tour operation over a national park.
(2) Existing commercial air tour operator.— 
The term existing commercial air tour operator means a commercial air tour operator that was actively engaged in the business of providing commercial air tour operations over a national park at any time during the 12-month period ending on the date of the enactment of this section.
(3) New entrant commercial air tour operator.— 
The term new entrant commercial air tour operator means a commercial air tour operator that
(A) applies for operating authority as a commercial air tour operator for a national park or tribal lands; and
(B) has not engaged in the business of providing commercial air tour operations over the national park or tribal lands in the 12-month period preceding the application.
(4) Commercial air tour operation over a national park.— 

(A) In general.— 
The term commercial air tour operation over a national park means any flight, conducted for compensation or hire in a powered aircraft where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing over a national park, within 1/2 mile outside the boundary of any national park (except the Grand Canyon National Park), or over tribal lands (except those within or abutting the Grand Canyon National Park), during which the aircraft flies
(i) below a minimum altitude, determined by the Administrator in cooperation with the Director, above ground level (except solely for purposes of takeoff or landing, or necessary for safe operation of an aircraft as determined under the rules and regulations of the Federal Aviation Administration requiring the pilot-in-command to take action to ensure the safe operation of the aircraft); or
(ii) less than 1 mile laterally from any geographic feature within the park (unless more than 1/2 mile outside the boundary).
(B) Factors to consider.— 
In making a determination of whether a flight is a commercial air tour operation over a national park for purposes of this section, the Administrator may consider
(i) whether there was a holding out to the public of willingness to conduct a sightseeing flight for compensation or hire;
(ii) whether a narrative that referred to areas or points of interest on the surface below the route of the flight was provided by the person offering the flight;
(iii) the area of operation;
(iv) the frequency of flights conducted by the person offering the flight;
(v) the route of flight;
(vi) the inclusion of sightseeing flights as part of any travel arrangement package offered by the person offering the flight;
(vii) whether the flight would have been canceled based on poor visibility of the surface below the route of the flight; and
(viii) any other factors that the Administrator and the Director consider appropriate.
(5) National park.— 
The term national park means any unit of the National Park System.
(6) Tribal lands.— 
The term tribal lands means Indian country (as that term is defined in section 1151 of title 18) that is within or abutting a national park.
(7) Administrator.— 
The term Administrator means the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.
(8) Director.— 
The term Director means the Director of the National Park Service.

49 USC 40129 - Collaborative decisionmaking pilot program

(a) Establishment.— 
Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this section, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a collaborative decisionmaking pilot program in accordance with this section.
(b) Duration.— 
Except as provided in subsection (k), the pilot program shall be in effect for a period of 2 years.
(c) Guidelines.— 

(1) Issuance.— 
The Administrator, with the concurrence of the Attorney General, shall issue guidelines concerning the pilot program. Such guidelines, at a minimum, shall
(A) define a capacity reduction event;
(B) establish the criteria and process for determining when a capacity reduction event exists that warrants the use of collaborative decisionmaking among carriers at airports participating in the pilot program; and
(C) prescribe the methods of communication to be implemented among carriers during such an event.
(2) Views.— 
The Administrator may obtain the views of interested parties in issuing the guidelines.
(d) Effect of Determination of Existence of Capacity Reduction Event.— 
Upon a determination by the Administrator that a capacity reduction event exists, the Administrator may authorize air carriers and foreign air carriers operating at an airport participating in the pilot program to communicate for a period of time not to exceed 24 hours with each other concerning changes in their respective flight schedules in order to use air traffic capacity most effectively. The Administration shall facilitate and monitor such communication. The Attorney General, or the Attorney Generals designee, may monitor such communication.
(e) Selection of Participating Airports.— 
Not later than 30 days after the date on which the Administrator establishes the pilot program, the Administrator shall select 2 airports to participate in the pilot program from among the most capacity-constrained airports in the Nation based on the Administrations Airport Capacity Benchmark Report 2001 or more recent data on airport capacity that is available to the Administrator. The Administrator shall select an airport for participation in the pilot program if the Administrator determines that collaborative decisionmaking among air carriers and foreign air carriers would reduce delays at the airport and have beneficial effects on reducing delays in the national airspace system as a whole.
(f) Eligibility of Air Carriers.— 
An air carrier or foreign air carrier operating at an airport selected to participate in the pilot program is eligible to participate in the pilot program if the Administrator determines that the carrier has the operational and communications capability to participate in the pilot program.
(g) Modification or Termination of Pilot Program at an Airport.— 
The Administrator, with the concurrence of the Attorney General, may modify or end the pilot program at an airport before the term of the pilot program has expired, or may ban an air carrier or foreign air carrier from participating in the program, if the Administrator determines that the purpose of the pilot program is not being furthered by participation of the airport or air carrier or if the Secretary of Transportation, with the concurrence of the Attorney General, finds that the pilot program or the participation of an air carrier or foreign air carrier in the pilot program has had, or is having, an adverse effect on competition among carriers.
(h) Antitrust Immunity.— 

(1) In general.— 
Unless, within 5 days after receiving notice from the Secretary of the Secretarys intention to exercise authority under this subsection, the Attorney General submits to the Secretary a written objection to such action, including reasons for such objection, the Secretary may exempt an air carriers or foreign air carriers activities that are necessary to participate in the pilot program under this section from the antitrust laws for the sole purpose of participating in the pilot program. Such exemption shall not extend to any discussions, agreements, or activities outside the scope of the pilot program.
(2) Antitrust laws defined.— 
In this section, the term antitrust laws has the meaning given that term in the first section of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 12).
(i) Consultation With Attorney General.— 
The Secretary shall consult with the Attorney General regarding the design and implementation of the pilot program, including determining whether a limit should be set on the number of occasions collaborative decisionmaking could be employed during the initial 2-year period of the pilot program.
(j) Evaluation.— 

(1) In general.— 
Before the expiration of the 2-year period for which the pilot program is authorized under subsection (b), the Administrator shall determine whether the pilot program has facilitated more effective use of air traffic capacity and the Secretary, with the concurrence of the Attorney General, shall determine whether the pilot program has had an adverse effect on airline competition or the availability of air services to communities. The Administrator shall also examine whether capacity benefits resulting from the participation in the pilot program of an airport resulted in capacity benefits to other parts of the national airspace system.
(2) Obtaining necessary data.— 
The Administrator may require participating air carriers and airports to provide data necessary to evaluate the pilot programs impact.
(k) Extension of Pilot Program.— 
At the end of the 2-year period for which the pilot program is authorized, the Administrator, with the concurrence of the Attorney General, may continue the pilot program for an additional 2 years and expand participation in the program to up to 7 additional airports if the Administrator determines pursuant to subsection (j) that the pilot program has facilitated more effective use of air traffic capacity and if the Secretary, with the concurrence of the Attorney General, determines that the pilot program has had no adverse effect on airline competition or the availability of air services to communities. The Administrator shall select the additional airports to participate in the extended pilot program in the same manner in which airports were initially selected to participate.

subpart ii - economic regulation

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 411 - AIR CARRIER CERTIFICATES

49 USC 41101 - Requirement for a certificate

(a) General.— 
Except as provided in this chapter or another law
(1) an air carrier may provide air transportation only if the air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the air transportation;
(2) a charter air carrier may provide charter air transportation only if the charter air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the charter air transportation; and
(3) an air carrier may provide all-cargo air transportation only if the air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the all-cargo air transportation.
(b) Through Service and Joint Transportation.— 
A citizen of the United States providing transportation in a State of passengers or property as a common carrier for compensation with aircraft capable of carrying at least 30 passengers, under authority granted by the appropriate State authority
(1) may provide transportation for passengers and property that includes through service by the citizen over its routes in the State and in air transportation by an air carrier or foreign air carrier; and
(2) subject to sections 41309 and 42111 of this title, may make an agreement with an air carrier or foreign air carrier to provide the joint transportation.
(c) Proprietary or Exclusive Right Not Conferred.— 
A certificate issued under this chapter does not confer a proprietary or exclusive right to use airspace, an airway of the United States, or an air navigation facility.

49 USC 41102 - General, temporary, and charter air transportation certificates of air carriers

(a) Issuance.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may issue a certificate of public convenience and necessity to a citizen of the United States authorizing the citizen to provide any part of the following air transportation the citizen has applied for under section 41108 of this title:
(1) air transportation as an air carrier.
(2) temporary air transportation as an air carrier for a limited period.
(3) charter air transportation as a charter air carrier.
(b) Findings Required for Issuance.— 

(1) Before issuing a certificate under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary must find that the citizen is fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation to be authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary.
(2) In addition to the findings under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary, before issuing a certificate under subsection (a) of this section for foreign air transportation, must find that the transportation is consistent with the public convenience and necessity.
(c) Temporary Certificates.— 
The Secretary may issue a certificate under subsection (a) of this section for interstate air transportation (except the transportation of passengers) or foreign air transportation for a temporary period of time (whether the application is for permanent or temporary authority) when the Secretary decides that a test period is desirable
(1) to decide if the projected services, efficiencies, methods, and prices and the projected results will materialize and remain for a sustained period of time; or
(2) to evaluate the new transportation.
(d) Foreign Air Transportation.— 
The Secretary shall submit each decision authorizing the provision of foreign air transportation to the President under section 41307 of this title.

49 USC 41103 - All-cargo air transportation certificates of air carriers

(a) Applications.— 
A citizen of the United States may apply to the Secretary of Transportation for a certificate authorizing the citizen to provide all-cargo air transportation. The application must contain information and be in the form the Secretary by regulation requires.
(b) Issuance.— 
Not later than 180 days after an application for a certificate is filed under this section, the Secretary shall issue the certificate to a citizen of the United States authorizing the citizen, as an air carrier, to provide any part of the all-cargo air transportation applied for unless the Secretary finds that the citizen is not fit, willing, and able to provide the all-cargo air transportation to be authorized by the certificate and to comply with regulations of the Secretary.
(c) Terms.— 
The Secretary may impose terms the Secretary considers necessary when issuing a certificate under this section. However, the Secretary may not impose terms that restrict the places served or prices charged by the holder of the certificate.
(d) Exemptions and Status.— 
A citizen issued a certificate under this section
(1) is exempt in providing the transportation under the certificate from the requirements of
(A) section 41101 (a)(1) of this title and regulations or procedures prescribed under section 41101 (a)(1); and
(B) other provisions of this part and regulations or procedures prescribed under those provisions when the Secretary finds under regulations of the Secretary that the exemption is appropriate; and
(2) is an air carrier under this part except to the extent the carrier is exempt under this section from a requirement of this part.

49 USC 41104 - Additional limitations and requirements of charter air carriers

(a) Restrictions.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe a regulation or issue an order restricting the marketability, flexibility, accessibility, or variety of charter air transportation provided under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title only to the extent required by the public interest. A regulation prescribed or order issued under this subsection may not be more restrictive than a regulation related to charter air transportation that was in effect on October 1, 1978.
(b) Scheduled Operations.— 

(1) In general.— 
Except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4), an air carrier, including an indirect air carrier, may not provide, in aircraft designed for more than 9 passenger seats, regularly scheduled charter air transportation, for which the public is provided in advance a schedule containing the departure location, departure time, and arrival location of the flight, to or from an airport that
(A) does not have an airport operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulation); or
(B) has an airport operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulation) if the airport
(i) is a reliever airport (as defined in section 47102) and is designated as such in the national plan of integrated airports maintained under section 47103; and
(ii) is located within 20 nautical miles (22 statute miles) of 3 or more airports that each annually account for at least 1 percent of the total United States passenger enplanements and at least 2 of which are operated by the sponsor of the reliever airport.
(2) Definition.— 
In this paragraph, the term regularly scheduled charter air transportation does not include operations for which the departure time, departure location, and arrival location are specifically negotiated with the customer or the customers representative.
(3) Exception.— 
This subsection does not apply to any airport in the State of Alaska or to any airport outside the United States.
(4) Waivers.— 
The Secretary may waive the application of paragraph (1)(B) in cases in which the Secretary determines that the public interest so requires.
(c) Alaska.— 
An air carrier holding a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title may provide charter air transportation between places in Alaska only to the extent the Secretary decides the transportation is required by public convenience and necessity. The Secretary may make that decision when issuing, amending, or modifying the certificate. This subsection does not apply to a certificate issued under section 41102 to a citizen of the United States who, before July 1, 1977
(1) maintained a principal place of business in Alaska; and
(2) conducted air transport operations between places in Alaska with aircraft with a certificate for gross takeoff weight of more than 40,000 pounds.
(d) Suspensions.— 

(1) The Secretary shall suspend for not more than 30 days any part of the certificate of a charter air carrier if the Secretary decides that the failure of the carrier to comply with the requirements described in sections 41110 (e) and 41112 of this title, or a regulation or order of the Secretary under section 41110 (e) or 41112, requires immediate suspension in the interest of the rights, welfare, or safety of the public. The Secretary may act under this paragraph without notice or a hearing.
(2) The Secretary shall begin immediately a hearing to decide if the certificate referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection should be amended, modified, suspended, or revoked. Until the hearing is completed, the Secretary may suspend the certificate for additional periods totaling not more than 60 days. If the Secretary decides that the carrier is complying with the requirements described in sections 41110 (e) and 41112 of this title and regulations and orders under sections 41110 (e) and 41112, the Secretary immediately may end the suspension period and proceeding begun under this subsection. However, the Secretary is not prevented from imposing a civil penalty on the carrier for violating the requirements described in section 41110 (e) or 41112 or a regulation or order under section 41110 (e) or 41112.

49 USC 41105 - Transfers of certificates

(a) General.— 
A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title may be transferred only when the Secretary of Transportation approves the transfer as being consistent with the public interest.
(b) Certification to Congress.— 
When a certificate is transferred, the Secretary shall certify to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives that the transfer is consistent with the public interest. The Secretary shall include with the certification a report analyzing the effects of the transfer on
(1) the viability of each carrier involved in the transfer;
(2) competition in the domestic airline industry; and
(3) the trade position of the United States in the international air transportation market.

49 USC 41106 - Airlift service

(a) Interstate Transportation.— 

(1) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the transportation of passengers or property by transport category aircraft in interstate air transportation obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service in the United States may be provided only by an air carrier that
(A) has aircraft in the civil reserve air fleet or offers to place the aircraft in that fleet; and
(B) holds a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title.
(2) The Secretary of Transportation shall act as expeditiously as possible on an application for a certificate under section 41102 of this title to provide airlift service.
(b) Transportation Between the United States and Foreign Locations.— 
Except as provided in subsection (d), the transportation of passengers or property by transport category aircraft between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service shall be provided by an air carrier referred to in subsection (a).
(c) Transportation Between Foreign Locations.— 
The transportation of passengers or property by transport category aircraft between two places outside the United States obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service shall be provided by an air carrier that has aircraft in the civil reserve air fleet whenever transportation by such an air carrier is reasonably available.
(d) Exception.— 
When the Secretary of Defense decides that no air carrier holding a certificate under section 41102 is capable of providing, and willing to provide, the airlift service, the Secretary of Defense may make a contract to provide the service with an air carrier not having a certificate.

49 USC 41107 - Transportation of mail

When the United States Postal Service finds that the needs of the Postal Service require the transportation of mail by aircraft in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska, in addition to the transportation of mail authorized under certificates in effect, the Postal Service shall certify that finding to the Secretary of Transportation with a statement about the additional transportation and facilities necessary to provide the additional transportation. A copy of each certification and statement shall be posted for at least 20 days in the office of the Secretary. After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall issue a new certificate under section 41102 of this title, or amend or modify an existing certificate under section 41110 (a)(2)(A) of this title, to provide the additional transportation and facilities if the Secretary finds the additional transportation is required by the public convenience and necessity.

49 USC 41108 - Applications for certificates

(a) Form, Contents, and Proof of Service.— 
To be issued a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title, a citizen of the United States must apply to the Secretary of Transportation. The application must
(1) be in the form and contain information required by regulations of the Secretary; and
(2) be accompanied by proof of service on interested persons as required by regulations of the Secretary and on each community that may be affected by the issuance of the certificate.
(b) Notice, Response, and Actions on Applications.— 

(1) When an application is filed, the Secretary shall post a notice of the application in the office of the Secretary and give notice of the application to other persons as required by regulations of the Secretary. An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the issuance of the certificate. Not later than 90 days after the application is filed, the Secretary shall
(A) provide an opportunity for a public hearing on the application;
(B) begin the procedure under section 41111 of this title; or
(C) dismiss the application on its merits.
(2) An order of dismissal issued by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection is a final order and may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title.
(3) If the Secretary provides an opportunity for a hearing under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection, an initial or recommended decision shall be issued not later than 150 days after the date the Secretary provides the opportunity. The Secretary shall issue a final order on the application not later than 90 days after the decision is issued. However, if the Secretary does not act within the 90-day period, the initial or recommended decision on an application to provide
(A) interstate air transportation is a final order and may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title; and
(B) foreign air transportation shall be submitted to the President under section 41307 of this title.
(4) If the Secretary acts under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, the Secretary shall issue a final order on the application not later than 180 days after beginning the procedure on the application.
(5) If a citizen applying for a certificate does not meet the procedural schedule adopted by the Secretary in a proceeding, the Secretary may extend the period for acting under paragraphs (3) and (4) of this subsection by a period equal to the period of delay caused by the citizen. In addition to an extension under this paragraph, an initial or recommended decision under paragraph (3) of this subsection may be delayed for not more than 30 days in extraordinary circumstances.
(c) Proof Requirements.— 

(1) A citizen applying for a certificate must prove that the citizen is fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation referred to in section 41102 of this title and to comply with this part.
(2) A person opposing a citizen applying for a certificate must prove that the transportation referred to in section 41102 (b)(2) of this title is not consistent with the public convenience and necessity. The transportation is deemed to be consistent with the public convenience and necessity unless the Secretary finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the transportation is not consistent with the public convenience and necessity.

49 USC 41109 - Terms of certificates

(a) General.— 

(1) Each certificate issued under section 41102 of this title shall specify the type of transportation to be provided.
(2) The Secretary of Transportation
(A) may prescribe terms for providing air transportation under the certificate that the Secretary finds may be required in the public interest; but
(B) may not prescribe a term preventing an air carrier from adding or changing schedules, equipment, accommodations, and facilities for providing the authorized transportation to satisfy business development and public demand.
(3) A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign air transportation shall specify the places between which the air carrier is authorized to provide the transportation only to the extent the Secretary considers practicable and otherwise only shall specify each general route to be followed. The Secretary shall authorize an air carrier holding a certificate to provide foreign air transportation to handle and transport mail of countries other than the United States.
(4) A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign charter air transportation shall specify the places between which the air carrier is authorized to provide the transportation only to the extent the Secretary considers practicable and otherwise only shall specify each geographical area in which, or between which, the transportation may be provided.
(5) As prescribed by regulation by the Secretary, an air carrier other than a charter air carrier may provide charter trips or other special services without regard to the places named or type of transportation specified in its certificate.
(b) Modifying Terms.— 

(1) An air carrier may file with the Secretary an application to modify any term of its certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide interstate or foreign air transportation. Not later than 60 days after an application is filed, the Secretary shall
(A) provide the carrier an opportunity for an oral evidentiary hearing on the record; or
(B) begin to consider the application under section 41111 of this title.
(2) The Secretary shall modify each term the Secretary finds to be inconsistent with the criteria under section 40101 (a) and (b) of this title.
(3) An application under this subsection may not be dismissed under section 41108 (b)(1)(C) of this title.

49 USC 41110 - Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of certificates

(a) General.— 

(1) Each certificate issued under section 41102 of this title is effective from the date specified in it and remains in effect until
(A) the Secretary of Transportation suspends or revokes the certificate under this section;
(B) the end of the period the Secretary specifies for an air carrier having a certificate of temporary authority issued under section 41102 (a)(2) of this title; or
(C) the Secretary certifies that transportation is no longer being provided under a certificate.
(2) On application or on the initiative of the Secretary and after notice and an opportunity for a hearing or, except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, under section 41111 of this title, the Secretary may
(A) amend, modify, or suspend any part of a certificate if the Secretary finds the public convenience and necessity require amendment, modification, or suspension; and
(B) revoke any part of a certificate if the Secretary finds that the holder of the certificate intentionally does not comply with this chapter, sections 41308–41310(a), 41501, 41503, 41504, 41506, 41510, 41511, 41701, 41702, 41705–41709, 41711, 41712, and 41731–41742, chapter 419sections 41308–41310(a), 41501, 41503, 41504, 41506, 41510, 41511, 41701, 41702, 41705–41709, 41711, 41712, and 41731–41742, chapter 419, subchapter II of chapter 421, and section 46301 (b) of this title, a regulation or order of the Secretary under any of those provisions, or a term of its certificate.
(3) The Secretary may revoke a certificate under paragraph (2)(B) of this subsection only if the holder of the certificate does not comply, within a reasonable time the Secretary specifies, with an order to the holder requiring compliance.
(4) A certificate to provide foreign air transportation may not be amended, modified, suspended, or revoked under section 41111 of this title if the holder of the certificate requests an oral evidentiary hearing or the Secretary finds, under all the facts and circumstances, that the hearing is required in the public interest.
(b) All-Cargo Air Transportation.— 
The Secretary may order that a certificate issued under section 41103 of this title authorizing all-cargo air transportation is ineffective if, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary finds that the transportation is not provided to the minimum extent specified by the Secretary.
(c) Foreign Air Transportation.— 

(1) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2)(4) of this section, after notice and a reasonable opportunity for the affected air carrier to present its views, but without a hearing, the Secretary may suspend or revoke the authority of an air carrier to provide foreign air transportation to a place under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title if the carrier
(A) notifies the Secretary, under section 41734 (a) of this title or a regulation of the Secretary, that it intends to suspend all transportation to that place; or
(B) does not provide regularly scheduled transportation to the place for 90 days immediately before the date the Secretary notifies the carrier of the action the Secretary proposes.
(2) Paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection does not apply to a place provided seasonal transportation comparable to the transportation provided during the prior year.
(d) Temporary Certificates.— 
On application or on the initiative of the Secretary, the Secretary may
(1) review the performance of an air carrier issued a certificate under section 41102 (c) of this title on the basis that the air carrier will provide innovative or low-priced air transportation under the certificate; and
(2) amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the certificate or authority under subsection (a)(2) or (c) of this section if the air carrier has not provided, or is not providing, the transportation.
(e) Continuing Requirements.— 

(1) To hold a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title, an air carrier must continue to be fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary.
(2) After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke any part of a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title if the Secretary finds that the air carrier
(A) is not fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary; or
(B) does not file reports necessary for the Secretary to decide if the carrier is complying with the requirements of clause (A) of this paragraph.
(f) Illegal Importation of Controlled Substances.— 
The Secretary
(1) in consultation with appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, shall reexamine immediately the fitness of an air carrier that
(A) violates the laws and regulations of the United States related to the illegal importation of a controlled substance; or
(B) does not adopt available measures to prevent the illegal importation of a controlled substance into the United States on its aircraft; and
(2) when appropriate, shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the certificate of the carrier issued under this chapter.
(g) Responses.— 
An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of a certificate under subsection (a) of this section.

49 USC 41111 - Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, suspend, and transfer certificates

(a) General Requirements.— 

(1) The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that simplify the procedure for
(A) acting on an application for a certificate to provide air transportation under section 41102 of this title; and
(B) amending, modifying, suspending, or transferring any part of that certificate under section 41105 or 41110 (a) or (c) of this title.
(2) Regulations under this section shall provide for notice and an opportunity for each interested person to file appropriate written evidence and argument. An oral evidentiary hearing is not required to be provided under this section.
(b) When Simplified Procedure Used.— 
The Secretary may use the simplified procedure to act on an application for a certificate to provide air transportation under section 41102 of this title, or to amend, modify, suspend, or transfer any part of that certificate under section 41105 or 41110 (a) or (c) of this title, when the Secretary decides the use of the procedure is in the public interest.
(c) Contents.— 

(1) To the extent the Secretary finds practicable, regulations under this section shall include each standard the Secretary will apply when
(A) deciding whether to use the simplified procedure; and
(B) making a decision on an action in which the procedure is used.
(2) The regulations may provide that written evidence and argument may be filed under section 41108 (b) of this title as a part of a response opposing or supporting the issuance of a certificate.

49 USC 41112 - Liability insurance and financial responsibility

(a) Liability Insurance.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may issue a certificate to a citizen of the United States to provide air transportation as an air carrier under section 41102 of this title only if the citizen complies with regulations and orders of the Secretary governing the filing of an insurance policy or self-insurance plan approved by the Secretary. The policy or plan must be sufficient to pay, not more than the amount of the insurance, for bodily injury to, or death of, an individual or for loss of, or damage to, property of others, resulting from the operation or maintenance of the aircraft under the certificate. A certificate does not remain in effect unless the carrier complies with this subsection.
(b) Financial Responsibility.— 
To protect passengers and shippers using an aircraft operated by an air carrier issued a certificate under section 41102 of this title, the Secretary may require the carrier to file a performance bond or equivalent security in the amount and on terms the Secretary prescribes. The bond or security must be sufficient to ensure the carrier adequately will pay the passengers and shippers when the transportation the carrier agrees to provide is not provided. The Secretary shall prescribe the amounts to be paid under this subsection.

49 USC 41113 - Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents

(a) Submission of Plans.— 
Each air carrier holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title shall submit to the Secretary and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board a plan for addressing the needs of the families of passengers involved in any aircraft accident involving an aircraft of the air carrier and resulting in a major loss of life.
(b) Contents of Plans.— 
A plan to be submitted by an air carrier under subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, the following:
(1) A plan for publicizing a reliable, toll-free telephone number, and for providing staff, to handle calls from the families of the passengers.
(2) A process for notifying the families of the passengers, before providing any public notice of the names of the passengers, either by utilizing the services of the organization designated for the accident under section 1136 (a)(2) of this title or the services of other suitably trained individuals.
(3) An assurance that the notice described in paragraph (2) will be provided to the family of a passenger as soon as the air carrier has verified that the passenger was aboard the aircraft (whether or not the names of all of the passengers have been verified) and, to the extent practicable, in person.
(4) An assurance that the air carrier will provide to the director of family support services designated for the accident under section 1136 (a)(1) of this title, and to the organization designated for the accident under section 1136 (a)(2) of this title, immediately upon request, a list (which is based on the best available information at the time of the request) of the names of the passengers aboard the aircraft (whether or not such names have been verified), and will periodically update the list.
(5) An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about the disposition of all remains and personal effects of the passenger within the control of the air carrier.
(6) An assurance that if requested by the family of a passenger, any possession of the passenger within the control of the air carrier (regardless of its condition) will be returned to the family unless the possession is needed for the accident investigation or any criminal investigation.
(7) An assurance that any unclaimed possession of a passenger within the control of the air carrier will be retained by the air carrier for at least 18 months.
(8) An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about construction by the air carrier of any monument to the passengers, including any inscription on the monument.
(9) An assurance that the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers (and any other victim of the accident) will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers.
(10) An assurance that the air carrier will work with any organization designated under section 1136 (a)(2) of this title on an ongoing basis to ensure that families of passengers receive an appropriate level of services and assistance following each accident.
(11) An assurance that the air carrier will provide reasonable compensation to any organization designated under section 1136 (a)(2) of this title for services provided by the organization.
(12) An assurance that the air carrier will assist the family of a passenger in traveling to the location of the accident and provide for the physical care of the family while the family is staying at such location.
(13) An assurance that the air carrier will commit sufficient resources to carry out the plan.
(14) An assurance that, upon request of the family of a passenger, the air carrier will inform the family of whether the passengers name appeared on a preliminary passenger manifest for the flight involved in the accident.
(15) An assurance that the air carrier will provide adequate training to the employees and agents of the carrier to meet the needs of survivors and family members following an accident.
(16) An assurance that the air carrier, in the event that the air carrier volunteers assistance to United States citizens within the United States with respect to an aircraft accident outside the United States involving major loss of life, will consult with the Board and the Department of State on the provision of the assistance.
(17) 
(A) An assurance that, in the case of an accident that results in significant damage to a manmade structure or other property on the ground that is not government-owned, the air carrier will promptly provide notice, in writing, to the extent practicable, directly to the owner of the structure or other property about liability for any property damage and means for obtaining compensation.
(B) At a minimum, the written notice shall advise an owner
(i)  to contact the insurer of the property as the authoritative source for information about coverage and compensation;
(ii)  to not rely on unofficial information offered by air carrier representatives about compensation by the air carrier for accident-site property damage; and
(iii)  to obtain photographic or other detailed evidence of property damage as soon as possible after the accident, consistent with restrictions on access to the accident site.
(18) An assurance that, in the case of an accident in which the National Transportation Safety Board conducts a public hearing or comparable proceeding at a location greater than 80 miles from the accident site, the air carrier will ensure that the proceeding is made available simultaneously by electronic means at a location open to the public at both the origin city and destination city of the air carriers flight if that city is located in the United States.
(c) Certificate Requirement.— 
The Secretary may not approve an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title unless the applicant has included as part of such application a plan that meets the requirements of subsection (b).
(d) Limitation on Liability.— 
An air carrier shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the performance of the air carrier in preparing or providing a passenger list, or in providing information concerning a preliminary passenger manifest, pursuant to a plan submitted by the air carrier under subsection (b), unless such liability was caused by conduct of the air carrier which was grossly negligent or which constituted intentional misconduct.
(e) Aircraft Accident and Passenger Defined.— 
In this section, the terms aircraft accident and passenger have the meanings such terms have in section 1136 of this title.
(f) Statutory Construction.— 
Nothing in this section may be construed as limiting the actions that an air carrier may take, or the obligations that an air carrier may have, in providing assistance to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 413 - FOREIGN AIR TRANSPORTATION

49 USC 41301 - Requirement for a permit

A foreign air carrier may provide foreign air transportation only if the foreign air carrier holds a permit issued under this chapter authorizing the foreign air transportation.

49 USC 41302 - Permits of foreign air carriers

The Secretary of Transportation may issue a permit to a person (except a citizen of the United States) authorizing the person to provide foreign air transportation as a foreign air carrier if the Secretary finds that
(1) the person is fit, willing, and able to provide the foreign air transportation to be authorized by the permit and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary; and
(2) 
(A) the person is qualified, and has been designated by the government of its country, to provide the foreign air transportation under an agreement with the United States Government; or
(B) the foreign air transportation to be provided under the permit will be in the public interest.

49 USC 41303 - Transfers of permits

A permit issued under section 41302 of this title may be transferred only when the Secretary of Transportation approves the transfer because the transfer is in the public interest.

49 USC 41304 - Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of permits

(a) General.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe the period during which a permit issued under section 41302 of this title is in effect. After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary may amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the permit if the Secretary finds that action to be in the public interest.
(b) Suspensions and Restrictions.— 
Without a hearing, but subject to the approval of the President, the Secretary
(1) may suspend summarily the permits of foreign air carriers of a foreign country, or amend, modify, or limit the operations of the foreign air carriers under the permits, when the Secretary finds
(A) the action is in the public interest; and
(B) the government, an aeronautical authority, or a foreign air carrier of the foreign country, over the objection of the United States Government, has
(i) limited or denied the operating rights of an air carrier; or
(ii) engaged in unfair, discriminatory, or restrictive practices that have a substantial adverse competitive impact on an air carrier related to air transportation to, from, through, or over the territory of the foreign country; and
(2) to make this subsection effective, may restrict operations between the United States and the foreign country by a foreign air carrier of a third country.
(c) Illegal Importation of Controlled Substances.— 
The Secretary
(1) in consultation with appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, shall reexamine immediately the fitness of a foreign air carrier that
(A) violates the laws and regulations of the United States related to the illegal importation of a controlled substance; or
(B) does not adopt available measures to prevent the illegal importation of a controlled substance into the United States on its aircraft; and
(2) when appropriate, shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the permit of the carrier issued under this chapter.
(d) Responses.— 
An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of a permit under subsection (a) of this section.

49 USC 41305 - Applications for permits

(a) Form, Contents, Notice, Response, and Actions on Applications.— 

(1) A person must apply in writing to the Secretary of Transportation to be issued a permit under section 41302 of this title. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to require that the application be
(A) verified;
(B) in a certain form and contain certain information;
(C) served on interested persons; and
(D) accompanied by proof of service on those persons.
(2) When an application is filed, the Secretary shall post a notice of the application in the office of the Secretary and give notice of the application to other persons as required by regulations of the Secretary. An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the issuance of the permit. The Secretary shall act on an application as expeditiously as possible.
(b) Terms.— 
The Secretary may impose terms for providing foreign air transportation under the permit that the Secretary finds may be required in the public interest.

49 USC 41306 - Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, and suspend permits

(a) Regulations.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that simplify the procedure for
(1) acting on an application for a permit to provide foreign air transportation under section 41302 of this title; and
(2) amending, modifying, or suspending any part of that permit under section 41304 (a) or (b) of this title.
(b) Notice and Opportunity To Respond.— 
Regulations under this section shall provide for notice and an opportunity for each interested person to file appropriate written evidence and argument. An oral evidentiary hearing is not required to be provided under this section.

49 USC 41307 - Presidential review of actions about foreign air transportation

The Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the President for review each decision of the Secretary to issue, deny, amend, modify, suspend, revoke, or transfer a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title authorizing an air carrier, or a permit issued under section 41302 of this title authorizing a foreign air carrier, to provide foreign air transportation. The President may disapprove the decision of the Secretary only if the reason for disapproval is based on foreign relations or national defense considerations that are under the jurisdiction of the President. The President may not disapprove a decision of the Secretary if the reason is economic or related to carrier selection. A decision of the Secretary
(1) is void if the President disapproves the decision and publishes the reasons (to the extent allowed by national security) for disapproval not later than 60 days after it is submitted to the President; or
(2) 
(A) takes effect as a decision of the Secretary if the President does not disapprove the decision not later than 60 days after the decision is submitted to the President; and
(B) when effective, may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title.

49 USC 41308 - Exemption from the antitrust laws

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, antitrust laws has the same meaning given that term in the first section of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 12).
(b) Exemption Authorized.— 
When the Secretary of Transportation decides it is required by the public interest, the Secretary, as part of an order under section 41309 or 42111 of this title, may exempt a person affected by the order from the antitrust laws to the extent necessary to allow the person to proceed with the transaction specifically approved by the order and with any transaction necessarily contemplated by the order.
(c) Exemption Required.— 
In an order under section 41309 of this title approving an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation, the Secretary, on the basis of the findings required under section 41309 (b)(1), shall exempt a person affected by the order from the antitrust laws to the extent necessary to allow the person to proceed with the transaction specifically approved by the order and with any transaction necessarily contemplated by the order.

49 USC 41309 - Cooperative agreements and requests

(a) Filing.— 
An air carrier or foreign air carrier may file with the Secretary of Transportation a true copy of or, if oral, a true and complete memorandum of, an agreement (except an agreement related to interstate air transportation), or a request for authority to discuss cooperative arrangements (except arrangements related to interstate air transportation), and any modification or cancellation of an agreement, between the air carrier or foreign air carrier and another air carrier, a foreign carrier, or another carrier.
(b) Approval.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall approve an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation referred to in subsection (a) of this section when the Secretary finds it is not adverse to the public interest and is not in violation of this part. However, the Secretary shall disapprove
(1) or, after periodic review, end approval of, an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation, that substantially reduces or eliminates competition unless the Secretary finds that
(A) the agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is necessary to meet a serious transportation need or to achieve important public benefits (including international comity and foreign policy considerations); and
(B) the transportation need cannot be met or those benefits cannot be achieved by reasonably available alternatives that are materially less anticompetitive; or
(2) an agreement that
(A) is between an air carrier not directly operating aircraft in foreign air transportation and a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title; and
(B) governs the compensation the carrier may receive for the transportation.
(c) Notice and Opportunity To Respond or for Hearing.— 

(1) When an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is filed, the Secretary of Transportation shall give the Attorney General and the Secretary of State written notice of, and an opportunity to submit written comments about, the filing. On the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or on request of the Attorney General or Secretary of State, the Secretary of Transportation may conduct a hearing to decide whether an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is consistent with this part whether or not it was approved previously.
(2) In a proceeding before the Secretary of Transportation applying standards under subsection (b)(1) of this section, a party opposing an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation has the burden of proving that it substantially reduces or eliminates competition and that less anticompetitive alternatives are available. The party defending the agreement, request, modification, or cancellation has the burden of proving the transportation need or public benefits.
(3) The Secretary of Transportation shall include the findings required by subsection (b)(1) of this section in an order of the Secretary approving or disapproving an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation.

49 USC 41310 - Discriminatory practices

(a) Prohibition.— 
An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not subject a person, place, port, or type of traffic in foreign air transportation to unreasonable discrimination.
(b) Review and Negotiation of Discriminatory Foreign Charges.— 

(1) The Secretary of Transportation shall survey charges imposed on an air carrier by the government of a foreign country or another foreign entity for the use of airport property or airway property in foreign air transportation. If the Secretary of Transportation decides that a charge is discriminatory, the Secretary promptly shall report the decision to the Secretary of State. The Secretaries of State and Transportation promptly shall begin negotiations with the appropriate government to end the discrimination. If the discrimination is not ended in a reasonable time through negotiation, the Secretary of Transportation shall establish a compensating charge equal to the discriminatory charge. With the approval of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury shall impose the compensating charge on a foreign air carrier of that country as a condition to accepting the general declaration of the aircraft of the foreign air carrier when it lands or takes off.
(2) The Secretary of the Treasury shall maintain an account to credit money collected under paragraph (1) of this subsection. An air carrier shall be paid from the account an amount certified by the Secretary of Transportation to compensate the air carrier for the discriminatory charge paid to the government.
(c) Actions Against Discriminatory Activity.— 

(1) The Secretary of Transportation may take actions the Secretary considers are in the public interest to eliminate an activity of a government of a foreign country or another foreign entity, including a foreign air carrier, when the Secretary, on the initiative of the Secretary or on complaint, decides that the activity
(A) is an unjustifiable or unreasonable discriminatory, predatory, or anticompetitive practice against an air carrier; or
(B) imposes an unjustifiable or unreasonable restriction on access of an air carrier to a foreign market.
(2) The Secretary of Transportation may deny, amend, modify, suspend, revoke, or transfer under paragraph (1) of this subsection a foreign air carrier permit or tariff under section 41302, 41303, 41304 (a), 41504 (c), 41507, or 41509 of this title.
(d) Filing of, and Acting on, Complaints.— 

(1) An air carrier, computer reservations system firm, or a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government may file a complaint under subsection (c) or (g) of this section with the Secretary of Transportation. The Secretary shall approve, deny, or dismiss the complaint, set the complaint for a hearing or investigation, or begin another proceeding proposing remedial action not later than 60 days after receiving the complaint. The Secretary may extend the period for acting for additional periods totaling not more than 30 days if the Secretary decides that with additional time it is likely that a complaint can be resolved satisfactorily through negotiations with the government of the foreign country or foreign entity. The Secretary must act not later than 90 days after receiving the complaint. However, the Secretary may extend this 90-day period for not more than an additional 90 days if, on the last day of the initial 90-day period, the Secretary finds that
(A) negotiations with the government have progressed to a point that a satisfactory resolution of the complaint appears imminent;
(B) an air carrier or computer reservations system firm has not been subjected to economic injury by the government or entity as a result of filing the complaint; and
(C) the public interest requires additional time before the Secretary acts on the complaint.
(2) In carrying out paragraph (1) of this subsection and subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall
(A) solicit the views of the Secretaries of Commerce and State and the United States Trade Representative;
(B) give an affected air carrier or foreign air carrier reasonable notice and an opportunity to submit written evidence and arguments within the time limits of this subsection; and
(C) submit to the President under section 41307 or 41509 (f) of this title actions proposed by the Secretary of Transportation.
(e) Review.— 

(1) The Secretaries of State, the Treasury, and Transportation and the heads of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government shall keep under review, to the extent of each of their jurisdictions, each form of discrimination or unfair competitive practice to which an air carrier is subject when providing foreign air transportation or a computer reservations system firm is subject when providing services with respect to airline service. Each Secretary and head shall
(A) take appropriate action to eliminate any discrimination or unfair competitive practice found to exist; and
(B) request Congress to enact legislation when the authority to eliminate the discrimination or unfair practice is inadequate.
(2) The Secretary of Transportation shall report to Congress annually on each action taken under paragraph (1) of this subsection and on the continuing program to eliminate discrimination and unfair competitive practices. The Secretaries of State and the Treasury each shall give the Secretary of Transportation information necessary to prepare the report.
(f) Reports.— 
Not later than 30 days after acting on a complaint under this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on action taken under this section on the complaint.
(g) Actions Against Discriminatory Activity by Foreign CRS Systems.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may take such actions as the Secretary considers are in the public interest to eliminate an activity of a foreign air carrier that owns or markets a computer reservations system, or of a computer reservations system firm whose principal offices are located outside the United States, when the Secretary, on the initiative of the Secretary or on complaint, decides that the activity, with respect to airline service
(1) is an unjustifiable or unreasonable discriminatory, predatory, or anticompetitive practice against a computer reservations system firm whose principal offices are located inside the United States; or
(2) imposes an unjustifiable or unreasonable restriction on access of such a computer reservations system to a foreign market.

49 USC 41311 - Gambling restrictions

(a) In General.— 
An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not install, transport, or operate, or permit the use of, any gambling device on board an aircraft in foreign air transportation.
(b) Definition.— 
In this section, the term gambling device means any machine or mechanical device (including gambling applications on electronic interactive video systems installed on board aircraft for passenger use)
(1) which when operated may deliver, as the result of the application of an element of chance, any money or property; or
(2) by the operation of which a person may become entitled to receive, as the result of the application of an element of chance, any money or property.

49 USC 41312 - Ending or suspending foreign air transportation

(a) General.— 
An air carrier holding a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign air transportation
(1) may end or suspend the transportation to a place under the certificate only when the carrier gives at least 90 days notice of its intention to end or suspend the transportation to the Secretary of Transportation, any community affected by that decision, and the State authority of the State in which a community is located; and
(2) if it is the only air carrier holding a certificate to provide non-stop or single-plane foreign air transportation between 2 places, may end or suspend the transportation between those places only when the carrier gives at least 60 days notice of its intention to end or suspend the transportation to the Secretary and each community directly affected by that decision.
(b) Temporary Suspension.— 
The Secretary may authorize the temporary suspension of foreign air transportation under subsection (a) of this section when the Secretary finds the suspension is in the public interest.

