TITLE 26 - US CODE - PART III - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME

26 USC 101 - Certain death benefits

(a) Proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death 

(1) General rule 
Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2), subsection (d), subsection (f), and subsection (j), gross income does not include amounts received (whether in a single sum or otherwise) under a life insurance contract, if such amounts are paid by reason of the death of the insured.
(2) Transfer for valuable consideration 
In the case of a transfer for a valuable consideration, by assignment or otherwise, of a life insurance contract or any interest therein, the amount excluded from gross income by paragraph (1) shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of the actual value of such consideration and the premiums and other amounts subsequently paid by the transferee. The preceding sentence shall not apply in the case of such a transfer
(A) if such contract or interest therein has a basis for determining gain or loss in the hands of a transferee determined in whole or in part by reference to such basis of such contract or interest therein in the hands of the transferor, or

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(B) if such transfer is to the insured, to a partner of the insured, to a partnership in which the insured is a partner, or to a corporation in which the insured is a shareholder or officer.

The term other amounts in the first sentence of this paragraph includes interest paid or accrued by the transferee on indebtedness with respect to such contract or any interest therein if such interest paid or accrued is not allowable as a deduction by reason of section 264 (a)(4).

[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–188, title I, § 1402(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1789] 
(c) Interest 
If any amount excluded from gross income by subsection (a) is held under an agreement to pay interest thereon, the interest payments shall be included in gross income.
(d) Payment of life insurance proceeds at a date later than death 

(1) General rule 
The amounts held by an insurer with respect to any beneficiary shall be prorated (in accordance with such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary) over the period or periods with respect to which such payments are to be made. There shall be excluded from the gross income of such beneficiary in the taxable year received any amount determined by such proration. Gross income includes, to the extent not excluded by the preceding sentence, amounts received under agreements to which this subsection applies.
(2) Amount held by an insurer 
An amount held by an insurer with respect to any beneficiary shall mean an amount to which subsection (a) applies which is
(A) held by any insurer under an agreement provided for in the life insurance contract, whether as an option or otherwise, to pay such amount on a date or dates later than the death of the insured, and
(B) equal to the value of such agreement to such beneficiary
(i) as of the date of death of the insured (as if any option exercised under the life insurance contract were exercised at such time), and
(ii) as discounted on the basis of the interest rate used by the insurer in calculating payments under the agreement and mortality tables prescribed by the Secretary.

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(3) Application of subsection 
This subsection shall not apply to any amount to which subsection (c) is applicable.
[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, § 421(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 794] 
(f) Proceeds of flexible premium contracts issued before January 1, 1985 payable by reason of death 

(1) In general 
Any amount paid by reason of the death of the insured under a flexible premium life insurance contract issued before January 1, 1985 shall be excluded from gross income only if
(A) under such contract
(i) the sum of the premiums paid under such contract does not at any time exceed the guideline premium limitation as of such time, and
(ii) any amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) is not at any time less than the applicable percentage of the cash value of such contract at such time, or
(B) by the terms of such contract, the cash value of such contract may not at any time exceed the net single premium with respect to the amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) at such time.
(2) Guideline premium limitation 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Guideline premium limitation 
The term guideline premium limitation means, as of any date, the greater of
(i) the guideline single premium, or
(ii) the sum of the guideline level premiums to such date.
(B) Guideline single premium 
The term guideline single premium means the premium at issue with respect to future benefits under the contract (without regard to any qualified additional benefit), and with respect to any charges for qualified additional benefits, at the time of a determination under subparagraph (A) or (E) and which is based on
(i) the mortality and other charges guaranteed under the contract, and
(ii) interest at the greater of an annual effective rate of 6 percent or the minimum rate or rates guaranteed upon issue of the contract.
(C) Guideline level premium 
The term guideline level premium means the level annual amount, payable over the longest period permitted under the contract (but ending not less than 20 years from date of issue or not later than age 95, if earlier), computed on the same basis as the guideline single premium, except that subparagraph (B)(ii) shall be applied by substituting 4 percent for 6 percent.
(D) Computational rules 
In computing the guideline single premium or guideline level premium under subparagraph (B) or (C)
(i) the excess of the amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) over the cash value of the contract shall be deemed to be not greater than such excess at the time the contract was issued,
(ii) the maturity date shall be the latest maturity date permitted under the contract, but not less than 20 years after the date of issue or (if earlier) age 95, and
(iii) the amount of any endowment benefit (or sum of endowment benefits) shall be deemed not to exceed the least amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) at any time under the contract.
(E) Adjustments 
The guideline single premium and guideline level premium shall be adjusted in the event of a change in the future benefits or any qualified additional benefit under the contract which was not reflected in any guideline single premiums or guideline level premium previously determined.
(3) Other definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Flexible premium life insurance contract 
The terms flexible premium life insurance contract and contract mean a life insurance contract (including any qualified additional benefits) which provides for the payment of one or more premiums which are not fixed by the insurer as to both timing and amount. Such terms do not include that portion of any contract which is treated under State law as providing any annuity benefits other than as a settlement option.
(B) Premiums paid 
The term premiums paid means the premiums paid under the contract less any amounts (other than amounts includible in gross income) to which section 72 (e) applies. If, in order to comply with the requirements of paragraph (1)(A), any portion of any premium paid during any contract year is returned by the insurance company (with interest) within 60 days after the end of a contract year
(i) the amount so returned (excluding interest) shall be deemed to reduce the sum of the premiums paid under the contract during such year, and
(ii) notwithstanding the provisions of section 72 (e), the amount of any interest so returned shall be includible in the gross income of the recipient.
(C) Applicable percentage 
The term applicable percentage means
(i) 140 percent in the case of an insured with an attained age at the beginning of the contract year of 40 or less, and
(ii) in the case of an insured with an attained age of more than 40 as of the beginning of the contract year, 140 percent reduced (but not below 105 percent) by one percent for each year in excess of 40.
(D) Cash value 
The cash value of any contract shall be determined without regard to any deduction for any surrender charge or policy loan.
(E) Qualified additional benefits 
The term qualified additional benefits means any
(i) guaranteed insurability,
(ii) accidental death benefit,
(iii) family term coverage, or
(iv) waiver of premium.
(F) Premium payments not disqualifying contract 
The payment of a premium which would result in the sum of the premiums paid exceeding the guideline premium limitation shall be disregarded for purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(i) if the amount of such premium does not exceed the amount necessary to prevent the termination of the contract without cash value on or before the end of the contract year.
(G) Net single premium 
In computing the net single premium under paragraph (1)(B)
(i) the mortality basis shall be that guaranteed under the contract (determined by reference to the most recent mortality table allowed under all State laws on the date of issuance),
(ii) interest shall be based on the greater of
(I) an annual effective rate of 4 percent (3 percent for contracts issued before July 1, 1983), or
(II) the minimum rate or rates guaranteed upon issue of the contract, and
(iii) the computational rules of paragraph (2)(D) shall apply, except that the maturity date referred to in clause (ii) thereof shall not be earlier than age 95.
(H) Correction of errors 
If the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that
(i) the requirements described in paragraph (1) for any contract year was not satisfied due to reasonable error, and
(ii) reasonable steps are being taken to remedy the error,

the Secretary may waive the failure to satisfy such requirements.

(I) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection.
(g) Treatment of certain accelerated death benefits 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this section, the following amounts shall be treated as an amount paid by reason of the death of an insured:
(A) Any amount received under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured who is a terminally ill individual.
(B) Any amount received under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured who is a chronically ill individual.
(2) Treatment of viatical settlements 

(A) In general 
If any portion of the death benefit under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured described in paragraph (1) is sold or assigned to a viatical settlement provider, the amount paid for the sale or assignment of such portion shall be treated as an amount paid under the life insurance contract by reason of the death of such insured.
(B) Viatical settlement provider 

(i) In general The term viatical settlement provider means any person regularly engaged in the trade or business of purchasing, or taking assignments of, life insurance contracts on the lives of insureds described in paragraph (1) if
(I) such person is licensed for such purposes (with respect to insureds described in the same subparagraph of paragraph (1) as the insured) in the State in which the insured resides, or
(II) in the case of an insured who resides in a State not requiring the licensing of such persons for such purposes with respect to such insured, such person meets the requirements of clause (ii) or (iii), whichever applies to such insured.
(ii) Terminally ill insureds A person meets the requirements of this clause with respect to an insured who is a terminally ill individual if such person
(I) meets the requirements of sections 8 and 9 of the Viatical Settlements Model Act of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, and
(II) meets the requirements of the Model Regulations of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (relating to standards for evaluation of reasonable payments) in determining amounts paid by such person in connection with such purchases or assignments.
(iii) Chronically ill insureds A person meets the requirements of this clause with respect to an insured who is a chronically ill individual if such person
(I) meets requirements similar to the requirements referred to in clause (ii)(I), and
(II) meets the standards (if any) of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners for evaluating the reasonableness of amounts paid by such person in connection with such purchases or assignments with respect to chronically ill individuals.
(3) Special rules for chronically ill insureds 
In the case of an insured who is a chronically ill individual
(A) In general 
Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any payment received for any period unless
(i) such payment is for costs incurred by the payee (not compensated for by insurance or otherwise) for qualified long-term care services provided for the insured for such period, and
(ii) the terms of the contract giving rise to such payment satisfy
(I) the requirements of section 7702B (b)(1)(B), and
(II) the requirements (if any) applicable under subparagraph (B).

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the rule of section 7702B (b)(2)(B) shall apply.

(B) Other requirements 
The requirements applicable under this subparagraph are
(i) those requirements of section 7702B (g) and section 4980C which the Secretary specifies as applying to such a purchase, assignment, or other arrangement,
(ii) standards adopted by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners which specifically apply to chronically ill individuals (and, if such standards are adopted, the analogous requirements specified under clause (i) shall cease to apply), and
(iii) standards adopted by the State in which the policyholder resides (and if such standards are adopted, the analogous requirements specified under clause (i) and (subject to section 4980C (f)) standards under clause (ii), shall cease to apply).
(C) Per diem payments 
A payment shall not fail to be described in subparagraph (A) by reason of being made on a per diem or other periodic basis without regard to the expenses incurred during the period to which the payment relates.
(D) Limitation on exclusion for periodic payments 
For limitation on amount of periodic payments which are treated as described in paragraph (1), see section 7702B (d).
(4) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Terminally ill individual 
The term terminally ill individual means an individual who has been certified by a physician as having an illness or physical condition which can reasonably be expected to result in death in 24 months or less after the date of the certification.
(B) Chronically ill individual 
The term chronically ill individual has the meaning given such term by section 7702B (c)(2); except that such term shall not include a terminally ill individual.
(C) Qualified long-term care services 
The term qualified long-term care services has the meaning given such term by section 7702B (c).
(D) Physician 
The term physician has the meaning given to such term by section 1861(r)(1) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395x (r)(1)).
(5) Exception for business-related policies 
This subsection shall not apply in the case of any amount paid to any taxpayer other than the insured if such taxpayer has an insurable interest with respect to the life of the insured by reason of the insured being a director, officer, or employee of the taxpayer or by reason of the insured being financially interested in any trade or business carried on by the taxpayer.
(h) Survivor benefits attributable to service by a public safety officer who is killed in the line of duty 

(1) In general 
Gross income shall not include any amount paid as a survivor annuity on account of the death of a public safety officer (as such term is defined in section 1204 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968) killed in the line of duty
(A) if such annuity is provided, under a governmental plan which meets the requirements of section 401 (a), to the spouse (or a former spouse) of the public safety officer or to a child of such officer; and
(B) to the extent such annuity is attributable to such officers service as a public safety officer.
(2) Exceptions 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to the death of any public safety officer if, as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968
(A) the death was caused by the intentional misconduct of the officer or by such officers intention to bring about such officers death;
(B) the officer was voluntarily intoxicated (as defined in section 1204 of such Act) at the time of death;
(C) the officer was performing such officers duties in a grossly negligent manner at the time of death; or
(D) the payment is to an individual whose actions were a substantial contributing factor to the death of the officer.
(i) Certain employee death benefits payable by reason of death of certain terrorist victims or astronauts 

(1) In general 
Gross income does not include amounts (whether in a single sum or otherwise) paid by an employer by reason of the death of an employee who is a specified terrorist victim (as defined in section 692 (d)(4)).
(2) Limitation 

(A) In general 
Subject to such rules as the Secretary may prescribe, paragraph (1) shall not apply to amounts which would have been payable after death if the individual had died other than as a specified terrorist victim (as so defined).
(B) Exception 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to incidental death benefits paid from a plan described in section 401 (a) and exempt from tax under section 501 (a).
(3) Treatment of self-employed individuals 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term employee includes a self-employed individual (as defined in section 401 (c)(1)).
(4) Relief with respect to astronauts 
The provisions of this subsection shall apply to any astronaut whose death occurs in the line of duty.
(j) Treatment of certain employer-owned life insurance contracts 

(1) General rule 
In the case of an employer-owned life insurance contract, the amount excluded from gross income of an applicable policyholder by reason of paragraph (1) of subsection (a) shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of the premiums and other amounts paid by the policyholder for the contract.
(2) Exceptions 
In the case of an employer-owned life insurance contract with respect to which the notice and consent requirements of paragraph (4) are met, paragraph (1) shall not apply to any of the following:
(A) Exceptions based on insured’s status 
Any amount received by reason of the death of an insured who, with respect to an applicable policyholder
(i) was an employee at any time during the 12-month period before the insureds death, or
(ii) is, at the time the contract is issued
(I) a director,
(II) a highly compensated employee within the meaning of section 414 (q) (without regard to paragraph (1)(B)(ii) thereof), or
(III) a highly compensated individual within the meaning of section 105 (h)(5), except that 35 percent shall be substituted for 25 percent in subparagraph (C) thereof.
(B) Exception for amounts paid to insured’s heirs 
Any amount received by reason of the death of an insured to the extent
(i) the amount is paid to a member of the family (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) of the insured, any individual who is the designated beneficiary of the insured under the contract (other than the applicable policyholder), a trust established for the benefit of any such member of the family or designated beneficiary, or the estate of the insured, or
(ii) the amount is used to purchase an equity (or capital or profits) interest in the applicable policyholder from any person described in clause (i).
(3) Employer-owned life insurance contract 

(A) In general 
For purposes of this subsection, the term employer-owned life insurance contract means a life insurance contract which
(i) is owned by a person engaged in a trade or business and under which such person (or a related person described in subparagraph (B)(ii)) is directly or indirectly a beneficiary under the contract, and
(ii) covers the life of an insured who is an employee with respect to the trade or business of the applicable policyholder on the date the contract is issued.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, if coverage for each insured under a master contract is treated as a separate contract for purposes of sections 817 (h), 7702, and 7702A, coverage for each such insured shall be treated as a separate contract.

(B) Applicable policyholder 
For purposes of this subsection
(i) In general The term applicable policyholder means, with respect to any employer-owned life insurance contract, the person described in subparagraph (A)(i) which owns the contract.
(ii) Related persons The term applicable policyholder includes any person which
(I) bears a relationship to the person described in clause (i) which is specified in section 267 (b) or 707 (b)(1), or
(II) is engaged in trades or businesses with such person which are under common control (within the meaning of subsection (a) or (b) of section 52).
(4) Notice and consent requirements 
The notice and consent requirements of this paragraph are met if, before the issuance of the contract, the employee
(A) is notified in writing that the applicable policyholder intends to insure the employees life and the maximum face amount for which the employee could be insured at the time the contract was issued,
(B) provides written consent to being insured under the contract and that such coverage may continue after the insured terminates employment, and
(C) is informed in writing that an applicable policyholder will be a beneficiary of any proceeds payable upon the death of the employee.
(5) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Employee 
The term employee includes an officer, director, and highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414 (q)).
(B) Insured 
The term insured means, with respect to an employer-owned life insurance contract, an individual covered by the contract who is a United States citizen or resident. In the case of a contract covering the joint lives of 2 individuals, references to an insured include both of the individuals.

26 USC 102 - Gifts and inheritances

(a) General rule 
Gross income does not include the value of property acquired by gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance.
(b) Income 
Subsection (a) shall not exclude from gross income
(1) the income from any property referred to in subsection (a); or
(2) where the gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance is of income from property, the amount of such income.

Where, under the terms of the gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance, the payment, crediting, or distribution thereof is to be made at intervals, then, to the extent that it is paid or credited or to be distributed out of income from property, it shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance of income from property. Any amount included in the gross income of a beneficiary under subchapter J shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance of income from property.

(c) Employee gifts 

(1) In general 
Subsection (a) shall not exclude from gross income any amount transferred by or for an employer to, or for the benefit of, an employee.
(2) Cross references 
For provisions excluding certain employee achievement awards from gross income, see section 74 (c). For provisions excluding certain de minimis fringes from gross income, see section 132 (e).

26 USC 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

(a) Exclusion 
Except as provided in subsection (b), gross income does not include interest on any State or local bond.
(b) Exceptions 
Subsection (a) shall not apply to
(1) Private activity bond which is not a qualified bond 
Any private activity bond which is not a qualified bond (within the meaning of section 141).
(2) Arbitrage bond 
Any arbitrage bond (within the meaning of section 148).
(3) Bond not in registered form, etc. 
Any bond unless such bond meets the applicable requirements of section 149.
(c) Definitions 
For purposes of this section and part IV
(1) State or local bond 
The term State or local bond means an obligation of a State or political subdivision thereof.
(2) State 
The term State includes the District of Columbia and any possession of the United States.