49 USC 41313 - Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in foreign air carrier accidents

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) Aircraft accident.— 
The term aircraft accident means any aviation disaster, regardless of its cause or suspected cause, that occurs within the United States; and
(2) Passenger.— 
The term passenger has the meaning given such term by section 1136.
(b) Submission of Plans.— 
A foreign air carrier providing foreign air transportation under this chapter shall transmit to the Secretary of Transportation and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board a plan for addressing the needs of the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in a major loss of life.
(c) Contents of Plans.— 
To the extent permitted by foreign law which was in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, a plan submitted by a foreign air carrier under subsection (b) shall include the following:
(1) Telephone number.— 
A plan for publicizing a reliable, toll-free telephone number and staff to take calls to such number from families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in a significant loss of life.
(2) Notification of families.— 
A process for notifying, in person to the extent practicable, the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in a significant loss of life before providing any public notice of the names of such passengers. Such notice shall be provided by using the services of
(A) the organization designated for the accident under section 1136 (a)(2); or
(B) other suitably trained individuals.
(3) Notice provided as soon as possible.— 
An assurance that the notice required by paragraph (2) shall be provided as soon as practicable after the foreign air carrier has verified the identity of a passenger on the foreign aircraft, whether or not the names of all of the passengers have been verified.
(4) List of passengers.— 
An assurance that the foreign air carrier shall provide, immediately upon request, and update a list (based on the best available information at the time of the request) of the names of the passengers aboard the aircraft (whether or not such names have been verified), to
(A) the director of family support services designated for the accident under section 1136 (a)(1); and
(B) the organization designated for the accident under section 1136 (a)(2).
(5) Consultation regarding disposition of remains and effects.— 
An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about the disposition of any remains and personal effects of the passenger that are within the control of the foreign air carrier.
(6) Return of possessions.— 
An assurance that, if requested by the family of a passenger, any possession (regardless of its condition) of that passenger that is within the control of the foreign air carrier will be returned to the family unless the possession is needed for the accident investigation or a criminal investigation.
(7) Unclaimed possessions retained.— 
An assurance that any unclaimed possession of a passenger within the control of the foreign air carrier will be retained by the foreign air carrier for not less than 18 months after the date of the accident.
(8) Monuments.— 
An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about construction by the foreign air carrier of any monument to the passengers built in the United States, including any inscription on the monument.
(9) Equal treatment of passengers.— 
An assurance that the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers.
(10) Service and assistance to families of passengers.— 
An assurance that the foreign air carrier will work with any organization designated under section 1136 (a)(2) on an ongoing basis to ensure that families of passengers receive an appropriate level of services and assistance following an accident.
(11) Compensation to service organizations.— 
An assurance that the foreign air carrier will provide reasonable compensation to any organization designated under section 1136 (a)(2) for services and assistance provided by the organization.
(12) Travel and care expenses.— 
An assurance that the foreign air carrier will assist the family of any passenger in traveling to the location of the accident and provide for the physical care of the family while the family is staying at such location.
(13) Resources for plan.— 
An assurance that the foreign air carrier will commit sufficient resources to carry out the plan.
(14) Substitute measures.— 
If a foreign air carrier does not wish to comply with paragraph (10), (11), or (12), a description of proposed adequate substitute measures for the requirements of each paragraph with which the foreign air carrier does not wish to comply.
(15) Training of employees and agents.— 
An assurance that the foreign air carrier will provide adequate training to the employees and agents of the carrier to meet the needs of survivors and family members following an accident.
(16) Consultation on carrier response not covered by plan.— 
An assurance that the foreign air carrier, in the event that the foreign air carrier volunteers assistance to United States citizens within the United States with respect to an aircraft accident outside the United States involving major loss of life, the foreign air carrier[1] will consult with the Board and the Department of State on the provision of the assistance.
(17) Notice concerning liability for manmade structures.— 

(A) In general.— 
An assurance that, in the case of an accident that results in significant damage to a manmade structure or other property on the ground that is not government-owned, the foreign air carrier will promptly provide notice, in writing, to the extent practicable, directly to the owner of the structure or other property about liability for any property damage and means for obtaining compensation.
(B) Minimum contents.— 
At a minimum, the written notice shall advise an owner
(i)  to contact the insurer of the property as the authoritative source for information about coverage and compensation;
(ii)  to not rely on unofficial information offered by foreign air carrier representatives about compensation by the foreign air carrier for accident-site property damage; and
(iii)  to obtain photographic or other detailed evidence of property damage as soon as possible after the accident, consistent with restrictions on access to the accident site.
(18) Simultaneous electronic transmission of ntsb hearing.— 
An assurance that, in the case of an accident in which the National Transportation Safety Board conducts a public hearing or comparable proceeding at a location greater than 80 miles from the accident site, the foreign air carrier will ensure that the proceeding is made available simultaneously by electronic means at a location open to the public at both the origin city and destination city of the foreign air carriers flight if that city is located in the United States.
(d) Permit and Exemption Requirement.— 
The Secretary shall not approve an application for a permit under section 41302 unless the applicant has included as part of the application or request for exemption a plan that meets the requirements of subsection (c).
(e) Limitation on Liability.— 
A foreign air carrier shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the performance of the foreign air carrier in preparing or providing a passenger list pursuant to a plan submitted by the foreign air carrier under subsection (c), unless the liability was caused by conduct of the foreign air carrier which was grossly negligent or which constituted intentional misconduct.
[1] So in original. The words “the foreign air carrier” probably should not appear.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 415 - PRICING

49 USC 41501 - Establishing reasonable prices, classifications, rules, practices, and divisions of joint prices for foreign air transportation

Every air carrier and foreign air carrier shall establish, comply with, and enforce
(1) reasonable prices, classifications, rules, and practices related to foreign air transportation; and
(2) for joint prices established for foreign air transportation, reasonable divisions of those prices among the participating air carriers or foreign air carriers without unreasonably discriminating against any of those carriers.

49 USC 41502 - Establishing joint prices for through routes with other carriers

(a) Joint Prices.— 
An air carrier may establish reasonable joint prices and through service with another carrier. However, an air carrier not directly operating aircraft in air transportation (except an air express company) may not establish under this section a joint price for the transportation of property with a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title.
(b) Prices, Classifications, Rules, and Practices and Divisions of Joint Prices.— 
For through service by an air carrier and a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title, the participating carriers shall establish
(1) reasonable prices and reasonable classifications, rules, and practices affecting those prices or the value of the transportation provided under those prices; and
(2) for joint prices established for the through service, reasonable divisions of those joint prices among the participating carriers.
(c) Statements Included in Tariffs.— 
An air carrier and a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title that are participating in through service and joint prices shall include in their tariffs, filed with the Secretary of Transportation, a statement showing the through service and joint prices.

49 USC 41503 - Establishing joint prices for through routes provided by State authorized carriers

Subject to sections 41309 and 42111 of this title, a citizen of the United States providing transportation under section 41101 (b) of this title may make an agreement with an air carrier or foreign air carrier for joint prices for that transportation. The joint prices agreed to must be the lowest of
(1) the sum of the applicable prices for
(A) the part of the transportation provided in the State and approved by the appropriate State authority; and
(B) the part of the transportation provided by the air carrier or foreign air carrier;
(2) a joint price established and filed under section 41504 of this title; or
(3) a joint price prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation under section 41507 of this title.

49 USC 41504 - Tariffs for foreign air transportation

(a) Filing and Contents.— 
In the way prescribed by regulation by the Secretary of Transportation, every air carrier and foreign air carrier shall file with the Secretary, publish, and keep open to public inspection, tariffs showing the prices for the foreign air transportation provided between places served by the carrier and provided between places served by the carrier and places served by another air carrier or foreign air carrier with which through service and joint prices have been established. A tariff
(1) shall contain
(A) to the extent the Secretary requires by regulation, a description of the classifications, rules, and practices related to the foreign air transportation;
(B) a statement of the prices in money of the United States; and
(C) other information the Secretary requires by regulation; and
(2) may contain
(A) a statement of the prices in money that is not money of the United States; and
(B) information that is required under the laws of a foreign country in or to which the air carrier or foreign air carrier is authorized to operate.
(b) Changes.— 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, an air carrier or foreign air carrier may change a price or a classification, rule, or practice affecting that price or the value of the transportation provided under that price, specified in a tariff of the carrier for foreign air transportation only after 30 days after the carrier has filed, published, and posted notice of the proposed change in the same way as required for a tariff under subsection (a) of this section. However, the Secretary may prescribe an alternative notice requirement, of at least 25 days, to allow an air carrier or foreign air carrier to match a proposed change in a passenger fare or a charge of another air carrier or foreign air carrier. A notice under this paragraph must state plainly the change proposed and when the change will take effect.
(2) If the effect of a proposed change would be to begin a passenger fare that is outside of, or not covered by, the range of passenger fares specified under section 41509 (e)(2) and (3) of this title, the proposed change may be put into effect only on the expiration of 60 days after the notice is filed under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(c) Rejection of Changes.— 
The Secretary may reject a tariff or tariff change that is not consistent with this section and regulations prescribed by the Secretary. A tariff or change that is rejected is void.

49 USC 41505 - Uniform methods for establishing joint prices, and divisions of joint prices, applicable to commuter air carriers

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, commuter air carrier means an air carrier providing transportation under section 40109 (f) of this title that provides at least 5 scheduled roundtrips a week between the same 2 places.
(b) General.— 
Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, when the Secretary of Transportation prescribes under section 41508 or 41509 of this title a uniform method generally applicable to establishing joint prices and divisions of joint prices for and between air carriers holding certificates issued under section 41102 of this title, the Secretary shall make that uniform method apply to establishing joint prices and divisions of joint prices for and between air carriers and commuter air carriers.
(c) Notice Required Before Modifying, Suspending, or Ending Transportation.— 
A commuter air carrier that has an agreement with an air carrier to provide transportation for passengers and property that includes through service by the commuter air carrier over the commuter air carriers routes and air transportation provided by the air carrier shall give the air carrier and the Secretary at least 90 days notice before modifying, suspending, or ending the transportation. If the commuter air carrier does not give that notice, the uniform method of establishing joint prices and divisions of joint prices referred to in subsection (b) of this section does not apply to the commuter air carrier.

49 USC 41506 - Price division filing requirements for foreign air transportation

Every air carrier and foreign air carrier shall keep currently on file with the Secretary of Transportation, if the Secretary requires, the established divisions of all joint prices for foreign air transportation in which the carrier participates.

49 USC 41507 - Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to change prices, classifications, rules, and practices for foreign air transportation

(a) General.— 
When the Secretary of Transportation decides that a price charged or received by an air carrier or foreign air carrier for foreign air transportation, or a classification, rule, or practice affecting that price or the value of the transportation provided under that price, is or will be unreasonably discriminatory, the Secretary may
(1) change the price, classification, rule, or practice as necessary to correct the discrimination; and
(2) order the air carrier or foreign air carrier to stop charging or collecting the discriminatory price or carrying out the discriminatory classification, rule, or practice.
(b) When Secretary May Act.— 
The Secretary may act under this section on the Secretarys own initiative or on a complaint filed with the Secretary and only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing.

49 USC 41508 - Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to adjust divisions of joint prices for foreign air transportation

(a) General.— 
When the Secretary of Transportation decides that a division between air carriers, foreign air carriers, or both, of a joint price for foreign air transportation is or will be unreasonable or unreasonably discriminatory against any of those carriers, the Secretary shall prescribe a reasonable division of the joint price among those carriers. The Secretary may order the adjustment in the division of the joint price to be made retroactively to the date the complaint was filed, the date the order for an investigation was made, or a later date the Secretary decides is reasonable.
(b) When Secretary May Act.— 
The Secretary may act under this section on the Secretarys own initiative or on a complaint filed with the Secretary and only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing.

49 USC 41509 - Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to suspend, cancel, and reject tariffs for foreign air transportation

(a) Cancellation and Rejection.— 

(1) On the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or on a complaint filed with the Secretary, the Secretary may conduct a hearing to decide whether a price for foreign air transportation contained in an existing or newly filed tariff of an air carrier or foreign air carrier, a classification, rule, or practice affecting that price, or the value of the transportation provided under that price, is lawful. The Secretary may begin the hearing at once and without an answer or another formal pleading by the air carrier or foreign air carrier, but only after reasonable notice. If, after the hearing, the Secretary decides that the price, classification, rule, or practice is or will be unreasonable or unreasonably discriminatory, the Secretary may cancel or reject the tariff and prevent the use of the price, classification, rule, or practice.
(2) With or without a hearing, the Secretary may cancel or reject an existing or newly filed tariff of a foreign air carrier and prevent the use of a price, classification, rule, or practice when the Secretary decides that the cancellation or rejection is in the public interest.
(3) In deciding whether to cancel or reject a tariff of an air carrier or foreign air carrier under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider
(A) the effect of the price on the movement of traffic;
(B) the need in the public interest of adequate and efficient transportation by air carriers and foreign air carriers at the lowest cost consistent with providing the transportation;
(C) the standards prescribed under law related to the character and quality of transportation to be provided by air carriers and foreign air carriers;
(D) the inherent advantages of transportation by aircraft;
(E) the need of the air carrier and foreign air carrier for revenue sufficient to enable the air carrier and foreign air carrier, under honest, economical, and efficient management, to provide adequate and efficient air carrier and foreign air carrier transportation;
(F) whether the price will be predatory or tend to monopolize competition among air carriers and foreign air carriers in foreign air transportation;
(G) reasonably estimated or foreseeable future costs and revenues for the air carrier or foreign air carrier for a reasonably limited future period during which the price would be in effect; and
(H) other factors.
(b) Suspension.— 

(1) 
(A) Pending a decision under subsection (a)(1) of this section, the Secretary may suspend a tariff and the use of a price contained in the tariff or a classification, rule, or practice affecting that price.
(B) The Secretary may suspend a tariff of a foreign air carrier and the use of a price, classification, rule, or practice when the suspension is in the public interest.
(2) A suspension becomes effective when the Secretary files with the tariff and delivers to the air carrier or foreign air carrier affected by the suspension a written statement of the reasons for the suspension. To suspend a tariff, reasonable notice of the suspension must be given to the affected carrier.
(3) The suspension of a newly filed tariff may be for periods totaling not more than 365 days after the date the tariff otherwise would go into effect. The suspension of an existing tariff may be for periods totaling not more than 365 days after the effective date of the suspension. The Secretary may rescind at any time the suspension of a newly filed tariff and allow the price, classification, rule, or practice to go into effect.
(c) Effective Tariffs and Prices When Tariff Is Suspended, Canceled, or Rejected.— 

(1) If a tariff is suspended pending the outcome of a proceeding under subsection (a) of this section and the Secretary does not take final action in the proceeding during the suspension period, the tariff goes into effect at the end of that period subject to cancellation when the proceeding is concluded.
(2) 
(A) During the period of suspension, or after the cancellation or rejection, of a newly filed tariff (including a tariff that has gone into effect provisionally), the affected air carrier or foreign air carrier shall maintain in effect and use
(i) the corresponding seasonal prices, or the classifications, rules, and practices affecting those prices or the value of transportation provided under those prices, that were in effect for the carrier immediately before the new tariff was filed; or
(ii) another price provided for under an applicable intergovernmental agreement or understanding.
(B) If the suspended, canceled, or rejected tariff is the first tariff of the carrier for the covered transportation, the carrier, for the purpose of operations during the period of suspension or pending effectiveness of a new tariff, may file another tariff containing a price or another classification, rule, or practice affecting the price, or the value of the transportation provided under the price, that is in effect (and not subject to a suspension order) for any air carrier providing the same transportation.
(3) If an existing tariff is suspended or canceled, the affected air carrier or foreign air carrier, for the purpose of operations during the period of suspension or pending effectiveness of a new tariff, may file another tariff containing a price or another classification, rule, or practice affecting the price, or the value of the transportation provided under the price, that is in effect (and not subject to a suspension order) for any air carrier providing the same transportation.
(d) Response to Refusal of Foreign Country To Allow Air Carrier To Charge a Price.— 
When the Secretary finds that the government or an aeronautical authority of a foreign country has refused to allow an air carrier to charge a price contained in a tariff filed and published under section 41504 of this title for foreign air transportation to the foreign country
(1) the Secretary, without a hearing
(A) may suspend any existing tariff of a foreign air carrier providing transportation between the United States and the foreign country for periods totaling not more than 365 days after the date of the suspension; and
(B) may order the foreign air carrier to charge, during the suspension periods, prices that are the same as those contained in a tariff (designated by the Secretary) of an air carrier filed and published under section 41504 of this title for foreign air transportation to the foreign country; and
(2) a foreign air carrier may continue to provide foreign air transportation to the foreign country only if the government or aeronautical authority of the foreign country allows an air carrier to start or continue foreign air transportation to the foreign country at the prices designated by the Secretary.
(e) Standard Foreign Fare Level.— 

(1) 
(A) In this subsection, standard foreign fare level means
(i) for a class of fares existing on October 1, 1979, the fare between 2 places (as adjusted under subparagraph (B) of this paragraph) filed for and allowed by the Civil Aeronautics Board to go into effect after September 30, 1979, and before August 13, 1980 (with seasonal fares adjusted by the percentage difference that prevailed between seasons in 1978), or the fare established under section 1002(j)(8) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85726, 72 Stat. 731), as added by section 24(a) of the International Air Transportation Competition Act of 1979 (Public Law 96192, 94 Stat. 46); or
(ii) for a class of fares established after October 1, 1979, the fare between 2 places in effect on the effective date of the establishment of the new class.
(B) At least once every 60 days for fuel costs, and at least once every 180 days for other costs, the Secretary shall adjust the standard foreign fare level for the particular foreign air transportation to which the standard foreign fare level applies by increasing or decreasing that level by the percentage change from the last previous period in the actual operating cost for each available seat-mile. In adjusting a standard foreign fare level, the Secretary may not make an adjustment to costs actually incurred. In establishing a standard foreign fare level and making adjustments in the level under this paragraph, the Secretary may use all relevant or appropriate information reasonably available to the Secretary.
(2) The Secretary may not decide that a proposed fare for foreign air transportation is unreasonable on the basis that the fare is too low or too high if the proposed fare is neither more than 5 percent higher nor 50 percent lower than the standard foreign fare level for the same or essentially similar class of transportation. The Secretary by regulation may increase the 50 percent specified in this paragraph.
(3) Paragraph (2) of this subsection does not apply to a proposed fare that is not more than
(A) 5 percent higher than the standard foreign fare level when the Secretary decides that the proposed fare may be unreasonably discriminatory or that suspension of the fare is in the public interest because of an unreasonable regulatory action by the government of a foreign country that is related to a fare proposal of an air carrier; or
(B) 50 percent lower than the standard foreign fare level when the Secretary decides that the proposed fare may be predatory or discriminatory or that suspension of the fare is required because of an unreasonable regulatory action by the government of a foreign country that is related to a fare proposal of an air carrier.
(f) Submission of Orders to President.— 
The Secretary shall submit to the President an order made under this section suspending, canceling, or rejecting a price for foreign air transportation, and an order rescinding the effectiveness of such an order, before publishing the order. Not later than 10 days after its submission, the President may disapprove the order on finding disapproval is necessary for United States foreign policy or national defense reasons.
(g) Compliance as Condition of Certificate or Permit.— 
This section and compliance with an order of the Secretary under this section are conditions to any certificate or permit held by an air carrier or foreign air carrier. An air carrier or foreign air carrier may provide foreign air transportation only as long as the carrier maintains prices for that transportation that comply with this section and orders of the Secretary under this section.

49 USC 41510 - Required adherence to foreign air transportation tariffs

(a) Prohibited Actions by Air Carriers, Foreign Air Carriers, and Ticket Agents.— 
An air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent may not
(1) charge or receive compensation for foreign air transportation that is different from the price specified in the tariff of the carrier that is in effect for that transportation;
(2) refund or remit any part of the price specified in the tariff; or
(3) extend to any person a privilege or facility, related to a matter required by the Secretary of Transportation to be specified in a tariff for foreign air transportation, except as specified in the tariff.
(b) Prohibited Actions by Any Person.— 
A person may not knowingly
(1) pay compensation for foreign air transportation of property that is different from the price specified in the tariff in effect for that transportation; or
(2) solicit, accept, or receive
(A) a refund or remittance of any part of the price specified in the tariff; or
(B) a privilege or facility, related to a matter required by the Secretary to be specified in a tariff for foreign air transportation of property, except as specified in the tariff.

49 USC 41511 - Special prices for foreign air transportation

(a) Free and Reduced Pricing.— 
This chapter does not prohibit an air carrier or foreign air carrier, under terms the Secretary of Transportation prescribes, from issuing or interchanging tickets or passes for free or reduced-price foreign air transportation to or for the following:
(1) a director, officer, or employee of the carrier (including a retired director, officer, or employee who is receiving retirement benefits from an air carrier or foreign air carrier).
(2) a parent or the immediate family of such an officer or employee or the immediate family of such a director.
(3) a widow, widower, or minor child of an employee of the carrier who died as a direct result of a personal injury sustained when performing a duty in the service of the carrier.
(4) a witness or attorney attending a legal investigation in which the air carrier is interested.
(5) an individual injured in an aircraft accident and a physician or nurse attending the individual.
(6) a parent or the immediate family of an individual injured or killed in an aircraft accident when the transportation is related to the accident.
(7) an individual or property to provide relief in a general epidemic, pestilence, or other emergency.
(8) other individuals under other circumstances the Secretary prescribes by regulation.
(b) Space-Available Basis.— 
Under terms the Secretary prescribes, an air carrier or foreign air carrier may grant reduced-price foreign air transportation on a space-available basis to the following:
(1) a minister of religion.
(2) an individual who is at least 60 years of age and no longer gainfully employed.
(3) an individual who is at least 65 years of age.
(4) an individual who has severely impaired vision or hearing or another physical or mental handicap and an accompanying attendant needed by that individual.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 417 - OPERATIONS OF CARRIERS

TITLE 49 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - REQUIREMENTS

49 USC 41701 - Classification of air carriers

The Secretary of Transportation may establish
(1) reasonable classifications for air carriers when required because of the nature of the transportation provided by them; and
(2) reasonable requirements for each class when the Secretary decides those requirements are necessary in the public interest.

49 USC 41702 - Interstate air transportation

An air carrier shall provide safe and adequate interstate air transportation.

49 USC 41703 - Navigation of foreign civil aircraft

(a) Permitted Navigation.— 
A foreign aircraft, not part of the armed forces of a foreign country, may be navigated in the United States only
(1) if the country of registry grants a similar privilege to aircraft of the United States;
(2) by an airman holding a certificate or license issued or made valid by the United States Government or the country of registry;
(3) if the Secretary of Transportation authorizes the navigation; and
(4) if the navigation is consistent with terms the Secretary may prescribe.
(b) Requirements for Authorizing Navigation.— 
The Secretary may authorize navigation under this section only if the Secretary decides the authorization is
(1) in the public interest; and
(2) consistent with any agreement between the Government and the government of a foreign country.
(c) Providing Air Commerce.— 
The Secretary may authorize an aircraft permitted to navigate in the United States under this section to provide air commerce in the United States. However, the aircraft may take on for compensation, at a place in the United States, passengers or cargo destined for another place in the United States only if
(1) specifically authorized under section 40109 (g) of this title; or
(2) under regulations the Secretary prescribes authorizing air carriers to provide otherwise authorized air transportation with foreign registered aircraft under lease or charter to them without crew.
(d) Permit Requirements Not Affected.— 
This section does not affect section 41301 or 41302 of this title. However, a foreign air carrier holding a permit under section 41302 does not need to obtain additional authorization under this section for an operation authorized by the permit.
(e) Cargo in Alaska.— 

(1) In general.— 
For the purposes of subsection (c), eligible cargo taken on or off any aircraft at a place in Alaska in the course of transportation of that cargo by any combination of 2 or more air carriers or foreign air carriers in either direction between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States shall not be deemed to have broken its international journey in, be taken on in, or be destined for Alaska.
(2) Eligible cargo.— 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term eligible cargo means cargo transported between Alaska and any other place in the United States on a foreign air carrier (having been transported from, or thereafter being transported to, a place outside the United States on a different air carrier or foreign air carrier) that is carried
(A) under the code of a United States air carrier providing air transportation to Alaska;
(B) on an air carrier way bill of an air carrier providing air transportation to Alaska;
(C) under a term arrangement or block space agreement with an air carrier; or
(D) under the code of a United States air carrier for purposes of transportation within the United States.

49 USC 41704 - Transporting property not to be transported in aircraft cabins

Under regulations or orders of the Secretary of Transportation, an air carrier shall transport as baggage the property of a passenger traveling in air transportation that may not be carried in an aircraft cabin because of a law or regulation of the United States. The carrier is liable to pay an amount not more than the amount declared to the carrier by that passenger for actual loss of, or damage to, the property caused by the carrier. The carrier may impose reasonable charges and conditions for its liability.

49 USC 41705 - Discrimination against handicapped individuals

(a) In General.— 
In providing air transportation, an air carrier, including (subject to section 40105 (b)) any foreign air carrier, may not discriminate against an otherwise qualified individual on the following grounds:
(1) the individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
(2) the individual has a record of such an impairment.
(3) the individual is regarded as having such an impairment.
(b) Each Act Constitutes Separate Offense.— 
For purposes of section 46301, a separate violation occurs under this section for each individual act of discrimination prohibited by subsection (a).
(c) Investigation of Complaints.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary shall investigate each complaint of a violation of subsection (a).
(2) Publication of data.— 
The Secretary shall publish disability-related complaint data in a manner comparable to other consumer complaint data.
(3) Review and report.— 
The Secretary shall regularly review all complaints received by air carriers alleging discrimination on the basis of disability and shall report annually to Congress on the results of such review.
(4) Technical assistance.— 
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall
(A) implement a plan, in consultation with the Department of Justice, the United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, and the National Council on Disability, to provide technical assistance to air carriers and individuals with disabilities in understanding the rights and responsibilities set forth in this section; and
(B) ensure the availability and provision of appropriate technical assistance manuals to individuals and entities with rights or responsibilities under this section.

49 USC 41706 - Prohibitions against smoking on scheduled flights

(a) Smoking Prohibition in Intrastate and Interstate Air Transportation.— 
An individual may not smoke in an aircraft in scheduled passenger interstate air transportation or scheduled passenger intrastate air transportation.
(b) Smoking Prohibition in Foreign Air Transportation.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall require all air carriers and foreign air carriers to prohibit smoking in any aircraft in scheduled passenger foreign air transportation.
(c) Limitation on Applicability.— 

(1) In general.— 
If a foreign government objects to the application of subsection (b) on the basis that subsection (b) provides for an extraterritorial application of the laws of the United States, the Secretary shall waive the application of subsection (b) to a foreign air carrier licensed by that foreign government at such time as an alternative prohibition negotiated under paragraph (2) becomes effective and is enforced by the Secretary.
(2) Alternative prohibition.— 
If, pursuant to paragraph (1), a foreign government objects to the prohibition under subsection (b), the Secretary shall enter into bilateral negotiations with the objecting foreign government to provide for an alternative smoking prohibition.
(d) Regulations.— 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out this section.

49 USC 41707 - Incorporating contract terms into written instrument

To the extent the Secretary of Transportation prescribes by regulation, an air carrier may incorporate by reference in a ticket or written instrument any term of the contract for providing interstate air transportation.

49 USC 41708 - Reports

(a) Application.— 
To the extent the Secretary of Transportation finds necessary to carry out this subpart, this section and section 41709 of this title apply to a person controlling an air carrier or affiliated (within the meaning of section 11343 (c) of this title) with a carrier.
(b) Requirements.— 
The Secretary may require an air carrier or foreign air carrier
(1) 
(A) to file annual, monthly, periodical, and special reports with the Secretary in the form and way prescribed by the Secretary; and
(B) to file the reports under oath;
(2) to provide specific answers to questions on which the Secretary considers information to be necessary; and
(3) to file with the Secretary a copy of each agreement, arrangement, contract, or understanding between the carrier and another carrier or person related to transportation affected by this subpart.

49 USC 41709 - Records of air carriers

(a) Requirements.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe the form of records to be kept by an air carrier, including records on the movement of traffic, receipts and expenditures of money, and the time period during which the records shall be kept. A carrier may keep only records prescribed or approved by the Secretary. However, a carrier may keep additional records if the additional records do not impair the integrity of the records prescribed or approved by the Secretary and are not an unreasonable financial burden on the carrier.
(b) Inspection.— 

(1) The Secretary at any time may
(A) inspect the land, buildings, and equipment of an air carrier or foreign air carrier when necessary to decide under subchapter II of this chapter or section 41102, 41103, or 41302 of this title whether a carrier is fit, willing, and able; and
(B) inspect records kept or required to be kept by an air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent.
(2) The Secretary may employ special agents or auditors to carry out this subsection.

49 USC 41710 - Time requirements

When a matter requiring action of the Secretary of Transportation is submitted under section 40109 (a) or (c)(h), 41309, or 42111 of this title and an evidentiary hearing
(1) is ordered, the Secretary shall make a final decision on the matter not later than the last day of the 12th month that begins after the date the matter is submitted; or
(2) is not ordered, the Secretary shall make a final decision on the matter not later than the last day of the 6th month that begins after the date the matter is submitted.

49 USC 41711 - Air carrier management inquiry and cooperation with other authorities

In carrying out this subpart, the Secretary of Transportation may
(1) inquire into the management of the business of an air carrier and obtain from the air carrier, and a person controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the carrier, information the Secretary decides reasonably is necessary to carry out the inquiry;
(2) confer and hold a joint hearing with a State authority; and
(3) exchange information related to aeronautics with a government of a foreign country through appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government.

49 USC 41712 - Unfair and deceptive practices and unfair methods of competition

(a) In General.— 
On the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or the complaint of an air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent, and if the Secretary considers it is in the public interest, the Secretary may investigate and decide whether an air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent has been or is engaged in an unfair or deceptive practice or an unfair method of competition in air transportation or the sale of air transportation. If the Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, finds that an air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent is engaged in an unfair or deceptive practice or unfair method of competition, the Secretary shall order the air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent to stop the practice or method.
(b) E-Ticket Expiration Notice.— 
It shall be an unfair or deceptive practice under subsection (a) for any air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent utilizing electronically transmitted tickets for air transportation to fail to notify the purchaser of such a ticket of its expiration date, if any.

49 USC 41713 - Preemption of authority over prices, routes, and service

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, State means a State, the District of Columbia, and a territory or possession of the United States.
(b) Preemption.— 

(1) Except as provided in this subsection, a State, political subdivision of a State, or political authority of at least 2 States may not enact or enforce a law, regulation, or other provision having the force and effect of law related to a price, route, or service of an air carrier that may provide air transportation under this subpart.
(2) Paragraphs (1) and (4) of this subsection do not apply to air transportation provided entirely in Alaska unless the transportation is air transportation (except charter air transportation) provided under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title.
(3) This subsection does not limit a State, political subdivision of a State, or political authority of at least 2 States that owns or operates an airport served by an air carrier holding a certificate issued by the Secretary of Transportation from carrying out its proprietary powers and rights.
(4) Transportation by air carrier or carrier affiliated with a direct air carrier.— 

(A) General rule.— 
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a State, political subdivision of a State, or political authority of 2 or more States may not enact or enforce a law, regulation, or other provision having the force and effect of law related to a price, route, or service of an air carrier or carrier affiliated with a direct air carrier through common controlling ownership when such carrier is transporting property by aircraft or by motor vehicle (whether or not such property has had or will have a prior or subsequent air movement).
(B) Matters not covered.— 
Subparagraph (A)
(i) shall not restrict the safety regulatory authority of a State with respect to motor vehicles, the authority of a State to impose highway route controls or limitations based on the size or weight of the motor vehicle or the hazardous nature of the cargo, or the authority of a State to regulate motor carriers with regard to minimum amounts of financial responsibility relating to insurance requirements and self-insurance authorization; and
(ii) does not apply to the transportation of household goods, as defined in section 13102 of this title.
(C) Applicability of paragraph (1).This paragraph shall not limit the applicability of paragraph (1).

49 USC 41714 - Availability of slots

(a) Making Slots Available for Essential Air Service.— 

(1) Operational authority.— 
If basic essential air service under subchapter II of this chapter is to be provided from an eligible point to a high density airport (other than Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport), the Secretary of Transportation shall ensure that the air carrier providing or selected to provide such service has sufficient operational authority at the high density airport to provide such service. The operational authority shall allow flights at reasonable times taking into account the needs of passengers with connecting flights.
(2) Exemptions.— 
If necessary to carry out the objectives of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall by order grant exemptions from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to air carriers using Stage 3 aircraft or to commuter air carriers, unless such an exemption would significantly increase operational delays.
(3) Assurance of access.— 
If the Secretary finds that an exemption under paragraph (2) would significantly increase operational delays, the Secretary shall take such action as may be necessary to ensure that an air carrier providing or selected to provide basic essential air service is able to obtain access to a high density airport.
(4) Action by the secretary.— 
The Secretary shall issue a final order under this subsection on or before the 60th day after receiving a request from an air carrier for operational authority under this subsection.
(b) Slots for Foreign Air Transportation.— 

(1) Exemptions.— 
If the Secretary finds it to be in the public interest at a high density airport (other than Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport), the Secretary may grant by order exemptions from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to enable air carriers and foreign air carriers to provide foreign air transportation using Stage 3 aircraft.
(2) Slot withdrawals.— 
The Secretary may not withdraw a slot at Chicago OHare International Airport from an air carrier in order to allocate that slot to a carrier to provide foreign air transportation.
(3) Equivalent rights of access.— 
The Secretary shall not take a slot at a high density airport from an air carrier and award such slot to a foreign air carrier if the Secretary determines that air carriers are not provided equivalent rights of access to airports in the country of which such foreign air carrier is a citizen.
(4) Conversions of slots.— 
Effective May 1, 2000, slots at Chicago OHare International Airport allocated to an air carrier as of November 1, 1999, to provide foreign air transportation shall be made available to such carrier to provide interstate or intrastate air transportation.
(c) Slots for New Entrants.— 
If the Secretary finds it to be in the public interest, the Secretary may by order grant exemptions from the requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to enable new entrant air carriers to provide air transportation at high density airports (other than Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport).
(d) Special Rules for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.— 

(1) In general.— 
Notwithstanding sections 49104 (a)(5) and 49111 (e) of this title, or any provision of this section, the Secretary may, only under circumstances determined by the Secretary to be exceptional, grant by order to an air carrier currently holding or operating a slot at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport an exemption from requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport), to enable that carrier to provide air transportation with Stage 3 aircraft at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport; except that such exemption shall not
(A) result in an increase in the total number of slots per day at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport;
(B) result in an increase in the total number of slots at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport from 7:00 ante meridiem to 9:59 post meridiem;
(C) increase the number of operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in any 1-hour period by more than 2 operations;
(D) result in the withdrawal or reduction of slots operated by an air carrier;
(E) result in a net increase in noise impact on surrounding communities resulting from changes in timing of operations permitted under this subsection; and
(F) continue in effect on or after the date on which the final rules issued under subsection (f) become effective.
(2) Limitation on applicability.— 
Nothing in this subsection shall adversely affect Exemption No. 5133, as from time-to-time amended and extended.
(e) Study.— 

(1) Matters to be considered.— 
The Secretary shall continue the Secretarys current examination of slot regulations and shall ensure that the examination includes consideration of
(A) whether improvements in technology and procedures of the air traffic control system and the use of quieter aircraft make it possible to eliminate the limitations on hourly operations imposed by the high density rule contained in part 93 of title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations or to increase the number of operations permitted under such rule;
(B) the effects of the elimination of limitations or an increase in the number of operations allowed on each of the following:
(i) congestion and delay in any part of the national aviation system;
(ii) the impact of noise on persons living near the airport;
(iii) competition in the air transportation system;
(iv) the profitability of operations of airlines serving the airport; and
(v) aviation safety;
(C) the impact of the current slot allocation process upon the ability of air carriers to provide essential air service under subchapter II of this chapter;
(D) the impact of such allocation process upon the ability of new entrant air carriers to obtain slots in time periods that enable them to provide service;
(E) the impact of such allocation process on the ability of foreign air carriers to obtain slots;
(F) the fairness of such process to air carriers and the extent to which air carriers are provided equivalent rights of access to the air transportation market in the countries of which foreign air carriers holding slots are citizens;
(G) the impact, on the ability of air carriers to provide domestic and international air service, of the withdrawal of slots from air carriers in order to provide slots for foreign air carriers; and
(H) the impact of the prohibition on slot withdrawals in subsections (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section on the aviation relationship between the United States Government and foreign governments, including whether the prohibition in such subsections will require the withdrawal of slots from general and military aviation in order to meet the needs of air carriers and foreign air carriers providing foreign air transportation (and the impact of such withdrawal on general aviation and military aviation) and whether slots will become available to meet the needs of air carriers and foreign air carriers to provide foreign air transportation as a result of the planned relocation of Air Force Reserve units and the Air National Guard at OHare International Airport.
(2) Report.— 
Not later than January 31, 1995, the Secretary shall complete the current examination of slot regulations and shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report containing the results of such examination.
(f) Rulemaking.— 
The Secretary shall conduct a rulemaking proceeding based on the results of the study described in subsection (e). In the course of such proceeding, the Secretary shall issue a notice of proposed rulemaking not later than August 1, 1995, and shall issue a final rule not later than 90 days after public comments are due on the notice of proposed rulemaking.
(g) Weekend Operations.— 
The Secretary shall consider the advisability of revising section 93.227 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, so as to eliminate weekend schedules from the determination of whether the 80 percent standard of subsection (a)(1) of that section has been met.
(h) Definitions.— 
In this section and sections 41715–41718 and 41734 (h), the following definitions apply:
(1) Commuter air carrier.— 
The term commuter air carrier means a commuter operator as defined or applied in subpart K or S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.
(2) High density airport.— 
The term high density airport means an airport at which the Administrator limits the number of instrument flight rule takeoffs and landings of aircraft.
(3) New entrant air carrier.— 
The term new entrant air carrier means an air carrier that does not hold a slot at the airport concerned and has never sold or given up a slot at that airport after December 16, 1985, and a limited incumbent carrier.
(4) Slot.— 
The term slot means a reservation for an instrument flight rule takeoff or landing by an air carrier of an aircraft in air transportation.
(5) Limited incumbent air carrier.— 
The term limited incumbent air carrier has the meaning given that term in subpart S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations; except that
(A) 20 shall be substituted for 12 in sections 93.213(a)(5), 93.223(c)(3), and 93.225(h);
(B) for purposes of such sections, the term slot shall include slot exemptions; and
(C) for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, the Administrator shall not count, for the purposes of section 93.213(a)(5), slots currently held by an air carrier but leased out on a long-term basis by that carrier for use in foreign air transportation and renounced by the carrier for return to the Department of Transportation or the Federal Aviation Administration.
(6) Regional jet.— 
The term regional jet means a passenger, turbofan-powered aircraft with a certificated maximum passenger seating capacity of less than 71.
(7) Nonhub airport.— 
The term nonhub airport means an airport that had less than .05 percent of the total annual boardings in the United States as determined under the Federal Aviation Administrations Primary Airport Enplanement Activity Summary for Calendar Year 1997.
(8) Small hub airport.— 
The term small hub airport means an airport that had at least .05 percent, but less than .25 percent, of the total annual boardings in the United States as determined under the summary referred to in paragraph (7).
(9) Medium hub airport.— 
The term medium hub airport means an airport that each year has at least .25 percent, but less than 1.0 percent, of the total annual boardings in the United States as determined under the summary referred to in paragraph (7).
(i) 60-Day Application Process.— 

(1) Request for slot exemptions.— 
Any slot exemption request filed with the Secretary under this section or section 41716 or 41717 (other than subsection (c)) shall include
(A) the names of the airports to be served;
(B) the times requested; and
(C) such additional information as the Secretary may require.
(2) Action on request; failure to act.— 
Within 60 days after a slot exemption request under this section or section 41716 or 41717 (other than subsection (c)) is received by the Secretary, the Secretary shall
(A) approve the request if the Secretary determines that the requirements of the section under which the request is made are met;
(B) return the request to the applicant for additional information relating to the request to provide air transportation; or
(C) deny the request and state the reasons for its denial.
(3) 60-day period tolled for timely request for more information.— 
If the Secretary returns under paragraph (2)(B) the request for additional information during the first 20 days after the request is filed, then the 60-day period under paragraph (2) shall be tolled until the date on which the additional information is filed with the Secretary.
(4) Failure to determine deemed approval.— 
If the Secretary neither approves the request under paragraph (2)(A) nor denies the request under paragraph (2)(C) within the 60-day period beginning on the date the request is received, excepting any days during which the 60-day period is tolled under paragraph (3), then the request is deemed to have been approved on the 61st day, after the request was filed with the Secretary.
(j) Exemptions May Not Be Transferred.— 
No exemption from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, granted under this section or section 41716, 41717, or 41718 may be bought, sold, leased, or otherwise transferred by the carrier to which it is granted.
(k) Affiliated Carriers.— 
For purposes of this section and sections 41716, 41717, and 41718, an air carrier that operates under the same designator code, or has or enters into a code-share agreement, with any other air carrier shall not qualify for a new slot or slot exemption as a new entrant or limited incumbent air carrier at an airport if the total number of slots and slot exemptions held by the two carriers at the airport exceed 20 slots and slot exemptions.

49 USC 41715 - Phase-out of slot rules at certain airports

(a) Termination.— 
The rules contained in subparts S and K of part 93, title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, shall not apply
(1) after July 1, 2002, at Chicago OHare International Airport; and
(2) after January 1, 2007, at LaGuardia Airport or John F. Kennedy International Airport.
(b) Statutory Construction.— 
Nothing in this section and sections 41714 and 41716–41718 shall be construed
(1) as affecting the Federal Aviation Administrations authority for safety and the movement of air traffic; and
(2) as affecting any other authority of the Secretary to grant exemptions under section 41714.
(c) Factors To Consider.— 

(1) In general.— 
Before the award of slot exemptions under sections 41714 and 41716–41718, the Secretary of Transportation may consider, among other determining factors, whether the petitioning air carriers proposal provides the maximum benefit to the United States economy, including the number of United States jobs created by the air carrier, its suppliers, and related activities. The Secretary should give equal consideration to the consumer benefits associated with the award of such exemptions.
(2) Applicability.— 
Paragraph (1) does not apply in any case in which the air carrier requesting the slot exemption is proposing to use under the exemption a type of aircraft for which there is not a competing United States manufacturer.

49 USC 41716 - Interim slot rules at New York airports

(a) Exemptions for Air Service to Small and Nonhub Airports.— 
Subject to section 41714 (i), the Secretary of Transportation shall grant, by order, exemptions from the requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports) to any air carrier to provide nonstop air transportation, using an aircraft with a certificated maximum seating capacity of less than 71, between LaGuardia Airport or John F. Kennedy International Airport and a small hub airport or nonhub airport
(1) if the air carrier was not providing such air transportation during the week of November 1, 1999;
(2) if the number of flights to be provided between such airports by the air carrier during any week will exceed the number of flights provided by the air carrier between such airports during the week of November 1, 1999; or
(3) if the air transportation to be provided under the exemption will be provided with a regional jet as replacement of turboprop air transportation that was being provided during the week of November 1, 1999.
(b) Exemptions for New Entrant and Limited Incumbent Air Carriers.— 
Subject to section 41714 (i), the Secretary shall grant, by order, exemptions from the requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to any new entrant air carrier or limited incumbent air carrier to provide air transportation to or from LaGuardia Airport or John F. Kennedy International Airport if the number of slot exemptions granted under this subsection to such air carrier with respect to such airport when added to the slots and slot exemptions held by such air carrier with respect to such airport does not exceed 20; except that the Secretary may grant not to exceed 4 additional slot exemptions at LaGuardia Airport to an incumbent air carrier operating at least 20 but not more than 28 slots at such airport as of October 1, 2004, to provide air transportation between LaGuardia Airport and a small hub airport or nonhub airport.
(c) Stage 3 Aircraft Required.— 
An exemption may not be granted under this section with respect to any aircraft that is not a Stage 3 aircraft (as defined by the Secretary).
(d) Preservation of Certain Existing Slot-Related Air Service.— 
An air carrier that provides air transportation of passengers from LaGuardia Airport or John F. Kennedy International Airport to a small hub airport or nonhub airport, or to an airport that is smaller than a nonhub airport, on or before the date of the enactment of this subsection pursuant to an exemption from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), or where slots were issued to an air carrier conditioned on a specific airport being served, may not terminate air transportation for that route before July 1, 2003, unless
(1) before October 1, 1999, the Secretary received a written air service termination notice for that route; or
(2) after September 30, 1999, the air carrier submits an air service termination notice under section 41719 for that route and the Secretary determines that the carrier suffered excessive losses, including substantial losses on operations on that route during any three quarters of the year immediately preceding the date of submission of the notice.