26 USC 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99514, title XIII, 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

Section, added Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, § 1102(a), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2660; amended Pub. L. 96–595, § 5(a), (b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3467; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, § 220(a)(e), title III, 310(c)(3), (4), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 475, 476, 599; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, 42(a)(2), title VI, 611(a)(c), 612(b), 624(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 556, 901903, 911, 924; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1861, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2883, related to mortgage subsidy bonds. See section 143 of this title.

26 USC 104 - Compensation for injuries or sickness

(a) In general 
Except in the case of amounts attributable to (and not in excess of) deductions allowed under section 213 (relating to medical, etc., expenses) for any prior taxable year, gross income does not include
(1) amounts received under workmens compensation acts as compensation for personal injuries or sickness;
(2) the amount of any damages (other than punitive damages) received (whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sums or as periodic payments) on account of personal physical injuries or physical sickness;
(3) amounts received through accident or health insurance (or through an arrangement having the effect of accident or health insurance) for personal injuries or sickness (other than amounts received by an employee, to the extent such amounts
(A)  are attributable to contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee, or
(B)  are paid by the employer);
(4) amounts received as a pension, annuity, or similar allowance for personal injuries or sickness resulting from active service in the armed forces of any country or in the Coast and Geodetic Survey or the Public Health Service, or as a disability annuity payable under the provisions of section 808 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980; and
(5) amounts received by an individual as disability income attributable to injuries incurred as a direct result of a terroristic or military action (as defined in section 692 (c)(2)).

For purposes of paragraph (3), in the case of an individual who is, or has been, an employee within the meaning of section 401 (c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals), contributions made on behalf of such individual while he was such an employee to a trust described in section 401 (a) which is exempt from tax under section 501 (a), or under a plan described in section 403 (a), shall, to the extent allowed as deductions under section 404, be treated as contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee. For purposes of paragraph (2), emotional distress shall not be treated as a physical injury or physical sickness. The preceding sentence shall not apply to an amount of damages not in excess of the amount paid for medical care (described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 213 (d)(1)) attributable to emotional distress.

(b) Termination of application of subsection (a)(4) in certain cases 

(1) In general 
Subsection (a)(4) shall not apply in the case of any individual who is not described in paragraph (2).
(2) Individuals to whom subsection (a)(4) continues to apply 
An individual is described in this paragraph if
(A) on or before September 24, 1975, he was entitled to receive any amount described in subsection (a)(4),
(B) on September 24, 1975, he was a member of any organization (or reserve component thereof) referred to in subsection (a)(4) or under a binding written commitment to become such a member,
(C) he receives an amount described in subsection (a)(4) by reason of a combat-related injury, or
(D) on application therefor, he would be entitled to receive disability compensation from the Veterans Administration.
(3) Special rules for combat-related injuries 
For purposes of this subsection, the term combat-related injury means personal injury or sickness
(A) which is incurred
(i) as a direct result of armed conflict,
(ii) while engaged in extrahazardous service, or
(iii) under conditions simulating war; or
(B) which is caused by an instrumentality of war.

In the case of an individual who is not described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2), except as provided in paragraph (4), the only amounts taken into account under subsection (a)(4) shall be the amounts which he receives by reason of a combat-related injury.

(4) Amount excluded to be not less than veterans’ disability compensation 
In the case of any individual described in paragraph (2), the amounts excludable under subsection (a)(4) for any period with respect to any individual shall not be less than the maximum amount which such individual, on application therefor, would be entitled to receive as disability compensation from the Veterans Administration.
(c) Application of prior law in certain cases 
The phrase (other than punitive damages) shall not apply to punitive damages awarded in a civil action
(1) which is a wrongful death action, and
(2) with respect to which applicable State law (as in effect on September 13, 1995 and without regard to any modification after such date) provides, or has been construed to provide by a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to a decision issued on or before September 13, 1995, that only punitive damages may be awarded in such an action.

This subsection shall cease to apply to any civil action filed on or after the first date on which the applicable State law ceases to provide (or is no longer construed to provide) the treatment described in paragraph (2).

(d) Cross references 

(1) For exclusion from employees gross income of employer contributions to accident and health plans, see section 106.
(2) For exclusion of part of disability retirement pay from the application of subsection (a)(4) of this section, see section 1403 of title 10, United States Code (relating to career compensation laws).

26 USC 105 - Amounts received under accident and health plans

(a) Amounts attributable to employer contributions 
Except as otherwise provided in this section, amounts received by an employee through accident or health insurance for personal injuries or sickness shall be included in gross income to the extent such amounts
(1)  are attributable to contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee, or
(2)  are paid by the employer.
(b) Amounts expended for medical care 
Except in the case of amounts attributable to (and not in excess of) deductions allowed under section 213 (relating to medical, etc., expenses) for any prior taxable year, gross income does not include amounts referred to in subsection (a) if such amounts are paid, directly or indirectly, to the taxpayer to reimburse the taxpayer for expenses incurred by him for the medical care (as defined in section 213(d)) of the taxpayer, his spouse, and his dependents (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof). Any child to whom section 152 (e) applies shall be treated as a dependent of both parents for purposes of this subsection.
(c) Payments unrelated to absence from work 
Gross income does not include amounts referred to in subsection (a) to the extent such amounts
(1) constitute payment for the permanent loss or loss of use of a member or function of the body, or the permanent disfigurement, of the taxpayer, his spouse, or a dependent (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof), and
(2) are computed with reference to the nature of the injury without regard to the period the employee is absent from work.
[(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title I, § 122(b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87] 
(e) Accident and health plans 
For purposes of this section and section 104
(1) amounts received under an accident or health plan for employees, and
(2) amounts received from a sickness and disability fund for employees maintained under the law of a State or the District of Columbia,

shall be treated as amounts received through accident or health insurance.

(f) Rules for application of section 213 
For purposes of section 213 (a) (relating to medical, dental, etc., expenses) amounts excluded from gross income under subsection (c) or (d) shall not be considered as compensation (by insurance or otherwise) for expenses paid for medical care.
(g) Self-employed individual not considered an employee 
For purposes of this section, the term employee does not include an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401 (c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).
(h) Amount paid to highly compensated individuals under a discriminatory self-insured medical expense reimbursement plan 

(1) In general 
In the case of amounts paid to a highly compensated individual under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan which does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2) for a plan year, subsection (b) shall not apply to such amounts to the extent they constitute an excess reimbursement of such highly compensated individual.
(2) Prohibition of discrimination 
A self-insured medical reimbursement plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph only if
(A) the plan does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated individuals as to eligibility to participate; and
(B) the benefits provided under the plan do not discriminate in favor of participants who are highly compensated individuals.
(3) Nondiscriminatory eligibility classifications 

(A) In general 
A self-insured medical reimbursement plan does not satisfy the requirements of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) unless such plan benefits
(i) 70 percent or more of all employees, or 80 percent or more of all the employees who are eligible to benefit under the plan if 70 percent or more of all employees are eligible to benefit under the plan; or
(ii) such employees as qualify under a classification set up by the employer and found by the Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of highly compensated individuals.
(B) Exclusion of certain employees 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), there may be excluded from consideration
(i) employees who have not completed 3 years of service;
(ii) employees who have not attained age 25;
(iii) part-time or seasonal employees;
(iv) employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers which the Secretary finds to be a collective bargaining agreement, if accident and health benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers; and
(v) employees who are nonresident aliens and who receive no earned income (within the meaning of section 911 (d)(2)) from the employer which constitutes income from sources within the United States (within the meaning of section 861 (a)(3)).
(4) Nondiscriminatory benefits 
A self-insured medical reimbursement plan does not meet the requirements of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) unless all benefits provided for participants who are highly compensated individuals are provided for all other participants.
(5) Highly compensated individual defined 
For purposes of this subsection, the term highly compensated individual means an individual who is
(A) one of the 5 highest paid officers,
(B) a shareholder who owns (with the application of section 318) more than 10 percent in value of the stock of the employer, or
(C) among the highest paid 25 percent of all employees (other than employees described in paragraph (3)(B) who are not participants).
(6) Self-insured medical reimbursement plan 
The term self-insured medical reimbursement plan means a plan of an employer to reimburse employees for expenses referred to in subsection (b) for which reimbursement is not provided under a policy of accident and health insurance.
(7) Excess reimbursement of highly compensated individual 
For purposes of this section, the excess reimbursement of a highly compensated individual which is attributable to a self-insured medical reimbursement plan is
(A) in the case of a benefit available to highly compensated individuals but not to all other participants (or which otherwise fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(B)), the amount reimbursed under the plan to the employee with respect to such benefit, and
(B) in the case of benefits (other than benefits described in subparagraph (A)[1] paid to a highly compensated individual by a plan which fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2), the total amount reimbursed to the highly compensated individual for the plan year multiplied by a fraction
(i) the numerator of which is the total amount reimbursed to all participants who are highly compensated individuals under the plan for the plan year, and
(ii) the denominator of which is the total amount reimbursed to all employees under the plan for such plan year.

In determining the fraction under subparagraph (B), there shall not be taken into account any reimbursement which is attributable to a benefit described in subparagraph (A).

(8) Certain controlled groups, etc. 
All employees who are treated as employed by a single employer under subsection (b), (c), or (m) of section 414 shall be treated as employed by a single employer for purposes of this section.
(9) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.
(10) Time of inclusion 
Any amount paid for a plan year that is included in income by reason of this subsection shall be treated as received or accrued in the taxable year of the participant in which the plan year ends.
(i) Sick pay under Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, gross income includes benefits paid under section 2(a) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act for days of sickness; except to the extent such sickness (as determined in accordance with standards prescribed by the Railroad Retirement Board) is the result of on-the-job injury.
[1] So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing ­parenthesis.

26 USC 106 - Contributions by employer to accident and health plans

(a) General rule 
Except as otherwise provided in this section, gross income of an employee does not include employer-provided coverage under an accident or health plan.
(b) Contributions to Archer MSAs 

(1) In general 
In the case of an employee who is an eligible individual, amounts contributed by such employees employer to any Archer MSA of such employee shall be treated as employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan to the extent such amounts do not exceed the limitation under section 220 (b)(1) (determined without regard to this subsection) which is applicable to such employee for such taxable year.
(2) No constructive receipt 
No amount shall be included in the gross income of any employee solely because the employee may choose between the contributions referred to in paragraph (1) and employer contributions to another health plan of the employer.
(3) Special rule for deduction of employer contributions 
Any employer contribution to an Archer MSA, if otherwise allowable as a deduction under this chapter, shall be allowed only for the taxable year in which paid.
(4) Employer MSA contributions required to be shown on return 
Every individual required to file a return under section 6012 for the taxable year shall include on such return the aggregate amount contributed by employers to the Archer MSAs of such individual or such individuals spouse for such taxable year.
(5) MSA contributions not part of COBRA coverage 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply for purposes of section 4980B.
(6) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection, the terms eligible individual and Archer MSA have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 220.
(7) Cross reference 
For penalty on failure by employer to make comparable contributions to the Archer MSAs of comparable employees, see section 4980E.
(c) Inclusion of long-term care benefits provided through flexible spending arrangements 

(1) In general 
Effective on and after January 1, 1997, gross income of an employee shall include employer-provided coverage for qualified long-term care services (as defined in section 7702B (c)) to the extent that such coverage is provided through a flexible spending or similar arrangement.
(2) Flexible spending arrangement 
For purposes of this subsection, a flexible spending arrangement is a benefit program which provides employees with coverage under which
(A) specified incurred expenses may be reimbursed (subject to reimbursement maximums and other reasonable conditions), and
(B) the maximum amount of reimbursement which is reasonably available to a participant for such coverage is less than 500 percent of the value of such coverage.

In the case of an insured plan, the maximum amount reasonably available shall be determined on the basis of the underlying coverage.

(d) Contributions to health savings accounts 

(1) In general 
In the case of an employee who is an eligible individual (as defined in section 223 (c)(1)), amounts contributed by such employees employer to any health savings account (as defined in section 223(d)) of such employee shall be treated as employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan to the extent such amounts do not exceed the limitation under section 223 (b) (determined without regard to this subsection) which is applicable to such employee for such taxable year.
(2) Special rules 
Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of subsection (b) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.
(3) Cross reference 
For penalty on failure by employer to make comparable contributions to the health savings accounts of comparable employees, see section 4980G.
(e) FSA and HRA terminations to fund HSAs 

(1) In general 
A plan shall not fail to be treated as a health flexible spending arrangement or health reimbursement arrangement under this section or section 105 merely because such plan provides for a qualified HSA distribution.
(2) Qualified HSA distribution 
The term qualified HSA distribution means a distribution from a health flexible spending arrangement or health reimbursement arrangement to the extent that such distribution
(A) does not exceed the lesser of the balance in such arrangement on September 21, 2006, or as of the date of such distribution, and
(B) is contributed by the employer directly to the health savings account of the employee before January 1, 2012.

Such term shall not include more than 1 distribution with respect to any arrangement.

(3) Additional tax for failure to maintain high deductible health plan coverage 

(A) In general 
If, at any time during the testing period, the employee is not an eligible individual, then the amount of the qualified HSA distribution
(i) shall be includible in the gross income of the employee for the taxable year in which occurs the first month in the testing period for which such employee is not an eligible individual, and
(ii) the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year on the employee shall be increased by 10 percent of the amount which is so includible.
(B) Exception for disability or death 
Clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the employee ceases to be an eligible individual by reason of the death of the employee or the employee becoming disabled (within the meaning of section 72 (m)(7)).
(4) Definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Testing period 
The term testing period means the period beginning with the month in which the qualified HSA distribution is contributed to the health savings account and ending on the last day of the 12th month following such month.
(B) Eligible individual 
The term eligible individual has the meaning given such term by section 223 (c)(1).
(C) Treatment as rollover contribution 
A qualified HSA distribution shall be treated as a rollover contribution described in section 223 (f)(5).
(5) Tax treatment relating to distributions 
For purposes of this title
(A) In general 
A qualified HSA distribution shall be treated as a payment described in subsection (d).
(B) Comparability excise tax 

(i) In general Except as provided in clause (ii), section 4980G shall not apply to qualified HSA distributions.
(ii) Failure to offer to all employees In the case of a qualified HSA distribution to any employee, the failure to offer such distribution to any eligible individual covered under a high deductible health plan of the employer shall (notwithstanding section 4980G (d)) be treated for purposes of section 4980G as a failure to meet the requirements of section 4980G (b).

26 USC 107 - Rental value of parsonages

In the case of a minister of the gospel, gross income does not include
(1) the rental value of a home furnished to him as part of his compensation; or
(2) the rental allowance paid to him as part of his compensation, to the extent used by him to rent or provide a home and to the extent such allowance does not exceed the fair rental value of the home, including furnishings and appurtenances such as a garage, plus the cost of utilities.

26 USC 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

(a) Exclusion from gross income 

(1) In general 
Gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of indebtedness of the taxpayer if
(A) the discharge occurs in a title 11 case,
(B) the discharge occurs when the taxpayer is insolvent,
(C) the indebtedness discharged is qualified farm indebtedness,
(D) in the case of a taxpayer other than a C corporation, the indebtedness discharged is qualified real property business indebtedness, or
(E) the indebtedness discharged is qualified principal residence indebtedness which is discharged before January 1, 2010.
(2) Coordination of exclusions 

(A) Title 11 exclusion takes precedence 
Subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge which occurs in a title 11 case.
(B) Insolvency exclusion takes precedence over qualified farm exclusion and qualified real property business exclusion 
Subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge to the extent the taxpayer is insolvent.
(C) Principal residence exclusion takes precedence over insolvency exclusion unless elected otherwise 
Paragraph (1)(B) shall not apply to a discharge to which paragraph (1)(E) applies unless the taxpayer elects to apply paragraph (1)(B) in lieu of paragraph (1)(E).
(3) Insolvency exclusion limited to amount of insolvency 
In the case of a discharge to which paragraph (1)(B) applies, the amount excluded under paragraph (1)(B) shall not exceed the amount by which the taxpayer is insolvent.
(b) Reduction of tax attributes 

(1) In general 
The amount excluded from gross income under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied to reduce the tax attributes of the taxpayer as provided in paragraph (2).
(2) Tax attributes affected; order of reduction 
Except as provided in paragraph (5), the reduction referred to in paragraph (1) shall be made in the following tax attributes in the following order:
(A) NOL 
Any net operating loss for the taxable year of the discharge, and any net operating loss carryover to such taxable year.
(B) General business credit 
Any carryover to or from the taxable year of a discharge of an amount for purposes for determining the amount allowable as a credit under section 38 (relating to general business credit).
(C) Minimum tax credit 
The amount of the minimum tax credit available under section 53(b) as of the beginning of the taxable year immediately following the taxable year of the discharge.
(D) Capital loss carryovers 
Any net capital loss for the taxable year of the discharge, and any capital loss carryover to such taxable year under section 1212.
(E) Basis reduction 

(i) In general The basis of the property of the taxpayer.
(ii) Cross reference For provisions for making the reduction described in clause (i), see section 1017.
(F) Passive activity loss and credit carryovers 
Any passive activity loss or credit carryover of the taxpayer under section 469 (b) from the taxable year of the discharge.
(G) Foreign tax credit carryovers 
Any carryover to or from the taxable year of the discharge for purposes of determining the amount of the credit allowable under section 27.
(3) Amount of reduction 

(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the reductions described in paragraph (2) shall be one dollar for each dollar excluded by subsection (a).
(B) Credit carryover reduction 
The reductions described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) shall be 331/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a). The reduction described in subparagraph (F) in any passive activity credit carryover shall be 331/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a).
(4) Ordering rules 

(A) Reductions made after determination of tax for year 
The reductions described in paragraph (2) shall be made after the determination of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year of the discharge.
(B) Reductions under subparagraph (A) or (D) of paragraph (2) 
The reductions described in subparagraph (A) or (D) of paragraph (2) (as the case may be) shall be made first in the loss for the taxable year of the discharge and then in the carryovers to such taxable year in the order of the taxable years from which each such carryover arose.
(C) Reductions under subparagraphs (B) and (G) of paragraph (2) 
The reductions described in subparagraphs (B) and (G) of paragraph (2) shall be made in the order in which carryovers are taken into account under this chapter for the taxable year of the discharge.
(5) Election to apply reduction first against depreciable property 

(A) In general 
The taxpayer may elect to apply any portion of the reduction referred to in paragraph (1) to the reduction under section 1017 of the basis of the depreciable property of the taxpayer.
(B) Limitation 
The amount to which an election under subparagraph (A) applies shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted bases of the depreciable property held by the taxpayer as of the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs.
(C) Other tax attributes not reduced 
Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any amount to which an election under this paragraph applies.
(c) Treatment of discharge of qualified real property business indebtedness 

(1) Basis reduction 

(A) In general 
The amount excluded from gross income under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied to reduce the basis of the depreciable real property of the taxpayer.
(B) Cross reference 
For provisions making the reduction described in subparagraph (A), see section 1017.
(2) Limitations 

(A) Indebtedness in excess of value 
The amount excluded under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) with respect to any qualified real property business indebtedness shall not exceed the excess (if any) of
(i) the outstanding principal amount of such indebtedness (immediately before the discharge), over
(ii) the fair market value of the real property described in paragraph (3)(A) (as of such time), reduced by the outstanding principal amount of any other qualified real property business indebtedness secured by such property (as of such time).
(B) Overall limitation 
The amount excluded under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted bases of depreciable real property (determined after any reductions under subsections (b) and (g)) held by the taxpayer immediately before the discharge (other than depreciable real property acquired in contemplation of such discharge).
(3) Qualified real property business indebtedness 
The term qualified real property business indebtedness means indebtedness which
(A) was incurred or assumed by the taxpayer in connection with real property used in a trade or business and is secured by such real property,
(B) was incurred or assumed before January 1, 1993, or if incurred or assumed on or after such date, is qualified acquisition indebtedness, and
(C) with respect to which such taxpayer makes an election to have this paragraph apply.

Such term shall not include qualified farm indebtedness. Indebtedness under subparagraph (B) shall include indebtedness resulting from the refinancing of indebtedness under subparagraph (B) (or this sentence), but only to the extent it does not exceed the amount of the indebtedness being refinanced.

(4) Qualified acquisition indebtedness 
For purposes of paragraph (3)(B), the term qualified acquisition indebtedness means, with respect to any real property described in paragraph (3)(A), indebtedness incurred or assumed to acquire, construct, reconstruct, or substantially improve such property.
(5) Regulations 
The Secretary shall issue such regulations as are necessary to carry out this subsection, including regulations preventing the abuse of this subsection through cross-collateralization or other means.
(d) Meaning of terms; special rules relating to certain provisions 

(1) Indebtedness of taxpayer 
For purposes of this section, the term indebtedness of the taxpayer means any indebtedness
(A) for which the taxpayer is liable, or
(B) subject to which the taxpayer holds property.
(2) Title 11 case 
For purposes of this section, the term title 11 case means a case under title 11 of the United States Code (relating to bankruptcy), but only if the taxpayer is under the jurisdiction of the court in such case and the discharge of indebtedness is granted by the court or is pursuant to a plan approved by the court.
(3) Insolvent 
For purposes of this section, the term insolvent means the excess of liabilities over the fair market value of assets. With respect to any discharge, whether or not the taxpayer is insolvent, and the amount by which the taxpayer is insolvent, shall be determined on the basis of the taxpayers assets and liabilities immediately before the discharge.
[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 822(b)(3)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373] 
(5) Depreciable property 
The term depreciable property has the same meaning as when used in section 1017.
(6) Certain provisions to be applied at partner level 
In the case of a partnership, subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) shall be applied at the partner level.
(7) Special rules for S corporation 

(A) Certain provisions to be applied at corporate level 
In the case of an S corporation, subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) shall be applied at the corporate level, including by not taking into account under section 1366 (a) any amount excluded under subsection (a) of this section.
(B) Reduction in carryover of disallowed losses and deductions 
In the case of an S corporation, for purposes of subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2), any loss or deduction which is disallowed for the taxable year of the discharge under section 1366 (d)(1) shall be treated as a net operating loss for such taxable year. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any discharge to the extent that subsection (a)(1)(D) applies to such discharge.
(C) Coordination with basis adjustments under section 1367 (b)(2) 
For purposes of subsection (e)(6), a shareholders adjusted basis in indebtedness of an S corporation shall be determined without regard to any adjustments made under section 1367 (b)(2).
(8) Reductions of tax attributes in title 11 cases of individuals to be made by estate 
In any case under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code to which section 1398 applies, for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (5) of subsection (b) the estate (and not the individual) shall be treated as the taxpayer. The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of applying section 1017 to property transferred by the estate to the individual.
(9) Time for making election, etc. 

(A) Time 
An election under paragraph (5) of subsection (b) or under paragraph (3)(C) of subsection (c) shall be made on the taxpayers return for the taxable year in which the discharge occurs or at such other time as may be permitted in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(B) Revocation only with consent 
An election referred to in subparagraph (A), once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.
(C) Manner 
An election referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be made in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.
(10) Cross reference 
For provision that no reduction is to be made in the basis of exempt property of an individual debtor, see section 1017 (c)(1).
(e) General rules for discharge of indebtedness (including discharges not in title 11 cases or insolvency) 
For purposes of this title
(1) No other insolvency exception 
Except as otherwise provided in this section, there shall be no insolvency exception from the general rule that gross income includes income from the discharge of indebtedness.
(2) Income not realized to extent of lost deductions 
No income shall be realized from the discharge of indebtedness to the extent that payment of the liability would have given rise to a deduction.
(3) Adjustments for unamortized premium and discount 
The amount taken into account with respect to any discharge shall be properly adjusted for unamortized premium and unamortized discount with respect to the indebtedness discharged.
(4) Acquisition of indebtedness by person related to debtor 

(A) Treated as acquisition by debtor 
For purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the acquisition of outstanding indebtedness by a person bearing a relationship to the debtor specified in section 267 (b) or 707 (b)(1) from a person who does not bear such a relationship to the debtor shall be treated as the acquisition of such indebtedness by the debtor. Such regulations shall provide for such adjustments in the treatment of any subsequent transactions involving the indebtedness as may be appropriate by reason of the application of the preceding sentence.
(B) Members of family 
For purposes of this paragraph, sections 267 (b) and 707 (b)(1) shall be applied as if section 267 (c)(4) provided that the family of an individual consists of the individuals spouse, the individuals children, grandchildren, and parents, and any spouse of the individuals children or grandchildren.
(C) Entities under common control treated as related 
For purposes of this paragraph, two entities which are treated as a single employer under subsection (b) or (c) of section 414 shall be treated as bearing a relationship to each other which is described in section 267 (b).
(5) Purchase-money debt reduction for solvent debtor treated as price reduction 
If
(A) the debt of a purchaser of property to the seller of such property which arose out of the purchase of such property is reduced,
(B) such reduction does not occur
(i) in a title 11 case, or
(ii) when the purchaser is insolvent, and
(C) but for this paragraph, such reduction would be treated as income to the purchaser from the discharge of indebtedness,

then such reduction shall be treated as a purchase price adjustment.

(6) Indebtedness contributed to capital 
Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor corporation acquires its indebtedness from a shareholder as a contribution to capital
(A) section 118 shall not apply, but
(B) such corporation shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the shareholders adjusted basis in the indebtedness.
(7) Recapture of gain on subsequent sale of stock 

(A) In general 
If a creditor acquires stock of a debtor corporation in satisfaction of such corporations indebtedness, for purposes of section 1245
(i) such stock (and any other property the basis of which is determined in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such stock) shall be treated as section 1245 property,
(ii) the aggregate amount allowed to the creditor
(I) as deductions under subsection (a) or (b) of section 166 (by reason of the worthlessness or partial worthlessness of the indebtedness), or
(II) as an ordinary loss on the exchange,

shall be treated as an amount allowed as a deduction for depreciation, and

(iii) an exchange of such stock qualifying under section 354 (a), 355 (a), or 356 (a) shall be treated as an exchange to which section 1245 (b)(3) applies.

The amount determined under clause (ii) shall be reduced by the amount (if any) included in the creditors gross income on the exchange.

(B) Special rule for cash basis taxpayers 
In the case of any creditor who computes his taxable income under the cash receipts and disbursements method, proper adjustment shall be made in the amount taken into account under clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) for any amount which was not included in the creditors gross income but which would have been included in such gross income if such indebtedness had been satisfied in full.
(C) Stock of parent corporation 
For purposes of this paragraph, stock of a corporation in control (within the meaning of section 368(c)) of the debtor corporation shall be treated as stock of the debtor corporation.
(D) Treatment of successor corporation 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term debtor corporation includes a successor corporation.
(E) Partnership rule 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of the foregoing subparagraphs of this paragraph shall apply with respect to the indebtedness of a partnership.
(8) Indebtedness satisfied by corporate stock or partnership interest 
For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if
(A) a debtor corporation transfers stock, or
(B) a debtor partnership transfers a capital or profits interest in such partnership,

to a creditor in satisfaction of its recourse or nonrecourse indebtedness, such corporation or partnership shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the fair market value of the stock or interest. In the case of any partnership, any discharge of indebtedness income recognized under this paragraph shall be included in the distributive shares of taxpayers which were the partners in the partnership immediately before such discharge.

(9) Discharge of indebtedness income not taken into account in determining whether entity meets REIT qualifications 
Any amount included in gross income by reason of the discharge of indebtedness shall not be taken into account for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 856 (c).
(10) Indebtedness satisfied by issuance of debt instrument 

(A) In general 
For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor issues a debt instrument in satisfaction of indebtedness, such debtor shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the issue price of such debt instrument.
(B) Issue price 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the issue price of any debt instrument shall be determined under sections 1273 and 1274. For purposes of the preceding sentence, section 1273 (b)(4) shall be applied by reducing the stated redemption price of any instrument by the portion of such stated redemption price which is treated as interest for purposes of this chapter.
(f) Student loans 

(1) In general 
In the case of an individual, gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of any student loan if such discharge was pursuant to a provision of such loan under which all or part of the indebtedness of the individual would be discharged if the individual worked for a certain period of time in certain professions for any of a broad class of employers.
(2) Student loan 
For purposes of this subsection, the term student loan means any loan to an individual to assist the individual in attending an educational organization described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii) made by
(A) the United States, or an instrumentality or agency thereof,
(B) a State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision thereof,
(C) a public benefit corporation
(i) which is exempt from taxation under section 501 (c)(3),
(ii) which has assumed control over a State, county, or municipal hospital, and
(iii) whose employees have been deemed to be public employees under State law, or
(D) any educational organization described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii) if such loan is made
(i) pursuant to an agreement with any entity described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) under which the funds from which the loan was made were provided to such educational organization, or
(ii) pursuant to a program of such educational organization which is designed to encourage its students to serve in occupations with unmet needs or in areas with unmet needs and under which the services provided by the students (or former students) are for or under the direction of a governmental unit or an organization described in section 501 (c)(3) and exempt from tax under section 501 (a).

The term student loan includes any loan made by an educational organization described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii) or by an organization exempt from tax under section 501 (a) to refinance a loan to an individual to assist the individual in attending any such educational organization but only if the refinancing loan is pursuant to a program of the refinancing organization which is designed as described in subparagraph (D)(ii).

(3) Exception for discharges on account of services performed for certain lenders 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the discharge of a loan made by an organization described in paragraph (2)(D) if the discharge is on account of services performed for either such organization.
(4) Payments under National Health Service Corps Loan Repayment Program and certain State loan repayment programs 
In the case of an individual, gross income shall not include any amount received under section 338B(g) of the Public Health Service Act or under a State program described in section 338I of such Act.
(g) Special rules for discharge of qualified farm indebtedness 

(1) Discharge must be by qualified person 

(A) In general 
Subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall apply only if the discharge is by a qualified person.
(B) Qualified person 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term qualified person has the meaning given to such term by section 49 (a)(1)(D)(iv); except that such term shall include any Federal, State, or local government or agency or instrumentality thereof.
(2) Qualified farm indebtedness 
For purposes of this section, indebtedness of a taxpayer shall be treated as qualified farm indebtedness if
(A) such indebtedness was incurred directly in connection with the operation by the taxpayer of the trade or business of farming, and
(B) 50 percent or more of the aggregate gross receipts of the taxpayer for the 3 taxable years preceding the taxable year in which the discharge of such indebtedness occurs is attributable to the trade or business of farming.
(3) Amount excluded cannot exceed sum of tax attributes and business and investment assets 

(A) In general 
The amount excluded under subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall not exceed the sum of
(i) the adjusted tax attributes of the taxpayer, and
(ii) the aggregate adjusted bases of qualified property held by the taxpayer as of the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs.
(B) Adjusted tax attributes 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term adjusted tax attributes means the sum of the tax attributes described in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (F), and (G) of subsection (b)(2) determined by taking into account $3 for each $1 of the attributes described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) of subsection (b)(2) and the attribute described in subparagraph (F) of subsection (b)(2) to the extent attributable to any passive activity credit carryover.
(C) Qualified property 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term qualified property means any property which is used or is held for use in a trade or business or for the production of income.
(D) Coordination with insolvency exclusion 
For purposes of this paragraph, the adjusted basis of any qualified property and the amount of the adjusted tax attributes shall be determined after any reduction under subsection (b) by reason of amounts excluded from gross income under subsection (a)(1)(B).
(h) Special rules relating to qualified principal residence indebtedness 

(1) Basis reduction 
The amount excluded from gross income by reason of subsection (a)(1)(E) shall be applied to reduce (but not below zero) the basis of the principal residence of the taxpayer.
(2) Qualified principal residence indebtedness 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified principal residence indebtedness means acquisition indebtedness (within the meaning of section 163 (h)(3)(B), applied by substituting $2,000,000 ($1,000,000 for $1,000,000 ($500,000 in clause (ii) thereof) with respect to the principal residence of the taxpayer.
(3) Exception for certain discharges not related to taxpayer’s financial condition 
Subsection (a)(1)(E) shall not apply to the discharge of a loan if the discharge is on account of services performed for the lender or any other factor not directly related to a decline in the value of the residence or to the financial condition of the taxpayer.
(4) Ordering rule 
If any loan is discharged, in whole or in part, and only a portion of such loan is qualified principal residence indebtedness, subsection (a)(1)(E) shall apply only to so much of the amount discharged as exceeds the amount of the loan (as determined immediately before such discharge) which is not qualified principal residence indebtedness.
(5) Principal residence 
For purposes of this subsection, the term principal residence has the same meaning as when used in section 121.

26 USC 109 - Improvements by lessee on lessors property

Gross income does not include income (other than rent) derived by a lessor of real property on the termination of a lease, representing the value of such property attributable to buildings erected or other improvements made by the lessee.

26 USC 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

(a) In general 
Gross income of a lessee does not include any amount received in cash (or treated as a rent reduction) by a lessee from a lessor
(1) under a short-term lease of retail space, and
(2) for the purpose of such lessees constructing or improving qualified long-term real property for use in such lessees trade or business at such retail space,

but only to the extent that such amount does not exceed the amount expended by the lessee for such construction or improvement.

(b) Consistent treatment by lessor 
Qualified long-term real property constructed or improved in connection with any amount excluded from a lessees income by reason of subsection (a) shall be treated as nonresidential real property of the lessor (including for purposes of section 168 (i)(8)(B)).
(c) Definitions 
For purposes of this section
(1) Qualified long-term real property 
The term qualified long-term real property means nonresidential real property which is part of, or otherwise present at, the retail space referred to in subsection (a) and which reverts to the lessor at the termination of the lease.
(2) Short-term lease 
The term short-term lease means a lease (or other agreement for occupancy or use) of retail space for 15 years or less (as determined under the rules of section 168 (i)(3)).
(3) Retail space 
The term retail space means real property leased, occupied, or otherwise used by a lessee in its trade or business of selling tangible personal property or services to the general public.
(d) Information required to be furnished to Secretary 
Under regulations, the lessee and lessor described in subsection (a) shall, at such times and in such manner as may be provided in such regulations, furnish to the Secretary
(1) information concerning the amounts received (or treated as a rent reduction) and expended as described in subsection (a), and
(2) any other information which the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

26 USC 111 - Recovery of tax benefit items

(a) Deductions 
Gross income does not include income attributable to the recovery during the taxable year of any amount deducted in any prior taxable year to the extent such amount did not reduce the amount of tax imposed by this chapter.
(b) Credits 

(1) In general 
If
(A) a credit was allowable with respect to any amount for any prior taxable year, and
(B) during the taxable year there is a downward price adjustment or similar adjustment,

the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year shall be increased by the amount of the credit attributable to the adjustment.

(2) Exception where credit did not reduce tax 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent that the credit allowable for the recovered amount did not reduce the amount of tax imposed by this chapter.
(3) Exception for investment tax credit and foreign tax credit 
This subsection shall not apply with respect to the credit determined under section 46 and the foreign tax credit.
(c) Treatment of carryovers 
For purposes of this section, an increase in a carryover which has not expired before the beginning of the taxable year in which the recovery or adjustment takes place shall be treated as reducing tax imposed by this chapter.
(d) Special rules for accumulated earnings tax and for personal holding company tax 
In applying subsection (a) for the purpose of determining the accumulated earnings tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541 (relating to personal holding companies)
(1) any excluded amount under subsection (a) allowed for the purposes of this subtitle (other than section 531 or section 541) shall be allowed whether or not such amount resulted in a reduction of the tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541 for the prior taxable year; and
(2) where any excluded amount under subsection (a) was not allowable as a deduction for the prior taxable year for purposes of this subtitle other than of section 531 or section 541 but was allowable for the same taxable year under section 531 or section 541, then such excluded amount shall be allowable if it did not result in a reduction of the tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541.