49 USC 41717 - Interim application of slot rules at Chicago OHare International Airport

(a) Slot Operating Window Narrowed.— 
Effective July 1, 2001, the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, do not apply with respect to aircraft operating before 2:45 post meridiem and after 8:14 post meridiem at Chicago OHare International Airport.
(b) Exemptions for Air Service to Small and Nonhub Airports.— 
Effective May 1, 2000, subject to section 41714 (i), the Secretary of Transportation shall grant, by order, exemptions from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to any air carrier to provide nonstop air transportation, using an aircraft with a certificated maximum seating capacity of less than 71, between Chicago OHare International Airport and a small hub or nonhub airport
(1) if the air carrier was not providing such air transportation during the week of November 1, 1999;
(2) if the number of flights to be provided between such airports by the air carrier during any week will exceed the number of flights provided by the air carrier between such airports during the week of November 1, 1999; or
(3) if the air transportation to be provided under the exemption will be provided with a regional jet as replacement of turboprop air transportation that was being provided during the week of November 1, 1999.
(c) Exemptions for New Entrant and Limited Incumbent Air Carriers.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary shall grant, by order, 30 exemptions from the requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, to any new entrant air carrier or limited incumbent air carrier to provide air transportation to or from Chicago OHare International Airport.
(2) Deadline for granting exemptions.— 
The Secretary shall grant an exemption under paragraph (1) within 45 days of the date of the request for such exemption if the person making the request qualifies as a new entrant air carrier or limited incumbent air carrier.
(d) Slots Used To Provide Turboprop Service.— 

(1) In general.— 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), a slot used to provide turboprop air transportation that is replaced with regional jet air transportation under subsection (b)(3) may not be used, sold, leased, or otherwise transferred after the date the slot exemption is granted to replace the turboprop air transportation.
(2) Two-for-one exception.— 
An air carrier that otherwise could not use 2 slots as a result of paragraph (1) may use 1 of such slots to provide air transportation.
(3) Withdrawal of slot.— 
If the Secretary determines that an air carrier that is using a slot under paragraph (2) is no longer providing the air transportation that replaced the turboprop air transportation, the Secretary shall withdraw the slot that is being used under paragraph (2).
(4) Continuation.— 
If the Secretary determines that an air carrier that is using a slot under paragraph (2) is no longer providing the air transportation that replaced the turboprop air transportation with a regional jet, the Secretary shall withdraw the slot being used by the air carrier under paragraph (2) but shall allow the air carrier to continue to hold the exemption granted to the air carrier under subsection (b)(3).
(e) International Service at O’Hare Airport.— 

(1) Termination of requirements.— 
Subject to paragraph (2), the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, shall be of no force and effect at Chicago OHare International Airport after May 1, 2000, with respect to any aircraft providing foreign air transportation.
(2) Exception relating to reciprocity.— 
The Secretary may limit access to Chicago OHare International Airport with respect to foreign air transportation being provided by a foreign air carrier domiciled in a country to which an air carrier provides nonstop air transportation from the United States if the country in which that carrier is domiciled does not provide reciprocal airport access for air carriers.
(f) Stage 3 Aircraft Required.— 
An exemption may not be granted under this section with respect to any aircraft that is not a Stage 3 aircraft (as defined by the Secretary).
(g) Preservation of Certain Existing Slot-Related Air Service.— 
An air carrier that provides air transportation of passengers from Chicago OHare International Airport to a small hub airport or nonhub airport, or to an airport that is smaller than a nonhub airport, on or before the date of the enactment of this subsection pursuant to an exemption from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), or where slots were issued to an air carrier conditioned on a specific airport being served, may not terminate air transportation service for that route for a period of 1 year after the date on which those requirements cease to apply to such airport unless
(1) before October 1, 1999, the Secretary received a written air service termination notice for that route; or
(2) after September 30, 1999, the air carrier submits an air service termination notice under section 41719 for that route and the Secretary determines that the carrier suffered excessive losses, including substantial losses on operations on that route during the calendar quarters immediately preceding submission of the notice.

49 USC 41718 - Special rules for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

(a) Beyond-Perimeter Exemptions.— 
The Secretary shall grant, by order, 24 exemptions from the application of sections 49104 (a)(5), 49109, 49111 (e), and 41714 of this title to air carriers to operate limited frequencies and aircraft on select routes between Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and domestic hub airports and exemptions from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93, Code of Federal Regulations, if the Secretary finds that the exemptions will
(1) provide air transportation with domestic network benefits in areas beyond the perimeter described in that section;
(2) increase competition by new entrant air carriers or in multiple markets;
(3) not reduce travel options for communities served by small hub airports and medium hub airports within the perimeter described in section 49109; and
(4) not result in meaningfully increased travel delays.
(b) Within-Perimeter Exemptions.— 
The Secretary shall grant, by order, 20 exemptions from the requirements of sections 49104 (a)(5), 49111 (e), and 41714 of this title and subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, to air carriers for providing air transportation to airports within the perimeter established for civil aircraft operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport under section 49109. The Secretary shall develop criteria for distributing slot exemptions for flights within the perimeter to such airports under this paragraph in a manner that promotes air transportation
(1) by new entrant air carriers and limited incumbent air carriers;
(2) to communities without existing nonstop air transportation to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport;
(3) to small communities;
(4) that will provide competitive nonstop air transportation on a monopoly nonstop route to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport; or
(5) that will produce the maximum competitive benefits, including low fares.
(c) Limitations.— 

(1) Stage 3 aircraft required.— 
An exemption may not be granted under this section with respect to any aircraft that is not a Stage 3 aircraft (as defined by the Secretary).
(2) General exemptions.— 
The exemptions granted under subsections (a) and (b) may not be for operations between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. and may not increase the number of operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in any 1-hour period during the hours between 7:00 a.m. and 9:59 p.m. by more than 3 operations.
(3) Allocation of within-perimeter exemptions.— 
Of the exemptions granted under subsection (b)
(A) without regard to the criteria contained in subsection (b)(1), six shall be for air transportation to small hub airports and nonhub airports;
(B) ten shall be for air transportation to medium hub and smaller airports; and
(C) four shall be for air transportation to airports without regard to their size.
(4) Applicability to exemption no. 5133.Nothing in this section affects Exemption No. 5133, as from time-to-time amended and extended.
(d) Application Procedures.— 
The Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that all requests for exemptions under this section are granted or denied within 90 days after the date on which the request is made.
(e) Applicability of Certain Laws.— 
Neither the request for, nor the granting of an exemption, under this section shall be considered for purposes of any Federal law a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.
(f) Commuters Defined.— 
For purposes of aircraft operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport under subpart K of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, the term commuters means aircraft operations using aircraft having a certificated maximum seating capacity of 76 or less.

49 USC 41719 - Air service termination notice

(a) In General.— 
An air carrier may not terminate interstate air transportation from a nonhub airport included on the Secretary of Transportations latest published list of such airports, unless such air carrier has given the Secretary at least 45 days notice before such termination.
(b) Exceptions.— 
The requirements of subsection (a) shall not apply when
(1) the carrier involved is experiencing a sudden or unforeseen financial emergency, including natural weather related emergencies, equipment-related emergencies, and strikes;
(2) the termination of transportation is made for seasonal purposes only;
(3) the carrier involved has operated at the affected nonhub airport for 180 days or less;
(4) the carrier involved provides other transportation by jet from another airport serving the same community as the affected nonhub airport; or
(5) the carrier involved makes alternative arrangements, such as a change of aircraft size, or other types of arrangements with a part 121 or part 135 air carrier, that continues uninterrupted service from the affected nonhub airport.
(c) Waivers for Regional/Commuter Carriers.— 
Before January 1, 1995, the Secretary shall establish terms and conditions under which regional/commuter carriers can be excluded from the termination notice requirement.
(d) Definitions.— 
In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) Part 121 air carrier.— 
The term part 121 air carrier means an air carrier to which part 121 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, applies.
(2) Part 135 air carrier.— 
The term part 135 air carrier means an air carrier to which part 135 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, applies.
(3) Regional/commuter carriers.— 
The term regional/commuter carrier means
(A) a part 135 air carrier; or
(B) a part 121 air carrier that provides air transportation exclusively with aircraft having a seating capacity of no more than 70 passengers.
(4) Termination.— 
The term termination means the cessation of all service at an airport by an air carrier.

49 USC 41720 - Joint venture agreements

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) Joint venture agreement.— 
The term joint venture agreement means an agreement between two or more major air carriers on or after January 1, 1998, with regard to
(A)  code-sharing, blocked-space arrangements, long-term wet leases (as defined in section 207.1 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations) of a substantial number (as defined by the Secretary by regulation) of aircraft, or frequent flyer programs, or
(B)  any other cooperative working arrangement (as defined by the Secretary by regulation) between 2 or more major air carriers that affects more than 15 percent of the total number of available seat miles offered by the major air carriers.
(2) Major air carrier.— 
The term major air carrier means a passenger air carrier that is certificated under chapter 411 of this title and included in Carrier Group III under criteria contained in section 04 of part 241 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.
(b) Submission of Joint Venture Agreement.— 
At least 30 days before a joint venture agreement may take effect, each of the major air carriers that entered into the agreement shall submit to the Secretary
(1) a complete copy of the joint venture agreement and all related agreements; and
(2) other information and documentary material that the Secretary may require by regulation.
(c) Extension of Waiting Period.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary may extend the 30-day period referred to in subsection (b) until
(A) in the case of a joint venture agreement with regard to code-sharing, the 150th day following the last day of such period; and
(B) in the case of any other joint venture agreement, the 60th day following the last day of such period.
(2) Publication of reasons for extension.— 
If the Secretary extends the 30-day period referred to in subsection (b), the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the Secretarys reasons for making the extension.
(d) Termination of Waiting Period.— 
At any time after the date of submission of a joint venture agreement under subsection (b), the Secretary may terminate the waiting periods referred to in subsections (b) and (c) with respect to the agreement.
(e) Regulations.— 
The effectiveness of a joint venture agreement may not be delayed due to any failure of the Secretary to issue regulations to carry out this section.
(f) Memorandum To Prevent Duplicative Reviews.— 
Promptly after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall consult with the Assistant Attorney General of the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice in order to establish, through a written memorandum of understanding, preclearance procedures to prevent unnecessary duplication of effort by the Secretary and the Assistant Attorney General under this section and the antitrust laws of the United States, respectively.
(g) Prior Agreements.— 
With respect to a joint venture agreement entered into before the date of enactment of this section as to which the Secretary finds that
(1) the parties submitted the agreement to the Secretary before such date of enactment; and
(2) the parties submitted all information on the agreement requested by the Secretary,

the waiting period described in paragraphs (2) and (3) shall begin on the date, as determined by the Secretary, on which all such information was submitted and end on the last day to which the period could be extended under this section.

(h) Limitation on Statutory Construction.— 
The authority granted to the Secretary under this section shall not in any way limit the authority of the Attorney General to enforce the antitrust laws as defined in the first section of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 12).

49 USC 41721 - Reports by carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport

(a) In General.— 
An air carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall submit monthly to the Secretary a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an animal (as defined by the Secretary of Transportation) during air transport provided by the air carrier. The report shall be in such form and contain such information as the Secretary determines appropriate.
(b) Training of Air Carrier Employees.— 
The Secretary shall work with air carriers to improve the training of employees with respect to the air transport of animals and the notification of passengers of the conditions under which the air transport of animals is conducted.
(c) Sharing of Information.— 
The Secretary and the Secretary of Agriculture shall enter into a memorandum of understanding to ensure the sharing of information that the Secretary receives under subsection (a).
(d) Publication of Data.— 
The Secretary shall publish data on incidents and complaints involving the loss, injury, or death of an animal during air transport in a manner comparable to other consumer complaint and incident data.
(e) Air Transport.— 
For purposes of this section, the air transport of an animal includes the entire period during which an animal is in the custody of an air carrier, from check-in of the animal prior to departure until the animal is returned to the owner or guardian of the animal at the final destination of the animal.

49 USC 41722 - Delay reduction actions

(a) Scheduling Reduction Meetings.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may request that air carriers meet with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to discuss flight reductions at severely congested airports to reduce overscheduling and flight delays during hours of peak operation if
(1) the Administrator determines that it is necessary to convene such a meeting; and
(2) the Secretary determines that the meeting is necessary to meet a serious transportation need or achieve an important public benefit.
(b) Meeting Conditions.— 
Any meeting under subsection (a)
(1) shall be chaired by the Administrator;
(2) shall be open to all scheduled air carriers; and
(3) shall be limited to discussions involving the airports and time periods described in the Administrators determination.
(c) Flight Reduction Targets.— 
Before any such meeting is held, the Administrator shall establish flight reduction targets for the meeting and notify the attending air carriers of those targets not less than 48 hours before the meeting.
(d) Delay Reduction Offers.— 
An air carrier attending the meeting shall make any offer to meet a flight reduction target to the Administrator rather than to another carrier.
(e) Transcript.— 
The Administrator shall ensure that a transcript of the meeting is kept and made available to the public not later than 3 business days after the conclusion of the meeting.

49 USC 41723 - Notice concerning aircraft assembly

The Secretary of Transportation shall require, beginning after the last day of the 18-month period following the date of enactment of this section, an air carrier using an aircraft to provide scheduled passenger air transportation to display a notice, on an information placard available to each passenger on the aircraft, that informs the passengers of the nation in which the aircraft was finally assembled.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - SMALL COMMUNITY AIR SERVICE

49 USC 41731 - Definitions

(a) General.— 
In this subchapter
(1) eligible place means a place in the United States that
(A) 
(i) was an eligible point under section 419 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 before October 1, 1988;
(ii) received scheduled air transportation at any time after January 1, 1990; and
(iii) is not listed in Department of Transportation Orders 89937 and 891252 as a place ineligible for compensation under this subchapter; or
(B) determined,[1] on or after October 1, 1988, and before the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, under this subchapter by the Secretary to be eligible to receive subsidized small community air service under section 41736 (a).
(2) enhanced essential air service means scheduled air transportation to an eligible place of a higher level or quality than basic essential air service described in section 41732 of this title.
(b) Limitation on Authority To Decide a Place Not an Eligible Place.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may not decide that a place described in subsection (a)(1) of this section is not an eligible place on the basis of a passenger subsidy at that place or on another basis that is not specifically stated in this subchapter.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “was determined,”.

49 USC 41732 - Basic essential air service

(a) General.— 
Basic essential air service provided under section 41733 of this title is scheduled air transportation of passengers and cargo
(1) to a hub airport that has convenient connecting or single-plane air service to a substantial number of destinations beyond that airport; or
(2) to a small hub or nonhub airport, when in Alaska or when the nearest hub airport is more than 400 miles from an eligible place.
(b) Minimum Requirements.— 
Basic essential air service shall include at least the following:
(1) 
(A) for a place not in Alaska, 2 daily round trips 6 days a week, with not more than one intermediate stop on each flight; or
(B) for a place in Alaska, a level of service at least equal to that provided in 1976 or 2 round trips a week, whichever is greater, except that the Secretary of Transportation and the appropriate State authority of Alaska may agree to a different level of service after consulting with the affected community.
(2) flights at reasonable times considering the needs of passengers with connecting flights at the airport and at prices that are not excessive compared to the generally prevailing prices of other air carriers for like service between similar places.
(3) for a place not in Alaska, service provided in an aircraft with an effective capacity of at least 15 passengers if the average daily boardings at the place in any calendar year from 1976-1986 were more than 11 passengers unless
(A) that level-of-service requirement would require paying compensation in a fiscal year under section 41733 (d) or 41734 (d) or (e) of this title for the place when compensation otherwise would not have been paid for that place in that year; or
(B) the affected community agrees with the Secretary in writing to the use of smaller aircraft to provide service to the place.
(4) service accommodating the estimated passenger and property traffic at an average load factor, for each class of traffic considering seasonal demands for the service, of not more than
(A) 50 percent; or
(B) 60 percent when service is provided by aircraft with more than 14 passenger seats.
(5) service provided in aircraft with at least 2 engines and using 2 pilots, unless scheduled air transportation has not been provided to the place in aircraft with at least 2 engines and using 2 pilots for at least 60 consecutive operating days at any time since October 31, 1978.
(6) service provided by pressurized aircraft when the service is provided by aircraft that regularly fly above 8,000 feet in altitude.

49 USC 41733 - Level of basic essential air service

(a) Decisions Made Before October 1, 1988.— 
For each eligible place for which a decision was made before October 1, 1988, under section 419 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, establishing the level of essential air transportation, the level of basic essential air service for that place shall be the level established by the Secretary of Transportation for that place by not later than December 29, 1988.
(b) Decisions Not Made Before October 1, 1988.— 

(1) The Secretary shall decide on the level of basic essential air service for each eligible place for which a decision was not made before October 1, 1988, establishing the level of essential air transportation, when the Secretary receives notice that service to that place will be provided by only one air carrier. The Secretary shall make the decision by the last day of the 6-month period beginning on the date the Secretary receives the notice. The Secretary may impose notice requirements necessary to carry out this subsection. Before making a decision, the Secretary shall consider the views of any interested community and the appropriate State authority of the State in which the community is located.
(2) Until the Secretary has made a decision on a level of basic essential air service for an eligible place under this subsection, the Secretary, on petition by an appropriate representative of the place, shall prohibit an air carrier from ending, suspending, or reducing air transportation to that place that appears to deprive the place of basic essential air service.
(c) Availability of Compensation.— 

(1) If the Secretary decides that basic essential air service will not be provided to an eligible place without compensation, the Secretary shall provide notice that an air carrier may apply to provide basic essential air service to the place for compensation under this section. In selecting an applicant, the Secretary shall consider, among other factors
(A) the demonstrated reliability of the applicant in providing scheduled air service;
(B) the contractual and marketing arrangements the applicant has made with a larger carrier to ensure service beyond the hub airport;
(C) the interline arrangements that the applicant has made with a larger carrier to allow passengers and cargo of the applicant at the hub airport to be transported by the larger carrier through one reservation, ticket, and baggage check-in;
(D) the preferences of the actual and potential users of air transportation at the eligible place, giving substantial weight to the views of the elected officials representing the users; and
(E) for an eligible place in Alaska, the experience of the applicant in providing, in Alaska, scheduled air service, or significant patterns of non-scheduled air service under an exemption granted under section 40109 (a) and (c)(h) of this title.
(2) Under guidelines prescribed under section 41737 (a) of this title, the Secretary shall pay the rate of compensation for providing basic essential air service under this section and section 41734 of this title.
(d) Compensation Payments.— 
The Secretary shall pay compensation under this section at times and in the way the Secretary decides is appropriate. The Secretary shall end payment of compensation to an air carrier for providing basic essential air service to an eligible place when the Secretary decides the compensation is no longer necessary to maintain basic essential air service to the place.
(e) Review.— 
The Secretary shall review periodically the level of basic essential air service for each eligible place. Based on the review and consultations with an interested community and the appropriate State authority of the State in which the community is located, the Secretary may make appropriate adjustments in the level of service, to the extent such adjustments are to a level not less than the basic essential air service level established under subsection (a) for the airport that serves the community.

49 USC 41734 - Ending, suspending, and reducing basic essential air service

(a) Notice Required.— 
An air carrier may end, suspend, or reduce air transportation to an eligible place below the level of basic essential air service established for that place under section 41733 of this title only after giving the Secretary of Transportation, the appropriate State authority, and the affected communities at least 90 days notice before ending, suspending, or reducing that transportation.
(b) Continuation of Service for 30 Days After Notice Period.— 
If at the end of the notice period under subsection (a) of this section the Secretary has not found another air carrier to provide basic essential air service to the eligible place, the Secretary shall require the carrier providing notice to continue to provide basic essential air service to the place for an additional 30-day period or until another carrier begins to provide basic essential air service to the place, whichever occurs first.
(c) Continuation of Service for Additional 30-Day Periods.— 
If at the end of the 30-day period under subsection (b) of this section the Secretary decides another air carrier will not provide basic essential air service to the place on a continuing basis, the Secretary shall require the carrier providing service to continue to provide service for additional 30-day periods until another carrier begins providing service on a continuing basis. At the end of each 30-day period, the Secretary shall decide if another carrier will provide service on a continuing basis.
(d) Continuation of Compensation After Notice Period.— 
If an air carrier receiving compensation under section 41733 of this title for providing basic essential air service to an eligible place is required to continue to provide service to the place under this section after the 90-day notice period under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall continue to pay that compensation after the last day of that period. The Secretary shall pay the compensation until the Secretary finds another carrier to provide the service to the place or the 90th day after the end of that notice period, whichever is earlier. If, after the 90th day after the end of the 90-day notice period, the Secretary has not found another carrier to provide the service, the carrier required to continue to provide that service shall receive compensation sufficient
(1) to pay for the fully allocated actual cost to the carrier of performing the basic essential air service that was being provided when the 90-day notice was given under subsection (a) of this section plus a reasonable return on investment that is at least 5 percent of operating costs; and
(2) to provide the carrier an additional return that recognizes the demonstrated additional lost profits from opportunities foregone and the likelihood that those lost profits increase as the period during which the carrier is required to provide the service continues.
(e) Compensation to Air Carriers Originally Providing Service Without Compensation.— 
If the Secretary requires an air carrier providing basic essential air service to an eligible place without compensation under section 41733 of this title to continue providing that service after the 90-day notice period required by subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall provide the carrier with compensation after the end of the 90-day notice period that is sufficient
(1) to pay for the fully allocated actual cost to the carrier of performing the basic essential air service that was being provided when the 90-day notice was given under subsection (a) of this section plus a reasonable return on investment that is at least 5 percent of operating costs; and
(2) to provide the carrier an additional return that recognizes the demonstrated additional lost profits from opportunities foregone and the likelihood that those lost profits increase as the period during which the carrier is required to provide the service continues.
(f) Finding Replacement Carriers.— 
When the Secretary requires an air carrier to continue to provide basic essential air service to an eligible place, the Secretary shall continue to make every effort to find another carrier to provide at least that basic essential air service to the place on a continuing basis.
(g) Transfer of Authority.— 
If an air carrier, providing basic essential air service under section 41733 of this title between an eligible place and an airport at which the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration limits the number of instrument flight rule takeoffs and landings of aircraft, provides notice under subsection (a) of this section of an intention to end, suspend, or reduce that service and another carrier is found to provide the service, the Secretary shall require the carrier providing notice to transfer any operational authority the carrier has to land or take off at that airport related to the service to the eligible place to the carrier that will provide the service, if
(1) the carrier that will provide the service needs the authority; and
(2) the authority to be transferred is being used to provide air service to another eligible place.
(h) Nonconsideration of Slot Availability.— 
In determining what is basic essential air service and in selecting an air carrier to provide such service, the Secretary shall not consider as a factor whether slots at a high density airport are available for providing such service.
(i) Exemption From Hold-In Requirements.— 
If, after the date of enactment of this subsection, an air carrier commences air transportation to an eligible place that is not receiving scheduled passenger air service as a result of the failure of the eligible place to meet requirements contained in an appropriations Act, the air carrier shall not be subject to the requirements of subsections (b) and (c) with respect to such air transportation.

49 USC 41735 - Enhanced essential air service

(a) Proposals.— 

(1) A State or local government may submit a proposal to the Secretary of Transportation for enhanced essential air service to an eligible place for which basic essential air service is being provided under section 41733 of this title. The proposal shall
(A) specify the level and type of enhanced essential air service the State or local government considers appropriate; and
(B) include an agreement related to compensation required for the proposed service.
(2) The agreement submitted under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection shall provide that
(A) the State or local government or a person pay 50 percent of the compensation required for the proposed service and the United States Government pay the remaining 50 percent; or
(B) 
(i) the Government pay 100 percent of the compensation; and
(ii) if the proposed service is not successful for at least a 2-year period under the criteria prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (3) of this subsection, the eligible place is not eligible for air service or air transportation for which compensation is paid by the Secretary under this subchapter.
(3) The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation objective criteria for deciding whether enhanced essential air service to an eligible place under this section is successful in terms of
(A) increasing passenger usage of the airport facilities at the place; and
(B) reducing the amount of compensation provided by the Secretary under this subchapter for that service.
(b) Decisions.— 
Not later than 90 days after receiving a proposal under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall
(1) approve the proposal if the Secretary decides the proposal is reasonable; or
(2) if the Secretary decides the proposal is not reasonable, disapprove the proposal and notify the State or local government of the disapproval and the reasons for the disapproval.
(c) Compensation Payments.— 

(1) The Secretary shall pay compensation under this section when and in the way the Secretary decides is appropriate. Compensation for enhanced essential air service under this section may be paid only for the costs incurred in providing air service to an eligible place that are in addition to the costs incurred in providing basic essential air service to the place under section 41733 of this title. The Secretary shall continue to pay compensation under this section only as long as
(A) the air carrier maintains the level of enhanced essential air service;
(B) the State or local government or person agreeing to pay compensation under this section continues to pay the compensation; and
(C) the Secretary decides the compensation is necessary to maintain the service to the place.
(2) The Secretary may require the State or local government or person agreeing to pay compensation under this section to make advance payments or provide other security to ensure that timely payments are made.
(d) Review.— 

(1) The Secretary shall review periodically the enhanced essential air service provided to each eligible place under this section.
(2) For service for which the Government pays 50 percent of the compensation, based on the review and consultation with the affected community and the State or local government or person paying the remaining 50 percent of the compensation, the Secretary shall make appropriate adjustments in the type and level of service to the place.
(3) For service for which the Government pays 100 percent of the compensation, based on the review and consultation with the State or local government submitting the proposal, the Secretary shall decide whether the service has succeeded for at least a 2-year period under the criteria prescribed under subsection (a)(3) of this section. If unsuccessful, the place is not eligible for air service or air transportation for which compensation is paid by the Secretary under this subchapter.
(e) Ending, Suspending, and Reducing Air Transportation.— 
An air carrier may end, suspend, or reduce air transportation to an eligible place below the level of enhanced essential air service established for that place by the Secretary under this section only after giving the Secretary, the affected community, and the State or local government or person paying compensation for that service at least 30 days notice before ending, suspending, or reducing the service. This subsection does not relieve the carrier of an obligation under section 41734 of this title.

49 USC 41736 - Air transportation to noneligible places

(a) Proposals and Decisions.— 

(1) A State or local government may propose to the Secretary of Transportation that the Secretary provide compensation to an air carrier to provide air transportation to a place that is not an eligible place under this subchapter. Not later than 90 days after receiving a proposal under this section, the Secretary shall
(A) decide whether to designate the place as eligible to receive compensation under this section; and
(B) 
(i) approve the proposal if the State or local government or a person is willing and able to pay 50 percent of the compensation for providing the transportation, and notify the State or local government of the approval; or
(ii) disapprove the proposal if the Secretary decides the proposal is not reasonable under paragraph (2) of this subsection, and notify the State or local government of the disapproval and the reasons for the disapproval.
(2) In deciding whether a proposal is reasonable, the Secretary shall consider, among other factors
(A) the traffic-generating potential of the place;
(B) the cost to the United States Government of providing the proposed transportation; and
(C) the distance of the place from the closest hub airport.
(b) Approval for Certain Air Transportation.— 
Notwithstanding subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section, the Secretary shall approve a proposal under this section to compensate an air carrier for providing air transportation to a place in the 48 contiguous States or the District of Columbia and designate the place as eligible for compensation under this section if
(1) at any time before October 23, 1978, the place was served by a carrier holding a certificate under section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958;
(2) the place is more than 50 miles from the nearest small hub airport or an eligible place;
(3) the place is more than 150 miles from the nearest hub airport; and
(4) the State or local government submitting the proposal or a person is willing and able to pay 25 percent of the cost of providing the compensated transportation.

Paragraph (4) does not apply to any community approved for service under this section during the period beginning October 1, 1991, and ending December 31, 1997.

(c) Level of Air Transportation.— 

(1) If the Secretary designates a place under subsection (a)(1) of this section as eligible for compensation under this section, the Secretary shall decide, not later than 6 months after the date of the designation, on the level of air transportation to be provided under this section. Before making a decision, the Secretary shall consider the views of any interested community, the appropriate State authority of the State in which the place is located, and the State or local government or person agreeing to pay compensation for the transportation under subsection (b)(4) of this section.
(2) After making the decision under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary shall provide notice that any air carrier that is willing to provide the level of air transportation established under paragraph (1) for a place may submit an application to provide the transportation. In selecting an applicant, the Secretary shall consider, among other factors
(A) the factors listed in section 41733 (c)(1) of this title; and
(B) the views of the State or local government or person agreeing to pay compensation for the transportation.
(d) Compensation Payments.— 

(1) The Secretary shall pay compensation under this section when and in the way the Secretary decides is appropriate. The Secretary shall continue to pay compensation under this section only as long as
(A) the air carrier maintains the level of air transportation established by the Secretary under subsection (c)(1) of this section;
(B) the State or local government or person agreeing to pay compensation for transportation under this section continues to pay that compensation; and
(C) the Secretary decides the compensation is necessary to maintain the transportation to the place.
(2) The Secretary may require the State or local government or person agreeing to pay compensation under this section to make advance payments or provide other security to ensure that timely payments are made.
(e) Review.— 
The Secretary shall review periodically the level of air transportation provided under this section. Based on the review and consultation with any interested community, the appropriate State authority of the State in which the community is located, and the State or local government or person paying compensation under this section, the Secretary may make appropriate adjustments in the level of transportation.
(f) Withdrawal of Eligibility Designations.— 
After providing notice and an opportunity for interested persons to comment, the Secretary may withdraw the designation of a place under subsection (a)(1) of this section as eligible to receive compensation under this section if the place has received air transportation under this section for at least 2 years and the Secretary decides the withdrawal would be in the public interest. The Secretary by regulation shall prescribe standards for deciding whether the withdrawal of a designation under this subsection is in the public interest. The standards shall include the factors listed in subsection (a)(2) of this section.
(g) Ending, Suspending, and Reducing Air Transportation.— 
An air carrier providing air transportation for compensation under this section may end, suspend, or reduce that transportation below the level of transportation established by the Secretary under this section only after giving the Secretary, the affected community, and the State or local government or person paying compensation under this section at least 30 days notice before ending, suspending, or reducing the transportation.

49 USC 41737 - Compensation guidelines, limitations, and claims

(a) Compensation Guidelines.— 

(1) The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe guidelines governing the rate of compensation payable under this subchapter. The guidelines shall be used to determine the reasonable amount of compensation required to ensure the continuation of air service or air transportation under this subchapter. The guidelines shall
(A) provide for a reduction in compensation when an air carrier does not provide service or transportation agreed to be provided;
(B) consider amounts needed by an air carrier to promote public use of the service or transportation for which compensation is being paid; and
(C) include expense elements based on representative costs of air carriers providing scheduled air transportation of passengers, property, and mail on aircraft of the type the Secretary decides is appropriate for providing the service or transportation for which compensation is being provided.
(2) Promotional amounts described in paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection shall be a special, segregated element of the compensation provided to a carrier under this subchapter.
(b) Required Finding.— 
The Secretary may pay compensation to an air carrier for providing air service or air transportation under this subchapter only if the Secretary finds the carrier is able to provide the service or transportation in a reliable way.
(c) Claims.— 
Not later than 15 days after receiving a written claim from an air carrier for compensation under this subchapter, the Secretary shall
(1) pay or deny the United States Governments share of a claim; and
(2) if denying the claim, notify the carrier of the denial and the reasons for the denial.
(d) Authority To Make Agreements and Incur Obligations.— 

(1) The Secretary may make agreements and incur obligations from the Airport and Airway Trust Fund established under section 9502 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 9502) to pay compensation under this subchapter. An agreement by the Secretary under this subsection is a contractual obligation of the Government to pay the Governments share of the compensation.
(2) Not more than $38,600,000 is available to the Secretary out of the Fund for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 19931998, to incur obligations under this section. Amounts made available under this section remain available until expended.
(e) Adjustments to Account for Significantly Increased Costs.— 

(1) In general.— 
If the Secretary determines that air carriers are experiencing significantly increased costs in providing air service or air transportation for which compensation is being paid under this subchapter, the Secretary may increase the rates of compensation payable under this subchapter without regard to any agreement or requirement relating to the renegotiation of contracts or any notice requirement under section 41734.
(2) Readjustment if costs subsequently decline.— 
If an adjustment is made under paragraph (1), and total unit costs subsequently decrease to at least the total unit cost reflected in the compensation rate, then the Secretary may reverse the adjustment previously made under paragraph (1) without regard to any agreement or requirement relating to the renegotiation of contracts or any notice requirement under section 41734.
(3) Significantly increased costs defined.— 
In this subsection, the term significantly increased costs means a total unit cost increase (but not increases in individual unit costs) of 10 percent or more in relation to the total unit cost reflected in the compensation rate, based on the carriers internal audit of its financial statements if such cost increase is incurred for a period of at least 2 consecutive months.

49 USC 41738 - Fitness of air carriers

Notwithstanding section 40109 (a) and (c)(h) of this title, an air carrier may provide air service to an eligible place or air transportation to a place designated under section 41736 of this title only when the Secretary of Transportation decides that
(1) the carrier is fit, willing, and able to perform the service or transportation; and
(2) aircraft used to provide the service or transportation, and operations related to the service or transportation, conform to the safety standards prescribed by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.

49 USC 41739 - Air carrier obligations

If at least 2 air carriers make an agreement to operate under or use a single carrier designator code to provide air transportation, the carrier whose code is being used shares responsibility with the other carriers for the quality of transportation provided the public under the code by the other carriers.

49 USC 41740 - Joint proposals

The Secretary of Transportation shall encourage the submission of joint proposals, including joint fares, by 2 or more air carriers for providing air service or air transportation under this subchapter through arrangements that maximize the service or transportation to and from major destinations beyond the hub.

49 USC 41741 - Insurance

The Secretary of Transportation may pay an air carrier compensation under this subchapter only when the carrier files with the Secretary an insurance policy or self-insurance plan approved by the Secretary. The policy or plan must be sufficient to pay for bodily injury to, or death of, an individual, or for loss of or damage to property of others, resulting from the operation of aircraft, but not more than the amount of the policy or plan limits.

49 USC 41742 - Essential air service authorization

(a) In General.— 

(1) Authorization.— 
Out of the amounts received by the Federal Aviation Administration credited to the account established under section 45303 of this title or otherwise provided to the Administration, the sum of $50,000,000 is authorized and shall be made available immediately for obligation and expenditure to carry out the essential air service program under this subchapter for each fiscal year.
(2) Additional funds.— 
In addition to amounts authorized under paragraph (1), there is authorized to be appropriated $77,000,000 for each fiscal year to carry out the essential air service program under this subchapter of which not more than $12,000,000 per fiscal year may be used for the marketing incentive program for communities and for State marketing assistance.
(3) Authorization for additional employees.— 
In addition to amounts authorized under paragraphs (1) and (2), there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for the Secretary of Transportation to hire and employ 4 additional employees for the office responsible for carrying out the essential air service program.
(b) Funding for Small Community Air Service.— 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, moneys credited to the account established under section 45303 (a) of this title, including the funds derived from fees imposed under the authority contained in section 45301 (a) of this title, shall be used to carry out the essential air service program under this subchapter. Notwithstanding section 47114 (g)1 of this title, any amounts from those fees that are not obligated or expended at the end of the fiscal year for the purpose of funding the essential air service program under this subchapter shall be made available to the Administration for use in improving rural air safety under subchapter I of chapter 471 of this title and shall be used exclusively for projects at rural airports under this subchapter.
[1] See References in Text note below.

49 USC 41743 - Airports not receiving sufficient service

(a) Small Community Air Service Development Program.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a program that meets the requirements of this section for improving air carrier service to airports not receiving sufficient air carrier service.
(b) Application Required.— 
In order to participate in the program established under subsection (a), a community or consortium of communities shall submit an application to the Secretary in such form, at such time, and containing such information as the Secretary may require, including
(1) an assessment of the need of the community or consortium for access, or improved access, to the national air transportation system; and
(2) an analysis of the application of the criteria in subsection (c) to that community or consortium.
(c) Criteria for Participation.— 
In selecting communities, or consortia of communities, for participation in the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall apply the following criteria:
(1) Size.— 
For calendar year 1997, the airport serving the community or consortium was not larger than a small hub airport, and
(A) had insufficient air carrier service; or
(B) had unreasonably high air fares.
(2) Characteristics.— 
The airport presents characteristics, such as geographic diversity or unique circumstances, that will demonstrate the need for, and feasibility of, the program established under subsection (a).
(3) State limit.— 
Not more than 4 communities or consortia of communities, or a combination thereof, from the same State may be selected to participate in the program in any fiscal year.
(4) Overall limit.— 
No more than 40 communities or consortia of communities, or a combination thereof, may be selected to participate in the program in each year for which funds are appropriated for the program. No community, consortia of communities, nor combination thereof may participate in the program in support of the same project more than once, but any community, consortia of communities, or combination thereof may apply, subsequent to such participation, to participate in the program in support of a different project.
(5) Priorities.— 
The Secretary shall give priority to communities or consortia of communities where
(A) air fares are higher than the average air fares for all communities;
(B) the community or consortium will provide a portion of the cost of the activity to be assisted under the program from local sources other than airport revenues;
(C) the community or consortium has established, or will establish, a public-private partnership to facilitate air carrier service to the public;
(D) the assistance will provide material benefits to a broad segment of the travelling public, including business, educational institutions, and other enterprises, whose access to the national air transportation system is limited; and
(E) the assistance will be used in a timely fashion.
(d) Types of Assistance.— 
The Secretary may use amounts made available under this section
(1) to provide assistance to an air carrier to subsidize service to and from an underserved airport for a period not to exceed 3 years;
(2) to provide assistance to an underserved airport to obtain service to and from the underserved airport; and
(3) to provide assistance to an underserved airport to implement such other measures as the Secretary, in consultation with such airport, considers appropriate to improve air service both in terms of the cost of such service to consumers and the availability of such service, including improving air service through marketing and promotion of air service and enhanced utilization of airport facilities.
(e) Authority To Make Agreements.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary may make agreements to provide assistance under this section.
(2) Authorization of appropriations.— 
There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, $27,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2002 and 2003, and $35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2004 through 2008 to carry out this section. Such sums shall remain available until expended.
(f) Additional Action.— 
Under the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall work with air carriers providing service to participating communities and major air carriers (as defined in section 41716 (a)(2)) serving large hub airports to facilitate joint-fare arrangements consistent with normal industry practice.
(g) Designation of Responsible Official.— 
The Secretary shall designate an employee of the Department of Transportation
(1) to function as a facilitator between small communities and air carriers;
(2) to carry out this section;
(3) to ensure that the Bureau of Transportation Statistics collects data on passenger information to assess the service needs of small communities;
(4) to work with and coordinate efforts with other Federal, State, and local agencies to increase the viability of service to small communities and the creation of aviation development zones; and
(5) to provide policy recommendations to the Secretary and Congress that will ensure that small communities have access to quality, affordable air transportation services.
(h) Air Service Development Zone.— 
The Secretary shall designate an airport in the program as an Air Service Development Zone and work with the community or consortium on means to attract business to the area surrounding the airport, to develop land use options for the area, and provide data, working with the Department of Commerce and other agencies.

49 USC 41744 - Preservation of basic essential air service at single carrier dominated hub airports

(a) In General.— 
If the Secretary of Transportation determines that extraordinary circumstances jeopardize the reliable performance of essential air service under this subchapter from a subsidized essential air service community to and from an essential airport facility, the Secretary may require an air carrier that has more than 60 percent of the total annual enplanements at the essential airport facility to take action to enable another air carrier to provide reliable essential air service to that community. Actions required by the Secretary under this subsection may include interline agreements, ground services, subleasing of gates, and the provision of any other service or facility necessary for the performance of satisfactory essential air service to that community.
(b) Essential Airport Facility Defined.— 
In this section, the term essential airport facility means a large hub airport in the contiguous 48 States at which one air carrier has more than 60 percent of the total annual enplanements at that airport.

49 USC 41745 - Community and regional choice programs

(a) Alternate Essential Air Service Pilot Program.— 

(1) Establishment.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall establish an alternate essential air service pilot program in accordance with the requirements of this section.
(2) Assistance to eligible places.— 
In carrying out the program, the Secretary, instead of paying compensation to an air carrier to provide essential air service to an eligible place, may provide assistance directly to a unit of local government having jurisdiction over the eligible place or a State within the boundaries of which the eligible place is located.
(3) Use of assistance.— 
A unit of local government or State receiving assistance for an eligible place under the program may use the assistance for any of the following purposes:
(A) To provide assistance to air carriers that will use smaller equipment to provide the service and to consider increasing the frequency of service using such smaller equipment if the Secretary determines that passenger safety would not be compromised by the use of such smaller equipment and if the State or unit of local government waives the minimum service requirements under section 41732 (b).
(B) To provide assistance to an air carrier to provide on-demand air taxi service to and from the eligible place.
(C) To provide assistance to a person to provide scheduled or on-demand surface transportation to and from the eligible place and an airport in another place.
(D) In combination with other units of local government in the same region, to provide transportation services to and from all the eligible places in that region at an airport or other transportation center that can serve all the eligible places in that region.
(E) To purchase aircraft to provide transportation to and from the eligible place or to purchase a fractional share in an aircraft to provide such transportation after the effective date of a rule the Secretary issues relating to fractional ownership.
(F) To pay for other transportation or related services that the Secretary may permit.
(b) Community Flexibility Pilot Program.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary shall establish a pilot program for not more than 10 eligible places or consortia of units of local government.
(2) Election.— 
Under the program, the sponsor of an airport serving an eligible place may elect to forego any essential air service for which compensation is being provided under this subchapter for a 10-year period in exchange for a grant from the Secretary equal in value to twice the compensation paid to provide such service in the most recent 12-month period.
(3) Grant.— 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall make a grant to each airport sponsor participating in the program for use on any project that
(A) is eligible for assistance under chapter 471 and complies with the requirements of that chapter;
(B) is located on the airport property; or
(C) will improve airport facilities in a way that would make such facilities more usable for general aviation.
(c) Fractionally Owned Aircraft.— 
After the effective date of the rule referred to in subsection (a)(3)(E), only those operating rules that relate to an aircraft that is fractionally owned apply when an aircraft described in subsection (a)(3)(E) is used to provide transportation described in subsection (a)(3)(E).
(d) Applications.— 

(1) In general.— 
An entity seeking to participate in a program under this section shall submit to the Secretary an application in such form and containing such information as the Secretary may require.
(2) Required information.— 
At a minimum, the application shall include
(A) a statement of the amount of compensation or assistance required; and
(B) a description of how the compensation or assistance will be used.
(e) Participation Requirements.— 
An eligible place for which compensation or assistance is provided under this section in a fiscal year shall not be eligible in that fiscal year for the essential air service that it would otherwise be entitled to under this subchapter.
(f) Subsequent Participation.— 
A unit of local government participating in the program under this subsection (a) in a fiscal year shall not be prohibited from participating in the basic essential air service program under this subchapter in a subsequent fiscal year if such unit is otherwise eligible to participate in such program.
(g) Funding.— 
Amounts appropriated or otherwise made available to carry out the essential air service program under this subchapter shall be available to carry out this section.

49 USC 41746 - Tracking service

The Secretary of Transportation shall require a carrier that provides essential air service to an eligible place and that receives compensation for such service under this subchapter to report not less than semiannually
(1) the percentage of flights to and from the place that arrive on time as defined by the Secretary; and
(2) such other information as the Secretary considers necessary to evaluate service provided to passengers traveling to and from such place.

49 USC 41747 - EAS local participation program

(a) In General.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a pilot program under which not more than 10 designated essential air service communities located in proximity to hub airports are required to assume 10 percent of their essential air service subsidy costs for a 4-year period.
(b) Designation of Communities.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary may not designate any community under this section unless it is located within 100 miles by road of a hub airport and is not located in a noncontiguous State. In making the designation, the Secretary may take into consideration the total traveltime between a community and the nearest hub airport, taking into account terrain, traffic, weather, road conditions, and other relevant factors.
(2) One community per state.— 
The Secretary may not designate
(A) more than 1 community per State under this section; or
(B) a community in a State in which another community that is eligible to participate in the essential air service program has elected not to participate in the essential air service program as part of a pilot program under section 41745.
(c) Appeal of Designation.— 
A community may appeal its designation under this section. The Secretary may withdraw the designation of a community under this section based on
(1) the airport sponsors ability to pay; or
(2) the relative lack of financial resources in a community, based on a comparison of the median income of the community with other communities in the State.
(d) Non-Federal Share.— 

(1) Non-federal amounts.— 
For purposes of this section, the non-Federal portion of the essential air service subsidy may be derived from contributions in kind, or through reduction in the amount of the essential air service subsidy through reduction of air carrier costs, increased ridership, prepurchase of tickets, or other means. The Secretary shall provide assistance to designated communities in identifying potential means of reducing the amount of the subsidy without adversely affecting air transportation service to the community.
(2) Application with other matching requirements.— 
This section shall apply to the Federal share of essential air service provided this subchapter, after the application of any other non-Federal share matching requirements imposed by law.
(e) Eligibility for Other Programs Not Affected.— 
Nothing in this section affects the eligibility of a community or consortium of communities, an airport sponsor, or any other person to participate in any program authorized by this subchapter. A community designated under this section may participate in any program (including pilot programs) authorized by this subchapter for which it is otherwise eligible
(1) without regard to any limitation on the number of communities that may participate in that program; and
(2) without reducing the number of other communities that may participate in that program.
(f) Secretary to Report to Congress on Impact.— 
The Secretary shall transmit a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on
(1) the economic condition of communities designated under this section before their designation;
(2) the impact of designation under this section on such communities at the end of each of the 3 years following their designation; and
(3) the impact of designation on air traffic patterns affecting air transportation to and from communities designated under this section.