26 USC 112 - Certain combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces

(a) Enlisted personnel 
Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as a member below the grade of commissioned officer in the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such member
(1) served in a combat zone, or
(2) was hospitalized as a result of wounds, disease, or injury incurred while serving in a combat zone; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone.

With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month after January 1978.

(b) Commissioned officers 
Gross income does not include so much of the compensation as does not exceed the maximum enlisted amount received for active service as a commissioned officer in the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such officer
(1) served in a combat zone, or
(2) was hospitalized as a result of wounds, disease, or injury incurred while serving in a combat zone; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone.

With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month after January 1978.

(c) Definitions 
For purposes of this section
(1) The term commissioned officer does not include a commissioned warrant officer.
(2) The term combat zone means any area which the President of the United States by Executive Order designates, for purposes of this section or corresponding provisions of prior income tax laws, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are or have (after June 24, 1950) engaged in combat.
(3) Service is performed in a combat zone only if performed on or after the date designated by the President by Executive Order as the date of the commencing of combatant activities in such zone, and on or before the date designated by the President by Executive Order as the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone; except that June 25, 1950, shall be considered the date of the commencing of combatant activities in the combat zone designated in Executive Order 10195.
(4) The term compensation does not include pensions and retirement pay.
(5) The term maximum enlisted amount means, for any month, the sum of
(A) the highest rate of basic pay payable for such month to any enlisted member of the Armed Forces of the United States at the highest pay grade applicable to enlisted members, and
(B) in the case of an officer entitled to special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code, for such month, the amount of such special pay payable to such officer for such month.
(d) Prisoners of war, etc. 

(1) Members of the Armed Forces 
Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such member is in a missing status (as defined in section 551 (2) of title 37, United States Code) during the Vietnam conflict as a result of such conflict, other than a period with respect to which it is officially determined under section 552(c) of such title 37 that he is officially absent from his post of duty without authority.
(2) Civilian employees 
Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as an employee for any month during any part of which such employee is in a missing status during the Vietnam conflict as a result of such conflict. For purposes of this paragraph, the terms active service, employee, and missing status have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 5561 of title 5 of the United States Code.
(3) Period of conflict 
For purposes of this subsection, the Vietnam conflict began February 28, 1961, and ends on the date designated by the President by Executive order as the date of the termination of combatant activities in Vietnam. For purposes of this subsection, an individual is in a missing status as a result of the Vietnam conflict if immediately before such status began he was performing service in Vietnam or was performing service in Southeast Asia in direct support of military operations in Vietnam.

26 USC 113 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101508, title XI, 11801(a)(7), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388520]

Section, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 35, related to mustering-out payments for members of Armed Forces.

26 USC 114 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108357, title I, 101(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423]

Section, added Pub. L. 106–519, § 3(a), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2423, related to exclusion of extraterritorial income from gross income. A prior section 114, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 35, related to sports programs conducted for American National Red Cross, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11801(a)(8), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520.

26 USC 115 - Income of States, municipalities, etc.

Gross income does not include
(1) income derived from any public utility or the exercise of any essential governmental function and accruing to a State or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia; or
(2) income accruing to the government of any possession of the United States, or any political subdivision thereof.

26 USC 116 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99514, title VI, 612(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2250]

Section, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 37; June 25, 1959, Pub. L. 86–69, § 3(a)(2), 73 Stat. 139; Sept. 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–779, § 10(f), 74 Stat. 1009; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88–272, title II, § 201(c), (d)(6)(C), 78 Stat. 32; Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89–809, title I, § 103(g), 80 Stat. 1552; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§ 1051(h)(2), 1053 (d)(1), title XIX, 1901(a)(20), 90 Stat. 1647, 1649, 1766; Apr. 2, 1980, Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, § 404(a), 94 Stat. 305; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, title III, § 302(b)(2), 95 Stat. 272; July 18, 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, 542(b), 98 Stat. 891, authorized partial exclusion of dividends received by individuals.

26 USC 117 - Qualified scholarships

(a) General rule 
Gross income does not include any amount received as a qualified scholarship by an individual who is a candidate for a degree at an educational organization described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii).
(b) Qualified scholarship 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The term qualified scholarship means any amount received by an individual as a scholarship or fellowship grant to the extent the individual establishes that, in accordance with the conditions of the grant, such amount was used for qualified tuition and related expenses.
(2) Qualified tuition and related expenses 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term qualified tuition and related expenses means
(A) tuition and fees required for the enrollment or attendance of a student at an educational organization described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii), and
(B) fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for courses of instruction at such an educational organization.
(c) Limitation 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsections (a) and (d) shall not apply to that portion of any amount received which represents payment for teaching, research, or other services by the student required as a condition for receiving the qualified scholarship or qualified tuition reduction.
(2) Exceptions 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any amount received by an individual under
(A) the National Health Service Corps Scholarship Program under section 338A(g)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act, or
(B) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship and Financial Assistance program under subchapter I of chapter 105 of title 10, United States Code.
(d) Qualified tuition reduction 

(1) In general 
Gross income shall not include any qualified tuition reduction.
(2) Qualified tuition reduction 
For purposes of this subsection, the term qualified tuition reduction means the amount of any reduction in tuition provided to an employee of an organization described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii) for the education (below the graduate level) at such organization (or another organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)) of
(A) such employee, or
(B) any person treated as an employee (or whose use is treated as an employee use) under the rules of section 132 (h).
(3) Reduction must not discriminate in favor of highly compensated, etc. 
Paragraph (1) shall apply with respect to any qualified tuition reduction provided with respect to any highly compensated employee only if such reduction is available on substantially the same terms to each member of a group of employees which is defined under a reasonable classification set up by the employer which does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414 (q)). For purposes of this paragraph, the term highly compensated employee has the meaning given such term by section 414 (q).
[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–140, title II, § 203(a)(1), (2), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830] 
(5) Special rules for teaching and research assistants 
In the case of the education of an individual who is a graduate student at an educational organization described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii) and who is engaged in teaching or research activities for such organization, paragraph (2) shall be applied as if it did not contain the phrase (below the graduate level).

26 USC 118 - Contributions to the capital of a corporation

(a) General rule 
In the case of a corporation, gross income does not include any contribution to the capital of the taxpayer.
(b) Contributions in aid of construction, etc. 
For purposes of subsection (a), except as provided in subsection (c), the term contribution to the capital of the taxpayer does not include any contribution in aid of construction or any other contribution as a customer or potential customer.
(c) Special rules for water and sewerage disposal utilities 

(1) General rule 
For purposes of this section, the term contribution to the capital of the taxpayer includes any amount of money or other property received from any person (whether or not a shareholder) by a regulated public utility which provides water or sewerage disposal services if
(A) such amount is a contribution in aid of construction,
(B) in the case of contribution of property other than water or sewerage disposal facilities, such amount meets the requirements of the expenditure rule of paragraph (2), and
(C) such amount (or any property acquired or constructed with such amount) is not included in the taxpayers rate base for ratemaking purposes.
(2) Expenditure rule 
An amount meets the requirements of this paragraph if
(A) an amount equal to such amount is expended for the acquisition or construction of tangible property described in section 1231 (b)
(i) which is the property for which the contribution was made or is of the same type as such property, and
(ii) which is used predominantly in the trade or business of furnishing water or sewerage disposal services,
(B) the expenditure referred to in subparagraph (A) occurs before the end of the second taxable year after the year in which such amount was received, and
(C) accurate records are kept of the amounts contributed and expenditures made, the expenditures to which contributions are allocated, and the year in which the contributions and expenditures are received and made.
(3) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Contribution in aid of construction 
The term contribution in aid of construction shall be defined by regulations prescribed by the Secretary, except that such term shall not include amounts paid as service charges for starting or stopping services.
(B) Predominantly 
The term predominantly means 80 percent or more.
(C) Regulated public utility 
The term regulated public utility has the meaning given such term by section 7701 (a)(33), except that such term shall not include any utility which is not required to provide water or sewerage disposal services to members of the general public in its service area.
(4) Disallowance of deductions and credits; adjusted basis 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, no deduction or credit shall be allowed for, or by reason of, any expenditure which constitutes a contribution in aid of construction to which this subsection applies. The adjusted basis of any property acquired with contributions in aid of construction to which this subsection applies shall be zero.
(d) Statute of limitations 
If the taxpayer for any taxable year treats an amount as a contribution to the capital of the taxpayer described in subsection (c), then
(1) the statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to any part of such amount shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified by the taxpayer (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) of
(A) the amount of the expenditure referred to in subparagraph (A) of subsection (c)(2),
(B) the taxpayers intention not to make the expenditures referred to in such subparagraph, or
(C) a failure to make such expenditure within the period described in subparagraph (B) of subsection (c)(2), and
(2) such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.
(e) Cross references 

(1) For basis of property acquired by a corporation through a contribution to its capital, see section 362.
(2) For special rules in the case of contributions of indebtedness, see section 108 (e)(6).

26 USC 119 - Meals or lodging furnished for the convenience of the employer

(a) Meals and lodging furnished to employee, his spouse, and his dependents, pursuant to employment 
There shall be excluded from gross income of an employee the value of any meals or lodging furnished to him, his spouse, or any of his dependents by or on behalf of his employer for the convenience of the employer, but only if
(1) in the case of meals, the meals are furnished on the business premises of the employer, or
(2) in the case of lodging, the employee is required to accept such lodging on the business premises of his employer as a condition of his employment.
(b) Special rules 
For purposes of subsection (a)
(1) Provisions of employment contract or State statute not to be determinative 
In determining whether meals or lodging are furnished for the convenience of the employer, the provisions of an employment contract or of a State statute fixing terms of employment shall not be determinative of whether the meals or lodging are intended as compensation.
(2) Certain factors not taken into account with respect to meals 
In determining whether meals are furnished for the convenience of the employer, the fact that a charge is made for such meals, and the fact that the employee may accept or decline such meals, shall not be taken into account.
(3) Certain fixed charges for meals 

(A) In general 
If
(i) an employee is required to pay on a periodic basis a fixed charge for his meals, and
(ii) such meals are furnished by the employer for the convenience of the employer,

there shall be excluded from the employees gross income an amount equal to such fixed charge.

(B) Application of subparagraph (A) 
Subparagraph (A) shall apply
(i) whether the employee pays the fixed charge out of his stated compensation or out of his own funds, and
(ii) only if the employee is required to make the payment whether he accepts or declines the meals.
(4) Meals furnished to employees on business premises where meals of most employees are otherwise excludable 
All meals furnished on the business premises of an employer to such employers employees shall be treated as furnished for the convenience of the employer if, without regard to this paragraph, more than half of the employees to whom such meals are furnished on such premises are furnished such meals for the convenience of the employer.
(c) Employees living in certain camps 

(1) In general 
In the case of an individual who is furnished lodging in a camp located in a foreign country by or on behalf of his employer, such camp shall be considered to be part of the business premises of the employer.
(2) Camp 
For purposes of this section, a camp constitutes lodging which is
(A) provided by or on behalf of the employer for the convenience of the employer because the place at which such individual renders services is in a remote area where satisfactory housing is not available on the open market,
(B) located, as near as practicable, in the vicinity of the place at which such individual renders services, and
(C) furnished in a common area (or enclave) which is not available to the public and which normally accommodates 10 or more employees.
(d) Lodging furnished by certain educational institutions to employees 

(1) In general 
In the case of an employee of an educational institution, gross income shall not include the value of qualified campus lodging furnished to such employee during the taxable year.
(2) Exception in cases of inadequate rent 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent of the excess of
(A) the lesser of
(i) 5 percent of the appraised value of the qualified campus lodging, or
(ii) the average of the rentals paid by individuals (other than employees or students of the educational institution) during such calendar year for lodging provided by the educational institution which is comparable to the qualified campus lodging provided to the employee, over
(B) the rent paid by the employee for the qualified campus lodging during such calendar year.

The appraised value under subparagraph (A)(i) shall be determined as of the close of the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, or, in the case of a rental period not greater than 1 year, at any time during the calendar year in which such period begins.

(3) Qualified campus lodging 
For purposes of this subsection, the term qualified campus lodging means lodging to which subsection (a) does not apply and which is
(A) located on, or in the proximity of, a campus of the educational institution, and
(B) furnished to the employee, his spouse, and any of his dependents by or on behalf of such institution for use as a residence.
(4) Educational institution, etc. 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The term educational institution means
(i) an institution described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii) (or an entity organized under State law and composed of public institutions so described), or
(ii) an academic health center.
(B) Academic health center 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term academic health center means an entity
(i) which is described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(iii),
(ii) which receives (during the calendar year in which the taxable year of the taxpayer begins) payments under subsection (d)(5)(B) or (h) of section 1886 of the Social Security Act (relating to graduate medical education), and
(iii) which has as one of its principal purposes or functions the providing and teaching of basic and clinical medical science and research with the entitys own faculty.

26 USC 120 - Amounts received under qualified group legal services plans

(a) Exclusion by employee for contributions and legal services provided by employer 
Gross income of an employee, his spouse, or his dependents, does not include
(1) amounts contributed by an employer on behalf of an employee, his spouse, or his dependents under a qualified group legal services plan (as defined in subsection (b)); or
(2) the value of legal services provided, or amounts paid for legal services, under a qualified group legal services plan (as defined in subsection (b)) to, or with respect to, an employee, his spouse, or his dependents.

No exclusion shall be allowed under this section with respect to an individual for any taxable year to the extent that the value of insurance (whether through an insurer or self-insurance) against legal costs incurred by the individual (or his spouse or dependents) provided under a qualified group legal services plan exceeds $70.

(b) Qualified group legal services plan 
For purposes of this section, a qualified group legal services plan is a separate written plan of an employer for the exclusive benefit of his employees or their spouses or dependents to provide such employees, spouses, or dependents with specified benefits consisting of personal legal services through prepayment of, or provision in advance for, legal fees in whole or in part by the employer, if the plan meets the requirements of subsection (c).
(c) Requirements 

(1) Discrimination 
The contributions or benefits provided under the plan shall not discriminate in favor of employees who are highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414 (q)).
(2) Eligibility 
The plan shall benefit employees who qualify under a classification set up by the employer and found by the Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of employees who are described in paragraph (1). For purposes of this paragraph, there shall be excluded from consideration employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement which the Secretary of Labor finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers, if there is evidence that group legal services plan benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers.
(3) Contribution limitation 
Not more than 25 percent of the amounts contributed under the plan during the year may be provided for the class of individuals who are shareholders or owners (or their spouses or dependents), each of whom (on any day of the year) owns more than 5 percent of the stock or of the capital or profits interest in the employer.
(4) Notification 
The plan shall give notice to the Secretary, in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe, that it is applying for recognition of the status of a qualified group legal services plan.
(5) Contributions 
Amounts contributed under the plan shall be paid only (A) to insurance companies, or to organizations or persons that provide personal legal services, or indemnification against the cost of personal legal services, in exchange for a prepayment or payment of a premium, (B) to organizations or trusts described in section 501 (c)(20), (C) to organizations described in section 501 (c) which are permitted by that section to receive payments from an employer for support of one or more qualified group legal services plan or plans, except that such organizations shall pay or credit the contribution to an organization or trust described in section 501 (c)(20), (D) as prepayments to providers of legal services under the plan, or (E) a combination of the above.
(d) Other definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this section
(1) Employee 
The term employee includes, for any year, an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401 (c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).
(2) Employer 
An individual who owns the entire interest in an unincorporated trade or business shall be treated as his own employer. A partnership shall be treated as the employer of each partner who is an employee within the meaning of paragraph (1).
(3) Allocations 
Allocations of amounts contributed under the plan shall be made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary and shall take into account the expected relative utilization of benefits to be provided from such contributions or plan assets and the manner in which any premium or other charge was developed.
(4) Dependent 
The term dependent has the meaning given to it by section 152 (determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof).
(5) Exclusive benefit 
In the case of a plan to which contributions are made by more than one employer, in determining whether the plan is for the exclusive benefit of an employers employees or their spouses or dependents, the employees of any employer who maintains the plan shall be considered to be the employees of each employer who maintains the plan.
(6) Attribution rules 
For purposes of this section
(A) ownership of stock in a corporation shall be determined in accordance with the rules provided under subsections (d) and (e) of section 1563 (without regard to section 1563 (e)(3)(C)), and
(B) the interest of an employee in a trade or business which is not incorporated shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, which shall be based on principles similar to the principles which apply in the case of subparagraph (A).
(7) Time of notice to Secretary 
A plan shall not be a qualified group legal services plan for any period prior to the time notification was provided to the Secretary in accordance with subsection (c)(4), if such notice is given after the time prescribed by the Secretary by regulations for giving such notice.
(e) Termination 
This section and section 501 (c)(20) shall not apply to taxable years beginning after June 30, 1992.
(f) Cross reference 
For reporting and recordkeeping requirements, see section 6039D.