49 USC 41748 - Marketing program

(a) In General.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a marketing incentive program for eligible places that receive subsidized service by an air carrier under section 41733. Under the program, the sponsor of the airport serving such an eligible place may receive a grant of not more than $50,000 in a fiscal year to develop and implement a marketing plan to increase passenger boardings and the level of passenger usage of its airport facilities.
(b) Matching Requirement; Success Bonuses
(1) In general.— 
Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), not less than 25 percent of the publicly financed costs associated with a marketing plan to be developed and implemented under this section shall come from non-Federal sources. For purposes of this section
(A) the non-Federal portion of the publicly financed costs may be derived from contributions in kind; and
(B) matching contributions from a State or unit of local government may not be derived, directly or indirectly, from Federal funds, but the use by the State or unit of local government of proceeds from the sale of bonds to provide the matching contribution is not considered to be a contribution derived directly or indirectly from Federal funds, without regard to the Federal income tax treatment of interest paid on those bonds or the Federal income tax treatment of those bonds.
(2) Bonus for 25-percent increase in usage.— 
Except as provided in paragraph (3), if, after any 12-month period during which a marketing plan has been in effect under this section with respect to an eligible place, the Secretary determines that the marketing plan has increased average monthly boardings, or the level of passenger usage, at the airport serving the eligible place, by 25 percent or more, then only 10 percent of the publicly financed costs associated with the marketing plan shall be required to come from non-Federal sources under this subsection for the following 12-month period.
(3) Bonus for 50-percent increase in usage.— 
If, after any 12-month period during which a marketing plan has been in effect under this section with respect to an eligible place, the Secretary determines that the marketing plan has increased average monthly boardings, or the level of passenger usage, at the airport serving the eligible place, by 50 percent or more, then no portion of the publicly financed costs associated with the marketing plan shall be required to come from non-Federal sources under this subsection for the following 12-month period.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - REGIONAL AIR SERVICE INCENTIVE PROGRAM

49 USC 41761 - Purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to improve service by jet aircraft to underserved markets by providing assistance, in the form of Federal credit instruments, to commuter air carriers that purchase regional jet aircraft for use in serving those markets.

49 USC 41762 - Definitions

In this subchapter, the following definitions apply:
(1) Air carrier.— 
The term air carrier means any air carrier holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity issued by the Secretary of Transportation under section 41102.
(2) Aircraft purchase.— 
The term aircraft purchase means the purchase of commercial transport aircraft, including spare parts normally associated with the aircraft.
(3) Capital reserve subsidy amount.— 
The term capital reserve subsidy amount means the amount of budget authority sufficient to cover estimated long-term cost to the United States Government of a Federal credit instrument, calculated on a net present value basis, excluding administrative costs and any incidental effects on Government receipts or outlays in accordance with provisions of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (2 U.S.C. 661 et seq.).
(4) Commuter air carrier.— 
The term commuter air carrier means an air carrier that primarily operates aircraft designed to have a maximum passenger seating capacity of 75 or less in accordance with published flight schedules.
(5) Federal credit instrument.— 
The term Federal credit instrument means a secured loan, loan guarantee, or line of credit authorized to be made under this subchapter.
(6) Financial obligation.— 
The term financial obligation means any note, bond, debenture, or other debt obligation issued by an obligor in connection with the financing of an aircraft purchase, other than a Federal credit instrument.
(7) Lender.— 
The term lender means any non-Federal qualified institutional buyer (as defined by section 230.144A(a) of title 17, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation) known as Rule 144A(a) of the Security and Exchange Commission and issued under the Security Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.)), including
(A) a qualified retirement plan (as defined in section 4974(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) that is a qualified institutional buyer; and
(B) a governmental plan (as defined in section 414(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) that is a qualified institutional buyer.
(8) Line of credit.— 
The term line of credit means an agreement entered into by the Secretary with an obligor under section 41763 (d) to provide a direct loan at a future date upon the occurrence of certain events.
(9) Loan guarantee.— 
The term loan guarantee means any guarantee or other pledge by the Secretary under section 41763 (c) to pay all or part of any of the principal of and interest on a loan or other debt obligation issued by an obligor and funded by a lender.
(10) New entrant air carrier.— 
The term new entrant air carrier means an air carrier that has been providing air transportation according to a published schedule for less than 5 years, including any person that has received authority from the Secretary to provide air transportation but is not providing air transportation.
(11) Obligor.— 
The term obligor means a party primarily liable for payment of the principal of or interest on a Federal credit instrument, which party may be a corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, or governmental entity, agency, or instrumentality.
(12) Regional jet aircraft.— 
The term regional jet aircraft means a civil aircraft
(A) powered by jet propulsion; and
(B) designed to have a maximum passenger seating capacity of not less than 30 nor more than 75.
(13) Secured loan.— 
The term secured loan means a direct loan funded by the Secretary in connection with the financing of an aircraft purchase under section 41763 (b).
(14) Underserved market.— 
The term underserved market means a passenger air transportation market (as defined by the Secretary) that
(A) is served (as determined by the Secretary) by a nonhub airport or a small hub airport;
(B) is not within a 40-mile radius of an airport that each year has at least .25 percent of the total annual boardings in the United States; and
(C) the Secretary determines does not have sufficient air service.

49 USC 41763 - Federal credit instruments

(a) In General.— 
Subject to this section and section 41766, the Secretary of Transportation may enter into agreements with one or more obligors to make available Federal credit instruments, the proceeds of which shall be used to finance aircraft purchases.
(b) Secured Loans.— 

(1) Terms and limitations.— 

(A) In general.— 
A secured loan under this section with respect to an aircraft purchase shall be on such terms and conditions and contain such covenants, representatives, warranties, and requirements (including requirements for audits) as the Secretary determines appropriate.
(B) Maximum amount.— 
No secured loan may be made under this section
(i) that extends to more than 50 percent of the purchase price (including the value of any manufacturer credits, post-purchase options, or other discounts) of the aircraft, including spare parts, to be purchased; or
(ii) that, when added to the remaining balance on any other Federal credit instruments made under this subchapter, provides more than $100,000,000 of outstanding credit to any single obligor.
(C) Final payment date.— 
The final payment on the secured loan shall not be due later than 18 years after the date of execution of the loan agreement.
(D) Subordination.— 
The secured loan may be subordinate to claims of other holders of obligations in the event of bankruptcy, insolvency, or liquidation of the obligor as determined appropriate by the Secretary.
(E) Fees.— 
The Secretary, subject to appropriations, may establish fees at a level sufficient to cover all or a portion of the administrative costs to the United States Government of making a secured loan under this section. The proceeds of such fees shall be deposited in an account to be used by the Secretary for the purpose of administering the program established under this subchapter and shall be available upon deposit until expended.
(2) Repayment.— 

(A) Schedule.— 
The Secretary shall establish a repayment schedule for each secured loan under this section based on the projected cash flow from aircraft revenues and other repayment sources.
(B) Commencement.— 
Scheduled loan repayments of principal and interest on a secured loan under this section shall commence no later than 3 years after the date of execution of the loan agreement.
(3) Prepayment.— 

(A) Use of excess revenue.— 
After satisfying scheduled debt service requirements on all financial obligations and secured loans and all deposit requirements under the terms of any trust agreement, bond resolution, or similar agreement securing financial obligations, the secured loan may be prepaid at anytime without penalty.
(B) Use of proceeds of refinancing.— 
The secured loan may be prepaid at any time without penalty from proceeds of refinancing from non-Federal funding sources.
(c) Loan Guarantees.— 

(1) In general.— 
A loan guarantee under this section with respect to a loan made for an aircraft purchase shall be made in such form and on such terms and conditions and contain such covenants, representatives, warranties, and requirements (including requirements for audits) as the Secretary determines appropriate.
(2) Maximum amount.— 
No loan guarantee shall be made under this section
(A) that extends to more than the unpaid interest and 50 percent of the unpaid principal on any loan;
(B) that, for any loan or combination of loans, extends to more than 50 percent of the purchase price (including the value of any manufacturer credits, post-purchase options, or other discounts) of the aircraft, including spare parts, to be purchased with the loan or loan combination;
(C) on any loan with respect to which terms permit repayment more than 15 years after the date of execution of the loan; or
(D) that, when added to the remaining balance on any other Federal credit instruments made under this subchapter, provides more than $100,000,000 of outstanding credit to any single obligor.
(3) Fees.— 
The Secretary, subject to appropriations, may establish fees at a level sufficient to cover all or a portion of the administrative costs to the United States Government of making a loan guarantee under this section. The proceeds of such fees shall be deposited in an account to be used by the Secretary for the purpose of administering the program established under this subchapter and shall be available upon deposit until expended.
(d) Lines of Credit.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subject to the requirements of this subsection, the Secretary may enter into agreements to make available lines of credit to one or more obligors in the form of direct loans to be made by the Secretary at future dates on the occurrence of certain events for any aircraft purchase selected under this section.
(2) Terms and limitations.— 

(A) In general.— 
A line of credit under this subsection with respect to an aircraft purchase shall be on such terms and conditions and contain such covenants, representatives, warranties, and requirements (including requirements for audits) as the Secretary determines appropriate.
(B) Maximum amount.— 

(i) Total amount.— 
The amount of any line of credit shall not exceed 50 percent of the purchase price (including the value of any manufacturer credits, post-purchase options, or other discounts) of the aircraft, including spare parts.
(ii) 1–year draws.— 
The amount drawn in any year shall not exceed 20 percent of the total amount of the line of credit.
(C) Draws.— 
Any draw on the line of credit shall represent a direct loan.
(D) Period of availability.— 
The line of credit shall be available not more than 5 years after the aircraft purchase date.
(E) Rights of third-party creditors.— 

(i) Against united states government.— 
A third-party creditor of the obligor shall not have any right against the United States Government with respect to any draw on the line of credit.
(ii) Assignment.— 
An obligor may assign the line of credit to one or more lenders or to a trustee on the lenders behalf.
(F) Subordination.— 
A direct loan under this subsection may be subordinate to claims of other holders of obligations in the event of bankruptcy, insolvency, or liquidation of the obligor as determined appropriate by the Secretary.
(G) Fees.— 
The Secretary, subject to appropriations, may establish fees at a level sufficient to cover all of a portion of the administrative costs to the United States Government of providing a line of credit under this subsection. The proceeds of such fees shall be deposited in an account to be used by the Secretary for the purpose of administering the program established under this subchapter and shall be available upon deposit until expended.
(3) Repayment.— 

(A) Schedule.— 
The Secretary shall establish a repayment schedule for each direct loan under this subsection.
(B) Commencement.— 
Scheduled loan repayments of principal or interest on a direct loan under this subsection shall commence no later than 3 years after the date of the first draw on the line of credit and shall be repaid, with interest, not later than 18 years after the date of the first draw.
(e) Risk Assessment.— 
Before entering into an agreement under this section to make available a Federal credit instrument, the Secretary, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, shall determine an appropriate capital reserve subsidy amount for the Federal credit instrument based on such credit evaluations as the Secretary deems necessary.
(f) Conditions.— 
Subject to subsection (h), the Secretary may only make a Federal credit instrument available under this section if the Secretary finds that
(1) the aircraft to be purchased with the Federal credit instrument is a regional jet aircraft needed to improve the service and efficiency of operation of a commuter air carrier or new entrant air carrier;
(2) the commuter air carrier or new entrant air carrier enters into a legally binding agreement that requires the carrier to use the aircraft to provide service to underserved markets; and
(3) the prospective earning power of the commuter air carrier or new entrant air carrier, together with the character and value of the security pledged, including the collateral value of the aircraft being acquired and any other assets or pledges used to secure the Federal credit instrument, furnish
(A) reasonable assurances of the air carriers ability and intention to repay the Federal credit instrument within the terms established by the Secretary
(i) to continue its operations as an air carrier; and
(ii) to the extent that the Secretary determines to be necessary, to continue its operations as an air carrier between the same route or routes being operated by the air carrier at the time of the issuance of the Federal credit instrument; and
(B) reasonable protection to the United States.
(g) Limitation on Combined Amount of Federal Credit Instruments.— 
The Secretary shall not allow the combined amount of Federal credit instruments available for any aircraft purchase under this section to exceed
(1) 50 percent of the cost of the aircraft purchase; or
(2) $100,000,000 for any single obligor.
(h) Requirement.— 
Subject to subsection (i), no Federal credit instrument may be made under this section for the purchase of any regional jet aircraft that does not comply with the stage 3 noise levels of part 36 of title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on January 1, 1999.
(i) Other Limitations.— 
No Federal credit instrument shall be made by the Secretary under this section for the purchase of a regional jet aircraft unless the commuter air carrier or new entrant air carrier enters into a legally binding agreement that requires the carrier to provide scheduled passenger air transportation to the underserved market for which the aircraft is purchased for a period of not less than 36 consecutive months after the date that aircraft is placed in service.

49 USC 41764 - Use of Federal facilities and assistance

(a) Use of Federal Facilities.— 
To permit the Secretary of Transportation to make use of such expert advice and services as the Secretary may require in carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary may use available services and facilities of other agencies and instrumentalities of the United States Government
(1) with the consent of the appropriate Federal officials; and
(2) on a reimbursable basis.
(b) Assistance.— 
The head of each appropriate department or agency of the United States Government shall exercise the duties and powers of that head in such manner as to assist in carrying out the policy specified in section 41761.
(c) Oversight.— 
The Secretary shall make available to the Comptroller General of the United States such information with respect to any Federal credit instrument made under this subchapter as the Comptroller General may require to carry out the duties of the Comptroller General under chapter 7 of title 31, United States Code.

49 USC 41765 - Administrative expenses

In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall use funds made available by appropriations to the Department of Transportation for the purpose of administration, in addition to the proceeds of any fees collected under this subchapter, to cover administrative expenses of the Federal credit instrument program under this subchapter.

49 USC 41766 - Funding

Of the amounts appropriated under section 106 (k) for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2003, such sums as may be necessary may be used to carry out this subchapter, including administrative expenses.

49 USC 41767 - Termination

(a) Authority To Issue Federal Credit Instruments.— 
The authority of the Secretary of Transportation to issue Federal credit instruments under section 41763 shall terminate on the date that is 5 years after the date of the enactment of this subchapter.
(b) Continuation of Authority To Administer Program for Existing Federal Credit Instruments.— 
On and after the termination date, the Secretary shall continue to administer the program established under this subchapter for Federal credit instruments issued under this subchapter before the termination date until all obligations associated with such instruments have been satisfied.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 419 - TRANSPORTATION OF MAIL

49 USC 41901 - General authority

(a) Title 39.— 
The United States Postal Service may provide for the transportation of mail by aircraft in interstate air transportation under section 5402 (e) and (f) of title 39.
(b) Authority To Prescribe Prices.— 
Except as provided in section 5402 of title 39, on the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or on petition by the Postal Service or an air carrier, the Secretary shall prescribe and publish
(1) after notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the record, reasonable prices to be paid by the Postal Service for the transportation of mail by aircraft in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska, the facilities used in and useful for the transportation of mail, and the services related to the transportation of mail for each carrier holding a certificate that authorizes that transportation;
(2) the methods used, whether by aircraft-mile, pound-mile, weight, space, or a combination of those or other methods, to determine the prices for each air carrier or class of air carriers; and
(3) the effective date of the prices.
(c) Other Transportation.— 
In prescribing prices under subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary may include transportation other than by aircraft that is incidental to transportation of mail by aircraft or necessary because of emergency conditions related to aircraft operations.
(d) Authority To Prescribe Different Prices.— 
Considering conditions peculiar to transportation by aircraft and to particular air carriers or classes of air carriers, the Secretary may prescribe different prices under this section for different air carriers or classes of air carriers and for different classes of service. In prescribing a price for a carrier under this section, the Secretary shall consider, among other factors, the following:
(1) the condition that the carrier may hold and operate under a certificate authorizing the transportation of mail only by providing necessary and adequate facilities and service for the transportation of mail.
(2) standards related to the character and quality of service to be provided that are prescribed by or under law.
(e) Statements on Prices.— 
A petition for prescribing a reasonable price under this section must include a statement of the price the petitioner believes is reasonable.
(f) Statements on Required Services.— 
The Postal Service shall introduce as part of the record in every proceeding under this section a comprehensive statement of the services to be required of the air carrier and other information the Postal Service has that the Secretary considers material to the proceeding.

49 USC 41902 - Schedules for certain transportation of mail

(a) Requirement.— 
Except as provided in section 41906 of this title and section 5402 of title 39, an air carrier may transport mail by aircraft in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska only under a schedule designated or required to be established under subsection (c) of this section for the transportation of mail.
(b) Statements on Places and Schedules.— 
Every air carrier shall file with the Secretary of Transportation and the United States Postal Service a statement showing
(1) the places between which the carrier is authorized to provide foreign air transportation;
(2) the places between which the carrier is authorized to transport mail in Alaska;
(3) every schedule of aircraft regularly operated by the carrier between places described in clauses (1) and (2) of this subsection and every change in each schedule; and
(4) for each schedule, the places served by the carrier and the time of arrival at, and departure from, each place.
(c) Designating and Additional Schedules.— 
The Postal Service may
(1) designate any schedule of an air carrier filed under subsection (b)(3) of this section for the transportation of mail between the places between which the carrier is authorized by its certificate to transport mail; and
(2) require the carrier to establish additional schedules for the transportation of mail between those places.
(d) Changing Schedules.— 
A schedule designated or required to be established for the transportation of mail under subsection (c) of this section may be changed only after 10 days notice of the change is filed as provided in subsection (b)(3) of this section. The Postal Service may disapprove a proposed change in a schedule or amend or modify the schedule or proposed change.
(e) Orders.— 
An order of the Postal Service under this section may become effective only after 10 days after the order is issued. A person adversely affected by the order may appeal the order to the Secretary before the end of the 10-day period under regulations the Secretary prescribes. If the public convenience and necessity require, the Secretary may amend, modify, suspend, or cancel the order. Pending a decision about the order, the Secretary may postpone the effective date of the order.
(f) Proceedings Preferences.— 
The Secretary shall give preference to a proceeding under this section over all other proceedings before the Secretary under this subpart.

49 USC 41903 - Duty to provide certain transportation of mail

(a) Air Carriers.— 
Subject to subsection (b) of this section, an air carrier authorized by its certificate to transport mail by aircraft in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska shall
(1) provide facilities and services necessary and adequate to provide that transportation; and
(2) transport mail between the places authorized in the certificate for transportation of mail when required, and under regulations prescribed, by the United States Postal Service.
(b) Maximum Mail Load.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe the maximum mail load for a schedule or for an aircraft or type of aircraft for the transportation of mail by aircraft in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska. If the Postal Service tenders to an air carrier mail exceeding the maximum load for transportation by the carrier under a schedule designated or required to be established for the transportation of mail under section 41902 (c) of this title, the carrier, as nearly in accordance with the schedule as the Secretary decides is possible, shall
(1) provide facilities sufficient to transport the mail to the extent the Secretary decides the carrier reasonably is able to do so; and
(2) transport that mail.

49 USC 41904 - Noncitizens transporting mail to or in foreign countries

When the United States Postal Service decides that it may be necessary to have a person not a citizen of the United States transport mail by aircraft to or in a foreign country, the Postal Service may make an arrangement with the person, without advertising, to provide the transportation.

49 USC 41905 - Regulating air carrier transportation of foreign mail

An air carrier holding a certificate that authorizes foreign air transportation and transporting mail of a foreign country shall transport that mail under the control of, and subject to regulation by, the United States Government.

49 USC 41906 - Emergency mail transportation

(a) Contract Authority.— 
In an emergency caused by a flood, fire, or other disaster, the United States Postal Service may make a contract without advertising to transport mail by aircraft to or from a locality affected by the emergency when the available facilities of persons authorized to transport mail to or from the locality are inadequate to meet the requirements of the Postal Service during the emergency. The contract may be only for periods necessary to maintain mail service because of the inadequacy of the facilities. Payment for transportation provided under the contract shall be made at prices provided in the contract.
(b) Transportation Not Air Transportation.— 
Transportation provided under a contract made under subsection (a) of this section is not air transportation within the meaning of this part.

49 USC 41907 - Prices for foreign transportation of mail

(a) Limitations.— 
When air transportation is provided between the United States and a foreign country both by aircraft owned or operated by an air carrier holding a certificate under chapter 411 of this title and by aircraft owned or operated by a foreign air carrier, the United States Postal Service may not pay to or for the account of the foreign air carrier a price for transporting mail by aircraft between the United States and the foreign country that the Postal Service believes will result (over a reasonable period determined by the Postal Service considering exchange fluctuations and other factors) in the foreign air carrier receiving a price for transporting the mail that is higher than the price
(1) the government of a foreign country or foreign postal administration pays to air carriers for transporting mail of the foreign country by aircraft between the foreign country and the United States; or
(2) determined by the Postal Service to be comparable to the price the government of a foreign country or foreign postal administration pays to air carriers for transporting mail of the foreign country by aircraft between the foreign country and an intermediate country on the route of the air carrier between the foreign country and the United States.
(b) Changes.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall act expeditiously on proposed changes in prices for transporting mail by aircraft in foreign air transportation. When prescribing those prices, the Secretary shall consider
(1) the prices paid for transportation of mail under the Universal Postal Union Convention as ratified by the United States Government;
(2) the price-making elements used by the Universal Postal Union in prescribing its airmail prices; and
(3) the competitive disadvantage to United States flag air carriers resulting from foreign air carriers receiving Universal Postal Union prices for transporting United States mail and national origin mail of their own countries.

49 USC 41908 - Prices for transporting mail of foreign countries

(a) Price Determinations.— 
The United States Postal Service shall determine the prices that an air carrier holding a certificate that authorizes foreign air transportation must charge a government of a foreign country or foreign postal administration for transporting mail of the foreign country. The Postal Service shall put those prices into effect under the postal convention regulating postal relations between the United States and the foreign country or as provided under this section.
(b) Changes.— 
The Postal Service may authorize an air carrier holding a certificate that authorizes foreign air transportation, under limitations the Postal Service prescribes, to change the prices the carrier charges a government of a foreign country or foreign postal administration for transporting mail of the foreign country in the foreign country or between the foreign country and another foreign country.
(c) Collecting Compensation.— 

(1) When an air carrier holding a certificate that authorizes foreign air transportation transports mail of a foreign country
(A) under an arrangement with a government of a foreign country or foreign postal administration made or approved under this section, the carrier must collect its compensation for the transportation from the foreign country under the arrangement; and
(B) without having an arrangement with a government of a foreign country or foreign postal administration consistent with this section, the compensation collected by the United States Government for the transportation shall be for the account of the air carrier.
(2) An air carrier holding a certificate that authorizes foreign air transportation is not entitled to receive compensation from both a government of a foreign country or foreign postal administration and the United States Government for transporting the same mail of the foreign country.

49 USC 41909 - Duty to oppose unreasonable prices under the Universal Postal Union Convention

The Secretary of State and the United States Postal Service shall
(1) take appropriate action to ensure that the prices paid for transporting mail under the Universal Postal Union Convention are not higher than reasonable prices for transporting mail; and
(2) oppose any existing or proposed Universal Postal Union price that is higher than a reasonable price for transporting mail.

49 USC 41910 - Weighing mail

The United States Postal Service may weigh mail transported by aircraft and make statistical and administrative computations necessary in the interest of mail service. When the Secretary of Transportation decides that additional or more frequent weighings of mail are advisable or necessary to carry out this part, the Postal Service shall provide the weighings, but it is not required to provide them for continuous periods of more than 30 days.

49 USC 41911 - Evidence of providing mail service

When and in the form required by the United States Postal Service, an air carrier transporting or handling
(1) United States mail shall submit evidence, signed by an authorized official, that the transportation or handling has been provided; and
(2) mail of a foreign country shall submit evidence, signed by an authorized official, of the amount of mail transported or handled and the compensation payable and received for that transportation or handling.

49 USC 41912 - Effect on foreign postal arrangements

This part does not
(1) affect an arrangement made by the United States Government with the postal administration of a foreign country related to the transportation of mail by aircraft; or
(2) impair the authority of the United States Postal Service to make such an arrangement.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 421 - LABOR-MANAGEMENT PROVISIONS

[SUBCHAPTER I - REPEALED]

42101 to 42106. Repealed. Pub. L. 105220, title I, 199(a)(6), Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1059]

Section 42101, Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1157, defined terms in subchapter. Section 42102, Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1158, related to payments to eligible protected employees. Section 42103, Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1159, related to duty to hire protected employees. Section 42104, Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1159; Pub. L. 104–287, § 5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389, related to congressional review of regulations. Section 42105, Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1160, related to Airline Employees Protective Account. Section 42106, Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1160, provided ending effective date for subchapter.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - MUTUAL AID AGREEMENTS AND LABOR REQUIREMENTS OF AIR CARRIERS

49 USC 42111 - Mutual aid agreements

An air carrier that will receive payments from another air carrier under an agreement between the air carriers for the time the one air carrier is not providing foreign air transportation, or is providing reduced levels of foreign air transportation, because of a labor strike must file a true copy of the agreement with the Secretary of Transportation and have it approved by the Secretary under section 41309 of this title. Notwithstanding section 41309, the Secretary shall approve the agreement only if it provides that
(1) the air carrier will receive payments of not more than 60 percent of direct operating expenses, including interest expenses, but not depreciation or amortization expenses;
(2) benefits may be paid for not more than 8 weeks, and may not be for losses incurred during the first 30 days of a strike; and
(3) on request of the striking employees, the dispute will be submitted to binding arbitration under the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.).

49 USC 42112 - Labor requirements of air carriers

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section
(1) copilot means an employee whose duties include assisting or relieving the pilot in manipulating an aircraft and who is qualified to serve as, and has in effect an airman certificate authorizing the employee to serve as, a copilot.
(2) pilot means an employee who is
(A) responsible for manipulating or who manipulates the flight controls of an aircraft when under way, including the landing and takeoff of an aircraft; and
(B) qualified to serve as, and has in effect an airman certificate authorizing the employee to serve as, a pilot.
(b) Duties of Air Carriers.— 
An air carrier shall
(1) maintain rates of compensation, maximum hours, and other working conditions and relations for its pilots and copilots who are providing interstate air transportation in the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia to conform with decision number 83, May 10, 1934, National Labor Board, notwithstanding any limitation in that decision on the period of its effectiveness;
(2) maintain rates of compensation for its pilots and copilots who are providing foreign air transportation or air transportation only in one territory or possession of the United States; and
(3) comply with title II of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 181 et seq.) as long as it holds its certificate.
(c) Minimum Annual Rate of Compensation.— 
A minimum annual rate under subsection (b)(2) of this section may not be less than the annual rate required to be paid for comparable service to a pilot or copilot under subsection (b)(1) of this section.
(d) Collective Bargaining.— 
This section does not prevent pilots or copilots of an air carrier from obtaining by collective bargaining higher rates of compensation or more favorable working conditions or relations.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION PROGRAM

49 USC 42121 - Protection of employees providing air safety information

(a) Discrimination Against Airline Employees.— 
No air carrier or contractor or subcontractor of an air carrier may discharge an employee or otherwise discriminate against an employee with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because the employee (or any person acting pursuant to a request of the employee)
(1) provided, caused to be provided, or is about to provide (with any knowledge of the employer) or cause to be provided to the employer or Federal Government information relating to any violation or alleged violation of any order, regulation, or standard of the Federal Aviation Administration or any other provision of Federal law relating to air carrier safety under this subtitle or any other law of the United States;
(2) has filed, caused to be filed, or is about to file (with any knowledge of the employer) or cause to be filed a proceeding relating to any violation or alleged violation of any order, regulation, or standard of the Federal Aviation Administration or any other provision of Federal law relating to air carrier safety under this subtitle or any other law of the United States;
(3) testified or is about to testify in such a proceeding; or
(4) assisted or participated or is about to assist or participate in such a proceeding.
(b) Department of Labor Complaint Procedure.— 

(1) Filing and notification.— 
A person who believes that he or she has been discharged or otherwise discriminated against by any person in violation of subsection (a) may, not later than 90 days after the date on which such violation occurs, file (or have any person file on his or her behalf) a complaint with the Secretary of Labor alleging such discharge or discrimination. Upon receipt of such a complaint, the Secretary of Labor shall notify, in writing, the person named in the complaint and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration of the filing of the complaint, of the allegations contained in the complaint, of the substance of evidence supporting the complaint, and of the opportunities that will be afforded to such person under paragraph (2).
(2) Investigation; preliminary order.— 

(A) In general.— 
Not later than 60 days after the date of receipt of a complaint filed under paragraph (1) and after affording the person named in the complaint an opportunity to submit to the Secretary of Labor a written response to the complaint and an opportunity to meet with a representative of the Secretary to present statements from witnesses, the Secretary of Labor shall conduct an investigation and determine whether there is reasonable cause to believe that the complaint has merit and notify, in writing, the complainant and the person alleged to have committed a violation of subsection (a) of the Secretarys findings. If the Secretary of Labor concludes that there is a reasonable cause to believe that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred, the Secretary shall accompany the Secretarys findings with a preliminary order providing the relief prescribed by paragraph (3)(B). Not later than 30 days after the date of notification of findings under this paragraph, either the person alleged to have committed the violation or the complainant may file objections to the findings or preliminary order, or both, and request a hearing on the record. The filing of such objections shall not operate to stay any reinstatement remedy contained in the preliminary order. Such hearings shall be conducted expeditiously. If a hearing is not requested in such 30-day period, the preliminary order shall be deemed a final order that is not subject to judicial review.
(B) Requirements.— 

(i) Required showing by complainant.— 
The Secretary of Labor shall dismiss a complaint filed under this subsection and shall not conduct an investigation otherwise required under subparagraph (A) unless the complainant makes a prima facie showing that any behavior described in paragraphs (1) through (4) of subsection (a) was a contributing factor in the unfavorable personnel action alleged in the complaint.
(ii) Showing by employer.— 
Notwithstanding a finding by the Secretary that the complainant has made the showing required under clause (i), no investigation otherwise required under subparagraph (A) shall be conducted if the employer demonstrates, by clear and convincing evidence, that the employer would have taken the same unfavorable personnel action in the absence of that behavior.
(iii) Criteria for determination by secretary.— 
The Secretary may determine that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred only if the complainant demonstrates that any behavior described in paragraphs (1) through (4) of subsection (a) was a contributing factor in the unfavorable personnel action alleged in the complaint.
(iv) Prohibition.— 
Relief may not be ordered under subparagraph (A) if the employer demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that the employer would have taken the same unfavorable personnel action in the absence of that behavior.
(3) Final order.— 

(A) Deadline for issuance; settlement agreements.— 
Not later than 120 days after the date of conclusion of a hearing under paragraph (2), the Secretary of Labor shall issue a final order providing the relief prescribed by this paragraph or denying the complaint. At any time before issuance of a final order, a proceeding under this subsection may be terminated on the basis of a settlement agreement entered into by the Secretary of Labor, the complainant, and the person alleged to have committed the violation.
(B) Remedy.— 
If, in response to a complaint filed under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Labor determines that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred, the Secretary of Labor shall order the person who committed such violation to
(i) take affirmative action to abate the violation;
(ii) reinstate the complainant to his or her former position together with the compensation (including back pay) and restore the terms, conditions, and privileges associated with his or her employment; and
(iii) provide compensatory damages to the complainant.

If such an order is issued under this paragraph, the Secretary of Labor, at the request of the complainant, shall assess against the person against whom the order is issued a sum equal to the aggregate amount of all costs and expenses (including attorneys and expert witness fees) reasonably incurred, as determined by the Secretary of Labor, by the complainant for, or in connection with, the bringing the complaint upon which the order was issued.

(C) Frivolous complaints.— 
If the Secretary of Labor finds that a complaint under paragraph (1) is frivolous or has been brought in bad faith, the Secretary of Labor may award to the prevailing employer a reasonable attorneys fee not exceeding $1,000.
(4) Review.— 

(A) Appeal to court of appeals.— 
Any person adversely affected or aggrieved by an order issued under paragraph (3) may obtain review of the order in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which the violation, with respect to which the order was issued, allegedly occurred or the circuit in which the complainant resided on the date of such violation. The petition for review must be filed not later than 60 days after the date of the issuance of the final order of the Secretary of Labor. Review shall conform to chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code. The commencement of proceedings under this subparagraph shall not, unless ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the order.
(B) Limitation on collateral attack.— 
An order of the Secretary of Labor with respect to which review could have been obtained under subparagraph (A) shall not be subject to judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceeding.
(5) Enforcement of order by secretary of labor.— 
Whenever any person has failed to comply with an order issued under paragraph (3), the Secretary of Labor may file a civil action in the United States district court for the district in which the violation was found to occur to enforce such order. In actions brought under this paragraph, the district courts shall have jurisdiction to grant all appropriate relief including, but not limited to, injunctive relief and compensatory damages.
(6) Enforcement of order by parties.— 

(A) Commencement of action.— 
A person on whose behalf an order was issued under paragraph (3) may commence a civil action against the person to whom such order was issued to require compliance with such order. The appropriate United States district court shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce such order.
(B) Attorney fees.— 
The court, in issuing any final order under this paragraph, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party whenever the court determines such award is appropriate.
(c) Mandamus.— 
Any nondiscretionary duty imposed by this section shall be enforceable in a mandamus proceeding brought under section 1361 of title 28, United States Code.
(d) Nonapplicability to Deliberate Violations.— 
Subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to an employee of an air carrier, contractor, or subcontractor who, acting without direction from such air carrier, contractor, or subcontractor (or such persons agent), deliberately causes a violation of any requirement relating to air carrier safety under this subtitle or any other law of the United States.
(e) Contractor Defined.— 
In this section, the term contractor means a company that performs safety-sensitive functions by contract for an air carrier.

subpart iii - safety

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 441 - REGISTRATION AND RECORDATION OF AIRCRAFT

49 USC 44101 - Operation of aircraft

(a) Registration Requirement.— 
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, a person may operate an aircraft only when the aircraft is registered under section 44103 of this title.
(b) Exceptions.— 
A person may operate an aircraft in the United States that is not registered
(1) when authorized under section 40103 (d) or 41703 of this title;
(2) when it is an aircraft of the national defense forces of the United States and is identified in a way satisfactory to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration; and
(3) for a reasonable period of time after a transfer of ownership, under regulations prescribed by the Administrator.

49 USC 44102 - Registration requirements

(a) Eligibility.— 
An aircraft may be registered under section 44103 of this title only when the aircraft is
(1) not registered under the laws of a foreign country and is owned by
(A) a citizen of the United States;
(B) an individual citizen of a foreign country lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States; or
(C) a corporation not a citizen of the United States when the corporation is organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or a State, and the aircraft is based and primarily used in the United States; or
(2) an aircraft of
(A) the United States Government; or
(B) a State, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, or a political subdivision of a State, territory, or possession.
(b) Duty To Define Certain Term.— 
In carrying out subsection (a)(1)(C) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall define based and primarily used in the United States.

49 USC 44103 - Registration of aircraft

(a) General.— 

(1) On application of the owner of an aircraft that meets the requirements of section 44102 of this title, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall
(A) register the aircraft; and
(B) issue a certificate of registration to its owner.
(2) The Administrator may prescribe the extent to which an aircraft owned by the holder of a dealers certificate of registration issued under section 44104 (2) of this title also is registered under this section.
(b) Controlled Substance Violations.— 

(1) The Administrator may not issue an owners certificate of registration under subsection (a)(1) of this section to a person whose certificate is revoked under section 44106 of this title during the 5-year period beginning on the date of the revocation, except
(A) as provided in section 44106 (e)(2) of this title; or
(B) that the Administrator may issue the certificate to the person after the one-year period beginning on the date of the revocation if the Administrator decides that the aircraft otherwise meets the requirements of section 44102 of this title and that denial of a certificate for the 5-year period
(i) would be excessive considering the nature of the offense or the act committed and the burden the denial places on the person; or
(ii) would not be in the public interest.
(2) A decision of the Administrator under paragraph (1)(B)(i) or (ii) of this subsection is within the discretion of the Administrator. That decision or failure to make a decision is not subject to administrative or judicial review.
(c) Certificates as Evidence.— 
A certificate of registration issued under this section is
(1) conclusive evidence of the nationality of an aircraft for international purposes, but not conclusive evidence in a proceeding under the laws of the United States; and
(2) not evidence of ownership of an aircraft in a proceeding in which ownership is or may be in issue.
(d) Certificates Available for Inspection.— 
An operator of an aircraft shall make available for inspection a certificate of registration for the aircraft when requested by a United States Government, State, or local law enforcement officer.

49 USC 44104 - Registration of aircraft components and dealers certificates of registration

The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may prescribe regulations
(1) in the interest of safety for registering and identifying an aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance; and
(2) in the public interest for issuing, suspending, and revoking a dealers certificate of registration under this chapter and for its use by a person manufacturing, distributing, or selling aircraft.

49 USC 44105 - Suspension and revocation of aircraft certificates

The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may suspend or revoke a certificate of registration issued under section 44103 of this title when the aircraft no longer meets the requirements of section 44102 of this title.

49 USC 44106 - Revocation of aircraft certificates for controlled substance violations

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, controlled substance has the same meaning given that term in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802).
(b) Revocations.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue an order revoking the certificate of registration for an aircraft issued to an owner under section 44103 of this title and any other certificate of registration that the owner of the aircraft holds under section 44103, if the Administrator finds that
(A) the aircraft was used to carry out, or facilitate, an activity that is punishable by death or imprisonment for more than one year under a law of the United States or a State related to a controlled substance (except a law related to simple possession of a controlled substance); and
(B) the owner of the aircraft permitted the use of the aircraft knowing that the aircraft was to be used for the activity described in clause (A) of this paragraph.
(2) An aircraft owner that is not an individual is deemed to have permitted the use of the aircraft knowing that the aircraft was to be used for the activity described in paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection only if a majority of the individuals who control the owner of the aircraft or who are involved in forming the major policy of the owner permitted the use of the aircraft knowing that the aircraft was to be used for the activity described in paragraph (1)(A).
(c) Advice to Holders and Opportunity To Answer.— 
Before the Administrator revokes a certificate under subsection (b) of this section, the Administrator shall
(1) advise the holder of the certificate of the charges or reasons on which the Administrator bases the proposed action; and
(2) provide the holder of the certificate an opportunity to answer the charges and state why the certificate should not be revoked.
(d) Appeals.— 

(1) A person whose certificate is revoked by the Administrator under subsection (b) of this section may appeal the revocation order to the National Transportation Safety Board. The Board shall affirm or reverse the order after providing notice and a hearing on the record. In conducting the hearing, the Board is not bound by the findings of fact of the Administrator.
(2) When a person files an appeal with the Board under this subsection, the order of the Administrator revoking the certificate is stayed. However, if the Administrator advises the Board that safety in air transportation or air commerce requires the immediate effectiveness of the order
(A) the order remains effective; and
(B) the Board shall dispose of the appeal not later than 60 days after notification by the Administrator under this paragraph.
(3) A person substantially affected by an order of the Board under this subsection may seek judicial review of the order under section 46110 of this title. The Administrator shall be made a party to that judicial proceeding.
(e) Acquittal.— 

(1) The Administrator may not revoke, and the Board may not affirm a revocation of, a certificate of registration under this section on the basis of an activity described in subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section if the holder of the certificate is acquitted of all charges related to a controlled substance in an indictment or information arising from the activity.
(2) If the Administrator has revoked a certificate of registration of a person under this section because of an activity described in subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section, the Administrator shall reissue a certificate to the person if the person
(A) subsequently is acquitted of all charges related to a controlled substance in an indictment or information arising from the activity; and
(B) otherwise meets the requirements of section 44102 of this title.

49 USC 44107 - Recordation of conveyances, leases, and security instruments

(a) Establishment of System.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a system for recording
(1) conveyances that affect an interest in civil aircraft of the United States;
(2) leases and instruments executed for security purposes, including conditional sales contracts, assignments, and amendments, that affect an interest in
(A) a specifically identified aircraft engine having at least 550 rated takeoff horsepower or its equivalent;
(B) a specifically identified aircraft propeller capable of absorbing at least 750 rated takeoff shaft horsepower;
(C) an aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance maintained for installation or use in an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller, by or for an air carrier holding a certificate issued under section 44705 of this title; and
(D) spare parts maintained by or for an air carrier holding a certificate issued under section 44705 of this title; and
(3) releases, cancellations, discharges, and satisfactions related to a conveyance, lease, or instrument recorded under paragraph (1) or (2).
(b) General Description Required.— 
A lease or instrument recorded under subsection (a)(2)(C) or (D) of this section only has to describe generally the engine, propeller, appliance, or spare part by type and designate its location.
(c) Acknowledgment.— 
Except as the Administrator otherwise may provide, a conveyance, lease, or instrument may be recorded under subsection (a) of this section only after it has been acknowledged before
(1) a notary public; or
(2) another officer authorized under the laws of the United States, a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory or possession of the United States to acknowledge deeds.
(d) Records and Indexes.— 
The Administrator shall
(1) keep a record of the time and date that each conveyance, lease, and instrument is filed and recorded with the Administrator; and
(2) record each conveyance, lease, and instrument filed with the Administrator, in the order of their receipt, and index them by
(A) the identifying description of the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller, or location specified in a lease or instrument recorded under subsection (a)(2)(C) or (D) of this section; and
(B) the names of the parties to each conveyance, lease, and instrument.
(e) International Registry.— 

(1) Designation of united states entry point.— 
As permitted under the Cape Town Treaty, the Federal Aviation Administration Civil Aviation Registry is designated as the United States Entry Point to the International Registry relating to
(A) civil aircraft of the United States;
(B) an aircraft for which a United States identification number has been assigned but only with regard to a notice filed under paragraph (2); and
(C) aircraft engines.
(2) System for filing notice of prospective interests.— 

(A) Establishment.— 
The Administrator shall establish a system for filing notices of prospective assignments and prospective international interests in, and prospective sales of, aircraft or aircraft engines described in paragraph (1) under the Cape Town Treaty.
(B) Maintenance of validity.— 
A filing of a notice of prospective assignment, interest, or sale under this paragraph and the registration with the International Registry relating to such assignment, interest, or sale shall not be valid after the 60th day following the date of the filing unless documents eligible for recording under subsection (a) relating to such notice are filed for recordation on or before such 60th day.
(3) Authorization for registration of aircraft.— 
A registration with the International Registry relating to an aircraft described in paragraph (1) (other than subparagraph (C)) is valid only if
(A)  the person seeking the registration first files documents eligible for recording under subsection (a) and relating to the registration with the United States Entry Point, and
(B)  the United States Entry Point authorizes the registration.

49 USC 44108 - Validity of conveyances, leases, and security instruments

(a) Validity Before Filing.— 
Until a conveyance, lease, or instrument executed for security purposes that may be recorded under section 44107 (a)(1) or (2) of this title is filed for recording, the conveyance, lease, or instrument is valid only against
(1) the person making the conveyance, lease, or instrument;
(2) that persons heirs and devisees; and
(3) a person having actual notice of the conveyance, lease, or instrument.
(b) Period of Validity.— 
When a conveyance, lease, or instrument is recorded under section 44107 of this title, the conveyance, lease, or instrument is valid from the date of filing against all persons, without other recordation, except that
(1) a lease or instrument recorded under section 44107 (a)(2)(A) or (B) of this title is valid for a specifically identified engine or propeller without regard to a lease or instrument previously or subsequently recorded under section 44107 (a)(2)(C) or (D); and
(2) a lease or instrument recorded under section 44107 (a)(2)(C) or (D) of this title is valid only for items at the location designated in the lease or instrument.
(c) Applicable Laws.— 

(1) The validity of a conveyance, lease, or instrument that may be recorded under section 44107 of this title is subject to the laws of the State, the District of Columbia, or the territory or possession of the United States at which the conveyance, lease, or instrument is delivered, regardless of the place at which the subject of the conveyance, lease, or instrument is located or delivered. If the conveyance, lease, or instrument specifies the place at which delivery is intended, it is presumed that the conveyance, lease, or instrument was delivered at the specified place.
(2) This subsection does not take precedence over the Convention on the International Recognition of Rights in Aircraft (4 U.S.T. 1830) or the Cape Town Treaty, as applicable.
(d) Nonapplication.— 
This section does not apply to
(1) a conveyance described in section 44107 (a)(1) of this title that was made before August 22, 1938; or
(2) a lease or instrument described in section 44107 (a)(2) of this title that was made before June 20, 1948.

49 USC 44109 - Reporting transfer of ownership

(a) Filing Notices.— 
A person having an ownership interest in an aircraft for which a certificate of registration was issued under section 44103 of this title shall file a notice with the Secretary of the Treasury that the Secretary requires by regulation, not later than 15 days after a sale, conditional sale, transfer, or conveyance of the interest.
(b) Exemptions.— 
The Secretary
(1) shall prescribe regulations that establish guidelines for exempting a person or class from subsection (a) of this section; and
(2) may exempt a person or class under the regulations.

49 USC 44110 - Information about aircraft ownership and rights

The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may provide by regulation for
(1) endorsing information on each certificate of registration issued under section 44103 of this title and each certificate issued under section 44704 of this title about ownership of the aircraft for which each certificate is issued; and
(2) recording transactions affecting an interest in, and for other records, proceedings, and details necessary to decide the rights of a party related to, a civil aircraft of the United States, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or spare part.

49 USC 44111 - Modifications in registration and recordation system for aircraft not providing air transportation

(a) Application.— 
This section applies only to aircraft not used to provide air transportation.
(b) Authority To Make Modifications.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make modifications in the system for registering and recording aircraft necessary to make the system more effective in serving the needs of
(1) buyers and sellers of aircraft;
(2) officials responsible for enforcing laws related to the regulation of controlled substances (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)); and
(3) other users of the system.
(c) Nature of Modifications.— 
Modifications made under subsection (b) of this section
(1) may include a system of titling aircraft or registering all aircraft, even aircraft not operated;
(2) shall ensure positive, verifiable, and timely identification of the true owner; and
(3) shall address at least each of the following deficiencies in and abuses of the existing system:
(A) the registration of aircraft to fictitious persons.
(B) the use of false or nonexistent addresses by persons registering aircraft.
(C) the use by a person registering an aircraft of a post office box or mail drop as a return address to evade identification of the persons address.
(D) the registration of aircraft to entities established to facilitate unlawful activities.
(E) the submission of names of individuals on applications for registration of aircraft that are not identifiable.
(F) the ability to make frequent legal changes in the registration markings assigned to aircraft.
(G) the use of false registration markings on aircraft.
(H) the illegal use of reserved registration markings on aircraft.
(I) the large number of aircraft classified as being in self-reported status.
(J) the lack of a system to ensure timely and adequate notice of the transfer of ownership of aircraft.
(K) the practice of allowing temporary operation and navigation of aircraft without the issuance of a certificate of registration.
(d) Regulations.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section and provide a written explanation of how the regulations address each of the deficiencies and abuses described in subsection (c) of this section. In prescribing the regulations, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consult with the Administrator of Drug Enforcement, the Commissioner of Customs, other law enforcement officials of the United States Government, representatives of State and local law enforcement officials, representatives of the general aviation aircraft industry, representatives of users of general aviation aircraft, and other interested persons.
(2) Regulations prescribed under this subsection shall require that
(A) each individual listed in an application for registration of an aircraft provide with the application the individuals drivers license number; and
(B) each person (not an individual) listed in an application for registration of an aircraft provide with the application the persons taxpayer identifying number.

49 USC 44112 - Limitation of liability

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section
(1) lessor means a person leasing for at least 30 days a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller.
(2) owner means a person that owns a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller.
(3) secured party means a person having a security interest in, or security title to, a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller under a conditional sales contract, equipment trust contract, chattel or corporate mortgage, or similar instrument.
(b) Liability.— 
A lessor, owner, or secured party is liable for personal injury, death, or property loss or damage on land or water only when a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller is in the actual possession or control of the lessor, owner, or secured party, and the personal injury, death, or property loss or damage occurs because of
(1) the aircraft, engine, or propeller; or
(2) the flight of, or an object falling from, the aircraft, engine, or propeller.

49 USC 44113 - Definitions

In this chapter, the following definitions apply:
(1) Cape town treaty.— 
The term Cape Town Treaty means the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment, as modified by the Protocol to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment on Matters Specific to Aircraft Equipment, signed at Rome on May 9, 2003.
(2) United states entry point.— 
The term United States Entry Point means the Federal Aviation Administration Civil Aviation Registry.
(3) International registry.— 
The term International Registry means the registry established under the Cape Town Treaty.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

49 USC 44301 - Definitions

In this chapter
(1) aircraft manufacturer means any company or other business entity, the majority ownership and control of which is by United States citizens, that manufactures aircraft or aircraft engines.
(2) American aircraft means
(A) a civil aircraft of the United States; and
(B) an aircraft owned or chartered by, or made available to
(i) the United States Government; or
(ii) a State, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, or a political subdivision of the State, territory, or possession.
(3) insurance carrier means a person authorized to do aviation insurance business in a State, including a mutual or stock insurance company and a reciprocal insurance association.

49 USC 44302 - General authority

(a) Insurance and Reinsurance.— 

(1) Subject to subsection (c) of this section and section 44305 (a) of this title, the Secretary of Transportation may provide insurance and reinsurance against loss or damage arising out of any risk from the operation of an American aircraft or foreign-flag aircraft.
(2) An aircraft may be insured or reinsured for not more than its reasonable value as determined by the Secretary in accordance with reasonable business practices in the commercial aviation insurance industry. Insurance or reinsurance may be provided only when the Secretary decides that the insurance cannot be obtained on reasonable terms from an insurance carrier.
(b) Reimbursement of Insurance Cost Increases.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary may reimburse an air carrier for the increase in the cost of insurance, with respect to a premium for coverage ending before October 1, 2002, against loss or damage arising out of any risk from the operation of an American aircraft over the insurance premium that was in effect for a comparable operation during the period beginning September 4, 2001, and ending September 10, 2001, as the Secretary may determine. Such reimbursement is subject to subsections (a)(2), (c), and (d) of this section and to section 44303.
(2) Payment from revolving fund.— 
A reimbursement under this subsection shall be paid from the revolving fund established by section 44307.
(3) Further conditions.— 
The Secretary may impose such further conditions on insurance for which the increase in premium is subject to reimbursement under this subsection as the Secretary may deem appropriate in the interest of air commerce.
(4) Termination of authority.— 
The authority to reimburse air carriers under this subsection shall expire 180 days after the date of enactment of this paragraph.
(c) Presidential Approval.— 
The Secretary may provide insurance or reinsurance under subsection (a) of this section, or reimburse an air carrier under subsection (b) of this section, only with the approval of the President. The President may approve the insurance or reinsurance or the reimbursement only after deciding that the continued operation of the American aircraft or foreign-flag aircraft to be insured or reinsured is necessary in the interest of air commerce or national security or to carry out the foreign policy of the United States Government.
(d) Consultation.— 
The President may require the Secretary to consult with interested departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government before providing insurance or reinsurance or reimbursing an air carrier under this chapter.
(e) Additional Insurance.— 
With the approval of the Secretary, a person having an insurable interest in an aircraft may insure with other underwriters in an amount that is more than the amount insured with the Secretary. However, the Secretary may not benefit from the additional insurance. This subsection does not prevent the Secretary from making contracts of coinsurance.
(f) Extension of Policies.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary shall extend through August 31, 2008, and may extend through December 31, 2008, the termination date of any insurance policy that the Department of Transportation issued to an air carrier under subsection (a) and that is in effect on the date of enactment of this subsection on no less favorable terms to the air carrier than existed on June 19, 2002; except that the Secretary shall amend the insurance policy, subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, to add coverage for losses or injuries to aircraft hulls, passengers, and crew at the limits carried by air carriers for such losses and injuries as of such date of enactment and at an additional premium comparable to the premium charged for third-party casualty coverage under such policy.
(2) Special rules.— 
Notwithstanding paragraph (1)
(A) in no event shall the total premium paid by the air carrier for the policy, as amended, be more than twice the premium that the air carrier was paying to the Department of Transportation for its third party policy as of June 19, 2002; and
(B) the coverage in such policy shall begin with the first dollar of any covered loss that is incurred.
(g) Aircraft Manufacturers.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary may provide to an aircraft manufacturer insurance for loss or damage resulting from operation of an aircraft by an air carrier and involving war or terrorism.
(2) Amount.— 
Insurance provided by the Secretary under this subsection shall be for loss or damage in excess of the greater of the amount of available primary insurance or $50,000,000.
(3) Terms and conditions.— 
Insurance provided by the Secretary under this subsection shall be subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this chapter and such other terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe.

49 USC 44303 - Coverage

(a) In General.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may provide insurance and reinsurance, or reimburse insurance costs, as authorized under section 44302 of this title for the following:
(1) an American aircraft or foreign-flag aircraft engaged in aircraft operations the President decides are necessary in the interest of air commerce or national security or to carry out the foreign policy of the United States Government.
(2) property transported or to be transported on aircraft referred to in clause (1) of this section, including
(A) shipments by express or registered mail;
(B) property owned by citizens or residents of the United States;
(C) property
(i) imported to, or exported from, the United States; and
(ii) bought or sold by a citizen or resident of the United States under a contract putting the risk of loss or obligation to provide insurance against risk of loss on the citizen or resident; and
(D) property transported between
(i) a place in a State or the District of Columbia and a place in a territory or possession of the United States;
(ii) a place in a territory or possession of the United States and a place in another territory or possession of the United States; or
(iii) 2 places in the same territory or possession of the United States.
(3) the personal effects and baggage of officers and members of the crew of an aircraft referred to in clause (1) of this section and of other individuals employed or transported on that aircraft.
(4) officers and members of the crew of an aircraft referred to in clause (1) of this section and other individuals employed or transported on that aircraft against loss of life, injury, or detention.
(5) statutory or contractual obligations or other liabilities, customarily covered by insurance, of an aircraft referred to in clause (1) of this section or of the owner or operator of that aircraft.
(6) loss or damage of an aircraft manufacturer resulting from operation of an aircraft by an air carrier and involving war or terrorism.
(b) Air Carrier Liability for Third Party Claims Arising Out of Acts of Terrorism.— 
For acts of terrorism committed on or to an air carrier during the period beginning on September 22, 2001, and ending on December 31, 2008, the Secretary may certify that the air carrier was a victim of an act of terrorism and in the Secretarys judgment, based on the Secretarys analysis and conclusions regarding the facts and circumstances of each case, shall not be responsible for losses suffered by third parties (as referred to in section 205.5(b)(1) of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations) that exceed $100,000,000, in the aggregate, for all claims by such parties arising out of such act. If the Secretary so certifies, the air carrier shall not be liable for an amount that exceeds $100,000,000, in the aggregate, for all claims by such parties arising out of such act, and the Government shall be responsible for any liability above such amount. No punitive damages may be awarded against an air carrier (or the Government taking responsibility for an air carrier under this subsection) under a cause of action arising out of such act. The Secretary may extend the provisions of this subsection to an aircraft manufacturer (as defined in section 44301) of the aircraft of the air carrier involved.

49 USC 44304 - Reinsurance

To the extent the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to provide insurance under this chapter, the Secretary may reinsure any part of the insurance provided by an insurance carrier. The Secretary may reinsure with, transfer to, or transfer back to, the carrier any insurance or reinsurance provided by the Secretary under this chapter.

49 USC 44305 - Insuring United States Government property

(a) General.— 
With the approval of the President, a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government may obtain
(1) insurance under this chapter, including insurance for risks from operating an aircraft in intrastate or interstate air commerce, but not including insurance on valuables subject to sections 17302 and 17303 of title 40; and
(2) insurance for risks arising from providing goods or services directly related to and necessary for operating an aircraft covered by insurance obtained under clause (1) of this subsection if the aircraft is operated
(A) in carrying out a contract of the department, agency, or instrumentality; or
(B) to transport military forces or materiel on behalf of the United States under an agreement between the Government and the government of a foreign country.
(b) Premium Waivers and Indemnification.— 
With the approval required under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation may provide the insurance without premium at the request of the Secretary of Defense or the head of a department, agency, or instrumentality designated by the President when the Secretary of Defense or the designated head agrees to indemnify the Secretary of Transportation against all losses covered by the insurance. The Secretary of Defense and any designated head may make indemnity agreements with the Secretary of Transportation under this section. If such an agreement is countersigned by the President or the Presidents designee, the agreement shall constitute, for purposes of section 44302 (c), a determination that continuation of the aircraft operations to which the agreement applies is necessary to carry out the foreign policy of the United States.

49 USC 44306 - Premiums and limitations on coverage and claims

(a) Premiums Based on Risk.— 
To the extent practical, the premium charged for insurance or reinsurance under this chapter shall be based on consideration of the risk involved.
(b) Allowances in Setting Premium Rates for Reinsurance.— 
In setting premium rates for reinsurance, the Secretary may make allowances to the insurance carrier for expenses incurred in providing services and facilities that the Secretary considers good business practices, except for payments by the insurance carrier for the stimulation or solicitation of insurance business.
(c) Time Limits.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may provide insurance and reinsurance under this chapter for a period of not more than 1 year. The period may be extended for additional periods of not more than 1 year each only if the President decides, before each additional period, that the continued operation of the aircraft to be insured or reinsured is necessary in the interest of air commerce or national security or to carry out the foreign policy of the United States Government.
(d) Maximum Insured Amount.— 
The insurance policy on an aircraft insured or reinsured under this chapter shall specify a stated amount that is not more than the value of the aircraft, as determined by the Secretary in accordance with reasonable business practices in the commercial aviation insurance industry. A claim under the policy may not be paid for more than that stated amount.

49 USC 44307 - Revolving fund

(a) Existence, Disbursements, Appropriations, and Deposits.— 

(1) There is a revolving fund in the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury shall disburse from the fund payments to carry out this chapter.
(2) Necessary amounts to carry out this chapter may be appropriated to the fund. The amounts appropriated and other amounts received in carrying out this chapter shall be deposited in the fund.
(b) Investment.— 
On request of the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of the Treasury may invest any part of the amounts in the revolving fund in interest-bearing securities of the United States Government. The interest on, and the proceeds from the sale or redemption of, the securities shall be deposited in the fund.
(c) Excess Amounts.— 
The balance in the revolving fund in excess of an amount the Secretary of Transportation determines is necessary for the requirements of the fund and for reasonable reserves to maintain the solvency of the fund shall be deposited at least annually in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.
(d) Expenses.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall deposit annually an amount in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts to cover the expenses the Government incurs when the Secretary of Transportation uses appropriated amounts in carrying out this chapter. The deposited amount shall equal an amount determined by multiplying the average monthly balance of appropriated amounts retained in the revolving fund by a percentage that is at least the current average rate payable on marketable obligations of the Government. The Secretary of the Treasury shall determine annually in advance the percentage applied.

49 USC 44308 - Administrative

(a) Commercial Practices.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may carry out this chapter consistent with commercial practices of the aviation insurance business.
(b) Issuance of Policies and Disposition of Claims.— 

(1) The Secretary may issue insurance policies to carry out this chapter. The Secretary may prescribe the forms, amounts insured under the policies, and premiums charged. Any such policy may authorize the binding arbitration of claims made thereunder in such manner as may be agreed to by the Secretary and any commercial insurer that may be responsible for any part of a loss to which such policy relates. The Secretary may change an amount of insurance or a premium for an existing policy only with the consent of the insured.
(2) For a claim under insurance authorized by this chapter, the Secretary may
(A) settle and pay the claim made for or against the United States Government;
(B) pay the amount of a binding arbitration award made under paragraph (1); and
(C) pay the amount of a judgment entered against the Government.
(c) Underwriting Agent.— 

(1) The Secretary may, and when practical shall, employ an insurance carrier or group of insurance carriers to act as an underwriting agent. The Secretary may use the agent to adjust claims under this chapter, but claims may be paid only when approved by the Secretary.
(2) The Secretary may pay reasonable compensation to an underwriting agent for servicing insurance the agent writes for the Secretary. Compensation may include payment for reasonable expenses incurred by the agent but may not include a payment by the agent for stimulation or solicitation of insurance business.
(3) Except as provided by this subsection, the Secretary may not pay an insurance broker or other person acting in a similar capacity any consideration for arranging insurance when the Secretary directly insures any part of the risk.
(d) Budget.— 
The Secretary shall submit annually a budget program for carrying out this chapter as provided for wholly owned Government corporations under chapter 91 of title 31.
(e) Accounts.— 
The Secretary shall maintain a set of accounts for audit under chapter 35 of title 31. Notwithstanding chapter 35, the Comptroller General shall allow credit for expenditures under this chapter made consistent with commercial practices in the aviation insurance business when shown to be necessary because of the business activities authorized by this chapter.

49 USC 44309 - Civil actions

(a) Losses.— 

(1) Actions against united states.— 
A person may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States or in the United States Court of Federal Claims against the United States Government when
(A) a loss insured under this chapter is in dispute; or
(B) 
(i) the person is subrogated under a contract between the person and a party insured under this chapter (other than section 44305 (b)) to the rights of the insured party against the United States Government; and
(ii) the person has paid to the insured party, with the approval of the Secretary of Transportation, an amount for a physical damage loss that the Secretary has determined is a loss covered by insurance issued under this chapter (other than section 44305 (b)).
(2) Limitation.— 
A civil action involving the same matter (except the action authorized by this subsection) may not be brought against an agent, officer, or employee of the Government carrying out this chapter.
(3) Procedure.— 
To the extent applicable, the procedure in an action brought under section 1346 (a)(2) of title 28, United States Code, applies to an action under this subsection.
(b) Venue and Joinder.— 

(1) A civil action under subsection (a) of this section may be brought in the judicial district for the District of Columbia or in the judicial district in which the plaintiff or the agent of the plaintiff resides if the plaintiff resides in the United States. If the plaintiff does not reside in the United States, the action may be brought in the judicial district for the District of Columbia or in the judicial district in which the Attorney General agrees to accept service.
(2) An interested person may be joined as a party to a civil action brought under subsection (a) of this section initially or on motion of either party to the action.
(c) Time Requirements.— 
When an insurance claim is made under this chapter, the period during which, under section 2401 of title 28, a civil action must be brought under subsection (a) of this section is suspended until 60 days after the Secretary of Transportation denies the claim. The claim is deemed to be administratively denied if the Secretary does not act on the claim not later than 6 months after filing, unless the Secretary makes a different agreement with the claimant when there is good cause for an agreement.
(d) Interpleader.— 

(1) If the Secretary admits the Government owes money under an insurance claim under this chapter and there is a dispute about the person that is entitled to payment, the Government may bring a civil action of interpleader in a district court of the United States against the persons that may be entitled to payment. The action may be brought in the judicial district for the District of Columbia or in the judicial district in which any party resides.
(2) The district court may order a party not residing or found in the judicial district in which the action is brought to appear in a civil action under this subsection. The order shall be served in a reasonable manner decided by the district court. If the court decides an unknown person might assert a claim under the insurance that is the subject of the action, the court may order service on that person by publication in the Federal Register.
(3) Judgment in a civil action under this subsection discharges the Government from further liability to the parties to the action and to all other persons served by publication under paragraph (2) of this subsection.

49 USC 44310 - Ending effective date

The authority of the Secretary of Transportation to provide insurance and reinsurance under this chapter is not effective after March 30, 2008.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 445 - FACILITIES, PERSONNEL, AND RESEARCH

49 USC 44501 - Plans and policy

(a) Long Range Plans and Policy Requirements.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make long range plans and policy for the orderly development and use of the navigable airspace, and the orderly development and location of air navigation facilities, that will best meet the needs of, and serve the interests of, civil aeronautics and the national defense, except for needs of the armed forces that are peculiar to air warfare and primarily of military concern.
(b) Airway Capital Investment Plan.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall review, revise, and publish a national airways system plan, known as the Airway Capital Investment Plan, before the beginning of each fiscal year. The plan shall set forth
(1) for a 10-year period, the research, engineering, and development programs and the facilities and equipment that the Administrator considers necessary for a system of airways, air traffic services, and navigation aids that will
(A) meet the forecasted needs of civil aeronautics;
(B) meet the requirements that the Secretary of Defense establishes for the support of the national defense; and
(C) provide the highest degree of safety in air commerce;
(2) for the first and 2d years of the plan, detailed annual estimates of
(A) the number, type, location, and cost of acquiring, operating, and maintaining required facilities and services;
(B) the cost of research, engineering, and development required to improve safety, system capacity, and efficiency; and
(C) personnel levels required for the activities described in subclauses (A) and (B) of this clause;
(3) for the 3d, 4th, and 5th years of the plan, estimates of the total cost of each major program for the 3-year period, and additional major research programs, acquisition of systems and facilities, and changes in personnel levels that may be required to meet long range objectives and that may have significant impact on future funding requirements; and
(4) a 10-year investment plan that considers long range objectives that the Administrator considers necessary to
(A) ensure that safety is given the highest priority in providing for a safe and efficient airway system; and
(B) meet the current and projected growth of aviation and the requirements of interstate commerce, the United States Postal Service, and the national defense.
(c) National Aviation Research Plan.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prepare and publish annually a national aviation research plan and submit the plan to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives. The plan shall be submitted not later than the date of submission of the Presidents budget to Congress.
(2) 
(A) The plan shall describe, for a 5-year period, the research, engineering, and development that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration considers necessary
(i) to ensure the continued capacity, safety, and efficiency of aviation in the United States, considering emerging technologies and forecasted needs of civil aeronautics; and
(ii) to provide the highest degree of safety in air travel.
(B) The plan shall
(i) provide estimates by year of the schedule, cost, and work force levels for each active and planned major research and development project under sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507, 44509, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title, including activities carried out under cooperative agreements with other Federal departments and agencies;
(ii) specify the goals and the priorities for allocation of resources among the major categories of research and development activities, including the rationale for the priorities identified;
(iii) identify the allocation of resources among long-term research, near-term research, and development activities;
(iv) identify the individual research and development projects in each funding category that are described in the annual budget request;
(v) highlight the research and development activities that address specific recommendations of the research advisory committee established under section 44508 of this title, and document the recommendations of the committee that are not accepted, specifying the reasons for nonacceptance; and
(vi) highlight the research and development technology transfer activities that promote technology sharing among government, industry, and academia through the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980.
(3) Subject to section 40119 (b) of this title and regulations prescribed under section 40119 (b), the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall submit to the committees named in paragraph (1) of this subsection an annual report on the accomplishments of the research completed during the prior fiscal year, including a description of the dissemination to the private sector of research results and a description of any new technologies developed. The report shall be submitted with the plan required under paragraph (1) and be organized to allow comparison with the plan in effect for the prior fiscal year. The report shall be prepared in accordance with requirements of section 1116 of title 31.

49 USC 44502 - General facilities and personnel authority

(a) General Authority.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may
(A) acquire, establish, improve, operate, and maintain air navigation facilities; and
(B) provide facilities and personnel to regulate and protect air traffic.
(2) The cost of site preparation work associated with acquiring, establishing, or improving an air navigation facility under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall be charged to amounts available for that purpose appropriated under section 48101 (a) of this title. The Secretary of Transportation may make an agreement with an airport owner or sponsor (as defined in section 47102 of this title) so that the owner or sponsor will provide the work and be paid or reimbursed by the Secretary from the appropriated amounts.
(3) The Secretary of Transportation may authorize a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government to carry out any duty or power under this subsection with the consent of the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality.
(4) Purchase of instrument landing system.— 

(A) Establishment of program.— 
The Secretary shall purchase precision approach instrument landing system equipment for installation at airports on an expedited basis.
(B) Authorization.— 
No less than $30,000,000 of the amounts appropriated under section 48101 (a) for each of fiscal years 2000 through 2002 shall be used for the purpose of carrying out this paragraph, including acquisition under new or existing contracts, site preparation work, installation, and related expenditures.
(5) Improvements on leased properties.— 
The Administrator may make improvements to real property leased for no or nominal consideration for an air navigation facility, regardless of whether the cost of making the improvements exceeds the cost of leasing the real property, if
(A) the improvements primarily benefit the Government;
(B) the improvements are essential for accomplishment of the mission of the Federal Aviation Administration; and
(C) the interest of the United States Government in the improvements is protected.
(b) Certification of Necessity.— 
Except for Government money expended under this part or for a military purpose, Government money may be expended to acquire, establish, construct, operate, repair, alter, or maintain an air navigation facility only if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration certifies in writing that the facility is reasonably necessary for use in air commerce or for the national defense. An interested person may apply for a certificate for a facility to be acquired, established, constructed, operated, repaired, altered, or maintained by or for the person.
(c) Ensuring Conformity With Plans and Policies.— 

(1) To ensure conformity with plans and policies for, and allocation of, airspace by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under section 40103 (b)(1) of this title, a military airport, military landing area, or missile or rocket site may be acquired, established, or constructed, or a runway may be altered substantially, only if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration is given reasonable prior notice so that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may advise the appropriate committees of Congress and interested departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government on the effect of the acquisition, establishment, construction, or alteration on the use of airspace by aircraft. A disagreement between the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Secretary of Defense or the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration may be appealed to the President for a final decision.
(2) To ensure conformity, an airport or landing area not involving the expenditure of Government money may be established or constructed, or a runway may be altered substantially, only if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration is given reasonable prior notice so that the Administrator may provide advice on the effects of the establishment, construction, or alteration on the use of airspace by aircraft.
(d) Public Use and Emergency Assistance.— 

(1) The head of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government having jurisdiction over an air navigation facility owned or operated by the Government may provide, under regulations the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality prescribes, for public use of the facility.
(2) The head of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government having jurisdiction over an airport or emergency landing field owned or operated by the Government may provide, under regulations the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality prescribes, for assistance, and the sale of fuel, oil, equipment, and supplies, to an aircraft, but only when necessary, because of an emergency, to allow the aircraft to continue to the nearest airport operated by private enterprise. The head of the department, agency, or instrumentality shall provide for the assistance and sale at the prevailing local fair market value as determined by the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality. An amount that the head decides is equal to the cost of the assistance provided and the fuel, oil, equipment, and supplies sold shall be credited to the appropriation from which the cost was paid. The balance shall be credited to miscellaneous receipts.
(e) Transfers of Instrument Landing Systems.— 
An airport may transfer, without consideration, to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration an instrument landing system (and associated approach lighting equipment and runway visual range equipment) that conforms to performance specifications of the Administrator if a Government airport aid program, airport development aid program, or airport improvement project grant was used to assist in purchasing the system. The Administrator shall accept the system and operate and maintain it under criteria of the Administrator.

49 USC 44503 - Reducing nonessential expenditures

The Secretary of Transportation shall attempt to reduce the capital, operating, maintenance, and administrative costs of the national airport and airway system to the maximum extent practicable consistent with the highest degree of aviation safety. At least annually, the Secretary shall consult with and consider the recommendations of users of the system on ways to reduce nonessential expenditures of the United States Government for aviation. The Secretary shall give particular attention to a recommendation that may reduce, with no adverse effect on safety, future personnel requirements and costs to the Government required to be recovered from user charges.

49 USC 44504 - Improved aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances

(a) Developmental Work and Service Testing.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may conduct or supervise developmental work and service testing to improve aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances.
(b) Research.— 
The Administrator shall conduct or supervise research
(1) to develop technologies and analyze information to predict the effects of aircraft design, maintenance, testing, wear, and fatigue on the life of aircraft, including nonstructural aircraft systems, and air safety;
(2) to develop methods of analyzing and improving aircraft maintenance technology and practices, including nondestructive evaluation of aircraft structures;
(3) to assess the fire and smoke resistance of aircraft material;
(4) to develop improved fire and smoke resistant material for aircraft interiors;
(5) to develop and improve fire and smoke containment systems for inflight aircraft fires;
(6) to develop advanced aircraft fuels with low flammability and technologies that will contain aircraft fuels to minimize post-crash fire hazards; and
(7) to develop technologies and methods to assess the risk of and prevent defects, failures, and malfunctions of products, parts, processes, and articles manufactured for use in aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances that could result in a catastrophic failure of an aircraft.
(c) Authority To Buy Items Offering Special Advantages.— 
In carrying out this section, the Administrator, by negotiation or otherwise, may buy or exchange experimental aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances that the Administrator decides may offer special advantages to aeronautics.

49 USC 44505 - Systems, procedures, facilities, and devices

(a) General Requirements.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall
(A) develop, alter, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices, and define their performance characteristics, to meet the needs for safe and efficient navigation and traffic control of civil and military aviation, except for needs of the armed forces that are peculiar to air warfare and primarily of military concern; and
(B) select systems, procedures, facilities, and devices that will best serve those needs and promote maximum coordination of air traffic control and air defense systems.
(2) The Administrator may make contracts to carry out this subsection without regard to section 3324 (a) and (b) of title 31.
(3) When a substantial question exists under paragraph (1) of this subsection about whether a matter is of primary concern to the armed forces, the Administrator shall decide whether the Administrator or the Secretary of the appropriate military department has responsibility. The Administrator shall be given technical information related to each research and development project of the armed forces that potentially applies to, or potentially conflicts with, the common system to ensure that potential application to the common system is considered properly and that potential conflicts with the system are eliminated.
(b) Research on Human Factors and Simulation Models.— 
The Administrator shall conduct or supervise research
(1) to develop a better understanding of the relationship between human factors and aviation accidents and between human factors and air safety;
(2) to enhance air traffic controller, mechanic, and flight crew performance;
(3) to develop a human-factor analysis of the hazards associated with new technologies to be used by air traffic controllers, mechanics, and flight crews;
(4) to identify innovative and effective corrective measures for human errors that adversely affect air safety; and
(5) to develop dynamic simulation models of the air traffic control system and airport design and operating procedures that will provide analytical technology
(A) to predict airport and air traffic control safety and capacity problems;
(B) to evaluate planned research projects; and
(C) to test proposed revisions in airport and air traffic control operations programs.
(c) Research on Developing and Maintaining a Safe and Efficient System.— 
The Administrator shall conduct or supervise research on
(1) airspace and airport planning and design;
(2) airport capacity enhancement techniques;
(3) human performance in the air transportation environment;
(4) aviation safety and security;
(5) the supply of trained air transportation personnel, including pilots and mechanics; and
(6) other aviation issues related to developing and maintaining a safe and efficient air transportation system.
(d) Cooperative Agreements.— 
The Administrator may enter into cooperative agreements on a cost-shared basis with Federal and non-Federal entities that the Administrator may select in order to conduct, encourage, and promote aviation research, engineering, and development, including the development of prototypes and demonstration models.

49 USC 44506 - Air traffic controllers

(a) Research on Effect of Automation on Performance.— 
To develop the means necessary to establish appropriate selection criteria and training methodologies for the next generation of air traffic controllers, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall conduct research to study the effect of automation on the performance of the next generation of air traffic controllers and the air traffic control system. The research shall include investigating
(1) methods for improving and accelerating future air traffic controller training through the application of advanced training techniques, including the use of simulation technology;
(2) the role of automation in the air traffic control system and its physical and psychological effects on air traffic controllers;
(3) the attributes and aptitudes needed to function well in a highly automated air traffic control system and the development of appropriate testing methods for identifying individuals with those attributes and aptitudes;
(4) innovative methods for training potential air traffic controllers to enhance the benefits of automation and maximize the effectiveness of the air traffic control system; and
(5) new technologies and procedures for exploiting automated communication systems, including Mode S Transponders, to improve information transfers between air traffic controllers and aircraft pilots.
(b) Research on Human Factor Aspects of Automation.— 
The Administrators of the Federal Aviation Administration and National Aeronautics and Space Administration may make an agreement for the use of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations unique human factor facilities and expertise in conducting research activities to study the human factor aspects of the highly automated environment for the next generation of air traffic controllers. The research activities shall include investigating
(1) human perceptual capabilities and the effect of computer-aided decision making on the workload and performance of air traffic controllers;
(2) information management techniques for advanced air traffic control display systems; and
(3) air traffic controller workload and performance measures, including the development of predictive models.
(c) Collegiate Training Initiative.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may maintain the Collegiate Training Initiative program by making new agreements and continuing existing agreements with institutions of higher education (as defined by the Administrator) under which the institutions prepare students for the position of air traffic controller with the Department of Transportation (as defined in section 2109 of title 5). The Administrator may establish standards for the entry of institutions into the program and for their continued participation.
(2) 
(A) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may appoint an individual who has successfully completed a course of training in a program described in paragraph (1) of this subsection to the position of air traffic controller noncompetitively in the excepted service (as defined in section 2103 of title 5). An individual appointed under this paragraph serves at the pleasure of the Administrator, subject to section 7511 of title 5. However, an appointment under this paragraph may be converted from one in the excepted service to a career conditional or career appointment in the competitive civil service (as defined in section 2102 of title 5) when the individual achieves full performance level air traffic controller status, as decided by the Administrator.
(B) The authority under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph to make appointments in the excepted service expires on October 6, 1997, except that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may extend the authority for one or more successive one-year periods.
(d) Staffing Report.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall submit annually to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report containing
(1) the staffing standards used to determine the number of air traffic controllers needed to operate the air traffic control system of the United States;
(2) a 3-year projection of the number of controllers needed to be employed to operate the system to meet the standards; and
(3) a detailed plan for employing the controllers, including projected budget requests.

49 USC 44507 - Civil aeromedical research

The Civil Aeromedical Institute established by section 106 (j) of this title may
(1) conduct civil aeromedical research, including research related to
(A) the protection and survival of aircraft occupants;
(B) medical accident investigation and airman medical certification;
(C) toxicology and the effects of drugs on human performance;
(D) the impact of disease and disability on human performance;
(E) vision and its relationship to human performance and equipment design;
(F) human factors of flight crews, air traffic controllers, mechanics, inspectors, airway facility technicians, and other individuals involved in operating and maintaining aircraft and air traffic control equipment; and
(G) agency work force optimization, including training, equipment design, reduction of errors, and identification of candidate tasks for automation;
(2) make comments to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration on human factors aspects of proposed air safety regulations;
(3) make comments to the Administrator on human factors aspects of proposed training programs, equipment requirements, standards, and procedures for aviation personnel;
(4) advise, assist, and represent the Federal Aviation Administration in the human factors aspects of joint projects between the Administration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, industry, and governments of foreign countries; and
(5) provide medical consultation services to the Administrator about medical certification of airmen.

49 USC 44508 - Research advisory committee

(a) Establishment and Duties.— 

(1) There is a research advisory committee in the Federal Aviation Administration. The committee shall
(A) provide advice and recommendations to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration about needs, objectives, plans, approaches, content, and accomplishments of the aviation research program carried out under sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title;
(B) assist in ensuring that the research is coordinated with similar research being conducted outside the Administration;
(C) review the operations of the regional centers of air transportation excellence established under section 44513 of this title; and
(D) annually review the allocation made by the Administrator of the amounts authorized by section 48102 (a) of this title among the major categories of research and development activities carried out by the Administration and provide advice and recommendations to the Administrator on whether such allocation is appropriate to meet the needs and objectives identified under subparagraph (A).
(2) The Administrator may establish subordinate committees to provide advice on specific areas of research conducted under sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title.
(b) Members, Chairman, Pay, and Expenses.— 

(1) The committee is composed of not more than 30 members appointed by the Administrator from among individuals who are not employees of the Administration and who are specially qualified to serve on the committee because of their education, training, or experience. In appointing members of the committee, the Administrator shall ensure that the regional centers of air transportation excellence, universities, corporations, associations, consumers, and other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government are represented.
(2) The Administrator shall designate the chairman of the committee.
(3) A member of the committee serves without pay. However, the Administrator may allow a member, when attending meetings of the committee or a subordinate committee, expenses as authorized under section 5703 of title 5.
(c) Support Staff, Information, and Services.— 
The Administrator shall provide support staff for the committee. On request of the committee, the Administrator shall provide information, administrative services, and supplies that the Administrator considers necessary for the committee to carry out its duties and powers.
(d) Nonapplication.— 
Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.) does not apply to the committee.
(e) Use and Limitation of Amounts.— 

(1) Not more than .1 percent of the amounts made available to conduct research under sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title may be used by the Administrator to carry out this section.
(2) A limitation on amounts available for obligation by or for the committee does not apply to amounts made available to carry out this section.

49 USC 44509 - Demonstration projects

The Secretary of Transportation may carry out under this chapter demonstration projects that the Secretary considers necessary for research and development activities under this chapter.

49 USC 44510 - Airway science curriculum grants

(a) General Authority.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make competitive grant agreements with institutions of higher education having airway science curricula for the United States Governments share of the allowable direct costs of the following categories of items to the extent that the items are in support of airway science curricula:
(1) the construction, purchase, or lease with an option to purchase, of buildings and associated facilities.
(2) instructional material and equipment.
(b) Cost Guidelines.— 
The Administrator shall establish guidelines to determine the direct costs allowable under a grant to be made under this section. The Governments share of the allowable cost of a project assisted by a grant under this section may not be more than 65 percent.

49 USC 44511 - Aviation research grants

(a) General Authority.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher education and nonprofit">nonprofit research organizations to conduct aviation research in areas the Administrator considers necessary for the long-term growth of civil aviation.
(b) Applications.— 
An institution of higher education or nonprofit">nonprofit research organization interested in receiving a grant under this section may submit an application to the Administrator. The application must be in the form and contain the information the Administrator requires.
(c) Solicitation, Review, and Evaluation Process.— 
The Administrator shall establish a solicitation, review, and evaluation process that ensures
(1) providing grants under this section for proposals having adequate merit and relevancy to the mission of the Administration;
(2) a fair geographical distribution of grants under this section; and
(3) the inclusion of historically black institutions of higher education and other minority nonprofit">nonprofit research organizations for grant consideration under this section.
(d) Records.— 
Each person receiving a grant under this section shall maintain records that the Administrator requires as being necessary to facilitate an effective audit and evaluation of the use of money provided under the grant.
(e) Annual Report.— 
The Administrator shall submit an annual report to the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on carrying out this section.
(f) Airport Cooperative Research Program.— 

(1) Establishment.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a 4-year pilot airport cooperative research program to
(A) identify problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and can be solved through applied research but that are not being adequately addressed by existing Federal research programs; and
(B) fund research to address those problems.
(2) Governance.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall appoint an independent governing board for the research program established under this subsection. The governing board shall be appointed from candidates nominated by national associations representing public airport operating agencies, airport executives, State aviation officials, and the scheduled airlines, and shall include representatives of appropriate Federal agencies. Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act shall not apply to the governing board.
(3) Implementation.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to provide staff support to the governing board established under paragraph (2) and to carry out projects proposed by the governing board that the Secretary considers appropriate.
(4) Report.— 
Not later than 6 months after the expiration of the program under this subsection, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress a report on the program, including recommendations as to the need for establishing a permanent airport cooperative research program.

49 USC 44512 - Catastrophic failure prevention research grants

(a) General Authority.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher education and nonprofit">nonprofit research organizations
(1) to conduct aviation research related to the development of technologies and methods to assess the risk of, and prevent, defects, failures, and malfunctions of products, parts, processes, and articles manufactured for use in aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances that could result in a catastrophic failure of an aircraft; and
(2) to establish centers of excellence for continuing the research.
(b) Solicitation, Application, Review, and Evaluation Process.— 
The Administrator shall establish a solicitation, application, review, and evaluation process that ensures providing grants under this section for proposals having adequate merit and relevancy to the research described in subsection (a) of this section.

49 USC 44513 - Regional centers of air transportation excellence

(a) General Authority.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher education to establish and operate regional centers of air transportation excellence. The locations shall be distributed in a geographically fair way.
(b) Responsibilities.— 

(1) The responsibilities of each center established under this section shall include
(A) conducting research on
(i) airspace and airport planning and design;
(ii) airport capacity enhancement techniques;
(iii) human performance in the air transportation environment;
(iv) aviation safety and security;
(v) the supply of trained air transportation personnel, including pilots and mechanics; and
(vi) other aviation issues related to developing and maintaining a safe and efficient air transportation system; and
(B) interpreting, publishing, and disseminating the results of the research.
(2) In conducting research described in paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection, each center may make contracts with nonprofit">nonprofit research organizations and other appropriate persons.
(c) Applications.— 
An institution of higher education interested in receiving a grant under this section may submit an application to the Administrator. The application must be in the form and contain the information that the Administrator requires by regulation.
(d) Selection Criteria.— 
The Administrator shall select recipients of grants under this section on the basis of the following criteria:
(1) the extent to which the needs of the State in which the applicant is located are representative of the needs of the region for improved air transportation services and facilities.
(2) the demonstrated research and extension resources available to the applicant to carry out this section.
(3) the ability of the applicant to provide leadership in making national and regional contributions to the solution of both long-range and immediate air transportation problems.
(4) the extent to which the applicant has an established air transportation program.
(5) the demonstrated ability of the applicant to disseminate results of air transportation research and educational programs through a statewide or regionwide continuing education program.
(6) the projects the applicant proposes to carry out under the grant.
(e) Expenditure Agreements.— 
A grant may be made under this section in a fiscal year only if the recipient makes an agreement with the Administrator that the Administrator requires to ensure that the recipient will maintain its total expenditures from all other sources for establishing and operating the center and related research activities at a level at least equal to the average level of those expenditures in the 2 fiscal years of the recipient occurring immediately before November 5, 1990.
(f) Government’s Share of Costs.— 
The United States Governments share of a grant under this section is 50 percent of the costs of establishing and operating the center and related research activities that the grant recipient carries out.
(g) Allocating Amounts.— 
The Administrator shall allocate amounts made available to carry out this section in a geographically fair way.

49 USC 44514 - Flight service stations

(a) Hours of Operation.— 

(1) The Secretary of Transportation may close, or reduce the hours of operation of, a flight service station in an area only if the service provided in the area after the closing or during the hours the station is not in operation is provided by an automated flight service station with at least model 1 equipment.
(2) The Secretary shall reopen a flight service station closed after March 24, 1987, but before July 15, 1987, as soon as practicable if the service in the area in which the station is located has not been provided since the closing by an automatic flight service station with at least model 1 equipment. The hours of operation for the reopened station shall be the same as were the hours of operation for the station on March 25, 1987. After reopening the station, the Secretary may close, or reduce the hours of operation of, the station only as provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(b) Manned Auxiliary Stations.— 
The Secretary and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a system of manned auxiliary flight service stations. The manned auxiliary flight service stations shall supplement the services of the planned consolidation to 61 automated flight service stations under the flight service station modernization program. A manned auxiliary flight service station shall be located in an area of unique weather or operational conditions that are critical to the safety of flight.

49 USC 44515 - Advanced training facilities for maintenance technicians for air carrier aircraft

(a) General Authority.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make grants to not more than 4 vocational technical educational institutions to acquire or construct facilities to be used for the advanced training of maintenance technicians for air carrier aircraft.
(b) Eligibility.— 
The Administrator may make a grant under this section to a vocational technical educational institution only if the institution has a training curriculum that prepares aircraft maintenance technicians who hold airframe and power plant certificates under subpart D of part 65 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, to maintain, without direct supervision, air carrier aircraft.
(c) Limitation.— 
A vocational technical educational institution may not receive more than a total of $5,000,000 in grants under this section.

49 USC 44516 - Human factors program

(a) Human Factors Training.— 

(1) Air traffic controllers.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall
(A) address the problems and concerns raised by the National Research Council in its report The Future of Air Traffic Control on air traffic control automation; and
(B) respond to the recommendations made by the National Research Council.
(2) Pilots and flight crews.— 
The Administrator shall work with representatives of the aviation industry and appropriate aviation programs associated with universities to develop specific training curricula to address critical safety problems, including problems of pilots
(A) in recovering from loss of control of an aircraft, including handling unusual attitudes and mechanical malfunctions;
(B) in deviating from standard operating procedures, including inappropriate responses to emergencies and hazardous weather;
(C) in awareness of altitude and location relative to terrain to prevent controlled flight into terrain; and
(D) in landing and approaches, including nonprecision approaches and go-around procedures.
(b) Test Program.— 
The Administrator shall establish a test program in cooperation with air carriers to use model Jeppesen approach plates or other similar tools to improve precision-like landing approaches for aircraft.
(c) Report.— 
Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this section, the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the status of the Administrations efforts to encourage the adoption and implementation of advanced qualification programs for air carriers under this section.
(d) Advanced Qualification Program Defined.— 
In this section, the term advanced qualification program means an alternative method for qualifying, training, certifying, and ensuring the competency of flight crews and other commercial aviation operations personnel subject to the training and evaluation requirements of parts 121 and 135 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.