26 USC 121 - Exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence

(a) Exclusion 
Gross income shall not include gain from the sale or exchange of property if, during the 5-year period ending on the date of the sale or exchange, such property has been owned and used by the taxpayer as the taxpayers principal residence for periods aggregating 2 years or more.
(b) Limitations 

(1) In general 
The amount of gain excluded from gross income under subsection (a) with respect to any sale or exchange shall not exceed $250,000.
(2) Special rules for joint returns 
In the case of a husband and wife who make a joint return for the taxable year of the sale or exchange of the property
(A) $500,000 Limitation for certain joint returns 
Paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting $500,000 for $250,000 if
(i) either spouse meets the ownership requirements of subsection (a) with respect to such property;
(ii) both spouses meet the use requirements of subsection (a) with respect to such property; and
(iii) neither spouse is ineligible for the benefits of subsection (a) with respect to such property by reason of paragraph (3).
(B) Other joint returns 
If such spouses do not meet the requirements of subparagraph (A), the limitation under paragraph (1) shall be the sum of the limitations under paragraph (1) to which each spouse would be entitled if such spouses had not been married. For purposes of the preceding sentence, each spouse shall be treated as owning the property during the period that either spouse owned the property.
(3) Application to only 1 sale or exchange every 2 years 

(A) In general 
Subsection (a) shall not apply to any sale or exchange by the taxpayer if, during the 2-year period ending on the date of such sale or exchange, there was any other sale or exchange by the taxpayer to which subsection (a) applied.
(B) Pre-May 7, 1997, sales not taken into account 
Subparagraph (A) shall be applied without regard to any sale or exchange before May 7, 1997.
(4) Special rule for certain sales by surviving spouses 
In the case of a sale or exchange of property by an unmarried individual whose spouse is deceased on the date of such sale, paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting $500,000 for $250,000 if such sale occurs not later than 2 years after the date of death of such spouse and the requirements of paragraph (2)(A) were met immediately before such date of death.
(c) Exclusion for taxpayers failing to meet certain requirements 

(1) In general 
In the case of a sale or exchange to which this subsection applies, the ownership and use requirements of subsection (a), and subsection (b)(3), shall not apply; but the dollar limitation under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b), whichever is applicable, shall be equal to
(A) the amount which bears the same ratio to such limitation (determined without regard to this paragraph) as
(B) 
(i) the shorter of
(I) the aggregate periods, during the 5-year period ending on the date of such sale or exchange, such property has been owned and used by the taxpayer as the taxpayers principal residence; or
(II) the period after the date of the most recent prior sale or exchange by the taxpayer to which subsection (a) applied and before the date of such sale or exchange, bears to
(ii) 2 years.
(2) Sales and exchanges to which subsection applies 
This subsection shall apply to any sale or exchange if
(A) subsection (a) would not (but for this subsection) apply to such sale or exchange by reason of
(i) a failure to meet the ownership and use requirements of subsection (a), or
(ii) subsection (b)(3), and
(B) such sale or exchange is by reason of a change in place of employment, health, or, to the extent provided in regulations, unforeseen circumstances.
(d) Special rules 

(1) Joint returns 
If a husband and wife make a joint return for the taxable year of the sale or exchange of the property, subsections (a) and (c) shall apply if either spouse meets the ownership and use requirements of subsection (a) with respect to such property.
(2) Property of deceased spouse 
For purposes of this section, in the case of an unmarried individual whose spouse is deceased on the date of the sale or exchange of property, the period such unmarried individual owned and used such property shall include the period such deceased spouse owned and used such property before death.
(3) Property owned by spouse or former spouse 
For purposes of this section
(A) Property transferred to individual from spouse or former spouse 
In the case of an individual holding property transferred to such individual in a transaction described in section 1041 (a), the period such individual owns such property shall include the period the transferor owned the property.
(B) Property used by former spouse pursuant to divorce decree, etc. 
Solely for purposes of this section, an individual shall be treated as using property as such individuals principal residence during any period of ownership while such individuals spouse or former spouse is granted use of the property under a divorce or separation instrument (as defined in section 71 (b)(2)).
(4) Tenant-stockholder in cooperative housing corporation 
For purposes of this section, if the taxpayer holds stock as a tenant-stockholder (as defined in section 216) in a cooperative housing corporation (as defined in such section), then
(A) the holding requirements of subsection (a) shall be applied to the holding of such stock, and
(B) the use requirements of subsection (a) shall be applied to the house or apartment which the taxpayer was entitled to occupy as such stockholder.
(5) Involuntary conversions 

(A) In general 
For purposes of this section, the destruction, theft, seizure, requisition, or condemnation of property shall be treated as the sale of such property.
(B) Application of section 1033 
In applying section 1033 (relating to involuntary conversions), the amount realized from the sale or exchange of property shall be treated as being the amount determined without regard to this section, reduced by the amount of gain not included in gross income pursuant to this section.
(C) Property acquired after involuntary conversion 
If the basis of the property sold or exchanged is determined (in whole or in part) under section 1033 (b) (relating to basis of property acquired through involuntary conversion), then the holding and use by the taxpayer of the converted property shall be treated as holding and use by the taxpayer of the property sold or exchanged.
(6) Recognition of gain attributable to depreciation 
Subsection (a) shall not apply to so much of the gain from the sale of any property as does not exceed the portion of the depreciation adjustments (as defined in section 1250 (b)(3)) attributable to periods after May 6, 1997, in respect of such property.
(7) Determination of use during periods of out-of-residence care 
In the case of a taxpayer who
(A) becomes physically or mentally incapable of self-care, and
(B) owns property and uses such property as the taxpayers principal residence during the 5-year period described in subsection (a) for periods aggregating at least 1 year,

then the taxpayer shall be treated as using such property as the taxpayers principal residence during any time during such 5-year period in which the taxpayer owns the property and resides in any facility (including a nursing home) licensed by a State or political subdivision to care for an individual in the taxpayers condition.

(8) Sales of remainder interests 
For purposes of this section
(A) In general 
At the election of the taxpayer, this section shall not fail to apply to the sale or exchange of an interest in a principal residence by reason of such interest being a remainder interest in such residence, but this section shall not apply to any other interest in such residence which is sold or exchanged separately.
(B) Exception for sales to related parties 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any sale to, or exchange with, any person who bears a relationship to the taxpayer which is described in section 267 (b) or 707 (b).
(9) Uniformed services, Foreign Service, and intelligence community 

(A) In general 
At the election of an individual with respect to a property, the running of the 5-year period described in subsections (a) and (c)(1)(B) and paragraph (7) of this subsection with respect to such property shall be suspended during any period that such individual or such individuals spouse is serving on qualified official extended duty
(i) as a member of the uniformed services,
(ii) as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States, or
(iii) as an employee of the intelligence community.
(B) Maximum period of suspension 
The 5-year period described in subsection (a) shall not be extended more than 10 years by reason of subparagraph (A).
(C) Qualified official extended duty 
For purposes of this paragraph
(i) In general The term qualified official extended duty means any extended duty while serving at a duty station which is at least 50 miles from such property or while residing under Government orders in Government quarters.
(ii) Uniformed services The term uniformed services has the meaning given such term by section 101 (a)(5) of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph.
(iii) Foreign Service of the United States The term member of the Foreign Service of the United States has the meaning given the term member of the Service by paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 103 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph.
(iv) Employee of intelligence community The term employee of the intelligence community means an employee (as defined by section 2105 of title 5, United States Code) of
(I) the Office of the Director of National Intelligence,
(II) the Central Intelligence Agency,
(III) the National Security Agency,
(IV) the Defense Intelligence Agency,
(V) the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,
(VI) the National Reconnaissance Office,
(VII) any other office within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national intelligence through reconnaissance programs,
(VIII) any of the intelligence elements of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Treasury, the Department of Energy, and the Coast Guard,
(IX) the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State, or
(X) any of the elements of the Department of Homeland Security concerned with the analyses of foreign intelligence information.
(v) Extended duty The term extended duty means any period of active duty pursuant to a call or order to such duty for a period in excess of 90 days or for an indefinite period.
(vi) Special rule relating to intelligence community An employee of the intelligence community shall not be treated as serving on qualified extended duty unless such duty is at a duty station located outside the United States.
(D) Special rules relating to election 

(i) Election limited to 1 property at a time An election under subparagraph (A) with respect to any property may not be made if such an election is in effect with respect to any other property.
(ii) Revocation of election An election under subparagraph (A) may be revoked at any time.
(E) Termination with respect to employees of intelligence community 
Clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any sale or exchange after December 31, 2010.
(10) Property acquired in like-kind exchange 
If a taxpayer acquires property in an exchange with respect to which gain is not recognized (in whole or in part) to the taxpayer under subsection (a) or (b) of section 1031, subsection (a) shall not apply to the sale or exchange of such property by such taxpayer (or by any person whose basis in such property is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the basis in the hands of such taxpayer) during the 5-year period beginning with the date of such acquisition.
(e) Denial of exclusion for expatriates 
This section shall not apply to any sale or exchange by an individual if the treatment provided by section 877 (a)(1) applies to such individual.
(f) Election to have section not apply 
This section shall not apply to any sale or exchange with respect to which the taxpayer elects not to have this section apply.
(g) Residences acquired in rollovers under section 1034 
For purposes of this section, in the case of property the acquisition of which by the taxpayer resulted under section 10341 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this section) in the nonrecognition of any part of the gain realized on the sale or exchange of another residence, in determining the period for which the taxpayer has owned and used such property as the taxpayers principal residence, there shall be included the aggregate periods for which such other residence (and each prior residence taken into account under section 1223 (6) in determining the holding period of such property) had been so owned and used.
[1] See References in Text note below.

26 USC 122 - Certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay

(a) General rule 
In the case of a member or former member of the uniformed services of the United States, gross income does not include the amount of any reduction in his retired or retainer pay pursuant to the provisions of chapter 73 of title 10, United States Code.
(b) Special rule 

(1) Amount excluded from gross income 
In the case of any individual referred to in subsection (a), all amounts received after December 31, 1965, as retired or retainer pay shall be excluded from gross income until there has been so excluded an amount equal to the consideration for the contract. The preceding sentence shall apply only to the extent that the amounts received would, but for such sentence, be includible in gross income.
(2) Consideration for the contract 
For purposes of paragraph (1) and section 72 (n), the term consideration for the contract means, in respect of any individual, the sum of
(A) the total amount of the reductions before January 1, 1966, in his retired or retainer pay by reason of an election under chapter 73 of title 10 of the United States Code, and
(B) any amounts deposited at any time by him pursuant to section 1438 or 1452(d) of such title 10.

26 USC 123 - Amounts received under insurance contracts for certain living expenses

(a) General rule 
In the case of an individual whose principal residence is damaged or destroyed by fire, storm, or other casualty, or who is denied access to his principal residence by governmental authorities because of the occurrence or threat of occurrence of such a casualty, gross income does not include amounts received by such individual under an insurance contract which are paid to compensate or reimburse such individual for living expenses incurred for himself and members of his household resulting from the loss of use or occupancy of such residence.
(b) Limitation 
Subsection (a) shall apply to amounts received by the taxpayer for living expenses incurred during any period only to the extent the amounts received do not exceed the amount by which
(1) the actual living expenses incurred during such period for himself and members of his household resulting from the loss of use or occupancy of their residence, exceed
(2) the normal living expenses which would have been incurred for himself and members of his household during such period.

26 USC 124 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101508, title XI, 11801(a)(9), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388520]

Section, added Pub. L. 95–618, title II, § 242(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3193, related to qualified transportation provided by employers. A prior section 124 was renumbered section 140 of this title.

26 USC 125 - Cafeteria plans

(a) General rule 
Except as provided in subsection (b), no amount shall be included in the gross income of a participant in a cafeteria plan solely because, under the plan, the participant may choose among the benefits of the plan.
(b) Exception for highly compensated participants and key employees 

(1) Highly compensated participants 
In the case of a highly compensated participant, subsection (a) shall not apply to any benefit attributable to a plan year for which the plan discriminates in favor of
(A) highly compensated individuals as to eligibility to participate, or
(B) highly compensated participants as to contributions and benefits.
(2) Key employees 
In the case of a key employee (within the meaning of section 416 (i)(1)), subsection (a) shall not apply to any benefit attributable to a plan for which the statutory nontaxable benefits provided to key employees exceed 25 percent of the aggregate of such benefits provided for all employees under the plan. For purposes of the preceding sentence, statutory nontaxable benefits shall be determined without regard to the second sentence of subsection (f).
(3) Year of inclusion 
For purposes of determining the taxable year of inclusion, any benefit described in paragraph (1) or (2) shall be treated as received or accrued in the taxable year of the participant or key employee in which the plan year ends.
(c) Discrimination as to benefits or contributions 
For purposes of subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(1), a cafeteria plan does not discriminate where qualified benefits and total benefits (or employer contributions allocable to qualified benefits and employer contributions for total benefits) do not discriminate in favor of highly compensated participants.
(d) Cafeteria plan defined 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The term cafeteria plan means a written plan under which
(A) all participants are employees, and
(B) the participants may choose among 2 or more benefits consisting of cash and qualified benefits.
(2) Deferred compensation plans excluded 

(A) In general 
The term cafeteria plan does not include any plan which provides for deferred compensation.
(B) Exception for cash and deferred arrangements 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a profit-sharing or stock bonus plan or rural cooperative plan (within the meaning of section 401 (k)(7)) which includes a qualified cash or deferred arrangement (as defined in section 401 (k)(2)) to the extent of amounts which a covered employee may elect to have the employer pay as contributions to a trust under such plan on behalf of the employee.
(C) Exception for certain plans maintained by educational institutions 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a plan maintained by an educational organization described in section 170 (b)(1)(A)(ii) to the extent of amounts which a covered employee may elect to have the employer pay as contributions for post-retirement group life insurance if
(i) all contributions for such insurance must be made before retirement, and
(ii) such life insurance does not have a cash surrender value at any time.

For purposes of section 79, any life insurance described in the preceding sentence shall be treated as group-term life insurance.

(D) Exception for health savings accounts 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a plan to the extent of amounts which a covered employee may elect to have the employer pay as contributions to a health savings account established on behalf of the employee.
(e) Highly compensated participant and individual defined 
For purposes of this section
(1) Highly compensated participant 
The term highly compensated participant means a participant who is
(A) an officer,
(B) a shareholder owning more than 5 percent of the voting power or value of all classes of stock of the employer,
(C) highly compensated, or
(D) a spouse or dependent (within the meaning of section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof) of an individual described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).
(2) Highly compensated individual 
The term highly compensated individual means an individual who is described in subparagraphs[1] (A), (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (1).
(f) Qualified benefits defined 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified benefit means any benefit which, with the application of subsection (a), is not includible in the gross income of the employee by reason of an express provision of this chapter (other than section 106 (b), 117, 127, or 132). Such term includes any group term life insurance which is includible in gross income only because it exceeds the dollar limitation of section 79 and such term includes any other benefit permitted under regulations. Such term shall not include any product which is advertised, marketed, or offered as long-term care insurance.
(g) Special rules 

(1) Collectively bargained plan not considered discriminatory 
For purposes of this section, a plan shall not be treated as discriminatory if the plan is maintained under an agreement which the Secretary finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers.
(2) Health benefits 
For purposes of subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(1), a cafeteria plan which provides health benefits shall not be treated as discriminatory if
(A) contributions under the plan on behalf of each participant include an amount which
(i) equals 100 percent of the cost of the health benefit coverage under the plan of the majority of the highly compensated participants similarly situated, or
(ii) equals or exceeds 75 percent of the cost of the health benefit coverage of the participant (similarly situated) having the highest cost health benefit coverage under the plan, and
(B) contributions or benefits under the plan in excess of those described in subparagraph (A) bear a uniform relationship to compensation.
(3) Certain participation eligibility rules not treated as discriminatory 
For purposes of subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(1), a classification shall not be treated as discriminatory if the plan
(A) benefits a group of employees described in section 410 (b)(2)(A)(i), and
(B) meets the requirements of clauses (i) and (ii):
(i) No employee is required to complete more than 3 years of employment with the employer or employers maintaining the plan as a condition of participation in the plan, and the employment requirement for each employee is the same.
(ii) Any employee who has satisfied the employment requirement of clause (i) and who is otherwise entitled to participate in the plan commences participation no later than the first day of the first plan year beginning after the date the employment requirement was satisfied unless the employee was separated from service before the first day of that plan year.
(4) Certain controlled groups, etc. 
All employees who are treated as employed by a single employer under subsection (b), (c), or (m) of section 414 shall be treated as employed by a single employer for purposes of this section.
(h) Cross reference 
For reporting and recordkeeping requirements, see section 6039D.
(i) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph”.

26 USC 126 - Certain cost-sharing payments

(a) General rule 
Gross income does not include the excludable portion of payments received under
(1) The rural clean water program authorized by section 208(j) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1288 (j)).
(2) The rural abandoned mine program authorized by section 406 of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (30 U.S.C. 1236).
(3) The water bank program authorized by the Water Bank Act (16 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.).
(4) The emergency conservation measures program authorized by title IV of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1978.
(5) The agricultural conservation program authorized by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (16 U.S.C. 590a).
(6) The great plains conservation program authorized by section 161 of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Policy Act (16 U.S.C. 590p (b)).
(7) The resource conservation and development program authorized by the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act and by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (7 U.S.C. 1010; 16 U.S.C. 590a et seq.).
(8) The forestry incentives program authorized by section 4 of the Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 2103).
(9) Any small watershed program administered by the Secretary of Agriculture which is determined by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to be substantially similar to the type of programs described in paragraphs (1) through (8).
(10) Any program of a State, possession of the United States, a political subdivision of any of the foregoing, or the District of Columbia under which payments are made to individuals primarily for the purpose of conserving soil, protecting or restoring the environment, improving forests, or providing a habitat for wildlife.
(b) Excludable portion 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The term excludable portion means that portion (or all) of a payment made to any person under any program described in subsection (a) which
(A) is determined by the Secretary of Agriculture to be made primarily for the purpose of conserving soil and water resources, protecting or restoring the environment, improving forests, or providing a habitat for wildlife, and
(B) is determined by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate as not increasing substantially the annual income derived from the property.
(2) Payments not chargeable to capital account 
The term excludable portion does not include that portion of any payment which is properly associated with an amount which is allowable as a deduction for the taxable year in which such amount is paid or incurred.
(c) Election for section not to apply 

(1) In general 
The taxpayer may elect not to have this section (and section 1255) apply to any excludable portion (or portion thereof).
(2) Manner and time for making election 
Any election under paragraph (1) shall be made in the manner prescribed by the Secretary by regulations and shall be made not later than the due date prescribed by law (including extensions) for filing the return of tax under this chapter for the taxable year in which the payment was received or accrued.
(d) Denial of double benefits 
No deduction or credit shall be allowed with respect to any expenditure which is properly associated with any amount excluded from gross income under subsection (a).
(e) Basis of property not increased by reason of excludable payments 
Notwithstanding any provision of section 1016 to the contrary, no adjustment to basis shall be made with respect to property acquired or improved through the use of any payment, to the extent that such adjustment would reflect any amount which is excluded from gross income under subsection (a).
[1] See References in Text note below.