49 USC 44517 - Program to permit cost sharing of air traffic modernization projects

(a) In General.— 
Subject to the requirements of this section, the Secretary may carry out a program under which the Secretary may make grants to project sponsors for not more than 10 eligible projects per fiscal year for the purpose of improving aviation safety and enhancing mobility of the Nations air transportation system by encouraging non-Federal investment in critical air traffic control equipment and software.
(b) Federal Share.— 
The Federal share of the cost of an eligible project carried out under the program shall not exceed 33 percent. The non-Federal share of the cost of an eligible project shall be provided from non-Federal sources, including revenues collected pursuant to section 40117.
(c) Limitation on Grant Amounts.— 
No eligible project may receive more than $5,000,000 in Federal funds under the program.
(d) Funding.— 
The Secretary shall use amounts appropriated under section 48101 (a) to carry out the program.
(e) Definitions.— 
In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) Eligible project.— 
The term eligible project means a project to purchase equipment or software relating to the Nations air traffic control system that is certified or approved by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and that promotes safety, efficiency, or mobility. Such projects may include
(A) airport-specific air traffic facilities and equipment, including local area augmentation systems, instrument landing systems, weather and wind shear detection equipment, and lighting improvements;
(B) automation tools to effect improvements in airport capacity, including passive final approach spacing tools and traffic management advisory equipment; and
(C) equipment and software that enhance airspace control procedures or assist in en route surveillance, including oceanic and offshore flight tracking.
(2) Project sponsor.— 
The term project sponsor means any major user of the national airspace system, as determined by the Secretary, including a public-use airport or a joint venture between a public-use airport and one or more air carriers.
(f) Transfers of Equipment.— 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and upon agreement by the Administrator, a project sponsor may transfer, without consideration, to the Federal Aviation Administration, facilities, equipment, or automation tools, the purchase of which was assisted by a grant made under this section, if such facilities, equipment or tools meet Federal Aviation Administration operation and maintenance criteria.
(g) Guidelines.— 
The Administrator shall issue advisory guidelines on the implementation of the program. The guidelines shall not be subject to administrative rulemaking requirements under subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 447 - SAFETY REGULATION

49 USC 44701 - General requirements

(a) Promoting Safety.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall promote safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing
(1) minimum standards required in the interest of safety for appliances and for the design, material, construction, quality of work, and performance of aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers;
(2) regulations and minimum standards in the interest of safety for
(A) inspecting, servicing, and overhauling aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances;
(B) equipment and facilities for, and the timing and manner of, the inspecting, servicing, and overhauling; and
(C) a qualified private person, instead of an officer or employee of the Administration, to examine and report on the inspecting, servicing, and overhauling;
(3) regulations required in the interest of safety for the reserve supply of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and aircraft fuel and oil, including the reserve supply of fuel and oil carried in flight;
(4) regulations in the interest of safety for the maximum hours or periods of service of airmen and other employees of air carriers; and
(5) regulations and minimum standards for other practices, methods, and procedure the Administrator finds necessary for safety in air commerce and national security.
(b) Prescribing Minimum Safety Standards.— 
The Administrator may prescribe minimum safety standards for
(1) an air carrier to whom a certificate is issued under section 44705 of this title; and
(2) operating an airport serving any passenger operation of air carrier aircraft designed for at least 31 passenger seats.
(c) Reducing and Eliminating Accidents.— 
The Administrator shall carry out this chapter in a way that best tends to reduce or eliminate the possibility or recurrence of accidents in air transportation. However, the Administrator is not required to give preference either to air transportation or to other air commerce in carrying out this chapter.
(d) Considerations and Classification of Regulations and Standards.— 
When prescribing a regulation or standard under subsection (a) or (b) of this section or any of sections 44702–44716 of this title, the Administrator shall
(1) consider
(A) the duty of an air carrier to provide service with the highest possible degree of safety in the public interest; and
(B) differences between air transportation and other air commerce; and
(2) classify a regulation or standard appropriate to the differences between air transportation and other air commerce.
(e) Bilateral Exchanges of Safety Oversight Responsibilities.— 

(1) In general.— 
Notwithstanding the provisions of this chapter, the Administrator, pursuant to Article 83 bis of the Convention on International Civil Aviation and by a bilateral agreement with the aeronautical authorities of another country, may exchange with that country all or part of their respective functions and duties with respect to registered aircraft under the following articles of the Convention: Article 12 (Rules of the Air); Article 31 (Certificates of Airworthiness); or Article 32a (Licenses of Personnel).
(2) Relinquishment and acceptance of responsibility.— 
The Administrator relinquishes responsibility with respect to the functions and duties transferred by the Administrator as specified in the bilateral agreement, under the Articles listed in paragraph (1) for United States-registered aircraft described in paragraph (4)(A) transferred abroad and accepts responsibility with respect to the functions and duties under those Articles for aircraft registered abroad and described in paragraph (4)(B) that are transferred to the United States.
(3) Conditions.— 
The Administrator may predicate, in the agreement, the transfer of functions and duties under this subsection on any conditions the Administrator deems necessary and prudent, except that the Administrator may not transfer responsibilities for United States registered aircraft described in paragraph (4)(A) to a country that the Administrator determines is not in compliance with its obligations under international law for the safety oversight of civil aviation.
(4) Registered aircraft defined.— 
In this subsection, the term registered aircraft means
(A) aircraft registered in the United States and operated pursuant to an agreement for the lease, charter, or interchange of the aircraft or any similar arrangement by an operator that has its principal place of business or, if it has no such place of business, its permanent residence in another country; and
(B) aircraft registered in a foreign country and operated under an agreement for the lease, charter, or interchange of the aircraft or any similar arrangement by an operator that has its principal place of business or, if it has no such place of business, its permanent residence in the United States.
(f) Exemptions.— 
The Administrator may grant an exemption from a requirement of a regulation prescribed under subsection (a) or (b) of this section or any of sections 44702–44716 of this title if the Administrator finds the exemption is in the public interest.

49 USC 44702 - Issuance of certificates

(a) General Authority and Applications.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may issue airman certificates, type certificates, production certificates, airworthiness certificates, air carrier operating certificates, airport operating certificates, air agency certificates, and air navigation facility certificates under this chapter. An application for a certificate must
(1) be under oath when the Administrator requires; and
(2) be in the form, contain information, and be filed and served in the way the Administrator prescribes.
(b) Considerations.— 
When issuing a certificate under this chapter, the Administrator shall
(1) consider
(A) the duty of an air carrier to provide service with the highest possible degree of safety in the public interest; and
(B) differences between air transportation and other air commerce; and
(2) classify a certificate according to the differences between air transportation and other air commerce.
(c) Prior Certification.— 
The Administrator may authorize an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance for which a certificate has been issued authorizing the use of the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance in air transportation to be used in air commerce without another certificate being issued.
(d) Delegation.— 

(1) Subject to regulations, supervision, and review the Administrator may prescribe, the Administrator may delegate to a qualified private person, or to an employee under the supervision of that person, a matter related to
(A) the examination, testing, and inspection necessary to issue a certificate under this chapter; and
(B) issuing the certificate.
(2) The Administrator may rescind a delegation under this subsection at any time for any reason the Administrator considers appropriate.
(3) A person affected by an action of a private person under this subsection may apply for reconsideration of the action by the Administrator. On the Administrators own initiative, the Administrator may reconsider the action of a private person at any time. If the Administrator decides on reconsideration that the action is unreasonable or unwarranted, the Administrator shall change, modify, or reverse the action. If the Administrator decides the action is warranted, the Administrator shall affirm the action.

49 USC 44703 - Airman certificates

(a) General.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue an airman certificate to an individual when the Administrator finds, after investigation, that the individual is qualified for, and physically able to perform the duties related to, the position to be authorized by the certificate.
(b) Contents.— 

(1) An airman certificate shall
(A) be numbered and recorded by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration;
(B) contain the name, address, and description of the individual to whom the certificate is issued;
(C) contain terms the Administrator decides are necessary to ensure safety in air commerce, including terms on the duration of the certificate, periodic or special examinations, and tests of physical fitness;
(D) specify the capacity in which the holder of the certificate may serve as an airman with respect to an aircraft; and
(E) designate the class the certificate covers.
(2) A certificate issued to a pilot serving in scheduled air transportation shall have the designation airline transport pilot of the appropriate class.
(c) Public Information.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subject to paragraph (2) and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the information contained in the records of contents of any airman certificate issued under this section that is limited to an airmans name, address, and ratings held shall be made available to the public after the 120th day following the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century.
(2) Opportunity to withhold information.— 
Before making any information concerning an airman available to the public under paragraph (1), the airman shall be given an opportunity to elect that the information not be made available to the public.
(3) Development and implementation of program.— 
Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, the Administrator shall develop and implement, in cooperation with representatives of the aviation industry, a one-time written notification to airmen to set forth the implications of making information concerning an airman available to the public under paragraph (1) and to carry out paragraph (2). The Administrator shall also provide such written notification to each individual who becomes an airman after such date of enactment.
(d) Appeals.— 

(1) An individual whose application for the issuance or renewal of an airman certificate has been denied may appeal the denial to the National Transportation Safety Board, except if the individual holds a certificate that
(A) is suspended at the time of denial; or
(B) was revoked within one year from the date of the denial.
(2) The Board shall conduct a hearing on the appeal at a place convenient to the place of residence or employment of the applicant. The Board is not bound by findings of fact of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration but is bound by all validly adopted interpretations of laws and regulations the Administrator carries out unless the Board finds an interpretation is arbitrary, capricious, or otherwise not according to law. At the end of the hearing, the Board shall decide whether the individual meets the applicable regulations and standards. The Administrator is bound by that decision.
(e) Restrictions and Prohibitions.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may
(1) restrict or prohibit issuing an airman certificate to an alien; or
(2) make issuing the certificate to an alien dependent on a reciprocal agreement with the government of a foreign country.
(f) Controlled Substance Violations.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may not issue an airman certificate to an individual whose certificate is revoked under section 44710 of this title except
(1) when the Administrator decides that issuing the certificate will facilitate law enforcement efforts; and
(2) as provided in section 44710 (e)(2) of this title.
(g) Modifications in System.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make modifications in the system for issuing airman certificates necessary to make the system more effective in serving the needs of airmen and officials responsible for enforcing laws related to the regulation of controlled substances (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)) and related to combating acts of terrorism. The modifications shall ensure positive and verifiable identification of each individual applying for or holding a certificate and shall address at least each of the following deficiencies in, and abuses of, the existing system:
(A) the use of fictitious names and addresses by applicants for those certificates.
(B) the use of stolen or fraudulent identification in applying for those certificates.
(C) the use by an applicant of a post office box or mail drop as a return address to evade identification of the applicants address.
(D) the use of counterfeit and stolen airman certificates by pilots.
(E) the absence of information about physical characteristics of holders of those certificates.
(2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations to carry out paragraph (1) of this subsection and provide a written explanation of how the regulations address each of the deficiencies and abuses described in paragraph (1). In prescribing the regulations, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consult with the Administrator of Drug Enforcement, the Commissioner of Customs, other law enforcement officials of the United States Government, representatives of State and local law enforcement officials, representatives of the general aviation aircraft industry, representatives of users of general aviation aircraft, and other interested persons.
(3) For purposes of this section, the term acts of terrorism means an activity that involves a violent act or an act dangerous to human life that is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or of any State, and appears to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion or to affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnaping.
(4) The Administrator is authorized and directed to work with State and local authorities, and other Federal agencies, to assist in the identification of individuals applying for or holding airmen certificates.
(h) Records of Employment of Pilot Applicants.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subject to paragraph (14), before allowing an individual to begin service as a pilot, an air carrier shall request and receive the following information:
(A) FAA records.— 
From the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, records pertaining to the individual that are maintained by the Administrator concerning
(i) current airman certificates (including airman medical certificates) and associated type ratings, including any limitations to those certificates and ratings; and
(ii) summaries of legal enforcement actions resulting in a finding by the Administrator of a violation of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this title that was not subsequently overturned.
(B) Air carrier and other records.— 
From any air carrier or other person (except a branch of the United States Armed Forces, the National Guard, or a reserve component of the United States Armed Forces) that has employed the individual as a pilot of a civil or public aircraft at any time during the 5-year period preceding the date of the employment application of the individual, or from the trustee in bankruptcy for such air carrier or person
(i) records pertaining to the individual that are maintained by an air carrier (other than records relating to flight time, duty time, or rest time) under regulations set forth in
(I) section 121.683 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations;
(II) paragraph (A) of section VI, appendix I, part 121 of such title;
(III) paragraph (A) of section IV, appendix J, part 121 of such title;
(IV) section 125.401 of such title; and
(V) section 135.63(a)(4) of such title; and
(ii) other records pertaining to the individuals performance as a pilot that are maintained by the air carrier or person concerning
(I) the training, qualifications, proficiency, or professional competence of the individual, including comments and evaluations made by a check airman designated in accordance with section 121.411, 125.295, or 135.337 of such title;
(II) any disciplinary action taken with respect to the individual that was not subsequently overturned; and
(III) any release from employment or resignation, termination, or disqualification with respect to employment.
(C) National driver register records.— 
In accordance with section 30305 (b)(8) of this title, from the chief driver licensing official of a State, information concerning the motor vehicle driving record of the individual.
(2) Written consent; release from liability.— 
An air carrier making a request for records under paragraph (1)
(A) shall be required to obtain written consent to the release of those records from the individual that is the subject of the records requested; and
(B) may, notwithstanding any other provision of law or agreement to the contrary, require the individual who is the subject of the records to request to execute a release from liability for any claim arising from the furnishing of such records to or the use of such records by such air carrier (other than a claim arising from furnishing information known to be false and maintained in violation of a criminal statute).
(3) 5-year reporting period.— 
A person shall not furnish a record in response to a request made under paragraph (1) if the record was entered more than 5 years before the date of the request, unless the information concerns a revocation or suspension of an airman certificate or motor vehicle license that is in effect on the date of the request.
(4) Requirement to maintain records.— 
The Administrator and air carriers shall maintain pilot records described in paragraphs (1)(A) and (1)(B) for a period of at least 5 years.
(5) Receipt of consent; provision of information.— 
A person shall not furnish a record in response to a request made under paragraph (1) without first obtaining a copy of the written consent of the individual who is the subject of the records requested; except that, for purposes of paragraph (15), the Administrator may allow an individual designated by the Administrator to accept and maintain written consent on behalf of the Administrator for records requested under paragraph (1)(A). A person who receives a request for records under this subsection shall furnish a copy of all of such requested records maintained by the person not later than 30 days after receiving the request.
(6) Right to receive notice and copy of any record furnished.— 
A person who receives a request for records under paragraph (1) shall provide to the individual who is the subject of the records
(A) on or before the 20th day following the date of receipt of the request, written notice of the request and of the individuals right to receive a copy of such records; and
(B) in accordance with paragraph (10), a copy of such records, if requested by the individual.
(7) Reasonable charges for processing requests and furnishing copies.— 
A person who receives a request under paragraph (1) or (6) may establish a reasonable charge for the cost of processing the request and furnishing copies of the requested records.
(8) Standard forms.— 
The Administrator shall promulgate
(A) standard forms that may be used by an air carrier to request records under paragraph (1); and
(B) standard forms that may be used by an air carrier to
(i) obtain the written consent of the individual who is the subject of a request under paragraph (1); and
(ii) inform the individual of
(I) the request; and
(II) the individual right of that individual to receive a copy of any records furnished in response to the request.
(9) Right to correct inaccuracies.— 
An air carrier that maintains or requests and receives the records of an individual under paragraph (1) shall provide the individual with a reasonable opportunity to submit written comments to correct any inaccuracies contained in the records before making a final hiring decision with respect to the individual.
(10) Right of pilot to review certain records.— 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law or agreement, an air carrier shall, upon written request from a pilot who is or has been employed by such carrier, make available, within a reasonable time, but not later than 30 days after the date of the request, to the pilot for review, any and all employment records referred to in paragraph (1)(B)(i) or (ii) pertaining to the employment of the pilot.
(11) Privacy protections.— 
An air carrier that receives the records of an individual under paragraph (1) may use such records only to assess the qualifications of the individual in deciding whether or not to hire the individual as a pilot. The air carrier shall take such actions as may be necessary to protect the privacy of the pilot and the confidentiality of the records, including ensuring that information contained in the records is not divulged to any individual that is not directly involved in the hiring decision.
(12) Periodic review.— 
Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of the Pilot Records Improvement Act of 1996, and at least once every 3 years thereafter, the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a statement that contains, taking into account recent developments in the aviation industry
(A) recommendations by the Administrator concerning proposed changes to Federal Aviation Administration records, air carrier records, and other records required to be furnished under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1); or
(B) reasons why the Administrator does not recommend any proposed changes to the records referred to in subparagraph (A).
(13) Regulations.— 
The Administrator shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary
(A) to protect
(i) the personal privacy of any individual whose records are requested under paragraph (1) and disseminated under paragraph (15); and
(ii) the confidentiality of those records;
(B) to preclude the further dissemination of records received under paragraph (1) by the person who requested those records; and
(C) to ensure prompt compliance with any request made under paragraph (1).
(14) Special rules with respect to certain pilots.— 

(A) Pilots of certain small aircraft.— 
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), an air carrier, before receiving information requested about an individual under paragraph (1), may allow the individual to begin service for a period not to exceed 90 days as a pilot of an aircraft with a maximum payload capacity (as defined in section 119.3 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations) of 7,500 pounds or less, or a helicopter, on a flight that is not a scheduled operation (as defined in such section). Before the end of the 90-day period, the air carrier shall obtain and evaluate such information. The contract between the carrier and the individual shall contain a term that provides that the continuation of the individuals employment, after the last day of the 90-day period, depends on a satisfactory evaluation.
(B) Good faith exception.— 
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), an air carrier, without obtaining information about an individual under paragraph (1)(B) from an air carrier or other person that no longer exists or from a foreign government or entity that employed the individual, may allow the individual to begin service as a pilot if the air carrier required to request the information has made a documented good faith attempt to obtain such information.
(15) Electronic access to faa records.— 
For the purpose of increasing timely and efficient access to Federal Aviation Administration records described in paragraph (1), the Administrator may allow, under terms established by the Administrator, an individual designated by the air carrier to have electronic access to a specified database containing information about such records. The terms shall limit such access to instances in which information in the database is required by the designated individual in making a hiring decision concerning a pilot applicant and shall require that the designated individual provide assurances satisfactory to the Administrator that information obtained using such access will not be used for any purpose other than making the hiring decision.
(i) Limitation on Liability; Preemption of State Law.— 

(1) Limitation on liability.— 
No action or proceeding may be brought by or on behalf of an individual who has applied for or is seeking a position with an air carrier as a pilot and who has signed a release from liability, as provided for under paragraph (2), against
(A) the air carrier requesting the records of that individual under subsection (h)(1);
(B) a person who has complied with such request;
(C) a person who has entered information contained in the individuals records; or
(D) an agent or employee of a person described in subparagraph (A) or (B);

in the nature of an action for defamation, invasion of privacy, negligence, interference with contract, or otherwise, or under any Federal or State law with respect to the furnishing or use of such records in accordance with subsection (h).

(2) Preemption.— 
No State or political subdivision thereof may enact, prescribe, issue, continue in effect, or enforce any law (including any regulation, standard, or other provision having the force and effect of law) that prohibits, penalizes, or imposes liability for furnishing or using records in accordance with subsection (h).
(3) Provision of knowingly false information.— 
Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply with respect to a person who furnishes information in response to a request made under subsection (h)(1), that
(A) the person knows is false; and
(B) was maintained in violation of a criminal statute of the United States.
(j) Limitation on Statutory Construction.— 
Nothing in subsection (h) shall be construed as precluding the availability of the records of a pilot in an investigation or other proceeding concerning an accident or incident conducted by the Administrator, the National Transportation Safety Board, or a court.

49 USC 44704 - Type certificates, production certificates, airworthiness certificates, and design organization certificates

(a) Type Certificates.— 

(1) Issuance, investigations, and tests.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue a type certificate for an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller, or for an appliance specified under paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection when the Administrator finds that the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance is properly designed and manufactured, performs properly, and meets the regulations and minimum standards prescribed under section 44701 (a) of this title. On receiving an application for a type certificate, the Administrator shall investigate the application and may conduct a hearing. The Administrator shall make, or require the applicant to make, tests the Administrator considers necessary in the interest of safety.
(2) Specifications.— 
The Administrator may
(A) specify in regulations those appliances that reasonably require a type certificate in the interest of safety;
(B) include in a type certificate terms required in the interest of safety; and
(C) record on the certificate a numerical specification of the essential factors related to the performance of the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller for which the certificate is issued.
(3) Special rules for new aircraft and appliances.— 
Except as provided in paragraph (4), if the holder of a type certificate agrees to permit another person to use the certificate to manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance, the holder shall provide the other person with written evidence, in a form acceptable to the Administrator, of that agreement. Such other person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance based on a type certificate only if such other person is the holder of the type certificate or has permission from the holder.
(4) Limitation for aircraft manufactured before august 5, 2004.— 
Paragraph (3) shall not apply to a person who began the manufacture of an aircraft before August 5, 2004, and who demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administrator that such manufacture began before August 5, 2004, if the name of the holder of the type certificate for the aircraft does not appear on the airworthiness certificate or identification plate of the aircraft. The holder of the type certificate for the aircraft shall not be responsible for the continued airworthiness of the aircraft. A person may invoke the exception provided by this paragraph with regard to the manufacture of only one aircraft.
(b) Supplemental Type Certificates.— 

(1) Issuance.— 
The Administrator may issue a type certificate designated as a supplemental type certificate for a change to an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance.
(2) Contents.— 
A supplemental type certificate issued under paragraph (1) shall consist of the change to the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance with respect to the previously issued type certificate for the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance.
(3) Requirement.— 
If the holder of a supplemental type certificate agrees to permit another person to use the certificate to modify an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance, the holder shall provide the other person with written evidence, in a form acceptable to the Administrator, of that agreement. A person may change an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance based on a supplemental type certificate only if the person requesting the change is the holder of the supplemental type certificate or has permission from the holder to make the change.
(c) Production Certificates.— 
The Administrator shall issue a production certificate authorizing the production of a duplicate of an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance for which a type certificate has been issued when the Administrator finds the duplicate will conform to the certificate. On receiving an application, the Administrator shall inspect, and may require testing of, a duplicate to ensure that it conforms to the requirements of the certificate. The Administrator may include in a production certificate terms required in the interest of safety.
(d) Airworthiness Certificates.— 

(1) The registered owner of an aircraft may apply to the Administrator for an airworthiness certificate for the aircraft. The Administrator shall issue an airworthiness certificate when the Administrator finds that the aircraft conforms to its type certificate and, after inspection, is in condition for safe operation. The Administrator shall register each airworthiness certificate and may include appropriate information in the certificate. The certificate number or other individual designation the Administrator requires shall be displayed on the aircraft. The Administrator may include in an airworthiness certificate terms required in the interest of safety.
(2) A person applying for the issuance or renewal of an airworthiness certificate for an aircraft for which ownership has not been recorded under section 44107 or 44110 of this title must submit with the application information related to the ownership of the aircraft the Administrator decides is necessary to identify each person having a property interest in the aircraft and the kind and extent of the interest.
(e) Design Organization Certificates.— 

(1) Issuance.— 
Beginning 7 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Administrator may issue a design organization certificate to a design organization to authorize the organization to certify compliance with the requirements and minimum standards prescribed under section 44701 (a) for the type certification of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances.
(2) Applications.— 
On receiving an application for a design organization certificate, the Administrator shall examine and rate the design organization submitting the application, in accordance with regulations to be prescribed by the Administrator, to determine whether the design organization has adequate engineering, design, and testing capabilities, standards, and safeguards to ensure that the product being certificated is properly designed and manufactured, performs properly, and meets the regulations and minimum standards prescribed under section 44701 (a).
(3) Issuance of type certificates based on design organization certification.— 
The Administrator may rely on certifications of compliance by a design organization when making a finding under subsection (a).
(4) Public safety.— 
The Administrator shall include in a design organization certificate issued under this subsection terms required in the interest of safety.
(5) No effect on power of revocation.— 
Nothing in this subsection affects the authority of the Secretary of Transportation to revoke a certificate.

49 USC 44705 - Air carrier operating certificates

The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue an air carrier operating certificate to a person desiring to operate as an air carrier when the Administrator finds, after investigation, that the person properly and adequately is equipped and able to operate safely under this part and regulations and standards prescribed under this part. An air carrier operating certificate shall
(1) contain terms necessary to ensure safety in air transportation; and
(2) specify the places to and from which, and the airways of the United States over which, a person may operate as an air carrier.

49 USC 44706 - Airport operating certificates

(a) General.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue an airport operating certificate to a person desiring to operate an airport
(1) that serves an air carrier operating aircraft designed for at least 31 passenger seats;
(2) that is not located in the State of Alaska and serves any scheduled passenger operation of an air carrier operating aircraft designed for more than 9 passenger seats but less than 31 passenger seats; and
(3) that the Administrator requires to have a certificate;

if the Administrator finds, after investigation, that the person properly and adequately is equipped and able to operate safely under this part and regulations and standards prescribed under this part.

(b) Terms.— 
An airport operating certificate issued under this section shall contain terms necessary to ensure safety in air transportation. Unless the Administrator decides that it is not in the public interest, the terms shall include conditions related to
(1) operating and maintaining adequate safety equipment, including firefighting and rescue equipment capable of rapid access to any part of the airport used for landing, takeoff, or surface maneuvering of an aircraft; and
(2) friction treatment for primary and secondary runways that the Secretary of Transportation decides is necessary.
(c) Exemptions.— 
The Administrator may exempt from the requirements of this section, related to firefighting and rescue equipment, an operator of an airport described in subsection (a) of this section having less than .25 percent of the total number of passenger boardings each year at all airports described in subsection (a) when the Administrator decides that the requirements are or would be unreasonably costly, burdensome, or impractical.
(d) Commuter Airports.— 
In developing the terms required by subsection (b) for airports covered by subsection (a)(2), the Administrator shall identify and consider a reasonable number of regulatory alternatives and select from such alternatives the least costly, most cost-effective or the least burdensome alternative that will provide comparable safety at airports described in subsections (a)(1) and (a)(2).
(e) Effective Date.— 
Any regulation establishing the terms required by subsection (b) for airports covered by subsection (a)(2) shall not take effect until such regulation, and a report on the economic impact of the regulation on air service to the airports covered by the rule, has been submitted to Congress and 120 days have elapsed following the date of such submission.
(f) Limitation on Statutory Construction.— 
Nothing in this title may be construed as requiring a person to obtain an airport operating certificate if such person does not desire to operate an airport described in subsection (a).

49 USC 44707 - Examining and rating air agencies

The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may examine and rate the following air agencies:
(1) civilian schools giving instruction in flying or repairing, altering, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances, on the adequacy of instruction, the suitability and airworthiness of equipment, and the competency of instructors.
(2) repair stations and shops that repair, alter, and maintain aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances, on the adequacy and suitability of the equipment, facilities, and materials for, and methods of, repair and overhaul, and the competency of the individuals doing the work or giving instruction in the work.
(3) other air agencies the Administrator decides are necessary in the public interest.

49 USC 44708 - Inspecting and rating air navigation facilities

The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may inspect, classify, and rate an air navigation facility available for the use of civil aircraft on the suitability of the facility for that use.

49 USC 44709 - Amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of certificates

(a) Reinspection and Reexamination.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may reinspect at any time a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, design organization, production certificate holder, air navigation facility, or air agency, or reexamine an airman holding a certificate issued under section 44703 of this title.
(b) Actions of the Administrator.— 
The Administrator may issue an order amending, modifying, suspending, or revoking
(1) any part of a certificate issued under this chapter if
(A) the Administrator decides after conducting a reinspection, reexamination, or other investigation that safety in air commerce or air transportation and the public interest require that action; or
(B) the holder of the certificate has violated an aircraft noise or sonic boom standard or regulation prescribed under section 44715 (a) of this title; and
(2) an airman certificate when the holder of the certificate is convicted of violating section 13(a) of the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742j–1 (a)).
(c) Advice to Certificate Holders and Opportunity To Answer.— 
Before acting under subsection (b) of this section, the Administrator shall advise the holder of the certificate of the charges or other reasons on which the Administrator relies for the proposed action. Except in an emergency, the Administrator shall provide the holder an opportunity to answer the charges and be heard why the certificate should not be amended, modified, suspended, or revoked.
(d) Appeals.— 

(1) A person adversely affected by an order of the Administrator under this section may appeal the order to the National Transportation Safety Board. After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Board may amend, modify, or reverse the order when the Board finds
(A) if the order was issued under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section, that safety in air commerce or air transportation and the public interest do not require affirmation of the order; or
(B) if the order was issued under subsection (b)(1)(B) of this section
(i) that control or abatement of aircraft noise or sonic boom and the public health and welfare do not require affirmation of the order; or
(ii) the order, as it is related to a violation of aircraft noise or sonic boom standards and regulations, is not consistent with safety in air commerce or air transportation.
(2) The Board may modify a suspension or revocation of a certificate to imposition of a civil penalty.
(3) When conducting a hearing under this subsection, the Board is not bound by findings of fact of the Administrator but is bound by all validly adopted interpretations of laws and regulations the Administrator carries out and of written agency policy guidance available to the public related to sanctions to be imposed under this section unless the Board finds an interpretation is arbitrary, capricious, or otherwise not according to law.
(e) Effectiveness of Orders Pending Appeal.— 

(1) In general.— 
When a person files an appeal with the Board under subsection (d), the order of the Administrator is stayed.
(2) Exception.— 
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the order of the Administrator is effective immediately if the Administrator advises the Board that an emergency exists and safety in air commerce or air transportation requires the order to be effective immediately.
(3) Review of emergency order.— 
A person affected by the immediate effectiveness of the Administrators order under paragraph (2) may petition for a review by the Board, under procedures promulgated by the Board, of the Administrators determination that an emergency exists. Any such review shall be requested not later than 48 hours after the order is received by the person. If the Board finds that an emergency does not exist that requires the immediate application of the order in the interest of safety in air commerce or air transportation, the order shall be stayed, notwithstanding paragraph (2). The Board shall dispose of a review request under this paragraph not later than 5 days after the date on which the request is filed.
(4) Final disposition.— 
The Board shall make a final disposition of an appeal under subsection (d) not later than 60 days after the date on which the appeal is filed.
(f) Judicial Review.— 
A person substantially affected by an order of the Board under this section, or the Administrator when the Administrator decides that an order of the Board under this section will have a significant adverse impact on carrying out this part, may obtain judicial review of the order under section 46110 of this title. The Administrator shall be made a party to the judicial review proceedings. Findings of fact of the Board are conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.

49 USC 44710 - Revocations of airman certificates for controlled substance violations

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, controlled substance has the same meaning given that term in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802).
(b) Revocation.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue an order revoking an airman certificate issued an individual under section 44703 of this title after the individual is convicted, under a law of the United States or a State related to a controlled substance (except a law related to simple possession of a controlled substance), of an offense punishable by death or imprisonment for more than one year if the Administrator finds that
(A) an aircraft was used to commit, or facilitate the commission of, the offense; and
(B) the individual served as an airman, or was on the aircraft, in connection with committing, or facilitating the commission of, the offense.
(2) The Administrator shall issue an order revoking an airman certificate issued an individual under section 44703 of this title if the Administrator finds that
(A) the individual knowingly carried out an activity punishable, under a law of the United States or a State related to a controlled substance (except a law related to simple possession of a controlled substance), by death or imprisonment for more than one year;
(B) an aircraft was used to carry out or facilitate the activity; and
(C) the individual served as an airman, or was on the aircraft, in connection with carrying out, or facilitating the carrying out of, the activity.
(3) The Administrator has no authority under paragraph (1) of this subsection to review whether an airman violated a law of the United States or a State related to a controlled substance.
(c) Advice to Holders and Opportunity To Answer.— 
Before the Administrator revokes a certificate under subsection (b) of this section, the Administrator must
(1) advise the holder of the certificate of the charges or reasons on which the Administrator relies for the proposed revocation; and
(2) provide the holder of the certificate an opportunity to answer the charges and be heard why the certificate should not be revoked.
(d) Appeals.— 

(1) An individual whose certificate is revoked by the Administrator under subsection (b) of this section may appeal the revocation order to the National Transportation Safety Board. The Board shall affirm or reverse the order after providing notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the record. When conducting the hearing, the Board is not bound by findings of fact of the Administrator but shall be bound by all validly adopted interpretations of laws and regulations the Administrator carries out and of written agency policy guidance available to the public related to sanctions to be imposed under this section unless the Board finds an interpretation is arbitrary, capricious, or otherwise not according to law.
(2) When an individual files an appeal with the Board under this subsection, the order of the Administrator revoking the certificate is stayed. However, if the Administrator advises the Board that safety in air transportation or air commerce requires the immediate effectiveness of the order
(A) the order remains effective; and
(B) the Board shall make a final disposition of the appeal not later than 60 days after the Administrator so advises the Board.
(3) An individual substantially affected by an order of the Board under this subsection, or the Administrator when the Administrator decides that an order of the Board will have a significant adverse effect on carrying out this part, may obtain judicial review of the order under section 46110 of this title. The Administrator shall be made a party to the judicial review proceedings. Findings of fact of the Board are conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.
(e) Acquittal.— 

(1) The Administrator may not revoke, and the Board may not affirm a revocation of, an airman certificate under subsection (b)(2) of this section on the basis of an activity described in subsection (b)(2)(A) if the holder of the certificate is acquitted of all charges related to a controlled substance in an indictment or information arising from the activity.
(2) If the Administrator has revoked an airman certificate under this section because of an activity described in subsection (b)(2)(A) of this section, the Administrator shall reissue a certificate to the individual if
(A) the individual otherwise satisfies the requirements for a certificate under section 44703 of this title; and
(B) 
(i) the individual subsequently is acquitted of all charges related to a controlled substance in an indictment or information arising from the activity; or
(ii) the conviction on which a revocation under subsection (b)(1) of this section is based is reversed.
(f) Waivers.— 
The Administrator may waive the requirement of subsection (b) of this section that an airman certificate of an individual be revoked if
(1) a law enforcement official of the United States Government or of a State requests a waiver; and
(2) the Administrator decides that the waiver will facilitate law enforcement efforts.

49 USC 44711 - Prohibitions and exemption

(a) Prohibitions.— 
A person may not
(1) operate a civil aircraft in air commerce without an airworthiness certificate in effect or in violation of a term of the certificate;
(2) serve in any capacity as an airman with respect to a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance used, or intended for use, in air commerce
(A) without an airman certificate authorizing the airman to serve in the capacity for which the certificate was issued; or
(B) in violation of a term of the certificate or a regulation prescribed or order issued under section 44701 (a) or (b) or any of sections 44702–44716 of this title;
(3) employ for service related to civil aircraft used in air commerce an airman who does not have an airman certificate authorizing the airman to serve in the capacity for which the airman is employed;
(4) operate as an air carrier without an air carrier operating certificate or in violation of a term of the certificate;
(5) operate aircraft in air commerce in violation of a regulation prescribed or certificate issued under section 44701 (a) or (b) or any of sections 44702–44716 of this title;
(6) operate a seaplane or other aircraft of United States registry on the high seas in violation of a regulation under section 3 of the International Navigational Rules Act of 1977 (33 U.S.C. 1602);
(7) violate a term of an air agency, design organization certificate, or production certificate or a regulation prescribed or order issued under section 44701 (a) or (b) or any of sections 44702–44716 of this title related to the holder of the certificate;
(8) operate an airport without an airport operating certificate required under section 44706 of this title or in violation of a term of the certificate; or
(9) manufacture, deliver, sell, or offer for sale any aviation fuel or additive in violation of a regulation prescribed under section 44714 of this title.
(b) Exemption.— 
On terms the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration prescribes as being in the public interest, the Administrator may exempt a foreign aircraft and airmen serving on the aircraft from subsection (a) of this section. However, an exemption from observing air traffic regulations may not be granted.
(c) Prohibition on Employment of Convicted Counterfeit Part Traffickers.— 
No person subject to this chapter may knowingly employ anyone to perform a function related to the procurement, sale, production, or repair of a part or material, or the installation of a part into a civil aircraft, who has been convicted in a court of law of a violation of any Federal law relating to the installation, production, repair, or sale of a counterfeit or fraudulently-represented aviation part or material.

49 USC 44712 - Emergency locator transmitters

(a) Installation.— 
An emergency locator transmitter must be installed on a fixed-wing powered civil aircraft for use in air commerce.
(b) Nonapplication.— 
Prior to January 1, 2002, subsection (a) does not apply to
(1) turbojet-powered aircraft;
(2) aircraft when used in scheduled flights by scheduled air carriers holding certificates issued by the Secretary of Transportation under subpart II of this part;
(3) aircraft when used in training operations conducted entirely within a 50 mile radius of the airport from which the training operations begin;
(4) aircraft when used in flight operations related to design and testing, the manufacture, preparation, and delivery of the aircraft, or the aerial application of a substance for an agricultural purpose;
(5) aircraft holding certificates from the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration for research and development;
(6) aircraft when used for showing compliance with regulations, crew training, exhibition, air racing, or market surveys; and
(7) aircraft equipped to carry only one individual.
(c) Nonapplication Beginning on January 1, 2002.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subject to paragraph (2), on and after January 1, 2002, subsection (a) does not apply to
(A) aircraft when used in scheduled flights by scheduled air carriers holding certificates issued by the Secretary of Transportation under subpart II of this part;
(B) aircraft when used in training operations conducted entirely within a 50-mile radius of the airport from which the training operations begin;
(C) aircraft when used in flight operations related to the design and testing, manufacture, preparation, and delivery of aircraft;
(D) aircraft when used in research and development if the aircraft holds a certificate from the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to carry out such research and development;
(E) aircraft when used in showing compliance with regulations, crew training, exhibition, air racing, or market surveys;
(F) aircraft when used in the aerial application of a substance for an agricultural purpose;
(G) aircraft with a maximum payload capacity of more than 18,000 pounds when used in air transportation; or
(H) aircraft equipped to carry only one individual.
(2) Delay in implementation.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may continue to implement subsection (b) rather than subsection (c) for a period not to exceed 2 years after January 1, 2002, if the Administrator finds such action is necessary to promote
(A) a safe and orderly transition to the operation of civil aircraft equipped with an emergency locator; or
(B) other safety objectives.
(d) Compliance.— 
An aircraft meets the requirement of subsection (a) if it is equipped with an emergency locator transmitter that transmits on the 121.5/243 megahertz frequency or the 406 megahertz frequency or with other equipment approved by the Secretary for meeting the requirement of subsection (a).
(e) Removal.— 
The Administrator shall prescribe regulations specifying the conditions under which an aircraft subject to subsection (a) of this section may operate when its emergency locator transmitter has been removed for inspection, repair, alteration, or replacement.

49 USC 44713 - Inspection and maintenance

(a) General Equipment Requirements.— 
An air carrier shall make, or cause to be made, any inspection, repair, or maintenance of equipment used in air transportation as required by this part or regulations prescribed or orders issued by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under this part. A person operating, inspecting, repairing, or maintaining the equipment shall comply with those requirements, regulations, and orders.
(b) Duties of Inspectors.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall employ inspectors who shall
(1) inspect aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances designed for use in air transportation, during manufacture and when in use by an air carrier in air transportation, to enable the Administrator to decide whether the aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances are in safe condition and maintained properly; and
(2) advise and cooperate with the air carrier during that inspection and maintenance.
(c) Unsafe Aircraft, Engines, Propellers, and Appliances.— 
When an inspector decides that an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance is not in condition for safe operation, the inspector shall notify the air carrier in the form and way prescribed by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. For 5 days after the carrier is notified, the aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance may not be used in air transportation or in a way that endangers air transportation unless the Administrator or the inspector decides the aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance is in condition for safe operation.
(d) Modifications in System.— 

(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make modifications in the system for processing forms for major repairs or alterations to fuel tanks and fuel systems of aircraft not used to provide air transportation that are necessary to make the system more effective in serving the needs of users of the system, including officials responsible for enforcing laws related to the regulation of controlled substances (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)). The modifications shall address at least each of the following deficiencies in, and abuses of, the existing system:
(A) the lack of a special identification feature to allow the forms to be distinguished easily from other major repair and alteration forms.
(B) the excessive period of time required to receive the forms at the Airmen and Aircraft Registry of the Administration.
(C) the backlog of forms waiting for processing at the Registry.
(D) the lack of ready access by law enforcement officials to information contained on the forms.
(2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations to carry out paragraph (1) of this subsection and provide a written explanation of how the regulations address each of the deficiencies and abuses described in paragraph (1). In prescribing the regulations, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consult with the Administrator of Drug Enforcement, the Commissioner of Customs, other law enforcement officials of the United States Government, representatives of State and local law enforcement officials, representatives of the general aviation aircraft industry, representatives of users of general aviation aircraft, and other interested persons.
(e) Automated Surveillance Targeting Systems.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Administrator shall give high priority to developing and deploying a fully enhanced safety performance analysis system that includes automated surveillance to assist the Administrator in prioritizing and targeting surveillance and inspection activities of the Federal Aviation Administration.
(2) Deadlines for deployment.— 

(A) Initial phase.— 
The initial phase of the operational deployment of the system developed under this subsection shall begin not later than December 31, 1997.
(B) Final phase.— 
The final phase of field deployment of the system developed under this subsection shall begin not later than December 31, 1999. By that date, all principal operations and maintenance inspectors of the Administration, and appropriate supervisors and analysts of the Administration shall have been provided access to the necessary information and resources to carry out the system.
(3) Integration of information.— 
In developing the system under this section, the Administration shall consider the near-term integration of accident and incident data into the safety performance analysis system under this subsection.

49 USC 44714 - Aviation fuel standards

The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe
(1) standards for the composition or chemical or physical properties of an aircraft fuel or fuel additive to control or eliminate aircraft emissions the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency decides under section 231 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7571) endanger the public health or welfare; and
(2) regulations providing for carrying out and enforcing those standards.

49 USC 44715 - Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom

(a) Standards and Regulations.— 

(1) 
(A) To relieve and protect the public health and welfare from aircraft noise and sonic boom, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, as he deems necessary, shall prescribe
(i) standards to measure aircraft noise and sonic boom; and
(ii) regulations to control and abate aircraft noise and sonic boom.
(B) The Administrator, as the Administrator deems appropriate, shall provide for the participation of a representative of the Environmental Protection Agency on such advisory committees or associated working groups that advise the Administrator on matters related to the environmental effects of aircraft and aircraft engines.
(2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may prescribe standards and regulations under this subsection only after consulting with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. The standards and regulations shall be applied when issuing, amending, modifying, suspending, or revoking a certificate authorized under this chapter.
(3) An original type certificate may be issued under section 44704 (a) of this title for an aircraft for which substantial noise abatement can be achieved only after the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration prescribes standards and regulations under this section that apply to that aircraft.
(b) Considerations and Consultation.— 
When prescribing a standard or regulation under this section, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall
(1) consider relevant information related to aircraft noise and sonic boom;
(2) consult with appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government and State and interstate authorities;
(3) consider whether the standard or regulation is consistent with the highest degree of safety in air transportation or air commerce in the public interest;
(4) consider whether the standard or regulation is economically reasonable, technologically practicable, and appropriate for the applicable aircraft, aircraft engine, appliance, or certificate; and
(5) consider the extent to which the standard or regulation will carry out the purposes of this section.
(c) Proposed Regulations of Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency.— 
The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall submit to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration proposed regulations to control and abate aircraft noise and sonic boom (including control and abatement through the use of the authority of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration) that the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency considers necessary to protect the public health and welfare. The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consider those proposed regulations and shall publish them in a notice of proposed regulations not later than 30 days after they are received. Not later than 60 days after publication, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall begin a hearing at which interested persons are given an opportunity for oral and written presentations. Not later than 90 days after the hearing is completed and after consulting with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall
(1) prescribe regulations as provided by this section
(A) substantially the same as the proposed regulations submitted by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; or
(B) that amend the proposed regulations; or
(2) publish in the Federal Register
(A) a notice that no regulation is being prescribed in response to the proposed regulations of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency;
(B) a detailed analysis of, and response to, all information the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency submitted with the proposed regulations; and
(C) a detailed explanation of why no regulation is being prescribed.
(d) Consultation and Reports.— 

(1) If the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency believes that the action of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under subsection (c)(1)(B) or (2) of this section does not protect the public health and welfare from aircraft noise or sonic boom, consistent with the considerations in subsection (b) of this section, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall consult with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and may request a report on the advisability of prescribing the regulation as originally proposed. The request, including a detailed statement of the information on which the request is based, shall be published in the Federal Register.
(2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall report to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency within the time, if any, specified in the request. However, the time specified must be at least 90 days after the date of the request. The report shall
(A) be accompanied by a detailed statement of the findings of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the reasons for the findings;
(B) identify any statement related to an action under subsection (c) of this section filed under section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332 (2)(C));
(C) specify whether and where that statement is available for public inspection; and
(D) be published in the Federal Register unless the request proposes specific action by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the report indicates that action will be taken.
(e) Supplemental Reports.— 
The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency may request the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to file a supplemental report if the report under subsection (d) of this section indicates that the proposed regulations under subsection (c) of this section, for which a statement under section 102(2)(C) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 4332 (2)(C)) is not required, should not be prescribed. The supplemental report shall be published in the Federal Register within the time the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency specifies. However, the time specified must be at least 90 days after the date of the request. The supplemental report shall contain a comparison of the environmental effects, including those that cannot be avoided, of the action of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the proposed regulations of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
(f) Exemptions.— 
An exemption from a standard or regulation prescribed under this section may be granted only if, before granting the exemption, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration consults with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. However, if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration finds that safety in air transportation or air commerce requires an exemption before the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency can be consulted, the exemption may be granted. The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency as soon as practicable after the exemption is granted.

49 USC 44716 - Collision avoidance systems

(a) Development and Certification.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall
(1) complete the development of the collision avoidance system known as TCASII so that TCASII can operate under visual and instrument flight rules and can be upgraded to the performance standards applicable to the collision avoidance system known as TCASIII;
(2) develop and carry out a schedule for developing and certifying TCASII that will result in certification not later than June 30, 1989; and
(3) submit to Congress monthly reports on the progress being made in developing and certifying TCASII.
(b) Installation and Operation.— 
The Administrator shall require by regulation that, not later than 30 months after the date certification is made under subsection (a)(2) of this section, TCASII be installed and operated on each civil aircraft that has a maximum passenger capacity of at least 31 seats and is used to provide air transportation of passengers, including intrastate air transportation of passengers. The Administrator may extend the deadline in this subsection for not more than 2 years if the Administrator finds the extension is necessary to promote
(1) a safe and orderly transition to the operation of a fleet of civil aircraft described in this subsection equipped with TCASII; or
(2) other safety objectives.
(c) Operational Evaluation.— 
Not later than December 30, 1990, the Administrator shall establish a one-year program to collect and assess safety and operational information from civil aircraft equipped with TCASII for the operational evaluation of TCASII. The Administrator shall encourage foreign air carriers that operate civil aircraft equipped with TCASII to participate in the program.
(d) Amending Schedule for Windshear Equipment.— 
The Administrator shall consider the feasibility and desirability of amending the schedule for installing airborne low-altitude windshear equipment to make the schedule compatible with the schedule for installing TCASII.
(e) Deadline for Development and Certification.— 

(1) The Administrator shall complete developing and certifying TCASIII as soon as possible.
(2) Necessary amounts may be appropriated from the Airport and Airway Trust Fund established under section 9502 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 9502) to carry out this subsection.
(f) Installing and Using Transponders.— 
The Administrator shall prescribe regulations requiring that, not later than December 30, 1990, operating transponders with automatic altitude reporting capability be installed and used for aircraft operating in designated terminal airspace where radar service is provided for separation of aircraft. The Administrator may provide for access to that airspace (except terminal control areas and airport radar service areas) by nonequipped aircraft if the Administrator finds the access will not interfere with the normal traffic flow.
(g) Cargo Collision Avoidance Systems.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Administrator shall require by regulation that, no later than December 31, 2002, collision avoidance equipment be installed on each cargo aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight in excess of 15,000 kilograms.
(2) Extension of deadline.— 
The Administrator may extend the deadline established by paragraph (1) by not more than 2 years if the Administrator finds that the extension is needed to promote
(A) a safe and orderly transition to the operation of a fleet of cargo aircraft equipped with collision avoidance equipment; or
(B) other safety or public interest objectives.
(3) Collision avoidance equipment defined.— 
In this subsection, the term collision avoidance equipment means equipment that provides protection from mid-air collisions using technology that provides
(A) cockpit-based collision detection and conflict resolution guidance, including display of traffic; and
(B) a margin of safety of at least the same level as provided by the collision avoidance system known as TCASII.

49 USC 44717 - Aging aircraft

(a) Inspections and Reviews.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations that ensure the continuing airworthiness of aging aircraft. The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) of this section
(1) at least shall require the Administrator to make inspections, and review the maintenance and other records, of each aircraft an air carrier uses to provide air transportation that the Administrator decides may be necessary to enable the Administrator to decide whether the aircraft is in safe condition and maintained properly for operation in air transportation;
(2) at least shall require an air carrier to demonstrate to the Administrator, as part of the inspection, that maintenance of the aircrafts age-sensitive parts and components has been adequate and timely enough to ensure the highest degree of safety;
(3) shall require the air carrier to make available to the Administrator the aircraft and any records about the aircraft that the Administrator requires to carry out a review; and
(4) shall establish procedures to be followed in carrying out an inspection.
(b) When and How Inspections and Reviews Shall Be Carried Out.— 

(1) Inspections and reviews required under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall be carried out as part of each heavy maintenance check of the aircraft conducted after the 14th year in which the aircraft has been in service.
(2) Inspections under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall be carried out as provided under section 44701 (a)(2)(B) and (C) of this title.
(c) Aircraft Maintenance Safety Programs.— 
The Administrator shall establish
(1) a program to verify that air carriers are maintaining their aircraft according to maintenance programs approved by the Administrator;
(2) a program
(A) to provide inspectors and engineers of the Administration with training necessary to conduct auditing inspections of aircraft operated by air carriers for corrosion and metal fatigue; and
(B) to enhance participation of those inspectors and engineers in those inspections; and
(3) a program to ensure that air carriers demonstrate to the Administrator their commitment and technical competence to ensure the airworthiness of aircraft that the carriers operate.
(d) Foreign Air Transportation.— 

(1) The Administrator shall take all possible steps to encourage governments of foreign countries and relevant international organizations to develop standards and requirements for inspections and reviews that
(A) will ensure the continuing airworthiness of aging aircraft used by foreign air carriers to provide foreign air transportation to and from the United States; and
(B) will provide passengers of those foreign air carriers with the same level of safety that will be provided passengers of air carriers by carrying out this section.
(2) Not later than September 30, 1994, the Administrator shall report to Congress on carrying out this subsection.

49 USC 44718 - Structures interfering with air commerce

(a) Notice.— 
By regulation or by order when necessary, the Secretary of Transportation shall require a person to give adequate public notice, in the form and way the Secretary prescribes, of the construction, alteration, establishment, or expansion, or the proposed construction, alteration, establishment, or expansion, of a structure or sanitary landfill when the notice will promote
(1) safety in air commerce; and
(2) the efficient use and preservation of the navigable airspace and of airport traffic capacity at public-use airports.
(b) Studies.— 

(1) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if the Secretary decides that constructing or altering a structure may result in an obstruction of the navigable airspace or an interference with air navigation facilities and equipment or the navigable airspace, the Secretary shall conduct an aeronautical study to decide the extent of any adverse impact on the safe and efficient use of the airspace, facilities, or equipment. In conducting the study, the Secretary shall consider factors relevant to the efficient and effective use of the navigable airspace, including
(A) the impact on arrival, departure, and en route procedures for aircraft operating under visual flight rules;
(B) the impact on arrival, departure, and en route procedures for aircraft operating under instrument flight rules;
(C) the impact on existing public-use airports and aeronautical facilities;
(D) the impact on planned public-use airports and aeronautical facilities; and
(E) the cumulative impact resulting from the proposed construction or alteration of a structure when combined with the impact of other existing or proposed structures.
(2) On completing the study, the Secretary shall issue a report disclosing completely the extent of the adverse impact on the safe and efficient use of the navigable airspace that the Secretary finds will result from constructing or altering the structure.
(c) Broadcast Applications and Tower Studies.— 
In carrying out laws related to a broadcast application and conducting an aeronautical study related to broadcast towers, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Federal Communications Commission shall take action necessary to coordinate efficiently
(1) the receipt and consideration of, and action on, the application; and
(2) the completion of any associated aeronautical study.
(d) Limitation on Construction of Landfills.— 

(1) In general.— 
No person shall construct or establish a municipal solid waste landfill (as defined in section 258.2 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this subsection) that receives putrescible waste (as defined in section 257.38 of such title) within 6 miles of a public airport that has received grants under chapter 471 and is primarily served by general aviation aircraft and regularly scheduled flights of aircraft designed for 60 passengers or less unless the State aviation agency of the State in which the airport is located requests that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration exempt the landfill from the application of this subsection and the Administrator determines that such exemption would have no adverse impact on aviation safety.
(2) Limitation on applicability.— 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the State of Alaska and shall not apply to the construction, establishment, expansion, or modification of, or to any other activity undertaken with respect to, a municipal solid waste landfill if the construction or establishment of the landfill was commenced on or before the date of the enactment of this subsection.

49 USC 44719 - Standards for navigational aids

The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations on standards for installing navigational aids, including airport control towers. For each type of facility, the regulations shall consider at a minimum traffic density (number of aircraft operations without consideration of aircraft size), terrain and other obstacles to navigation, weather characteristics, passengers served, and potential aircraft operating efficiencies.

49 USC 44720 - Meteorological services

(a) Recommendations.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make recommendations to the Secretary of Commerce on providing meteorological services necessary for the safe and efficient movement of aircraft in air commerce. In providing the services, the Secretary shall cooperate with the Administrator and give complete consideration to those recommendations.
(b) Promoting Safety and Efficiency.— 
To promote safety and efficiency in air navigation to the highest possible degree, the Secretary shall
(1) observe, measure, investigate, and study atmospheric phenomena, and maintain meteorological stations and offices, that are necessary or best suited for finding out in advance information about probable weather conditions;
(2) provide reports to the Administrator to persons engaged in civil aeronautics that are designated by the Administrator and to other persons designated by the Secretary in a way and with a frequency that best will result in safety in, and facilitating, air navigation;
(3) cooperate with persons engaged in air commerce in meteorological services, maintain reciprocal arrangements with those persons in carrying out this clause, and collect and distribute weather reports available from aircraft in flight;
(4) maintain and coordinate international exchanges of meteorological information required for the safety and efficiency of air navigation;
(5) in cooperation with other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, meteorological services of foreign countries, and persons engaged in air commerce, participate in developing an international basic meteorological reporting network, including the establishment, operation, and maintenance of reporting stations on the high seas, in polar regions, and in foreign countries;
(6) coordinate meteorological requirements in the United States to maintain standard observations, to promote efficient use of facilities, and to avoid duplication of services unless the duplication tends to promote the safety and efficiency of air navigation; and
(7) promote and develop meteorological science and foster and support research projects in meteorology through the use of private and governmental research facilities and provide for publishing the results of the projects unless publication would not be in the public interest.

49 USC 44721 - Aeronautical charts and related products and services

(a) Publication.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may arrange for the publication of aeronautical maps and charts necessary for the safe and efficient movement of aircraft in air navigation, using the facilities and assistance of departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government as far as practicable.
(2) Navigation routes.— 
In carrying out paragraph (1), the Administrator shall update and arrange for the publication of clearly defined routes for navigating through a complex terminal airspace area and to and from an airport located in such an area, if the Administrator decides that publication of the routes would promote safety in air navigation. The routes shall be developed in consultation with pilots and other users of affected airports and shall be for the optional use of pilots operating under visual flight rules.
(b) Indemnification.— 
The Government shall make an agreement to indemnify any person that publishes a map or chart for use in aeronautics from any part of a claim arising out of the depiction by the person on the map or chart of a defective or deficient flight procedure or airway if the flight procedure or airway was
(1) prescribed by the Administrator;
(2) depicted accurately on the map or chart; and
(3) not obviously defective or deficient.
(c) Authority of Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography.— 
Effective October 1, 2000, the Administrator is vested with and shall exercise the functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary of Commerce and other officers of the Department of Commerce that relate to the Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography to provide aeronautical charts and related products and services for the safe and efficient navigation of air commerce, under the following authorities:
(1) Sections 1 through 9 of the Act entitled An Act to define the functions and duties of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and for other purposes, approved August 6, 1947,[1] (33 U.S.C. 883a–883h).
(2) Section 6082 of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (33 U.S.C. 883j).
(d) Authority.— 
In order that full public benefit may be derived from the dissemination of data resulting from activities under this section and of related data from other sources, the Administrator may
(1) develop, process, disseminate and publish digital and analog data, information, compilations, and reports;
(2) compile, print, and disseminate aeronautical charts and related products and services of the United States and its territories and possessions;
(3) compile, print, and disseminate aeronautical charts and related products and services covering international airspace as are required primarily by United States civil aviation; and
(4) compile, print, and disseminate nonaeronautical navigational, transportation or public-safety-related products and services when in the best interests of the Government.
(e) Contracts, Cooperative Agreements, Grants, and Other Agreements.— 

(1) Contracts.— 
The Administrator is authorized to contract with qualified organizations for the performance of any part of the authorized functions of the Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography when the Administrator deems such procedure to be in the public interest and will not compromise public safety.
(2) Cooperative agreements, grants, and other agreements.— 
The Administrator is authorized to enter into cooperative agreements, grants, reimbursable agreements, memoranda of understanding and other agreements, with a State, subdivision of a State, Federal agency, public or private organization, or individual, to carry out the purposes of this section.
(f) Special Services and Products.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Administrator is authorized, at the request of a State, subdivision of a State, Federal agency, public or private organization, or individual, to conduct special services, including making special studies, or developing special publications or products on matters relating to navigation, transportation, or public safety.
(2) Fees.— 
The Administrator shall assess a fee for any special service provided under paragraph (1). A fee shall be not more than the actual or estimated full cost of the service. A fee may be reduced or waived for research organizations, educational organizations, or non-profit organizations, when the Administrator determines that reduction or waiver of the fee is in the best interest of the Government by furthering public safety.
(g) Sale and Dissemination of Aeronautical Products.— 

(1) In general.— 
Aeronautical products created or maintained under the authority of this section shall be sold at prices established annually by the Administrator consistent with the following:
(A) Maximum price.— 
Subject to subparagraph (B), the price of an aeronautical product sold to the public shall be not more than necessary to recover all costs attributable to:
(i)  data base management and processing;
(ii)  compilation;
(iii)  printing or other types of reproduction; and
(iv)  dissemination of the product.
(B) Adjustment of price.— 
The Administrator shall adjust the price of an aeronautical product and service sold to the public as necessary to avoid any adverse impact on aviation safety attributable to the price specified under this paragraph.
(C) Costs attributable to acquisition of aeronautical data.— 
A price established under this paragraph may not include costs attributable to the acquisition of aeronautical data.
(D) Continuation of prices.— 
The price of any product created under subsection (d) may correspond to the price of a comparable product produced by a department of the United States Government as that price was in effect on September 30, 2000, and may remain in effect until modified by regulation under section 9701 of title 31, United States Code.
(2) Publication of prices.— 
The Administrator shall publish annually the prices at which aeronautical products are sold to the public.
(3) Distribution.— 
The Administrator may distribute aeronautical products and provide aeronautical services
(A) without charge to each foreign government or international organization with which the Administrator or a Federal department or agency has an agreement for exchange of these products or services without cost;
(B) at prices the Administrator establishes, to the departments and officers of the United States requiring them for official use; and
(C) at reduced or no charge where, in the judgment of the Administrator, furnishing the aeronautical product or service to a recipient is a reasonable exchange for voluntary contribution of information by the recipient to the activities under this section.
(4) Fees.— 
The fees provided for in this subsection are for the purpose of reimbursing the Government for the costs of creating, printing and disseminating aeronautical products and services under this section. The collection of fees authorized by this section does not alter or expand any duty or liability of the Government under existing law for the performance of functions for which fees are collected, nor does the collection of fees constitute an express or implied undertaking by the Government to perform any activity in a certain manner.
(5) Crediting amounts received.— 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, amounts received for the sale of products created and services performed under this section shall be fully credited to the account of the Federal Aviation Administration that funded the provision of the products or services and shall remain available until expended.
[1] So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

49 USC 44722 - Aircraft operations in winter conditions

The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations requiring procedures to improve safety of aircraft operations during winter conditions. In deciding on the procedures to be required, the Administrator shall consider at least aircraft and air traffic control modifications, the availability of different types of deicing fluids (considering their efficacy and environmental limitations), the types of deicing equipment available, and the feasibility and desirability of establishing timeframes within which deicing must occur under certain types of inclement weather.

49 USC 44723 - Annual report

Not later than January 1 of each year, the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to Congress a comprehensive report on the safety enforcement activities of the Federal Aviation Administration during the fiscal year ending the prior September 30th. The report shall include
(1) a comparison of end-of-year staffing levels by operations, maintenance, and avionics inspector categories to staffing goals and a statement on how staffing standards were applied to make allocations between air carrier and general aviation operations, maintenance, and avionics inspectors;
(2) schedules showing the range of inspector experience by various inspector work force categories, and the number of inspectors in each of the categories who are considered fully qualified;
(3) schedules showing the number and percentage of inspectors who have received mandatory training by individual course, and the number of inspectors by work force categories, who have received all mandatory training;
(4) a description of the criteria used to set annual work programs, an explanation of how these criteria differ from criteria used in the prior fiscal year and how the annual work programs ensure compliance with appropriate regulations and safe operating practices;
(5) a comparison of actual inspections performed during the fiscal year to the annual work programs by field location and, for any field location completing less than 80 percent of its planned number of inspections, an explanation of why annual work program plans were not met;
(6) a statement of the adequacy of Administration internal management controls available to ensure that field managers comply with Administration policies and procedures, including those on inspector priorities, district office coordination, minimum inspection standards, and inspection followup;
(7) the status of efforts made by the Administration to update inspector guidance documents and regulations to include technological, management, and structural changes taking place in the aviation industry, including a listing of the backlog of all proposed regulatory amendments;
(8) a list of the specific operational measures of effectiveness used to evaluate
(A) the progress in meeting program objectives;
(B) the quality of program delivery; and
(C) the nature of emerging safety problems;
(9) a schedule showing the number of civil penalty cases closed during the 2 prior fiscal years, including the total initial and final penalties imposed, the total number of dollars collected, the range of dollar amounts collected, the average case processing time, and the range of case processing time;
(10) a schedule showing the number of enforcement actions taken (except civil penalties) during the 2 prior fiscal years, including the total number of violations cited, and the number of cited violation cases closed by certificate suspensions, certificate revocations, warnings, and no action taken; and
(11) schedules showing the safety record of the aviation industry during the fiscal year for air carriers and general aviation, including
(A) the number of inspections performed when deficiencies were identified compared with inspections when no deficiencies were found;
(B) the frequency of safety deficiencies for each air carrier; and
(C) an analysis based on data of the general status of air carrier and general aviation compliance with aviation regulations.

49 USC 44724 - Manipulation of flight controls

(a) Prohibition.— 
No pilot in command of an aircraft may allow an individual who does not hold
(1) a valid private pilots certificate issued by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under part 61 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations; and
(2) the appropriate medical certificate issued by the Administrator under part 67 of such title,

to manipulate the controls of an aircraft if the pilot knows or should have known that the individual is attempting to set a record or engage in an aeronautical competition or aeronautical feat, as defined by the Administrator.

(b) Revocation of Airmen Certificates.— 
The Administrator shall issue an order revoking a certificate issued to an airman under section 44703 of this title if the Administrator finds that while acting as a pilot in command of an aircraft, the airman has permitted another individual to manipulate the controls of the aircraft in violation of subsection (a).
(c) Pilot in Command Defined.— 
In this section, the term pilot in command has the meaning given such term by section 1.1 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.

49 USC 44725 - Life-limited aircraft parts

(a) In General.— 
The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall conduct a rulemaking proceeding to require the safe disposition of life-limited parts removed from an aircraft. The rulemaking proceeding shall ensure that the disposition deter installation on an aircraft of a life-limited part that has reached or exceeded its life limits.
(b) Safe Disposition.— 
For the purposes of this section, safe disposition includes any of the following methods:
(1) The part may be segregated under circumstances that preclude its installation on an aircraft.
(2) The part may be permanently marked to indicate its used life status.
(3) The part may be destroyed in any manner calculated to prevent reinstallation in an aircraft.
(4) The part may be marked, if practicable, to include the recordation of hours, cycles, or other airworthiness information. If the parts are marked with cycles or hours of usage, that information must be updated every time the part is removed from service or when the part is retired from service.
(5) Any other method approved by the Administrator.
(c) Deadlines.— 
In conducting the rulemaking proceeding under subsection (a), the Administrator shall
(1) not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this section, issue a notice of proposed rulemaking; and
(2) not later than 180 days after the close of the comment period on the proposed rule, issue a final rule.
(d) Prior-Removed Life-Limited Parts.— 
No rule issued under subsection (a) shall require the marking of parts removed from aircraft before the effective date of the rules issued under subsection (a), nor shall any such rule forbid the installation of an otherwise airworthy life-limited part.

49 USC 44726 - Denial and revocation of certificate for counterfeit parts violations

(a) Denial of Certificate.— 

(1) In general.— 
Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection and subsection (e)(2), the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may not issue a certificate under this chapter to any person
(A) convicted in a court of law of a violation of a law of the United States relating to the installation, production, repair, or sale of a counterfeit or fraudulently-represented aviation part or material;
(B) whose certificate is revoked under subsection (b); or
(C) subject to a controlling or ownership interest of an individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B).
(2) Exception.— 
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Administrator may issue a certificate under this chapter to a person described in paragraph (1) if issuance of the certificate will facilitate law enforcement efforts.
(b) Revocation of Certificate.— 

(1) In general.— 
Except as provided in subsections (f) and (g), the Administrator shall issue an order revoking a certificate issued under this chapter if the Administrator finds that the holder of the certificate or an individual who has a controlling or ownership interest in the holder
(A) was convicted in a court of law of a violation of a law of the United States relating to the installation, production, repair, or sale of a counterfeit or fraudulently-represented aviation part or material; or
(B) knowingly, and with the intent to defraud, carried out or facilitated an activity punishable under a law described in paragraph (1)(A).
(2) No authority to review violation.— 
In carrying out paragraph (1), the Administrator may not review whether a person violated a law described in paragraph (1)(A).
(c) Notice Requirement.— 
Before the Administrator revokes a certificate under subsection (b), the Administrator shall
(1) advise the holder of the certificate of the reason for the revocation; and
(2) provide the holder of the certificate an opportunity to be heard on why the certificate should not be revoked.
(d) Appeal.— 
The provisions of section 44710 (d) apply to the appeal of a revocation order under subsection (b). For the purpose of applying that section to the appeal, person shall be substituted for individual each place it appears.
(e) Acquittal or Reversal.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Administrator may not revoke, and the National Transportation Safety Board may not affirm a revocation of, a certificate under subsection (b)(1)(B) if the holder of the certificate or the individual referred to in subsection (b)(1) is acquitted of all charges directly related to the violation.
(2) Reissuance.— 
The Administrator may reissue a certificate revoked under subsection (b) of this section to the former holder if
(A) the former holder otherwise satisfies the requirements of this chapter for the certificate; and
(B) 
(i) the former holder or the individual referred to in subsection (b)(1), is acquitted of all charges related to the violation on which the revocation was based; or
(ii) the conviction of the former holder or such individual of the violation on which the revocation was based is reversed.
(f) Waiver.— 
The Administrator may waive revocation of a certificate under subsection (b) if
(1) a law enforcement official of the United States Government requests a waiver; and
(2) the waiver will facilitate law enforcement efforts.
(g) Amendment of Certificate.— 
If the holder of a certificate issued under this chapter is other than an individual and the Administrator finds that
(1) an individual who had a controlling or ownership interest in the holder committed a violation of a law for the violation of which a certificate may be revoked under this section or knowingly, and with intent to defraud, carried out or facilitated an activity punishable under such a law; and
(2) the holder satisfies the requirements for the certificate without regard to that individual,

then the Administrator may amend the certificate to impose a limitation that the certificate will not be valid if that individual has a controlling or ownership interest in the holder. A decision by the Administrator under this subsection is not reviewable by the Board.

49 USC 44727 - Runway safety areas

(a) Airports in Alaska.— 
An airport owner or operator in the State of Alaska shall not be required to reduce the length of a runway or declare the length of a runway to be less than the actual pavement length in order to meet standards of the Federal Aviation Administration applicable to runway safety areas.
(b) Study.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary shall conduct a study of runways at airports in States other than Alaska to determine which airports are affected by standards of the Federal Aviation Administration applicable to runway safety areas and to assess how operations at those airports would be affected if the owner or operator of the airport is required to reduce the length of a runway or declare the length of a runway to be less than the actual pavement length in order to meet such standards.
(2) Report.— 
Not later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report containing the results of the study.

49 USC 44728 - Flight attendant certification

(a) Certificate Required.— 

(1) In general.— 
No person may serve as a flight attendant aboard an aircraft of an air carrier unless that person holds a certificate of demonstrated proficiency from the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. Upon the request of the Administrator or an authorized representative of the National Transportation Safety Board or another Federal agency, a person who holds such a certificate shall present the certificate for inspection within a reasonable period of time after the date of the request.
(2) Special rule for current flight attendants.— 
An individual serving as a flight attendant on the effective date of this section may continue to serve aboard an aircraft as a flight attendant until completion by that individual of the required recurrent or requalification training and subsequent certification under this section.
(3) Treatment of flight attendant after notification.— 
On the date that the Administrator is notified by an air carrier that an individual has the demonstrated proficiency to be a flight attendant, the individual shall be treated for purposes of this section as holding a certificate issued under the section.
(b) Issuance of Certificate.— 
The Administrator shall issue a certificate of demonstrated proficiency under this section to an individual after the Administrator is notified by the air carrier that the individual has successfully completed all the training requirements for flight attendants approved by the Administrator.
(c) Designation of Person To Determine Successful Completion of Training.— 
In accordance with part 183 of chapter 14, Code of Federal Regulation, the director of operations of an air carrier is designated to determine that an individual has successfully completed the training requirements approved by the Administrator for such individual to serve as a flight attendant.
(d) Specifications Relating to Certificates.— 
Each certificate issued under this section shall
(1) be numbered and recorded by the Administrator;
(2) contain the name, address, and description of the individual to whom the certificate is issued;
(3) is[1] similar in size and appearance to certificates issued to airmen;
(4) contain the airplane group for which the certificate is issued; and
(5) be issued not later than 120 days after the Administrator receives notification from the air carrier of demonstrated proficiency and, in the case of an individual serving as flight attendant on the effective date of this section, not later than 1 year after such effective date.
(e) Approval of Training Programs.— 
Air carrier flight attendant training programs shall be subject to approval by the Administrator. All flight attendant training programs approved by the Administrator in the 1-year period ending on the date of enactment of this section shall be treated as providing a demonstrated proficiency for purposes of meeting the certification requirements of this section.
(f) Flight Attendant Defined.— 
In this section, the term flight attendant means an individual working as a flight attendant in the cabin of an aircraft that has 20 or more seats and is being used by an air carrier to provide air transportation.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “be”.

49 USC 44729 - Age standards for pilots

(a) In General.— 
Subject to the limitation in subsection (c), a pilot may serve in multicrew covered operations until attaining 65 years of age.
(b) Covered Operations Defined.— 
In this section, the term covered operations means operations under part 121 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.
(c) Limitation for International Flights.— 

(1) Applicability of icao standard.— 
A pilot who has attained 60 years of age may serve as pilot-in-command in covered operations between the United States and another country only if there is another pilot in the flight deck crew who has not yet attained 60 years of age.
(2) Sunset of limitation.— 
Paragraph (1) shall cease to be effective on such date as the Convention on International Civil Aviation provides that a pilot who has attained 60 years of age may serve as pilot-in-command in international commercial operations without regard to whether there is another pilot in the flight deck crew who has not attained age 60.
(d) Sunset of Age 60 Retirement Rule.— 
On and after the date of enactment of this section, section 121.383(c) of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, shall cease to be effective.
(e) Applicability.— 

(1) Nonretroactivity.— 
No person who has attained 60 years of age before the date of enactment of this section may serve as a pilot for an air carrier engaged in covered operations unless
(A) such person is in the employment of that air carrier in such operations on such date of enactment as a required flight deck crew member; or
(B) such person is newly hired by an air carrier as a pilot on or after such date of enactment without credit for prior seniority or prior longevity for benefits or other terms related to length of service prior to the date of rehire under any labor agreement or employment policies of the air carrier.
(2) Protection for compliance.— 
An action taken in conformance with this section, taken in conformance with a regulation issued to carry out this section, or taken prior to the date of enactment of this section in conformance with section 121.383(c) of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect before such date of enactment), may not serve as a basis for liability or relief in a proceeding, brought under any employment law or regulation, before any court or agency of the United States or of any State or locality.
(f) Amendments to Labor Agreements and Benefit Plans.— 
Any amendment to a labor agreement or benefit plan of an air carrier that is required to conform with the requirements of this section or a regulation issued to carry out this section, and is applicable to pilots represented for collective bargaining, shall be made by agreement of the air carrier and the designated bargaining representative of the pilots of the air carrier.
(g) Medical Standards and Records.— 

(1) Medical examinations and standards.— 
Except as provided by paragraph (2), a person serving as a pilot for an air carrier engaged in covered operations shall not be subject to different medical standards, or different, greater, or more frequent medical examinations, on account of age unless the Secretary determines (based on data received or studies published after the date of enactment of this section) that different medical standards, or different, greater, or more frequent medical examinations, are needed to ensure an adequate level of safety in flight.
(2) Duration of first-class medical certificate.— 
No person who has attained 60 years of age may serve as a pilot of an air carrier engaged in covered operations unless the person has a first-class medical certificate. Such a certificate shall expire on the last day of the 6-month period following the date of examination shown on the certificate.
(h) Safety.— 

(1) Training.— 
Each air carrier engaged in covered operations shall continue to use pilot training and qualification programs approved by the Federal Aviation Administration, with specific emphasis on initial and recurrent training and qualification of pilots who have attained 60 years of age, to ensure continued acceptable levels of pilot skill and judgment.
(2) Line evaluations.— 
Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this section, and every 6 months thereafter, an air carrier engaged in covered operations shall evaluate the performance of each pilot of the air carrier who has attained 60 years of age through a line check of such pilot. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, an air carrier shall not be required to conduct for a 6-month period a line check under this paragraph of a pilot serving as second-in-command if the pilot has undergone a regularly scheduled simulator evaluation during that period.
(3) GAO report.— 
Not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this section, the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report concerning the effect, if any, on aviation safety of the modification to pilot age standards made by subsection (a).

TITLE 49 - US CODE - CHAPTER 449 - SECURITY

TITLE 49 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - REQUIREMENTS

49 USC 44901 - Screening passengers and property

(a) In General.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall provide for the screening of all passengers and property, including United States mail, cargo, carry-on and checked baggage, and other articles, that will be carried aboard a passenger aircraft operated by an air carrier or foreign air carrier in air transportation or intrastate air transportation. In the case of flights and flight segments originating in the United States, the screening shall take place before boarding and shall be carried out by a Federal Government employee (as defined in section 2105 of title 5, United States Code), except as otherwise provided in section 44919 or 44920 and except for identifying passengers and baggage for screening under the CAPPS and known shipper programs and conducting positive bag-match programs.
(b) Supervision of Screening.— 
All screening of passengers and property at airports in the United States where screening is required under this section shall be supervised by uniformed Federal personnel of the Transportation Security Administration who shall have the power to order the dismissal of any individual performing such screening.
(c) Checked Baggage.— 
A system must be in operation to screen all checked baggage at all airports in the United States as soon as practicable but not later than the 60th day following the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act.
(d) Explosive Detection Systems.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall take all necessary action to ensure that
(A) explosive detection systems are deployed as soon as possible to ensure that all United States airports described in section 44903 (c) have sufficient explosive detection systems to screen all checked baggage no later than December 31, 2002, and that as soon as such systems are in place at an airport, all checked baggage at the airport is screened by those systems; and
(B) all systems deployed under subparagraph (A) are fully utilized; and
(C) if explosive detection equipment at an airport is unavailable, all checked baggage is screened by an alternative means.
(2) Deadline.— 

(A) In general.— 
If, in his discretion or at the request of an airport, the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security determines that the Transportation Security Administration is not able to deploy explosive detection systems required to be deployed under paragraph (1) at all airports where explosive detection systems are required by December 31, 2002, then with respect to each airport for which the Under Secretary makes that determination
(i) the Under Secretary shall submit to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure a detailed plan (which may be submitted in classified form) for the deployment of the number of explosive detection systems at that airport necessary to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) as soon as practicable at that airport but in no event later than December 31, 2003; and
(ii) the Under Secretary shall take all necessary action to ensure that alternative means of screening all checked baggage is implemented until the requirements of paragraph (1) have been met.
(B) Criteria for determination.— 
In making a determination under subparagraph (A), the Under Secretary shall take into account
(i) the nature and extent of the required modifications to the airports terminal buildings, and the technical, engineering, design and construction issues;
(ii) the need to ensure that such installations and modifications are effective; and
(iii) the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of deploying explosive detection systems in the baggage sorting area or other non-public area rather than the lobby of an airport terminal building.
(C) Response.— 
The Under Secretary shall respond to the request of an airport under subparagraph (A) within 14 days of receiving the request. A denial of request shall create no right of appeal or judicial review.
(D) Airport effort required.— 
Each airport with respect to which the Under Secretary makes a determination under subparagraph (A) shall
(i) cooperate fully with the Transportation Security Administration with respect to screening checked baggage and changes to accommodate explosive detection systems; and
(ii) make security projects a priority for the obligation or expenditure of funds made available under chapter 417 or 471 until explosive detection systems required to be deployed under paragraph (1) have been deployed at that airport.
(3) Reports.— 
Until the Transportation Security Administration has met the requirements of paragraph (1), the Under Secretary shall submit a classified report every 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure describing the progress made toward meeting such requirements at each airport.
(e) Mandatory Screening Where EDS Not Yet Available.— 
As soon as practicable but not later than the 60th day following the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act and until the requirements of subsection (b)(1)(A) are met, the Under Secretary shall require alternative means for screening any piece of checked baggage that is not screened by an explosive detection system. Such alternative means may include 1 or more of the following:
(1) A bag-match program that ensures that no checked baggage is placed aboard an aircraft unless the passenger who checked the baggage is aboard the aircraft.
(2) Manual search.
(3) Search by canine explosive detection units in combination with other means.
(4) Other means or technology approved by the Under Secretary.
(f) Cargo Deadline.— 
A system must be in operation to screen, inspect, or otherwise ensure the security of all cargo that is to be transported in all-cargo aircraft in air transportation and intrastate air transportation as soon as practicable after the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act.
(g) Air Cargo on Passenger Aircraft.— 

(1) In general.— 
Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish a system to screen 100 percent of cargo transported on passenger aircraft operated by an air carrier or foreign air carrier in air transportation or intrastate air transportation to ensure the security of all such passenger aircraft carrying cargo.
(2) Minimum standards.— 
The system referred to in paragraph (1) shall require, at a minimum, that equipment, technology, procedures, personnel, or other methods approved by the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration, are used to screen cargo carried on passenger aircraft described in paragraph (1) to provide a level of security commensurate with the level of security for the screening of passenger checked baggage as follows:
(A) 50 percent of such cargo is so screened not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007.
(B) 100 percent of such cargo is so screened not later than 3 years after such date of enactment.
(3) Regulations.— 

(A) Interim final rule.— 
The Secretary of Homeland Security may issue an interim final rule as a temporary regulation to implement this subsection without regard to the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5.
(B) Final rule.— 

(i) In general.— 
If the Secretary issues an interim final rule under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall issue, not later than one year after the effective date of the interim final rule, a final rule as a permanent regulation to implement this subsection in accordance with the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5.
(ii) Failure to act.— 
If the Secretary does not issue a final rule in accordance with clause (i) on or before the last day of the one-year period referred to in clause (i), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report explaining why the final rule was not timely issued and providing an estimate of the earliest date on which the final rule will be issued. The Secretary shall submit the first such report within 10 days after such last day and submit a report to the Committees containing updated information every 30 days thereafter until the final rule is issued.
(iii) Superceding 1 of interim final rule.— 
The final rule issued in accordance with this subparagraph shall supersede the interim final rule issued under subparagraph (A).
(4) Report.— 
Not later than 1 year after the date of establishment of the system under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the Committees referred to in paragraph (3)(B)(ii) a report that describes the system.
(5) Screening defined.— 
In this subsection the term screening means a physical examination or non-intrusive methods of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security. Methods of screening include x-ray systems, explosives detection systems, explosives trace detection, explosives detection canine teams certified by the Transportation Security Administration, or a physical search together with manifest verification. The Administrator may approve additional methods to ensure that the cargo does not pose a threat to transportation security and to assist in meeting the requirements of this subsection. Such additional cargo screening methods shall not include solely performing a review of information about the contents of cargo or verifying the identity of a shipper of the cargo that is not performed in conjunction with other security methods authorized under this subsection, including whether a known shipper is registered in the known shipper database. Such additional cargo screening methods may include a program to certify the security methods used by shippers pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) and alternative screening methods pursuant to exemptions referred to in subsection (b) of section 1602 of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007.
(h) Deployment of Armed Personnel.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Under Secretary shall order the deployment of law enforcement personnel authorized to carry firearms at each airport security screening location to ensure passenger safety and national security.
(2) Minimum requirements.— 
Except at airports required to enter into agreements under subsection (c), the Under Secretary shall order the deployment of at least 1 law enforcement officer at each airport security screening location. At the 100 largest airports in the United States, in terms of annual passenger enplanements for the most recent calendar year for which data are available, the Under Secretary shall order the deployment of additional law enforcement personnel at airport security screening locations if the Under Secretary determines that the additional deployment is necessary to ensure passenger safety and national security.
(i) Exemptions and Advising Congress on Regulations.— 
The Under Secretary
(1) may exempt from this section air transportation operations, except scheduled passenger operations of an air carrier providing air transportation under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title or a permit issued under section 41302 of this title; and
(2) shall advise Congress of a regulation to be prescribed under this section at least 30 days before the effective date of the regulation, unless the Under Secretary decides an emergency exists requiring the regulation to become effective in fewer than 30 days and notifies Congress of that decision.
(j) Blast-Resistant Cargo Containers.— 

(1) In general.— 
Before January 1, 2008, the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration shall
(A) evaluate the results of the blast-resistant cargo container pilot program that was initiated before the date of enactment of this subsection; and
(B) prepare and distribute through the Aviation Security Advisory Committee to the appropriate Committees of Congress and air carriers a report on that evaluation which may contain nonclassified and classified sections.
(2) Acquisition, maintenance, and replacement.— 
Upon completion and consistent with the results of the evaluation that paragraph (1)(A) requires, the Administrator shall
(A) develop and implement a program, as the Administrator determines appropriate, to acquire, maintain, and replace blast-resistant cargo containers;
(B) pay for the program; and
(C) make available blast-resistant cargo containers to air carriers pursuant to paragraph (3).
(3) Distribution to air carriers.— 
The Administrator shall make available, beginning not later than July 1, 2008, blast-resistant cargo containers to air carriers for use on a risk managed basis as determined by the Administrator.
(k) General Aviation Airport Security Program.— 

(1) In general.— 
Not later than one year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration shall
(A) develop a standardized threat and vulnerability assessment program for general aviation airports (as defined in section 47134 (m)); and
(B) implement a program to perform such assessments on a risk-managed basis at general aviation airports.
(2) Grant program.— 
Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Administrator shall initiate and complete a study of the feasibility of a program, based on a risk-managed approach, to provide grants to operators of general aviation airports (as defined in section 47134 (m)) for projects to upgrade security at such airports. If the Administrator determines that such a program is feasible, the Administrator shall establish such a program.
(3) Application to general aviation aircraft.— 
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Administrator shall develop a risk-based system under which
(A) general aviation aircraft, as identified by the Administrator, in coordination with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, are required to submit passenger information and advance notification requirements for United States Customs and Border Protection before entering United States airspace; and
(B) such information is checked against appropriate databases.
(4) Authorization of appropriations.— 
There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration such sums as may be necessary to carry out paragraphs (2) and (3).
[1] So in original.

49 USC 44902 - Refusal to transport passengers and property

(a) Mandatory Refusal.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall prescribe regulations requiring an air carrier, intrastate air carrier, or foreign air carrier to refuse to transport
(1) a passenger who does not consent to a search under section 44901 (a) of this title establishing whether the passenger is carrying unlawfully a dangerous weapon, explosive, or other destructive substance; or
(2) property of a passenger who does not consent to a search of the property establishing whether the property unlawfully contains a dangerous weapon, explosive, or other destructive substance.
(b) Permissive Refusal.— 
Subject to regulations of the Under Secretary, an air carrier, intrastate air carrier, or foreign air carrier may refuse to transport a passenger or property the carrier decides is, or might be, inimical to safety.
(c) Agreeing to Consent to Search.— 
An agreement to carry passengers or property in air transportation or intrastate air transportation by an air carrier, intrastate air carrier, or foreign air carrier is deemed to include an agreement that the passenger or property will not be carried if consent to search the passenger or property for a purpose referred to in this section is not given.