26 USC 127 - Educational assistance programs

(a) Exclusion from gross income 

(1) In general 
Gross income of an employee does not include amounts paid or expenses incurred by the employer for educational assistance to the employee if the assistance is furnished pursuant to a program which is described in subsection (b).
(2) $5,250 maximum exclusion 
If, but for this paragraph, this section would exclude from gross income more than $5,250 of educational assistance furnished to an individual during a calendar year, this section shall apply only to the first $5,250 of such assistance so furnished.
(b) Educational assistance program 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this section an educational assistance program is a separate written plan of an employer for the exclusive benefit of his employees to provide such employees with educational assistance. The program must meet the requirements of paragraphs (2) through (6) of this subsection.
(2) Eligibility 
The program shall benefit employees who qualify under a classification set up by the employer and found by the Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of employees who are highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414 (q)) or their dependents. For purposes of this paragraph, there shall be excluded from consideration employees not included in the program who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement which the Secretary of Labor finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers, if there is evidence that educational assistance benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers.
(3) Principal shareholders or owners 
Not more than 5 percent of the amounts paid or incurred by the employer for educational assistance during the year may be provided for the class of individuals who are shareholders or owners (or their spouses or dependents), each of whom (on any day of the year) owns more than 5 percent of the stock or of the capital or profits interest in the employer.
(4) Other benefits as an alternative 
A program must not provide eligible employees with a choice between educational assistance and other remuneration includible in gross income. For purposes of this section, the business practices of the employer (as well as the written program) will be taken into account.
(5) No funding required 
A program referred to in paragraph (1) is not required to be funded.
(6) Notification of employees 
Reasonable notification of the availability and terms of the program must be provided to eligible employees.
(c) Definitions; special rules 
For purposes of this section
(1) Educational assistance 
The term educational assistance means
(A) the payment, by an employer, of expenses incurred by or on behalf of an employee for education of the employee (including, but not limited to, tuition, fees, and similar payments, books, supplies, and equipment), and
(B) the provision, by an employer, of courses of instruction for such employee (including books, supplies, and equipment),

but does not include payment for, or the provision of, tools or supplies which may be retained by the employee after completion of a course of instruction, or meals, lodging, or transportation. The term educational assistance also does not include any payment for, or the provision of any benefits with respect to, any course or other education involving sports, games, or hobbies.

(2) Employee 
The term employee includes, for any year, an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401 (c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).
(3) Employer 
An individual who owns the entire interest in an unincorporated trade or business shall be treated as his own employer. A partnership shall be treated as the employer of each partner who is an employee within the meaning of paragraph (2).
(4) Attribution rules 

(A) Ownership of stock 
Ownership of stock in a corporation shall be determined in accordance with the rules provided under subsections (d) and (e) of section 1563 (without regard to section 1563 (e)(3)(C)).
(B) Interest in unincorporated trade or business 
The interest of an employee in a trade or business which is not incorporated shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, which shall be based on principles similar to the principles which apply in the case of subparagraph (A).
(5) Certain tests not applicable 
An educational assistance program shall not be held or considered to fail to meet any requirements of subsection (b) merely because
(A) of utilization rates for the different types of educational assistance made available under the program; or
(B) successful completion, or attaining a particular course grade, is required for or considered in determining reimbursement under the program.
(6) Relationship to current law 
This section shall not be construed to affect the deduction or inclusion in income of amounts (not within the exclusion under this section) which are paid or incurred, or received as reimbursement, for educational expenses under section 117, 162 or 212.
(7) Disallowance of excluded amounts as credit or deduction 
No deduction or credit shall be allowed to the employee under any other section of this chapter for any amount excluded from income by reason of this section.
(d) Cross reference 
For reporting and recordkeeping requirements, see section 6039D.

26 USC 128 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101508, title XI, 11801(a)(10), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388520]

Section, added and amended Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §§ 301(a), 302 (a), (d)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 267, 270, 274; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §§ 103(a)(1), (5), (b), 109, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2374, 2375, 2391; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §§ 121(f)(2), (g), 122 (c)(3), (d), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 84, 87; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, 16(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 505, related to interest on certain savings certificates. A prior section 128 was renumbered section 140 of this title.

26 USC 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

(a) Exclusion 

(1) In general 
Gross income of an employee does not include amounts paid or incurred by the employer for dependent care assistance provided to such employee if the assistance is furnished pursuant to a program which is described in subsection (d).
(2) Limitation of exclusion 

(A) In general 
The amount which may be excluded under paragraph (1) for dependent care assistance with respect to dependent care services provided during a taxable year shall not exceed $5,000 ($2,500 in the case of a separate return by a married individual).
(B) Year of inclusion 
The amount of any excess under subparagraph (A) shall be included in gross income in the taxable year in which the dependent care services were provided (even if payment of dependent care assistance for such services occurs in a subsequent taxable year).
(C) Marital status 
For purposes of this paragraph, marital status shall be determined under the rules of paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 21 (e).
(b) Earned income limitation 

(1) In general 
The amount excluded from the income of an employee under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed
(A) in the case of an employee who is not married at the close of such taxable year, the earned income of such employee for such taxable year, or
(B) in the case of an employee who is married at the close of such taxable year, the lesser of
(i) the earned income of such employee for such taxable year, or
(ii) the earned income of the spouse of such employee for such taxable year.
(2) Special rule for certain spouses 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the provisions of section 21 (d)(2) shall apply in determining the earned income of a spouse who is a student or incapable of caring for himself.
(c) Payments to related individuals 
No amount paid or incurred during the taxable year of an employee by an employer in providing dependent care assistance to such employee shall be excluded under subsection (a) if such amount was paid or incurred to an individual
(1) with respect to whom, for such taxable year, a deduction is allowable under section 151 (c) (relating to personal exemptions for dependents) to such employee or the spouse of such employee, or
(2) who is a child of such employee (within the meaning of section 152 (f)(1)) under the age of 19 at the close of such taxable year.
(d) Dependent care assistance program 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this section a dependent care assistance program is a separate written plan of an employer for the exclusive benefit of his employees to provide such employees with dependent care assistance which meets the requirements of paragraphs (2) through (8) of this subsection. If any plan would qualify as a dependent care assistance program but for a failure to meet the requirements of this subsection, then, notwithstanding such failure, such plan shall be treated as a dependent care assistance program in the case of employees who are not highly compensated employees.
(2) Discrimination 
The contributions or benefits provided under the plan shall not discriminate in favor of employees who are highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414 (q)) or their dependents.
(3) Eligibility 
The program shall benefit employees who qualify under a classification set up by the employer and found by the Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of employees described in paragraph (2), or their dependents.
(4) Principal shareholders or owners 
Not more than 25 percent of the amounts paid or incurred by the employer for dependent care assistance during the year may be provided for the class of individuals who are shareholders or owners (or their spouses or dependents), each of whom (on any day of the year) owns more than 5 percent of the stock or of the capital or profits interest in the employer.
(5) No funding required 
A program referred to in paragraph (1) is not required to be funded.
(6) Notification of eligible employees 
Reasonable notification of the availability and terms of the program shall be provided to eligible employees.
(7) Statement of expenses 
The plan shall furnish to an employee, on or before January 31, a written statement showing the amounts paid or expenses incurred by the employer in providing dependent care assistance to such employee during the previous calendar year.
(8) Benefits 

(A) In general 
A plan meets the requirements of this paragraph if the average benefits provided to employees who are not highly compensated employees under all plans of the employer is at least 55 percent of the average benefits provided to highly compensated employees under all plans of the employer.
(B) Salary reduction agreements 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), in the case of any benefits provided through a salary reduction agreement, a plan may disregard any employees whose compensation is less than $25,000. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term compensation has the meaning given such term by section 414 (q)(4), except that, under rules prescribed by the Secretary, an employer may elect to determine compensation on any other basis which does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees.
(9) Excluded employees 
For purposes of paragraphs (3) and (8), there shall be excluded from consideration
(A) subject to rules similar to the rules of section 410 (b)(4), employees who have not attained the age of 21 and completed 1 year of service (as defined in section 410 (a)(3)), and
(B) employees not included in a dependent care assistance program who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement which the Secretary finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and 1 or more employees, if there is evidence that dependent care benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers.
(e) Definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this section
(1) Dependent care assistance 
The term dependent care assistance means the payment of, or provision of, those services which if paid for by the employee would be considered employment-related expenses under section 21 (b)(2) (relating to expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment).
(2) Earned income 
The term earned income shall have the meaning given such term in section 32 (c)(2), but such term shall not include any amounts paid or incurred by an employer for dependent care assistance to an employee.
(3) Employee 
The term employee includes, for any year, an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401 (c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).
(4) Employer 
An individual who owns the entire interest in an unincorporated trade or business shall be treated as his own employer. A partnership shall be treated as the employer of each partner who is an employee within the meaning of paragraph (3).
(5) Attribution rules 

(A) Ownership of stock 
Ownership of stock in a corporation shall be determined in accordance with the rules provided under subsections (d) and (e) of section 1563 (without regard to section 1563 (e)(3)(C)).
(B) Interest in unincorporated trade or business 
The interest of an employee in a trade or business which is not incorporated shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, which shall be based on principles similar to the principles which apply in the case of subparagraph (A).
(6) Utilization test not applicable 
A dependent care assistance program shall not be held or considered to fail to meet any requirements of subsection (d) (other than paragraphs (4) and (8) thereof) merely because of utilization rates for the different types of assistance made available under the program.
(7) Disallowance of excluded amounts as credit or deduction 
No deduction or credit shall be allowed to the employee under any other section of this chapter for any amount excluded from the gross income of the employee by reason of this section.
(8) Treatment of onsite facilities 
In the case of an onsite facility maintained by an employer, except to the extent provided in regulations, the amount of dependent care assistance provided to an employee excluded with respect to any dependent shall be based on
(A) utilization of the facility by a dependent of the employee, and
(B) the value of the services provided with respect to such dependent.
(9) Identifying information required with respect to service provider 
No amount paid or incurred by an employer for dependent care assistance provided to an employee shall be excluded from the gross income of such employee unless
(A) the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of the person performing the services are included on the return to which the exclusion relates, or
(B) if such person is an organization described in section 501 (c)(3) and exempt from tax under section 501 (a), the name and address of such person are included on the return to which the exclusion relates.

In the case of a failure to provide the information required under the preceding sentence, the preceding sentence shall not apply if it is shown that the taxpayer exercised due diligence in attempting to provide the information so required.

26 USC 130 - Certain personal injury liability assignments

(a) In general 
Any amount received for agreeing to a qualified assignment shall not be included in gross income to the extent that such amount does not exceed the aggregate cost of any qualified funding assets.
(b) Treatment of qualified funding asset 
In the case of any qualified funding asset
(1) the basis of such asset shall be reduced by the amount excluded from gross income under subsection (a) by reason of the purchase of such asset, and
(2) any gain recognized on a disposition of such asset shall be treated as ordinary income.
(c) Qualified assignment 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified assignment means any assignment of a liability to make periodic payments as damages (whether by suit or agreement), or as compensation under any workmens compensation act, on account of personal injury or sickness (in a case involving physical injury or physical sickness)
(1) if the assignee assumes such liability from a person who is a party to the suit or agreement, or the workmens compensation claim, and
(2) if
(A) such periodic payments are fixed and determinable as to amount and time of payment,
(B) such periodic payments cannot be accelerated, deferred, increased, or decreased by the recipient of such payments,
(C) the assignees obligation on account of the personal injuries or sickness is no greater than the obligation of the person who assigned the liability, and
(D) such periodic payments are excludable from the gross income of the recipient under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 104 (a).

The determination for purposes of this chapter of when the recipient is treated as having received any payment with respect to which there has been a qualified assignment shall be made without regard to any provision of such assignment which grants the recipient rights as a creditor greater than those of a general creditor.

(d) Qualified funding asset 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified funding asset means any annuity contract issued by a company licensed to do business as an insurance company under the laws of any State, or any obligation of the United States, if
(1) such annuity contract or obligation is used by the assignee to fund periodic payments under any qualified assignment,
(2) the periods of the payments under the annuity contract or obligation are reasonably related to the periodic payments under the qualified assignment, and the amount of any such payment under the contract or obligation does not exceed the periodic payment to which it relates,
(3) such annuity contract or obligation is designated by the taxpayer (in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe) as being taken into account under this section with respect to such qualified assignment, and
(4) such annuity contract or obligation is purchased by the taxpayer not more than 60 days before the date of the qualified assignment and not later than 60 days after the date of such assignment.

26 USC 131 - Certain foster care payments

(a) General rule 
Gross income shall not include amounts received by a foster care provider during the taxable year as qualified foster care payments.
(b) Qualified foster care payment defined 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The term qualified foster care payment means any payment made pursuant to a foster care program of a State or political subdivision thereof
(A) which is paid by
(i) a State or political subdivision thereof, or
(ii) a qualified foster care placement agency, and
(B) which is
(i) paid to the foster care provider for caring for a qualified foster individual in the foster care providers home, or
(ii) a difficulty of care payment.
(2) Qualified foster individual 
The term qualified foster individual means any individual who is living in a foster family home in which such individual was placed by
(A) an agency of a State or political subdivision thereof, or
(B) a qualified foster care placement agency.
(3) Qualified foster care placement agency 
The term qualified foster care placement agency means any placement agency which is licensed or certified by
(A) a State or political subdivision thereof, or
(B) an entity designated by a State or political subdivision thereof,

for the foster care program of such State or political subdivision to make foster care payments to providers of foster care.

(4) Limitation based on number of individuals over the age of 18 
In the case of any foster home in which there is a qualified foster care individual who has attained age 19, foster care payments (other than difficulty of care payments) for any period to which such payments relate shall not be excludable from gross income under subsection (a) to the extent such payments are made for more than 5 such qualified foster individuals.
(c) Difficulty of care payments 
For purposes of this section
(1) Difficulty of care payments 
The term difficulty of care payments means payments to individuals which are not described in subsection (b)(1)(B)(i), and which
(A) are compensation for providing the additional care of a qualified foster individual which is
(i) required by reason of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap of such individual with respect to which the State has determined that there is a need for additional compensation, and
(ii) provided in the home of the foster care provider, and
(B) are designated by the payor as compensation described in subparagraph (A).
(2) Limitation based on number of individuals 
In the case of any foster home, difficulty of care payments for any period to which such payments relate shall not be excludable from gross income under subsection (a) to the extent such payments are made for more than
(A) 10 qualified foster individuals who have not attained age 19, and
(B) 5 qualified foster individuals not described in subparagraph (A).

26 USC 132 - Certain fringe benefits

(a) Exclusion from gross income 
Gross income shall not include any fringe benefit which qualifies as a
(1) no-additional-cost service,
(2) qualified employee discount,
(3) working condition fringe,
(4) de minimis fringe,
(5) qualified transportation fringe,
(6) qualified moving expense reimbursement,
(7) qualified retirement planning services, or
(8) qualified military base realignment and closure fringe.
(b) No-additional-cost service defined 
For purposes of this section, the term no-additional-cost service means any service provided by an employer to an employee for use by such employee if
(1) such service is offered for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the line of business of the employer in which the employee is performing services, and
(2) the employer incurs no substantial additional cost (including forgone revenue) in providing such service to the employee (determined without regard to any amount paid by the employee for such service).
(c) Qualified employee discount defined 
For purposes of this section
(1) Qualified employee discount 
The term qualified employee discount means any employee discount with respect to qualified property or services to the extent such discount does not exceed
(A) in the case of property, the gross profit percentage of the price at which the property is being offered by the employer to customers, or
(B) in the case of services, 20 percent of the price at which the services are being offered by the employer to customers.
(2) Gross profit percentage 

(A) In general 
The term gross profit percentage means the percent which
(i) the excess of the aggregate sales price of property sold by the employer to customers over the aggregate cost of such property to the employer, is of
(ii) the aggregate sale price of such property.
(B) Determination of gross profit percentage 
Gross profit percentage shall be determined on the basis of
(i) all property offered to customers in the ordinary course of the line of business of the employer in which the employee is performing services (or a reasonable classification of property selected by the employer), and
(ii) the employers experience during a representative period.
(3) Employee discount defined 
The term employee discount means the amount by which
(A) the price at which the property or services are provided by the employer to an employee for use by such employee, is less than
(B) the price at which such property or services are being offered by the employer to customers.
(4) Qualified property or services 
The term qualified property or services means any property (other than real property and other than personal property of a kind held for investment) or services which are offered for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the line of business of the employer in which the employee is peforming[1] services.
(d) Working condition fringe defined 
For purposes of this section, the term working condition fringe means any property or services provided to an employee of the employer to the extent that, if the employee paid for such property or services, such payment would be allowable as a deduction under section 162 or 167.
(e) De minimis fringe defined 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The term de minimis fringe means any property or service the value of which is (after taking into account the frequency with which similar fringes are provided by the employer to the employers employees) so small as to make accounting for it unreasonable or administratively impracticable.
(2) Treatment of certain eating facilities 
The operation by an employer of any eating facility for employees shall be treated as a de minimis fringe if
(A) such facility is located on or near the business premises of the employer, and
(B) revenue derived from such facility normally equals or exceeds the direct operating costs of such facility.