49 USC 44903 - Air transportation security

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, law enforcement personnel means individuals
(1) authorized to carry and use firearms;
(2) vested with the degree of the police power of arrest the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security considers necessary to carry out this section; and
(3) identifiable by appropriate indicia of authority.
(b) Protection Against Violence and Piracy.— 
The Under Secretary shall prescribe regulations to protect passengers and property on an aircraft operating in air transportation or intrastate air transportation against an act of criminal violence or aircraft piracy. When prescribing a regulation under this subsection, the Under Secretary shall
(1) consult with the Secretary of Transportation, the Attorney General, the heads of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, and State and local authorities;
(2) consider whether a proposed regulation is consistent with
(A) protecting passengers; and
(B) the public interest in promoting air transportation and intrastate air transportation;
(3) to the maximum extent practicable, require a uniform procedure for searching and detaining passengers and property to ensure
(A) their safety; and
(B) courteous and efficient treatment by an air carrier, an agent or employee of an air carrier, and Government, State, and local law enforcement personnel carrying out this section; and
(4) consider the extent to which a proposed regulation will carry out this section.
(c) Security Programs.— 

(1) The Under Secretary shall prescribe regulations under subsection (b) of this section that require each operator of an airport regularly serving an air carrier holding a certificate issued by the Secretary of Transportation to establish an air transportation security program that provides a law enforcement presence and capability at each of those airports that is adequate to ensure the safety of passengers. The regulations shall authorize the operator to use the services of qualified State, local, and private law enforcement personnel. When the Under Secretary decides, after being notified by an operator in the form the Under Secretary prescribes, that not enough qualified State, local, and private law enforcement personnel are available to carry out subsection (b), the Under Secretary may authorize the operator to use, on a reimbursable basis, personnel employed by the Under Secretary, or by another department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government with the consent of the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality, to supplement State, local, and private law enforcement personnel. When deciding whether additional personnel are needed, the Under Secretary shall consider the number of passengers boarded at the airport, the extent of anticipated risk of criminal violence or aircraft piracy at the airport or to the air carrier aircraft operations at the airport, and the availability of qualified State or local law enforcement personnel at the airport.
(2) 
(A) The Under Secretary may approve a security program of an airport operator, or an amendment in an existing program, that incorporates a security program of an airport tenant (except an air carrier separately complying with part 108 or 129 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations) having access to a secured area of the airport, if the program or amendment incorporates
(i) the measures the tenant will use, within the tenants leased areas or areas designated for the tenants exclusive use under an agreement with the airport operator, to carry out the security requirements imposed by the Under Secretary on the airport operator under the access control system requirements of section 107.14 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, or under other requirements of part 107 of title 14; and
(ii) the methods the airport operator will use to monitor and audit the tenants compliance with the security requirements and provides that the tenant will be required to pay monetary penalties to the airport operator if the tenant fails to carry out a security requirement under a contractual provision or requirement imposed by the airport operator.
(B) If the Under Secretary approves a program or amendment described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the airport operator may not be found to be in violation of a requirement of this subsection or subsection (b) of this section when the airport operator demonstrates that the tenant or an employee, permittee, or invitee of the tenant is responsible for the violation and that the airport operator has complied with all measures in its security program for securing compliance with its security program by the tenant.
(C) Maximum use of chemical and biological weapon detection equipment.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may require airports to maximize the use of technology and equipment that is designed to detect or neutralize potential chemical or biological weapons.
(3) Pilot programs.— 
The Administrator shall establish pilot programs in no fewer than 20 airports to test and evaluate new and emerging technology for providing access control and other security protections for closed or secure areas of the airports. Such technology may include biometric or other technology that ensures only authorized access to secure areas.
(d) Authorizing Individuals To Carry Firearms and Make Arrests.— 
With the approval of the Attorney General and the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Transportation may authorize an individual who carries out air transportation security duties
(1) to carry firearms; and
(2) to make arrests without warrant for an offense against the United States committed in the presence of the individual or for a felony under the laws of the United States, if the individual reasonably believes the individual to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony.
(e) Exclusive Responsibility Over Passenger Safety.— 
The Under Secretary has the exclusive responsibility to direct law enforcement activity related to the safety of passengers on an aircraft involved in an offense under section 46502 of this title from the moment all external doors of the aircraft are closed following boarding until those doors are opened to allow passengers to leave the aircraft. When requested by the Under Secretary, other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government shall provide assistance necessary to carry out this subsection.
(f) Government and Industry Consortia.— 
The Under Secretary may establish at airports such consortia of government and aviation industry representatives as the Under Secretary may designate to provide advice on matters related to aviation security and safety. Such consortia shall not be considered Federal advisory committees for purposes of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.).
(g) Improvement of Secured-Area Access Control.— 

(1) Enforcement.— 

(A) Under Secretary to publish sanctions.— 
The Under Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a list of sanctions for use as guidelines in the discipline of employees for infractions of airport access control requirements. The guidelines shall incorporate a progressive disciplinary approach that relates proposed sanctions to the severity or recurring nature of the infraction and shall include measures such as remedial training, suspension from security-related duties, suspension from all duties without pay, and termination of employment.
(B) Use of sanctions.— 
Each airport operator, air carrier, and security screening company shall include the list of sanctions published by the Under Secretary in its security program. The security program shall include a process for taking prompt disciplinary action against an employee who commits an infraction of airport access control requirements.
(2) Improvements.— 
The Under Secretary shall
(A) work with airport operators and air carriers to implement and strengthen existing controls to eliminate airport access control weaknesses;
(B) require airport operators and air carriers to develop and implement comprehensive and recurring training programs that teach employees their roles in airport security, the importance of their participation, how their performance will be evaluated, and what action will be taken if they fail to perform;
(C) require airport operators and air carriers to develop and implement programs that foster and reward compliance with airport access control requirements and discourage and penalize noncompliance in accordance with guidelines issued by the Under Secretary to measure employee compliance;
(D) on an ongoing basis, assess and test for compliance with access control requirements, report annually findings of the assessments, and assess the effectiveness of penalties in ensuring compliance with security procedures and take any other appropriate enforcement actions when noncompliance is found;
(E) improve and better administer the Under Secretarys security database to ensure its efficiency, reliability, and usefulness for identification of systemic problems and allocation of resources;
(F) improve the execution of the Under Secretarys quality control program; and
(G) work with airport operators to strengthen access control points in secured areas (including air traffic control operations areas, maintenance areas, crew lounges, baggage handling areas, concessions, and catering delivery areas) to ensure the security of passengers and aircraft and consider the deployment of biometric or similar technologies that identify individuals based on unique personal characteristics.
(h) Improved Airport Perimeter Access Security.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Under Secretary, in consultation with the airport operator and law enforcement authorities, may order the deployment of such personnel at any secure area of the airport as necessary to counter the risk of criminal violence, the risk of aircraft piracy at the airport, the risk to air carrier aircraft operations at the airport, or to meet national security concerns.
(2) Security of aircraft and ground access to secure areas.— 
In determining where to deploy such personnel, the Under Secretary shall consider the physical security needs of air traffic control facilities, parked aircraft, aircraft servicing equipment, aircraft supplies (including fuel), automobile parking facilities within airport perimeters or adjacent to secured facilities, and access and transition areas at airports served by other means of ground or water transportation.
(3) Deployment of federal law enforcement personnel.— 
The Secretary may enter into a memorandum of understanding or other agreement with the Attorney General or the head of any other appropriate Federal law enforcement agency to deploy Federal law enforcement personnel at an airport in order to meet aviation safety and security concerns.
(4) Airport perimeter screening.— 
The Under Secretary
(A) shall require, as soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this subsection, screening or inspection of all individuals, goods, property, vehicles, and other equipment before entry into a secured area of an airport in the United States described in section 44903 (c);
(B) shall prescribe specific requirements for such screening and inspection that will assure at least the same level of protection as will result from screening of passengers and their baggage;
(C) shall establish procedures to ensure the safety and integrity of
(i) all persons providing services with respect to aircraft providing passenger air transportation or intrastate air transportation and facilities of such persons at an airport in the United States described in section 44903 (c);
(ii) all supplies, including catering and passenger amenities, placed aboard such aircraft, including the sealing of supplies to ensure easy visual detection of tampering; and
(iii) all persons providing such supplies and facilities of such persons;
(D) shall require vendors having direct access to the airfield and aircraft to develop security programs; and
(E) shall issue, not later than March 31, 2005, guidance for the use of biometric or other technology that positively verifies the identity of each employee and law enforcement officer who enters a secure area of an airport.
(5) Use of biometric technology in airport access control systems.— 
In issuing guidance under paragraph (4)(E), the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) in consultation with representatives of the aviation industry, the biometric identifier industry, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, shall establish, at a minimum
(A) comprehensive technical and operational system requirements and performance standards for the use of biometric identifier technology in airport access control systems (including airport perimeter access control systems) to ensure that the biometric identifier systems are effective, reliable, and secure;
(B) a list of products and vendors that meet the requirements and standards set forth in subparagraph (A);
(C) procedures for implementing biometric identifier systems
(i) to ensure that individuals do not use an assumed identity to enroll in a biometric identifier system; and
(ii) to resolve failures to enroll, false matches, and false non-matches; and
(D) best practices for incorporating biometric identifier technology into airport access control systems in the most effective manner, including a process to best utilize existing airport access control systems, facilities, and equipment and existing data networks connecting airports.
(6) Use of biometric technology for armed law enforcement travel.— 

(A) In general.— 
Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall
(i) implement this section[1] by publication in the Federal Register; and
(ii) establish a national registered armed law enforcement program, that shall be federally managed, for law enforcement officers needing to be armed when traveling by commercial aircraft.
(B) Program requirements.— 
The program shall
(i) establish a credential or a system that incorporates biometric technology and other applicable technologies;
(ii) establish a system for law enforcement officers who need to be armed when traveling by commercial aircraft on a regular basis and for those who need to be armed during temporary travel assignments;
(iii) comply with other uniform credentialing initiatives, including the Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12;
(iv) apply to all Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial government law enforcement agencies; and
(v) establish a process by which the travel credential or system may be used to verify the identity, using biometric technology, of a Federal, State, local, tribal, or territorial law enforcement officer seeking to carry a weapon on board a commercial aircraft, without unnecessarily disclosing to the public that the individual is a law enforcement officer.
(C) Procedures.— 
In establishing the program, the Secretary shall develop procedures
(i) to ensure that a law enforcement officer of a Federal, State, local, tribal, or territorial government flying armed has a specific reason for flying armed and the reason is within the scope of the duties of such officer;
(ii) to preserve the anonymity of the armed law enforcement officer;
(iii) to resolve failures to enroll, false matches, and false nonmatches relating to the use of the law enforcement travel credential or system;
(iv) to determine the method of issuance of the biometric credential to law enforcement officers needing to be armed when traveling by commercial aircraft;
(v) to invalidate any law enforcement travel credential or system that is lost, stolen, or no longer authorized for use;
(vi) to coordinate the program with the Federal Air Marshal Service, including the force multiplier program of the Service; and
(vii) to implement a phased approach to launching the program, addressing the immediate needs of the relevant Federal agent population before expanding to other law enforcement populations.
(7) Definitions.— 
In this subsection, the following definitions apply:
(A) Biometric identifier information.— 
The term biometric identifier information means the distinct physical or behavioral characteristics of an individual that are used for unique identification, or verification of the identity, of an individual.
(B) Biometric identifier.— 
The term biometric identifier means a technology that enables the automated identification, or verification of the identity, of an individual based on biometric information.
(C) Failure to enroll.— 
The term failure to enroll means the inability of an individual to enroll in a biometric identifier system due to an insufficiently distinctive biometric sample, the lack of a body part necessary to provide the biometric sample, a system design that makes it difficult to provide consistent biometric identifier information, or other factors.
(D) False match.— 
The term false match means the incorrect matching of one individuals biometric identifier information to another individuals biometric identifier information by a biometric identifier system.
(E) False non-match.— 
The term false non-match means the rejection of a valid identity by a biometric identifier system.
(F) Secure area of an airport.— 
The term secure area of an airport means the sterile area and the Secure Identification Display Area of an airport (as such terms are defined in section 1540.5 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor regulation to such section).
(i) Authority to Arm Flight Deck Crew With Less-Than-Lethal Weapons.— 

(1) In general.— 
If the Under Secretary, after receiving the recommendations of the National Institute of Justice, determines, with the approval of the Attorney General and the Secretary of State, that it is appropriate and necessary and would effectively serve the public interest in avoiding air piracy, the Under Secretary may authorize members of the flight deck crew on any aircraft providing air transportation or intrastate air transportation to carry a less-than-lethal weapon while the aircraft is engaged in providing such transportation.
(2) Usage.— 
If the Under Secretary grants authority under paragraph (1) for flight deck crew members to carry a less-than-lethal weapon while engaged in providing air transportation or intrastate air transportation, the Under Secretary shall
(A) prescribe rules requiring that any such crew member be trained in the proper use of the weapon; and
(B) prescribe guidelines setting forth the circumstances under which such weapons may be used.
(3) Request of air carriers to use less-than-lethal weapons.— 
If, after the date of enactment of this paragraph, the Under Secretary receives a request from an air carrier for authorization to allow pilots of the air carrier to carry less-than-lethal weapons, the Under Secretary shall respond to that request within 90 days.
(j) Short-Term Assessment and Deployment of Emerging Security Technologies and Procedures.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall recommend to airport operators, within 6 months after the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, commercially available measures or procedures to prevent access to secure airport areas by unauthorized persons. As part of the 6-month assessment, the Under Secretary for Transportation Security shall
(A) review the effectiveness of biometrics systems currently in use at several United States airports, including San Francisco International;
(B) review the effectiveness of increased surveillance at access points;
(C) review the effectiveness of card- or keypad-based access systems;
(D) review the effectiveness of airport emergency exit systems and determine whether those that lead to secure areas of the airport should be monitored or how breaches can be swiftly responded to; and
(E) specifically target the elimination of the piggy-backing phenomenon, where another person follows an authorized person through the access point.

The 6-month assessment shall include a 12-month deployment strategy for currently available technology at all category X airports, as defined in the Federal Aviation Administration approved air carrier security programs required under part 108 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations. Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a review of reductions in unauthorized access at these airports.

(2) Computer-assisted passenger prescreening system.— 

(A) In general.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall ensure that the Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System, or any successor system
(i) is used to evaluate all passengers before they board an aircraft; and
(ii) includes procedures to ensure that individuals selected by the system and their carry-on and checked baggage are adequately screened.
(B) Modifications.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may modify any requirement under the Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System for flights that originate and terminate within the same State, if the Secretary determines that
(i) the State has extraordinary air transportation needs or concerns due to its isolation and dependence on air transportation; and
(ii) the routine characteristics of passengers, given the nature of the market, regularly triggers primary selectee status.
(C) Advanced airline passenger prescreening.— 

(i) Commencement of testing.— 
Not later than January 1, 2005, the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration), or the designee of the Assistant Secretary, shall commence testing of an advanced passenger prescreening system that will allow the Department of Homeland Security to assume the performance of comparing passenger information, as defined by the Assistant Secretary, to the automatic selectee and no fly lists, utilizing all appropriate records in the consolidated and integrated terrorist watchlist maintained by the Federal Government.
(ii) Assumption of function.— 
Not later than 180 days after completion of testing under clause (i), the Assistant Secretary, or the designee of the Assistant Secretary, shall begin to assume the performance of the passenger prescreening function of comparing passenger information to the automatic selectee and no fly lists and utilize all appropriate records in the consolidated and integrated terrorist watchlist maintained by the Federal Government in performing that function.
(iii) Requirements.— 
In assuming performance of the function under clause (ii), the Assistant Secretary shall
(I) establish a procedure to enable airline passengers, who are delayed or prohibited from boarding a flight because the advanced passenger prescreening system determined that they might pose a security threat, to appeal such determination and correct information contained in the system;
(II) ensure that Federal Government databases that will be used to establish the identity of a passenger under the system will not produce a large number of false positives;
(III) establish an internal oversight board to oversee and monitor the manner in which the system is being implemented;
(IV) establish sufficient operational safeguards to reduce the opportunities for abuse;
(V) implement substantial security measures to protect the system from unauthorized access;
(VI) adopt policies establishing effective oversight of the use and operation of the system; and
(VII) ensure that there are no specific privacy concerns with the technological architecture of the system.
(iv) Passenger information.— 
Not later than 180 days after the completion of the testing of the advanced passenger prescreening system, the Assistant Secretary, by order or interim final rule
(I) shall require air carriers to supply to the Assistant Secretary the passenger information needed to begin implementing the advanced passenger prescreening system; and
(II) shall require entities that provide systems and services to air carriers in the operation of air carrier reservations systems to provide to air carriers passenger information in possession of such entities, but only to the extent necessary to comply with subclause (I).
(D) Screening of employees against watchlist.— 
The Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration), in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, shall ensure that individuals are screened against all appropriate records in the consolidated and integrated terrorist watchlist maintained by the Federal Government before
(i) being certificated by the Federal Aviation Administration;
(ii) being granted unescorted access to the secure area of an airport; or
(iii) being granted unescorted access to the air operations area (as defined in section 1540.5 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor regulation to such section) of an airport.
(E) Aircraft charter customer and lessee prescreening.— 

(i) In general.— 
Not later than 90 days after the date on which the Assistant Secretary assumes the performance of the advanced passenger prescreening function under subparagraph (C)(ii), the Assistant Secretary shall establish a process by which operators of aircraft to be used in charter air transportation with a maximum takeoff weight greater than 12,500 pounds and lessors of aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight greater than 12,500 pounds may
(I) request the Department of Homeland Security to use the advanced passenger prescreening system to compare information about any individual seeking to charter an aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight greater than 12,500 pounds, any passenger proposed to be transported aboard such aircraft, and any individual seeking to lease an aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight greater than 12,500 pounds to the automatic selectee and no fly lists, utilizing all appropriate records in the consolidated and integrated terrorist watchlist maintained by the Federal Government; and
(II) refuse to charter or lease an aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight greater than 12,500 pounds to or transport aboard such aircraft any persons identified on such watch list.
(ii) Requirements.— 
The requirements of subparagraph (C)(iii) shall apply to this subparagraph.
(iii) No fly and automatic selectee lists.— 
The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Terrorist Screening Center, shall design and review, as necessary, guidelines, policies, and operating procedures for the collection, removal, and updating of data maintained, or to be maintained, in the no fly and automatic selectee lists.
(F) Applicability.— 
Section 607 of the Vision 100Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act (49 U.S.C. 44903 note ; 117 Stat. 2568) shall not apply to the advanced passenger prescreening system established under subparagraph (C).
(G) Appeal procedures.— 

(i) In general.— 
The Assistant Secretary shall establish a timely and fair process for individuals identified as a threat under one or more of subparagraphs (C), (D), and (E) to appeal to the Transportation Security Administration the determination and correct any erroneous information.
(ii) Records.— 
The process shall include the establishment of a method by which the Assistant Secretary will be able to maintain a record of air passengers and other individuals who have been misidentified and have corrected erroneous information. To prevent repeated delays of misidentified passengers and other individuals, the Transportation Security Administration record shall contain information determined by the Assistant Secretary to authenticate the identity of such a passenger or individual.
(H) Definition.— 
In this paragraph, the term secure area of an airport means the sterile area and the Secure Identification Display Area of an airport (as such terms are defined in section 1540.5 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor regulation to such section).
(k) Limitation on Liability for Acts To Thwart Criminal Violence or Aircraft Piracy.— 
An individual shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the acts of the individual in attempting to thwart an act of criminal violence or piracy on an aircraft if that individual reasonably believed that such an act of criminal violence or piracy was occurring or was about to occur.
(l) Air Charter Program.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security of the Department of Homeland Security shall implement an aviation security program for charter air carriers (as defined in section 40102 (a)) with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 12,500 pounds.
(2) Exemption for armed forces charters.— 

(A) In general.— 
Paragraph (1) and the other requirements of this chapter do not apply to passengers and property carried by aircraft when employed to provide charter transportation to members of the armed forces.
(B) Security procedures.— 
The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of Transportation, shall establish security procedures relating to the operation of aircraft when employed to provide charter transportation to members of the armed forces to or from an airport described in section 44903 (c).
(C) Armed forces defined.— 
In this paragraph, the term armed forces has the meaning given that term by section 101 (a)(4) of title 10.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “paragraph”.

49 USC 44904 - Domestic air transportation system security

(a) Assessing Threats.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation jointly shall assess current and potential threats to the domestic air transportation system. The assessment shall include consideration of the extent to which there are individuals with the capability and intent to carry out terrorist or related unlawful acts against that system and the ways in which those individuals might carry out those acts. The Under Secretary and the Director jointly shall decide on and carry out the most effective method for continuous analysis and monitoring of security threats to that system.
(b) Assessing Security.— 
In coordination with the Director, the Under Secretary shall carry out periodic threat and vulnerability assessments on security at each airport that is part of the domestic air transportation system. Each assessment shall include consideration of
(1) the adequacy of security procedures related to the handling and transportation of checked baggage and cargo;
(2) space requirements for security personnel and equipment;
(3) separation of screened and unscreened passengers, baggage, and cargo;
(4) separation of the controlled and uncontrolled areas of airport facilities; and
(5) coordination of the activities of security personnel of the Transportation Security Administration, the United States Customs Service, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and air carriers, and of other law enforcement personnel.
(c) Modal Security Plan for Aviation.— 
In addition to the requirements set forth in subparagraphs (B) through (F) of section 114 (t)(3),1 the modal security plan for aviation prepared under section 114 (t)1 shall
(1) establish a damage mitigation and recovery plan for the aviation system in the event of a terrorist attack; and
(2) include a threat matrix document that outlines each threat to the United States civil aviation system and the corresponding layers of security in place to address such threat.
(d) Operational Criteria.— 
Not later than 90 days after the date of the submission of the National Strategy for Transportation Security under section 114 (t)(4)(A),1 the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) shall issue operational criteria to protect airport infrastructure and operations against the threats identified in the plans prepared under section 114 (t)(1)1 and shall approve best practices guidelines for airport assets.
(e) Improving Security.— 
The Under Secretary shall take necessary actions to improve domestic air transportation security by correcting any deficiencies in that security discovered in the assessments, analyses, and monitoring carried out under this section.
[1] See References in Text note below.

49 USC 44905 - Information about threats to civil aviation

(a) Providing Information.— 
Under guidelines the Secretary of Transportation prescribes, an air carrier, airport operator, ticket agent, or individual employed by an air carrier, airport operator, or ticket agent, receiving information (except a communication directed by the United States Government) about a threat to civil aviation shall provide the information promptly to the Secretary.
(b) Flight Cancellation.— 
If a decision is made that a particular threat cannot be addressed in a way adequate to ensure, to the extent feasible, the safety of passengers and crew of a particular flight or series of flights, the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall cancel the flight or series of flights.
(c) Guidelines on Public Notice.— 

(1) The President shall develop guidelines for ensuring that public notice is provided in appropriate cases about threats to civil aviation. The guidelines shall identify officials responsible for
(A) deciding, on a case-by-case basis, if public notice of a threat is in the best interest of the United States and the traveling public;
(B) ensuring that public notice is provided in a timely and effective way, including the use of a toll-free telephone number; and
(C) canceling the departure of a flight or series of flights under subsection (b) of this section.
(2) The guidelines shall provide for consideration of
(A) the specificity of the threat;
(B) the credibility of intelligence information related to the threat;
(C) the ability to counter the threat effectively;
(D) the protection of intelligence information sources and methods;
(E) cancellation, by an air carrier or the Under Secretary, of a flight or series of flights instead of public notice;
(F) the ability of passengers and crew to take steps to reduce the risk to their safety after receiving public notice of a threat; and
(G) other factors the Under Secretary considers appropriate.
(d) Guidelines on Notice to Crews.— 
The Under Secretary shall develop guidelines for ensuring that notice in appropriate cases of threats to the security of an air carrier flight is provided to the flight crew and cabin crew of that flight.
(e) Limitation on Notice to Selective Travelers.— 
Notice of a threat to civil aviation may be provided to selective potential travelers only if the threat applies only to those travelers.
(f) Restricting Access to Information.— 
In cooperation with the departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government that collect, receive, and analyze intelligence information related to aviation security, the Under Secretary shall develop procedures to minimize the number of individuals who have access to information about threats. However, a restriction on access to that information may be imposed only if the restriction does not diminish the ability of the Government to carry out its duties and powers related to aviation security effectively, including providing notice to the public and flight and cabin crews under this section.
(g) Distribution of Guidelines.— 
The guidelines developed under this section shall be distributed for use by appropriate officials of the Department of Transportation, the Department of State, the Department of Justice, and air carriers.

49 USC 44906 - Foreign air carrier security programs

The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall continue in effect the requirement of section 129.25 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, that a foreign air carrier must adopt and use a security program approved by the Under Secretary. The Under Secretary shall not approve a security program of a foreign air carrier under section 129.25, or any successor regulation, unless the security program requires the foreign air carrier in its operations to and from airports in the United States to adhere to the identical security measures that the Under Secretary requires air carriers serving the same airports to adhere to. The foregoing requirement shall not be interpreted to limit the ability of the Under Secretary to impose additional security measures on a foreign air carrier or an air carrier when the Under Secretary determines that a specific threat warrants such additional measures. The Under Secretary shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section.

49 USC 44907 - Security standards at foreign airports

(a) Assessment.— 

(1) At intervals the Secretary of Transportation considers necessary, the Secretary shall assess the effectiveness of the security measures maintained at
(A) a foreign airport
(i) served by an air carrier;
(ii) from which a foreign air carrier serves the United States; or
(iii) that poses a high risk of introducing danger to international air travel; and
(B) other foreign airports the Secretary considers appropriate.
(2) The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct an assessment under paragraph (1) of this subsection
(A) in consultation with appropriate aeronautic authorities of the government of a foreign country concerned and each air carrier serving the foreign airport for which the Secretary is conducting the assessment;
(B) to establish the extent to which a foreign airport effectively maintains and carries out security measures; and
(C) by using a standard that will result in an analysis of the security measures at the airport based at least on the standards and appropriate recommended practices contained in Annex 17 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation in effect on the date of the assessment.
(3) Each report to Congress required under section 44938 (b) of this title shall contain a summary of the assessments conducted under this subsection.
(b) Consultation.— 
In carrying out subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the Secretary of State
(1) on the terrorist threat that exists in each country; and
(2) to establish which foreign airports are not under the de facto control of the government of the foreign country in which they are located and pose a high risk of introducing danger to international air travel.
(c) Notifying Foreign Authorities.— 
When the Secretary of Transportation, after conducting an assessment under subsection (a) of this section, decides that an airport does not maintain and carry out effective security measures, the Secretary of Transportation, after advising the Secretary of State, shall notify the appropriate authorities of the government of the foreign country of the decision and recommend the steps necessary to bring the security measures in use at the airport up to the standard used by the Secretary of Transportation in making the assessment.
(d) Actions When Airports Not Maintaining and Carrying Out Effective Security Measures.— 

(1) When the Secretary of Transportation decides under this section that an airport does not maintain and carry out effective security measures
(A) the Secretary of Transportation shall
(i) publish the identity of the airport in the Federal Register;
(ii) have the identity of the airport posted and displayed prominently at all United States airports at which scheduled air carrier operations are provided regularly; and
(iii) notify the news media of the identity of the airport;
(B) each air carrier and foreign air carrier providing transportation between the United States and the airport shall provide written notice of the decision, on or with the ticket, to each passenger buying a ticket for transportation between the United States and the airport;
(C) notwithstanding section 40105 (b) of this title, the Secretary of Transportation, after consulting with the appropriate aeronautic authorities of the foreign country concerned and each air carrier serving the airport and with the approval of the Secretary of State, may withhold, revoke, or prescribe conditions on the operating authority of an air carrier or foreign air carrier that uses that airport to provide foreign air transportation; and
(D) the President may prohibit an air carrier or foreign air carrier from providing transportation between the United States and any other foreign airport that is served by aircraft flying to or from the airport with respect to which a decision is made under this section.
(2) 
(A) Paragraph (1) of this subsection becomes effective
(i) 90 days after the government of a foreign country is notified under subsection (c) of this section if the Secretary of Transportation finds that the government has not brought the security measures at the airport up to the standard the Secretary used in making an assessment under subsection (a) of this section; or
(ii) immediately on the decision of the Secretary of Transportation under subsection (c) of this section if the Secretary of Transportation decides, after consulting with the Secretary of State, that a condition exists that threatens the safety or security of passengers, aircraft, or crew traveling to or from the airport.
(B) The Secretary of Transportation immediately shall notify the Secretary of State of a decision under subparagraph (A)(ii) of this paragraph so that the Secretary of State may issue a travel advisory required under section 44908 (a) of this title.
(3) The Secretary of Transportation promptly shall submit to Congress a report (and classified annex if necessary) on action taken under paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection, including information on attempts made to obtain the cooperation of the government of a foreign country in meeting the standard the Secretary used in assessing the airport under subsection (a) of this section.
(4) An action required under paragraph (1)(A) and (B) of this subsection is no longer required only if the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of State, decides that effective security measures are maintained and carried out at the airport. The Secretary of Transportation shall notify Congress when the action is no longer required to be taken.
(e) Suspensions.— 
Notwithstanding sections 40105 (b) and 40106 (b) of this title, the Secretary of Transportation, with the approval of the Secretary of State and without notice or a hearing, shall suspend the right of an air carrier or foreign air carrier to provide foreign air transportation, and the right of a person to operate aircraft in foreign air commerce, to or from a foreign airport when the Secretary of Transportation decides that
(1) a condition exists that threatens the safety or security of passengers, aircraft, or crew traveling to or from that airport; and
(2) the public interest requires an immediate suspension of transportation between the United States and that airport.
(f) Condition of Carrier Authority.— 
This section is a condition to authority the Secretary of Transportation grants under this part to an air carrier or foreign air carrier.

49 USC 44908 - Travel advisory and suspension of foreign assistance

(a) Travel Advisories.— 
On being notified by the Secretary of Transportation that the Secretary of Transportation has decided under section 44907 (d)(2)(A)(ii) of this title that a condition exists that threatens the safety or security of passengers, aircraft, or crew traveling to or from a foreign airport that the Secretary of Transportation has decided under section 44907 of this title does not maintain and carry out effective security measures, the Secretary of State
(1) immediately shall issue a travel advisory for that airport; and
(2) shall publicize the advisory widely.
(b) Suspending Assistance.— 
The President shall suspend assistance provided under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) or the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) to a country in which is located an airport with respect to which section 44907 (d)(1) of this title becomes effective if the Secretary of State decides the country is a high terrorist threat country. The President may waive this subsection if the President decides, and reports to Congress, that the waiver is required because of national security interests or a humanitarian emergency.
(c) Actions No Longer Required.— 
An action required under this section is no longer required only if the Secretary of Transportation has made a decision as provided under section 44907 (d)(4) of this title. The Secretary shall notify Congress when the action is no longer required to be taken.

49 USC 44909 - Passenger manifests

(a) Air Carrier Requirements.— 

(1) Not later than March 16, 1991, the Secretary of Transportation shall require each air carrier to provide a passenger manifest for a flight to an appropriate representative of the Secretary of State
(A) not later than one hour after that carrier is notified of an aviation disaster outside the United States involving that flight; or
(B) if it is not technologically feasible or reasonable to comply with clause (A) of this paragraph, then as expeditiously as possible, but not later than 3 hours after the carrier is so notified.
(2) The passenger manifest should include the following information:
(A) the full name of each passenger.
(B) the passport number of each passenger, if required for travel.
(C) the name and telephone number of a contact for each passenger.
(3) In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider the necessity and feasibility of requiring air carriers to collect passenger manifest information as a condition for passengers boarding a flight of the carrier.
(b) Foreign Air Carrier Requirements.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall consider imposing a requirement on foreign air carriers comparable to that imposed on air carriers under subsection (a)(1) and (2) of this section.
(c) Flights in Foreign Air Transportation to the United States.— 

(1) In general.— 
Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, each air carrier and foreign air carrier operating a passenger flight in foreign air transportation to the United States shall provide to the Commissioner of Customs by electronic transmission a passenger and crew manifest containing the information specified in paragraph (2). Carriers may use the advanced passenger information system established under section 431 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1431) to provide the information required by the preceding sentence.
(2) Information.— 
A passenger and crew manifest for a flight required under paragraph (1) shall contain the following information:
(A) The full name of each passenger and crew member.
(B) The date of birth and citizenship of each passenger and crew member.
(C) The sex of each passenger and crew member.
(D) The passport number and country of issuance of each passenger and crew member if required for travel.
(E) The United States visa number or resident alien card number of each passenger and crew member, as applicable.
(F) Such other information as the Under Secretary, in consultation with the Commissioner of Customs, determines is reasonably necessary to ensure aviation safety.
(3) Passenger name records.— 
The carriers shall make passenger name record information available to the Customs Service upon request.
(4) Transmission of manifest.— 
Subject to paragraphs (5) and (6), a passenger and crew manifest required for a flight under paragraph (1) shall be transmitted to the Customs Service in advance of the aircraft landing in the United States in such manner, time, and form as the Customs Service prescribes.
(5) Transmission of manifests to other federal agencies.— 
Upon request, information provided to the Under Secretary or the Customs Service under this subsection may be shared with other Federal agencies for the purpose of protecting national security.
(6) Prescreening international passengers.— 

(A) In general.— 
Not later than 60 days after date of enactment of this paragraph, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the designee of the Secretary, shall issue a notice of proposed rulemaking that will allow the Department of Homeland Security to compare passenger information for any international flight to or from the United States against the consolidated and integrated terrorist watchlist maintained by the Federal Government before departure of the flight.
(B) Appeal procedures.— 

(i) In general.— 
The Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish a timely and fair process for individuals identified as a threat under subparagraph (A) to appeal to the Department of Homeland Security the determination and correct any erroneous information.
(ii) Records.— 
The process shall include the establishment of a method by which the Secretary will be able to maintain a record of air passengers and other individuals who have been misidentified and have corrected erroneous information. To prevent repeated delays of misidentified passengers and other individuals, the Department of Homeland Security record shall contain information determined by the Secretary to authenticate the identity of such a passenger or individual.

49 USC 44910 - Agreements on aircraft sabotage, aircraft hijacking, and airport security

The Secretary of State shall seek multilateral and bilateral agreement on strengthening enforcement measures and standards for compliance related to aircraft sabotage, aircraft hijacking, and airport security.

49 USC 44911 - Intelligence

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, intelligence community means the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the following units of the United States Government:
(1) the Department of State.
(2) the Department of Defense.
(3) the Department of the Treasury.
(4) the Department of Energy.
(5) the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
(6) the Central Intelligence Agency.
(7) the National Security Agency.
(8) the Defense Intelligence Agency.
(9) the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
(10) the Drug Enforcement Administration.
(b) Policies and Procedures on Report Availability.— 
The head of each unit in the intelligence community shall prescribe policies and procedures to ensure that intelligence reports about terrorism are made available, as appropriate, to the heads of other units in the intelligence community, the Secretary of Transportation, and the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security.
(c) Unit for Strategic Planning on Terrorism.— 
The heads of the units in the intelligence community shall place greater emphasis on strategic intelligence efforts by establishing a unit for strategic planning on terrorism.
(d) Designation of Intelligence Officer.— 
At the request of the Secretary, the Director of Central Intelligence shall designate at least one intelligence officer of the Central Intelligence Agency to serve in a senior position in the Office of the Secretary.
(e) Written Working Agreements.— 
The heads of units in the intelligence community, the Secretary, and the Under Secretary shall review and, as appropriate, revise written working agreements between the intelligence community and the Under Secretary.

49 USC 44912 - Research and development

(a) Program Requirement.— 

(1) The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall establish and carry out a program to accelerate and expand the research, development, and implementation of technologies and procedures to counteract terrorist acts against civil aviation. The program shall provide for developing and having in place, not later than November 16, 1993, new equipment and procedures necessary to meet the technological challenges presented by terrorism. The program shall include research on, and development of, technological improvements and ways to enhance human performance.
(2) In designing and carrying out the program established under this subsection, the Under Secretary shall
(A) consult and coordinate activities with other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government doing similar research;
(B) identify departments, agencies, and instrumentalities that would benefit from that research; and
(C) seek cost-sharing agreements with those departments, agencies, and instrumentalities.
(3) In carrying out the program established under this subsection, the Under Secretary shall review and consider the annual reports the Secretary of Transportation submits to Congress on transportation security and intelligence.
(4) 
(A) In carrying out the program established under this subsection, the Administrator shall designate an individual to be responsible for engineering, research, and development with respect to security technology under the program.
(B) The individual designated under subparagraph (A) shall use appropriate systems engineering and risk management models in making decisions regarding the allocation of funds for engineering, research, and development with respect to security technology under the program.
(C) The individual designated under subparagraph (A) shall, on an annual basis, submit to the Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee a report on activities under this paragraph during the preceding year. Each report shall include, for the year covered by such report, information on
(i) progress made in engineering, research, and development with respect to security technology;
(ii) the allocation of funds for engineering, research, and development with respect to security technology; and
(iii) engineering, research, and development with respect to any technologies drawn from other agencies, including the rationale for engineering, research, and development with respect to such technologies.
(5) The Under Secretary may
(A) make grants to institutions of higher learning and other appropriate research facilities with demonstrated ability to carry out research described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, and fix the amounts and terms of the grants; and
(B) make cooperative agreements with governmental authorities the Under Secretary decides are appropriate.
(b) Review of Threats.— 

(1) The Under Secretary shall periodically review threats to civil aviation, with particular focus on
(A) a comprehensive systems analysis (employing vulnerability analysis, threat attribute definition, and technology roadmaps) of the civil aviation system, including
(i) the destruction, commandeering, or diversion of civil aircraft or the use of civil aircraft as a weapon; and
(ii) the disruption of civil aviation service, including by cyber attack;
(B) explosive material that presents the most significant threat to civil aircraft;
(C) the minimum amounts, configurations, and types of explosive material that can cause, or would reasonably be expected to cause, catastrophic damage to aircraft in air transportation;
(D) the amounts, configurations, and types of explosive material that can be detected reliably by existing, or reasonably anticipated, near-term explosive detection technologies;
(E) the potential release of chemical, biological, or similar weapons or devices either within an aircraft or within an airport;
(F) the feasibility of using various ways to minimize damage caused by explosive material that cannot be detected reliably by existing, or reasonably anticipated, near-term explosive detection technologies;
(G) the ability to screen passengers, carry-on baggage, checked baggage, and cargo; and
(H) the technologies that might be used in the future to attempt to destroy or otherwise threaten commercial aircraft and the way in which those technologies can be countered effectively.
(2) The Under Secretary shall use the results of the review under this subsection to develop the focus and priorities of the program established under subsection (a) of this section.
(c) Scientific Advisory Panel.— 

(1) The Administrator shall establish a scientific advisory panel, as a subcommittee of the Research, Engineering, and Development Advisory Committee, to review, comment on, advise the progress of, and recommend modifications in, the program established under subsection (a) of this section, including the need for long-range research programs to detect and prevent catastrophic damage to commercial aircraft, commercial aviation facilities, commercial aviation personnel and passengers, and other components of the commercial aviation system by the next generation of terrorist weapons.
(2) 
(A) The advisory panel shall consist of individuals who have scientific and technical expertise in
(i) the development and testing of effective explosive detection systems;
(ii) aircraft structure and experimentation to decide on the type and minimum weights of explosives that an effective explosive detection technology must be capable of detecting;
(iii) technologies involved in minimizing airframe damage to aircraft from explosives; and
(iv) other scientific and technical areas the Administrator considers appropriate.
(B) In appointing individuals to the advisory panel, the Administrator should consider individuals from academia and the national laboratories, as appropriate.
(3) The Administrator shall organize the advisory panel into teams capable of undertaking the review of policies and technologies upon request.
(4) Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, and every two years thereafter, the Administrator shall review the composition of the advisory panel in order to ensure that the expertise of the individuals on the panel is suited to the current and anticipated duties of the panel.

49 USC 44913 - Explosive detection

(a) Deployment and Purchase of Equipment.— 

(1) A deployment or purchase of explosive detection equipment under section 108.7(b)(8) or 108.20 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, or similar regulation is required only if the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security certifies that the equipment alone, or as part of an integrated system, can detect under realistic air carrier operating conditions the amounts, configurations, and types of explosive material that would likely be used to cause catastrophic damage to commercial aircraft. The Under Secretary shall base the certification on the results of tests conducted under protocols developed in consultation with expert scientists outside of the Transportation Security Administration. Those tests shall be completed not later than April 16, 1992.
(2) Before completion of the tests described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, but not later than April 16, 1992, the Under Secretary may require deployment of explosive detection equipment described in paragraph (1) if the Under Secretary decides that deployment will enhance aviation security significantly. In making that decision, the Under Secretary shall consider factors such as the ability of the equipment alone, or as part of an integrated system, to detect under realistic air carrier operating conditions the amounts, configurations, and types of explosive material that would likely be used to cause catastrophic damage to commercial aircraft. The Under Secretary shall notify the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives of a deployment decision made under this paragraph.
(3) Until such time as the Under Secretary determines that equipment certified under paragraph (1) is commercially available and has successfully completed operational testing as provided in paragraph (1), the Under Secretary shall facilitate the deployment of such approved commercially available explosive detection devices as the Under Secretary determines will enhance aviation security significantly. The Under Secretary shall require that equipment deployed under this paragraph be replaced by equipment certified under paragraph (1) when equipment certified under paragraph (1) becomes commercially available. The Under Secretary is authorized, based on operational considerations at individual airports, to waive the required installation of commercially available equipment under paragraph (1) in the interests of aviation security. The Under Secretary may permit the requirements of this paragraph to be met at airports by the deployment of dogs or other appropriate animals to supplement equipment for screening passengers, baggage, mail, or cargo for explosives or weapons.
(4) This subsection does not prohibit the Under Secretary from purchasing or deploying explosive detection equipment described in paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(b) Grants.— 
The Secretary of Transportation may provide grants to continue the Explosive Detection K-9 Team Training Program to detect explosives at airports and on aircraft.

49 USC 44914 - Airport construction guidelines

In consultation with air carriers, airport authorities, and others the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security considers appropriate, the Under Secretary shall develop guidelines for airport design and construction to allow for maximum security enhancement. In developing the guidelines, the Under Secretary shall consider the results of the assessment carried out under section 44904 (a) of this title.

49 USC 44915 - Exemptions

The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security may exempt from sections 44901, 44903 (a)(c) and (e), 44906, 44935, and 44936 of this title airports in Alaska served only by air carriers that
(1) hold certificates issued under section 41102 of this title;
(2) operate aircraft with certificates for a maximum gross takeoff weight of less than 12,500 pounds; and
(3) board passengers, or load property intended to be carried in an aircraft cabin, that will be screened under section 44901 of this title at another airport in Alaska before the passengers board, or the property is loaded on, an aircraft for a place outside Alaska.

49 USC 44916 - Assessments and evaluations

(a) Periodic Assessments.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall require each air carrier and airport (including the airport owner or operator in cooperation with the air carriers and vendors serving each airport) that provides for intrastate, interstate, or foreign air transportation to conduct periodic vulnerability assessments of the security systems of that air carrier or airport, respectively. The Transportation Security Administration shall perform periodic audits of such assessments.
(b) Investigations.— 
The Under Secretary shall conduct periodic and unannounced inspections of security systems of airports and air carriers to determine the effectiveness and vulnerabilities of such systems. To the extent allowable by law, the Under Secretary may provide for anonymous tests of those security systems.

49 USC 44917 - Deployment of Federal air marshals

(a) In General.— 
The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security under the authority provided by section 44903 (d)
(1) may provide for deployment of Federal air marshals on every passenger flight of air carriers in air transportation or intrastate air transportation;
(2) shall provide for deployment of Federal air marshals on every such flight determined by the Secretary to present high security risks;
(3) shall provide for appropriate training, supervision, and equipment of Federal air marshals;
(4) shall require air carriers providing flights described in paragraph (1) to provide seating for a Federal air marshal on any such flight without regard to the availability of seats on the flight and at no cost to the United States Government or the marshal;
(5) may require air carriers to provide, on a space-available basis, to an off-duty Federal air marshal a seat on a flight to the airport nearest the marshals home at no cost to the marshal or the United States Government if the marshal is traveling to that airport after completing his or her security duties;
(6) may enter into agreements with Federal, State, and local agencies under which appropriately-trained law enforcement personnel from such agencies, when traveling on a flight of an air carrier, will carry a firearm and be prepared to assist Federal air marshals;
(7) shall establish procedures to ensure that Federal air marshals are made aware of any armed or unarmed law enforcement personnel on board an aircraft; and
(8) may appoint
(A) an individual who is a retired law enforcement officer;
(B) an individual who is a retired member of the Armed Forces; and
(C) an individual who has been furloughed from an air carrier crew position in the 1-year period beginning on September 11, 2001, as a Federal air marshal, regardless of age, if the individual otherwise meets the background and fitness qualifications required for Federal air marshals.
(b) Long Distance Flights.— 
In making the determination under subsection (a)(2), nonstop, long distance flights, such as those targeted on September 11, 2001, should be a priority.
(c) Interim Measures.— 
Until the Under Secretary completes implementation of subsection (a), the Under Secretary may use, after consultation with and concurrence of the heads of other Federal agencies and departments, personnel from those agencies and departments, on a nonreimbursable basis, to provide air marshal service.
(d) Training for Foreign Law Enforcement Personnel.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Assistant Secretary for Immigration and Customs Enforcement of the Department of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of State, may direct the Federal Air Marshal Service to provide appropriate air marshal training to law enforcement personnel of foreign countries.
(2) Watchlist screening.— 
The Federal Air Marshal Service may only provide appropriate air marshal training to law enforcement personnel of foreign countries after comparing the identifying information and records of law enforcement personnel of foreign countries against all appropriate records in the consolidated and integrated terrorist watchlists maintained by the Federal Government.
(3) Fees.— 
The Assistant Secretary shall establish reasonable fees and charges to pay expenses incurred in carrying out this subsection. Funds collected under this subsection shall be credited to the account in the Treasury from which the expenses were incurred and shall be available to the Assistant Secretary for purposes for which amounts in such account are available.

49 USC 44918 - Crew training

(a) Basic Security Training.— 

(1) In general.— 
Each air carrier providing scheduled passenger air transportation shall carry out a training program for flight and cabin crew members to prepare the crew members for potential threat conditions.
(2) Program elements.— 
An air carrier training program under this subsection shall include, at a minimum, elements that address each of the following:
(A) Recognizing suspicious activities and determining the seriousness of any occurrence.
(B) Crew communication and coordination.
(C) The proper commands to give passengers and attackers.
(D) Appropriate responses to defend oneself.
(E) Use of protective devices assigned to crew members (to the extent such devices are required by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration or the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security of the Department of Homeland Security).
(F) Psychology of terrorists to cope with hijacker behavior and passenger responses.
(G) Situational training exercises regarding various threat conditions.
(H) Flight deck procedures or aircraft maneuvers to defend the aircraft and cabin crew responses to such procedures and maneuvers.
(I) The proper conduct of a cabin search, including explosive device recognition.
(J) Any other subject matter considered appropriate by the Under Secretary.
(3) Approval.— 
An air carrier training program under this subsection shall be subject to approval by the Under Secretary.
(4) Minimum standards.— 
Not later than one year after the date of enactment of the Vision 100Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act, the Under Secretary may establish minimum standards for the training provided under this subsection and for recurrent training.
(5) Existing programs.— 
Notwithstanding paragraphs (3) and (4), any training program of an air carrier to prepare flight and cabin crew members for potential threat conditions that was approved by the Administrator or the Under Secretary before the date of enactment of the Vision 100Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act may continue in effect until disapproved or ordered modified by the Under Secretary.
(6) Monitoring.— 
The Under Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, shall monitor air carrier training programs under this subsection and periodically shall review an air carriers training program to ensure that the program is adequately preparing crew members for potential threat conditions. In determining when an air carriers training program should be reviewed under this paragraph, the Under Secretary shall consider complaints from crew members. The Under Secretary shall ensure that employees responsible for monitoring the training programs have the necessary resources and knowledge.
(7) Updates.— 
The Under Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, shall order air carriers to modify training programs under this subsection to reflect new or different security threats.
(b) Advanced Self-Defense Training.— 

(1) In general.— 
Not later than one year after the date of enactment of the Vision 100Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act, the Under Secretary shall develop and provide a voluntary training program for flight and cabin crew members of air carriers providing scheduled passenger air transportation.
(2) Program elements.— 
The training program under this subsection shall include both classroom and effective hands-on training in the following elements of self-defense:
(A) Deterring a passenger who might present a threat.
(B) Advanced control, striking, and restraint techniques.
(C) Training to defend oneself against edged or contact weapons.
(D) Methods to subdue and restrain an attacker.
(E) Use of available items aboard the aircraft for self-defense.
(F) Appropriate and effective responses to defend oneself, including the use of force against an attacker. <