The preceding sentence shall apply with respect to any highly compensated employee only if access to the facility is available on substantially the same terms to each member of a group of employees which is defined under a reasonable classification set up by the employer which does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees. For purposes of subparagraph (B), an employee entitled under section 119 to exclude the value of a meal provided at such facility shall be treated as having paid an amount for such meal equal to the direct operating costs of the facility attributable to such meal.

(f) Qualified transportation fringe 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified transportation fringe means any of the following provided by an employer to an employee:
(A) Transportation in a commuter highway vehicle if such transportation is in connection with travel between the employees residence and place of employment.
(B) Any transit pass.
(C) Qualified parking.
(2) Limitation on exclusion 
The amount of the fringe benefits which are provided by an employer to any employee and which may be excluded from gross income under subsection (a)(5) shall not exceed
(A) $100 per month in the case of the aggregate of the benefits described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1), and
(B) $175 per month in the case of qualified parking.
(3) Cash reimbursements 
For purposes of this subsection, the term qualified transportation fringe includes a cash reimbursement by an employer to an employee for a benefit described in paragraph (1). The preceding sentence shall apply to a cash reimbursement for any transit pass only if a voucher or similar item which may be exchanged only for a transit pass is not readily available for direct distribution by the employer to the employee.
(4) No constructive receipt 
No amount shall be included in the gross income of an employee solely because the employee may choose between any qualified transportation fringe and compensation which would otherwise be includible in gross income of such employee.
(5) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Transit pass 
The term transit pass means any pass, token, farecard, voucher, or similar item entitling a person to transportation (or transportation at a reduced price) if such transportation is
(i) on mass transit facilities (whether or not publicly owned), or
(ii) provided by any person in the business of transporting persons for compensation or hire if such transportation is provided in a vehicle meeting the requirements of subparagraph (B)(i).
(B) Commuter highway vehicle 
The term commuter highway vehicle means any highway vehicle
(i) the seating capacity of which is at least 6 adults (not including the driver), and
(ii) at least 80 percent of the mileage use of which can reasonably be expected to be
(I) for purposes of transporting employees in connection with travel between their residences and their place of employment, and
(II) on trips during which the number of employees transported for such purposes is at least 1/2 of the adult seating capacity of such vehicle (not including the driver).
(C) Qualified parking 
The term qualified parking means parking provided to an employee on or near the business premises of the employer or on or near a location from which the employee commutes to work by transportation described in subparagraph (A), in a commuter highway vehicle, or by carpool. Such term shall not include any parking on or near property used by the employee for residential purposes.
(D) Transportation provided by employer 
Transportation referred to in paragraph (1)(A) shall be considered to be provided by an employer if such transportation is furnished in a commuter highway vehicle operated by or for the employer.
(E) Employee 
For purposes of this subsection, the term employee does not include an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401 (c)(1).
(6) Inflation adjustment 

(A) In general 
In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1999, the dollar amounts contained in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2) shall be increased by an amount equal to
(i) such dollar amount, multiplied by
(ii) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1 (f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting calendar year 1998 for calendar year 1992.

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 2002, clause (ii) shall be applied by substituting calendar year 2001 for calendar year 1998 for purposes of adjusting the dollar amount contained in paragraph (2)(A).

(B) Rounding 
If any increase determined under subparagraph (A) is not a multiple of $5, such increase shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $5.
(7) Coordination with other provisions 
For purposes of this section, the terms working condition fringe and de minimis fringe shall not include any qualified transportation fringe (determined without regard to paragraph (2)).
(g) Qualified moving expense reimbursement 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified moving expense reimbursement means any amount received (directly or indirectly) by an individual from an employer as a payment for (or a reimbursement of) expenses which would be deductible as moving expenses under section 217 if directly paid or incurred by the individual. Such term shall not include any payment for (or reimbursement of) an expense actually deducted by the individual in a prior taxable year.
(h) Certain individuals treated as employees for purposes of subsections (a)(1) and (2) 
For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a)
(1) Retired and disabled employees and surviving spouse of employee treated as employee 
With respect to a line of business of an employer, the term employee includes
(A) any individual who was formerly employed by such employer in such line of business and who separated from service with such employer in such line of business by reason of retirement or disability, and
(B) any widow or widower of any individual who died while employed by such employer in such line of business or while an employee within the meaning of subparagraph (A).
(2) Spouse and dependent children 

(A) In general 
Any use by the spouse or a dependent child of the employee shall be treated as use by the employee.
(B) Dependent child 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term dependent child means any child (as defined in section 152(f)(1)) of the employee
(i) who is a dependent of the employee, or
(ii) both of whose parents are deceased and who has not attained age 25.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, any child to whom section 152 (e) applies shall be treated as the dependent of both parents.

(3) Special rule for parents in the case of air transportation 
Any use of air transportation by a parent of an employee (determined without regard to paragraph (1)(B)) shall be treated as use by the employee.
(i) Reciprocal agreements 
For purposes of paragraph (1) of subsection (a), any service provided by an employer to an employee of another employer shall be treated as provided by the employer of such employee if
(1) such service is provided pursuant to a written agreement between such employers, and
(2) neither of such employers incurs any substantial additional costs (including foregone revenue) in providing such service or pursuant to such agreement.
(j) Special rules 

(1) Exclusions under subsection (a)(1) and (2) apply to highly compensated employees only if no discrimination 
Paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) shall apply with respect to any fringe benefit described therein provided with respect to any highly compensated employee only if such fringe benefit is available on substantially the same terms to each member of a group of employees which is defined under a reasonable classification set up by the employer which does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees.
(2) Special rule for leased sections of department stores 

(A) In general 
For purposes of paragraph (2) of subsection (a), in the case of a leased section of a department store
(i) such section shall be treated as part of the line of business of the person operating the department store, and
(ii) employees in the leased section shall be treated as employees of the person operating the department store.
(B) Leased section of department store 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), a leased section of a department store is any part of a department store where over-the-counter sales of property are made under a lease or similar arrangement where it appears to the general public that individuals making such sales are employed by the person operating the department store.
(3) Auto salesmen 

(A) In general 
For purposes of subsection (a)(3), qualified automobile demonstration use shall be treated as a working condition fringe.
(B) Qualified automobile demonstration use 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term qualified automobile demonstration use means any use of an automobile by a full-time automobile salesman in the sales area in which the automobile dealers sales office is located if
(i) such use is provided primarily to facilitate the salesmans performance of services for the employer, and
(ii) there are substantial restrictions on the personal use of such automobile by such salesman.
(4) On-premises gyms and other athletic facilities 

(A) In general 
Gross income shall not include the value of any on-premises athletic facility provided by an employer to his employees.
(B) On-premises athletic facility 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term on-premises athletic facility means any gym or other athletic facility
(i) which is located on the premises of the employer,
(ii) which is operated by the employer, and
(iii) substantially all the use of which is by employees of the employer, their spouses, and their dependent children (within the meaning of subsection (h)).
(5) Special rule for affiliates of airlines 

(A) In general 
If
(i) a qualified affiliate is a member of an affiliated group another member of which operates an airline, and
(ii) employees of the qualified affiliate who are directly engaged in providing airline-related services are entitled to no-additional-cost service with respect to air transportation provided by such other member,

then, for purposes of applying paragraph (1) of subsection (a) to such no-additional-cost service provided to such employees, such qualified affiliate shall be treated as engaged in the same line of business as such other member.

(B) Qualified affiliate 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term qualified affiliate means any corporation which is predominantly engaged in airline-related services.
(C) Airline-related services 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term airline-related services means any of the following services provided in connection with air transportation:
(i) Catering.
(ii) Baggage handling.
(iii) Ticketing and reservations.
(iv) Flight planning and weather analysis.
(v) Restaurants and gift shops located at an airport.
(vi) Such other similar services provided to the airline as the Secretary may prescribe.
(D) Affiliated group 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term affiliated group has the meaning given such term by section 1504 (a).
(6) Highly compensated employee 
For purposes of this section, the term highly compensated employee has the meaning given such term by section 414 (q).
(7) Air cargo 
For purposes of subsection (b), the transportation of cargo by air and the transportation of passengers by air shall be treated as the same service.
(8) Application of section to otherwise taxable educational or training benefits 
Amounts paid or expenses incurred by the employer for education or training provided to the employee which are not excludable from gross income under section 127 shall be excluded from gross income under this section if (and only if) such amounts or expenses are a working condition fringe.
(k) Customers not to include employees 
For purposes of this section (other than subsection (c)(2)), the term customers shall only include customers who are not employees.
(l) Section not to apply to fringe benefits expressly provided for elsewhere 
This section (other than subsections (e) and (g)) shall not apply to any fringe benefits of a type the tax treatment of which is expressly provided for in any other section of this chapter.
(m) Qualified retirement planning services 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified retirement planning services means any retirement planning advice or information provided to an employee and his spouse by an employer maintaining a qualified employer plan.
(2) Nondiscrimination rule 
Subsection (a)(7) shall apply in the case of highly compensated employees only if such services are available on substantially the same terms to each member of the group of employees normally provided education and information regarding the employers qualified employer plan.
(3) Qualified employer plan 
For purposes of this subsection, the term qualified employer plan means a plan, contract, pension, or account described in section 219 (g)(5).
(n) Qualified military base realignment and closure fringe 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The term qualified military base realignment and closure fringe means 1 or more payments under the authority of section 1013 of the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 3374) (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this subsection) to offset the adverse effects on housing values as a result of a military base realignment or closure.
(2) Limitation 
With respect to any property, such term shall not include any payment referred to in paragraph (1) to the extent that the sum of all of such payments related to such property exceeds the maximum amount described in clause (1) of subsection (c) of such section (as in effect on such date).
(o) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “performing”.

26 USC 133 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104188, title I, 1602(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1833]

Section, added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, 543(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 891; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, § 1173(b)(1)(A), (2), title XVIII, 1854(c)(2)(A), (C), (D), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2515, 2879; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1011B(h)(1), (2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3490; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, § 7301(a)(c), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2346, 2347, prior to repeal, read as follows: 133. Interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities
(a) In general Gross income does not include 50 percent of the interest received by
(1) a bank (within the meaning of section 581),
(2) an insurance company to which subchapter L applies,
(3) a corporation actively engaged in the business of lending money, or
(4) a regulated investment company (as defined in section 851), with respect to a securities acquisition loan.
(b) Securities acquisition loan
(1) In general For purposes of this section, the term securities acquisition loan means
(A) any loan to a corporation or to an employee stock ownership plan to the extent that the proceeds are used to acquire employer securities for the plan, or
(B) any loan to a corporation to the extent that, within 30 days, employer securities are transferred to the plan in an amount equal to the proceeds of such loan and such securities are allocable to accounts of plan participants within 1 year of the date of such loan. For purposes of this paragraph, the term employer securities has the meaning given such term by section 409 (l). The term securities acquisition loan shall not include a loan with a term greater than 15 years.
(2) Loans between related persons The term securities acquisition loan shall not include
(A) any loan made between corporations which are members of the same controlled group of corporations, or
(B) any loan made between an employee stock ownership plan and any person that is
(i) the employer of any employees who are covered by the plan; or
(ii) a member of a controlled group of corporations which includes such employer. For purposes of this paragraph, subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not apply to any loan which, but for such subparagraphs, would be a securities acquisition loan if such loan was not originated by the employer of any employees who are covered by the plan or by any member of the controlled group of corporations which includes such employer, except that this section shall not apply to any interest received on such loan during such time as such loan is held by such employer (or any member of such controlled group).
(3) Terms applicable to certain securities acquisition loans A loan to a corporation shall not fail to be treated as a securities acquisition loan merely because the proceeds of such loan are lent to an employee stock ownership plan sponsored by such corporation (or by any member of the controlled group of corporations which includes such corporation) if such loan includes
(A) repayment terms which are substantially similar to the terms of the loan of such corporation from a lender described in subsection (a), or
(B) repayment terms providing for more rapid repayment of principal or interest on such loan, but only if allocations under the plan attributable to such repayment do not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414 (q)).
(4) Controlled group of corporations For purposes of this paragraph, the term controlled group of corporations has the meaning given such term by section 409 (l)(4).
(5) Treatment of refinancings The term securities acquisition loan shall include any loan which
(A) is (or is part of a series of loans) used to refinance a loan described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), and
(B) meets the requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3).
(6) Plan must hold more than 50 percent of stock after acquisition or transfer
(A) In general A loan shall not be treated as a securities acquisition loan for purposes of this section unless, immediately after the acquisition or transfer referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), respectively, the employee stock ownership plan owns more than 50 percent of
(i) each class of outstanding stock of the corporation issuing the employer securities, or
(ii) the total value of all outstanding stock of the corporation.
(B) Failure to retain minimum stock interest
(i) In general Subsection (a) shall not apply to any interest received with respect to a securities acquisition loan which is allocable to any period during which the employee stock ownership plan does not own stock meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A).
(ii) Exception To the extent provided by the Secretary, clause (i) shall not apply to any period if, within 90 days of the first date on which the failure occurred (or such longer period not in excess of 180 days as the Secretary may prescribe), the plan acquires stock which results in its meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A).
(C) Stock For purposes of subparagraph (A)
(i) In general The term stock means stock other than stock described in section 1504 (a)(4).
(ii) Treatment of certain rights The Secretary may provide that warrants, options, contracts to acquire stock, convertible debt interests and other similar interests be treated as stock for 1 or more purposes under subparagraph (A).
(D) Aggregation rule For purposes of determining whether the requirements of subparagraph (A) are met, an employee stock ownership plan shall be treated as owning stock in the corporation issuing the employer securities which is held by any other employee stock ownership plan which is maintained by
(i) the employer maintaining the plan, or
(ii) any member of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 409(l)(4)) of which the employer described in clause (i) is a member.
(7) Voting rights of employer securities A loan shall not be treated as a securities acquisition loan for purposes of this section unless
(A) the employee stock ownership plan meets the requirements of section 409 (e)(2) with respect to all employer securities acquired by, or transferred to, the plan in connection with such loan (without regard to whether or not the employer has a registration-type class of securities), and
(B) no stock described in section 409 (l)(3) is acquired by, or transferred to, the plan in connection with such loan unless
(i) such stock has voting rights equivalent to the stock to which it may be converted, and
(ii) the requirements of subparagraph (A) are met with respect to such voting rights.
(c) Employee stock ownership plan For purposes of this section, the term employee stock ownership plan has the meaning given to such term by section 4975 (e)(7).
(d) Application with section 483 and original issue discount rules In applying section 483 and subpart A of part V of subchapter P to any obligation to which this section applies, appropriate adjustments shall be made to the applicable Federal rate to take into account the exclusion under subsection (a).
(e) Period to which interest exclusion applies
(1) In general In the case of
(A) an original securities acquisition loan, and
(B) any securities acquisition loan (or series of such loans) used to refinance the original securities acquisition loan, subsection (a) shall apply only to interest accruing during the excludable period with respect to the original securities acquisition loan.
(2) Excludable period For purposes of this subsection, the term excludable period means, with respect to any original securities acquisition loan
(A) In general The 7-year period beginning on the date of such loan.
(B) Loans described in subsection (b)(1)(A) If the term of an original securities acquisition loan described in subsection (b)(1)(A) is greater than 7 years, the term of such loan. This subparagraph shall not apply to a loan described in subsection (b)(3)(B).
(3) Original securities acquisition loan For the purposes of this subsection, the term original securities acquisition loan means a securities acquisition loan described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(1).

26 USC 134 - Certain military benefits

(a) General rule 
Gross income shall not include any qualified military benefit.
(b) Qualified military benefit 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The term qualified military benefit means any allowance or in-kind benefit (other than personal use of a vehicle) which
(A) is received by any member or former member of the uniformed services of the United States or any dependent of such member by reason of such members status or service as a member of such uniformed services, and
(B) was excludable from gross income on September 9, 1986, under any provision of law, regulation, or administrative practice which was in effect on such date (other than a provision of this title).
(2) No other benefit to be excludable except as provided by this title 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no benefit shall be treated as a qualified military benefit unless such benefit
(A) is a benefit described in paragraph (1), or
(B) is excludable from gross income under this title without regard to any provision of law which is not contained in this title and which is not contained in a revenue Act.
(3) Limitations on modifications 

(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C) and paragraphs (4) and (5), no modification or adjustment of any qualified military benefit after September 9, 1986, shall be taken into account.
(B) Exception for certain adjustments to cash benefits 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any adjustment to any qualified military benefit payable in cash which
(i) is pursuant to a provision of law or regulation (as in effect on September 9, 1986), and
(ii) is determined by reference to any fluctuation in cost, price, currency, or other similar index.
(C) Exception for death gratuity adjustments made by law 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any adjustment to the amount of death gratuity payable under chapter 75 of title 10, United States Code, which is pursuant to a provision of law enacted after September 9, 1986.
(4) Clarification of certain benefits 
For purposes of paragraph (1), such term includes any dependent care assistance program (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph) for any individual described in paragraph (1)(A).
(5) Travel benefits under operation hero miles 
The term qualified military benefit includes a travel benefit provided under section 2613 of title 10, United States Code (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph).

26 USC 135 - Income from United States savings bonds used to pay higher education tuition and fees

(a) General rule 
In the case of an individual who pays qualified higher education expenses during the taxable year, no amount shall be includible in gross income by reason of the redemption during such year of any qualified United States savings bond.
(b) Limitations 

(1) Limitation where redemption proceeds exceed higher education expenses 

(A) In general 
If
(i) the aggregate proceeds of qualified United States savings bonds redeemed by the taxpayer during the taxable year exceed
(ii) the qualified higher education expenses paid by the taxpayer during such taxable year,

the amount excludable from gross income under subsection (a) shall not exceed the applicable fraction of the amount excludable from gross income under subsection (a) without regard to this subsection.

(B) Applicable fraction 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term applicable fraction means the fraction the numerator of which is the amount described in subparagraph (A)(ii) and the denominator of which is the amount described in subparagraph (A)(i).
(2) Limitation based on modified adjusted gross income 

(A) In general 
If the modified adjusted gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year exceeds $40,000 ($60,000 in the case of a joint return), the amount which would (but for this paragraph) be excludable from gross income under subsection (a) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount which bears the same ratio to the amount which would be so excludable as such excess bears to $15,000 ($30,000 in the case of a joint return).
(B) Inflation adjustment 
In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1990, the $40,000 and $60,000 amounts contained in subparagraph (A) shall be increased by an amount equal to
(i) such dollar amount, multiplied by
(ii) the cost-of-living adjustment under section 1 (f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting calendar year 1989 for calendar year 1992 in subparagraph (B) thereof.
(C) Rounding 
If any amount as adjusted under subparagraph (B) is not a multiple of $50, such amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $50 (or if such amount is a multiple of $25, such amount shall be rounded to the next highest multiple of $50).
(c) Definitions 
For purposes of this section
(1) Qualified United States savings bond 
The term qualified United States savings bond means any United States savings bond issued
(A) after December 31, 1989,
(B) to an individual who has attained age 24 before the date of issuance, and
(C) at discount under section 3105 of title 31, United States Code.
(2) Qualified higher education expenses 

(A) In general 
The term qualified higher education expenses means tuition and fees required for the enrollment or attendance of
(i) the taxpayer,
(ii) the taxpayers spouse, or
(iii) any dependent of the taxpayer with respect to whom the taxpayer is allowed a deduction under section 151,

at an eligible educational institution.

(B) Exception for education involving sports, etc. 
Such term shall not include expenses with respect to any course or other education involving sports, games, or hobbies other than as part of a degree program.
(C) Contributions to qualified tuition program and Coverdell education savings accounts 
Such term shall include any contribution to a qualified tuition program (as defined in section 529) on behalf of a designated beneficiary (as defined in such section), or to a Coverdell education savings account (as defined in section 530) on behalf of an account beneficiary, who is an individual described in subparagraph (A); but there shall be no increase in the investment in the contract for purposes of applying section 72 by reason of any portion of such contribution which is not includible in gross income by reason of this subparagraph.
(3) Eligible educational institution 
The term eligible educational institution has the meaning given such term by section 529 (e)(5).
(4) Modified adjusted gross income 
The term modified adjusted gross income means the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year determined
(A) without regard to this section and sections 137, 199, 221, 222, 911, 931, and 933, and
(B) after the application of sections 86, 469, and 219.
(d) Special rules 

(1) Adjustment for certain scholarships and veterans benefits 
The amount of qualified higher education expenses otherwise taken into account under subsection (a) with respect to the education of an individual shall be reduced (before the application of subsection (b)) by the sum of the amounts received with respect to such individual for the taxable year as
(A) a qualified scholarship which under section 117 is not includable in gross income,
(B) an educational assistance allowance under chapter 30, 31, 32, 34, or 35 of title 38, United States Code,
(C) a payment (other than a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance within the meaning of section 102 (a)) for educational expenses, or attributable to attendance at an eligible educational institution, which is exempt from income taxation by any law of the United States, or
(D) a payment, waiver, or reimbursement of qualified higher education expenses under a qualified tuition program (within the meaning of section 529 (b)).
(2) Coordination with other higher education benefits 
The amount of the qualified higher education expenses otherwise taken into account under subsection (a) with respect to the education of an individual shall be reduced (before the application of subsection (b)) by
(A) the amount of such expenses which are taken into account in determining the credit allowed to the taxpayer or any other person under section 25A with respect to such expenses; and
(B) the amount of such expenses which are taken into account in determining the exclusions under sections 529 (c)(3)(B) and 530 (d)(2).
(3) No exclusion for married individuals filing separate returns 
If the taxpayer is a married individual (within the meaning of section 7703), this section shall apply only if the taxpayer and his spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.
(4) Regulations 
The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out this section, including regulations requiring record keeping and information reporting.

26 USC 136 - Energy conservation subsidies provided by public utilities

(a) Exclusion 
Gross income shall not include the value of any subsidy provided (directly or indirectly) by a public utility to a customer for the purchase or installation of any energy conservation measure.
(b) Denial of double benefit 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, no deduction or credit shall be allowed for, or by reason of, any expenditure to the extent of the amount excluded under subsection (a) for any subsidy which was provided with respect to such expenditure. The adjusted basis of any property shall be reduced by the amount excluded under subsection (a) which was provided with respect to such property.
(c) Energy conservation measure 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this section, the term energy conservation measure means any installation or modification primarily designed to reduce consumption of electricity or natural gas or to improve the management of energy demand with respect to a dwelling unit.
(2) Other definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Dwelling unit 
The term dwelling unit has the meaning given such term by section 280A (f)(1).
(B) Public utility 
The term public utility means a person engaged in the sale of electricity or natural gas to residential, commercial, or industrial customers for use by such customers. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term person includes the Federal Government, a State or local government or any political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of any of the foregoing.
(d) Exception 
This section shall not apply to any payment to or from a qualified cogeneration facility or qualifying small power production facility pursuant to section 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978.

26 USC 137 - Adoption assistance programs

(a) Exclusion 

(1) In general 
Gross income of an employee does not include amounts paid or expenses incurred by the employer for qualified adoption expenses in connection with the adoption of a child by an employee if such amounts are furnished pursuant to an adoption assistance program.
(2) $10,000 exclusion for adoption of child with special needs regardless of expenses 
In the case of an adoption of a child with special needs which becomes final during a taxable year, the qualified adoption expenses with respect to such adoption for such year shall be increased by an amount equal to the excess (if any) of $10,000 over the actual aggregate qualified adoption expenses with respect to such adoption during such taxable year and all prior taxable years.
(b) Limitations 

(1) Dollar limitation 
The aggregate of the amounts paid or expenses incurred which may be taken into account under subsection (a) for all taxable years with respect to the adoption of a child by the taxpayer shall not exceed $10,000.
(2) Income limitation 
The amount excludable from gross income under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount so excludable (determined without regard to this paragraph but with regard to paragraph (1)) as
(A) the amount (if any) by which the taxpayers adjusted gross income exceeds $150,000, bears to
(B) $40,000.
(3) Determination of adjusted gross income 
For purposes of paragraph (2), adjusted gross income shall be determined
(A) without regard to this section and sections 199, 221, 222, 911, 931, and 933, and
(B) after the application of sections 86, 135, 219, and 469.
(c) Adoption assistance program 
For purposes of this section, an adoption assistance program is a separate written plan of an employer for the exclusive benefit of such employers employees
(1) under which the employer provides such employees with adoption assistance, and
(2) which meets requirements similar to the requirements of paragraphs (2), (3), (5), and (6) of section 127 (b).

An adoption reimbursement program operated under section 1052 of title 10, United States Code (relating to armed forces) or section 514 of title 14, United States Code (relating to members of the Coast Guard) shall be treated as an adoption assistance program for purposes of this section.

(d) Qualified adoption expenses 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified adoption expenses has the meaning given such term by section 23 (d) (determined without regard to reimbursements under this section).
(e) Certain rules to apply 
Rules similar to the rules of subsections (e), (f), and (g) of section 23 shall apply for purposes of this section.
(f) Adjustments for inflation 
In the case of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, each of the dollar amounts in subsection (a)(2) and paragraphs (1) and (2)(A) of subsection (b) shall be increased by an amount equal to
(1) such dollar amount, multiplied by
(2) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1 (f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting calendar year 2001 for calendar year 1992 in subparagraph (B) thereof.

If any amount as increased under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of $10, such amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10.

26 USC 138 - Medicare Advantage MSA

(a) Exclusion 
Gross income shall not include any payment to the Medicare Advantage MSA of an individual by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under part C of title XVIII of the Social Security Act.
(b) Medicare Advantage MSA 
For purposes of this section, the term Medicare Advantage MSA means an Archer MSA (as defined in section 220 (d))
(1) which is designated as a Medicare Advantage MSA,
(2) with respect to which no contribution may be made other than
(A) a contribution made by the Secretary of Health and Human Services pursuant to part C of title XVIII of the Social Security Act, or
(B) a trustee-to-trustee transfer described in subsection (c)(4),
(3) the governing instrument of which provides that trustee-to-trustee transfers described in subsection (c)(4) may be made to and from such account, and
(4) which is established in connection with an MSA plan described in section 1859(b)(3) of the Social Security Act.
(c) Special rules for distributions 

(1) Distributions for qualified medical expenses 
In applying section 220 to a Medicare Advantage MSA
(A) qualified medical expenses shall not include amounts paid for medical care for any individual other than the account holder, and
(B) section 220 (d)(2)(C) shall not apply.
(2) Penalty for distributions from Medicare Advantage MSA not used for qualified medical expenses if minimum balance not maintained 

(A) In general 
The tax imposed by this chapter for any taxable year in which there is a payment or distribution from a Medicare Advantage MSA which is not used exclusively to pay the qualified medical expenses of the account holder shall be increased by 50 percent of the excess (if any) of
(i) the amount of such payment or distribution, over
(ii) the excess (if any) of
(I) the fair market value of the assets in such MSA as of the close of the calendar year preceding the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, over
(II) an amount equal to 60 percent of the deductible under the Medicare Advantage MSA plan covering the account holder as of January 1 of the calendar year in which the taxable year begins.

Section 220 (f)(4) shall not apply to any payment or distribution from a Medicare Advantage MSA.

(B) Exceptions 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the payment or distribution is made on or after the date the account holder
(i) becomes disabled within the meaning of section 72 (m)(7), or
(ii) dies.
(C) Special rules 
For purposes of subparagraph (A)
(i) all Medicare Advantage MSAs of the account holder shall be treated as 1 account,
(ii) all payments and distributions not used exclusively to pay the qualified medical expenses of the account holder during any taxable year shall be treated as 1 distribution, and
(iii) any distribution of property shall be taken into account at its fair market value on the date of the distribution.
(3) Withdrawal of erroneous contributions 
Section 220 (f)(2) and paragraph (2) of this subsection shall not apply to any payment or distribution from a Medicare Advantage MSA to the Secretary of Health and Human Services of an erroneous contribution to such MSA and of the net income attributable to such contribution.
(4) Trustee-to-trustee transfers 
Section 220 (f)(2) and paragraph (2) of this subsection shall not apply to any trustee-to-trustee transfer from a Medicare Advantage MSA of an account holder to another Medicare Advantage MSA of such account holder.
(d) Special rules for treatment of account after death of account holder 
In applying section 220 (f)(8)(A) to an account which was a Medicare Advantage MSA of a decedent, the rules of section 220 (f) shall apply in lieu of the rules of subsection (c) of this section with respect to the spouse as the account holder of such Medicare Advantage MSA.
(e) Reports 
In the case of a Medicare Advantage MSA, the report under section 220 (h)
(1) shall include the fair market value of the assets in such Medicare Advantage MSA as of the close of each calendar year, and
(2) shall be furnished to the account holder
(A) not later than January 31 of the calendar year following the calendar year to which such reports relate, and
(B) in such manner as the Secretary prescribes in such regulations.
(f) Coordination with limitation on number of taxpayers having Archer MSAs 
Subsection (i) of section 220 shall not apply to an individual with respect to a Medicare Advantage MSA, and Medicare Advantage MSAs shall not be taken into account in determining whether the numerical limitations under section 220 (j) are exceeded.

26 USC 139 - Disaster relief payments

(a) General rule 
Gross income shall not include any amount received by an individual as a qualified disaster relief payment.
(b) Qualified disaster relief payment defined 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified disaster relief payment means any amount paid to or for the benefit of an individual
(1) to reimburse or pay reasonable and necessary personal, family, living, or funeral expenses incurred as a result of a qualified disaster,
(2) to reimburse or pay reasonable and necessary expenses incurred for the repair or rehabilitation of a personal residence or repair or replacement of its contents to the extent that the need for such repair, rehabilitation, or replacement is attributable to a qualified disaster,
(3) by a person engaged in the furnishing or sale of transportation as a common carrier by reason of the death or personal physical injuries incurred as a result of a qualified disaster, or
(4) if such amount is paid by a Federal, State, or local government, or agency or instrumentality thereof, in connection with a qualified disaster in order to promote the general welfare,

but only to the extent any expense compensated by such payment is not otherwise compensated for by insurance or otherwise.

(c) Qualified disaster defined 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified disaster means
(1) a disaster which results from a terroristic or military action (as defined in section 692 (c)(2)),
(2) a Presidentially declared disaster (as defined in section 1033 (h)(3)),
(3) a disaster which results from an accident involving a common carrier, or from any other event, which is determined by the Secretary to be of a catastrophic nature, or
(4) with respect to amounts described in subsection (b)(4), a disaster which is determined by an applicable Federal, State, or local authority (as determined by the Secretary) to warrant assistance from the Federal, State, or local government or agency or instrumentality thereof.
(d) Coordination with employment taxes 
For purposes of chapter 2 and subtitle C, qualified disaster relief payments and qualified disaster mitigation payments shall not be treated as net earnings from self-employment, wages, or compensation subject to tax.
(e) No relief for certain individuals 
Subsections (a), (f), and (g) shall not apply with respect to any individual identified by the Attorney General to have been a participant or conspirator in a terroristic action (as so defined), or a representative of such individual.
(f) Exclusion of certain additional payments 
Gross income shall not include any amount received as payment under section 406 of the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act.
(g) Qualified disaster mitigation payments 

(1) In general 
Gross income shall not include any amount received as a qualified disaster mitigation payment.
(2) Qualified disaster mitigation payment defined 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified disaster mitigation payment means any amount which is paid pursuant to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this subsection) or the National Flood Insurance Act (as in effect on such date) to or for the benefit of the owner of any property for hazard mitigation with respect to such property. Such term shall not include any amount received for the sale or disposition of any property.
(3) No increase in basis 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, no increase in the basis or adjusted basis of any property shall result from any amount excluded under this subsection with respect to such property.
(h) Denial of double benefit 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, no deduction or credit shall be allowed (to the person for whose benefit a qualified disaster relief payment or qualified disaster mitigation payment is made) for, or by reason of, any expenditure to the extent of the amount excluded under this section with respect to such expenditure.

26 USC 139A - Federal subsidies for prescription drug plans

Gross income shall not include any special subsidy payment received under section 1860D22 of the Social Security Act. This section shall not be taken into account for purposes of determining whether any deduction is allowable with respect to any cost taken into account in determining such payment.

26 USC 139B - Benefits provided to volunteer firefighters and emergency medical responders

(a) In general 
In the case of any member of a qualified volunteer emergency response organization, gross income shall not include
(1) any qualified State and local tax benefit, and
(2) any qualified payment.
(b) Denial of double benefits 
In the case of any member of a qualified volunteer emergency response organization
(1) the deduction under 164 shall be determined with regard to any qualified State and local tax benefit, and
(2) expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer in connection with the performance of services as such a member shall be taken into account under section 170 only to the extent such expenses exceed the amount of any qualified payment excluded from gross income under subsection (a).
(c) Definitions 
For purposes of this section
(1) Qualified State and local tax benefit 
The term qualified state and local tax benefit means any reduction or rebate of a tax described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 164 (a) provided by a State or political division thereof on account of services performed as a member of a qualified volunteer emergency response organization.
(2) Qualified payment 

(A) In general 
The term qualified payment means any payment (whether reimbursement or otherwise) provided by a State or political division thereof on account of the performance of services as a member of a qualified volunteer emergency response organization.
(B) Applicable dollar limitation 
The amount determined under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall not exceed $30 multiplied by the number of months during such year that the taxpayer performs such services.
(3) Qualified volunteer emergency response organization 
The term qualified volunteer emergency response organization means any volunteer organization
(A) which is organized and operated to provide firefighting or emergency medical services for persons in the State or political subdivision, as the case may be, and
(B) which is required (by written agreement) by the State or political subdivision to furnish firefighting or emergency medical services in such State or political subdivision.
(d) Termination 
This section shall not apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010.

26 USC 140 - Cross references to other Acts

(a) For exemption of
(1) Allowances and expenditures to meet losses sustained by persons serving the United States abroad, due to appreciation of foreign currencies, see section 5943 of title 5, United States Code.
(2) Amounts credited to the Maritime Administration under section 9(b)(6) of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946, see section 9(c)(1) of that Act (50 App. U.S.C. 1742).[1]
(3) Benefits under laws administered by the Veterans Administration, see section 5301 of title 38, United States Code.
(4) Earnings of ship contractors deposited in special reserve funds, see section 53507 of title 46, United States Code.
(5) Income derived from Federal Reserve banks, including capital stock and surplus, see section 7 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 531).
(6) Special pensions of persons on Army and Navy medal of honor roll, see 38 U.S.C. 1562 (a)(c).
(b) For extension of military income tax-exemption benefits to commissioned officers of Public Health Service in certain circumstances, see section 212 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 213).
[1] See References in Text note below.