42 USC 1395w23 - Payments to Medicare+Choice organizations

(a) Payments to organizations 

(1) Monthly payments 

(A) In general 
Under a contract under section 1395w–27 of this title and subject to subsections (e), (g), and (i) of this section and section 1395w–28 (e)(4) of this title, the Secretary shall make monthly payments under this section in advance to each Medicare+Choice organization, with respect to coverage of an individual under this part in a Medicare+Choice payment area for a month, in an amount determined as follows:
(i) Payment before 2006 For years before 2006, the payment amount shall be equal to 1/12 of the annual MA capitation rate (as calculated under subsection (c)(1) of this section) with respect to that individual for that area, adjusted under subparagraph (C) and reduced by the amount of any reduction elected under section 1395w–24 (f)(1)(E) of this title.

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(ii) Payment for original fee-for-service benefits beginning with 2006 For years beginning with 2006, the amount specified in subparagraph (B).
(B) Payment amount for original fee-for-service benefits beginning with 2006 

(i) Payment of bid for plans with bids below benchmark In the case of a plan for which there are average per capita monthly savings described in section 1395w–24 (b)(3)(C) or 1395w–24 (b)(4)(C) of this title, as the case may be, the amount specified in this subparagraph is equal to the unadjusted MA statutory non-drug monthly bid amount, adjusted under subparagraph (C) and (if applicable) under subparagraphs (F) and (G), plus the amount (if any) of any rebate under subparagraph (E).
(ii) Payment of benchmark for plans with bids at or above benchmark In the case of a plan for which there are no average per capita monthly savings described in section 1395w–24 (b)(3)(C) or 1395w–24 (b)(4)(C) of this title, as the case may be, the amount specified in this subparagraph is equal to the MA area-specific non-drug monthly benchmark amount, adjusted under subparagraph (C) and (if applicable) under subparagraphs (F) and (G).
(iii) Payment of benchmark for MSA plans Notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii), in the case of an MSA plan, the amount specified in this subparagraph is equal to the MA area-specific non-drug monthly benchmark amount, adjusted under subparagraph (C).
(C) Demographic adjustment, including adjustment for health status 

(i) In general The Secretary shall adjust the payment amount under subparagraph (A)(i) and the amount specified under subparagraph (B)(i), (B)(ii), and (B)(iii) for such risk factors as age, disability status, gender, institutional status, and such other factors as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, including adjustment for health status under paragraph (3), so as to ensure actuarial equivalence. The Secretary may add to, modify, or substitute for such adjustment factors if such changes will improve the determination of actuarial equivalence.
(ii) Application during phase-out of budget neutrality factor For 2006 through 2010:
(I) In applying the adjustment under clause (i) for health status to payment amounts, the Secretary shall ensure that such adjustment reflects changes in treatment and coding practices in the fee-for-service sector and reflects differences in coding patterns between Medicare Advantage plans and providers under part[1] A and B to the extent that the Secretary has identified such differences.
(II) In order to ensure payment accuracy, the Secretary shall conduct an analysis of the differences described in subclause (I). The Secretary shall complete such analysis by a date necessary to ensure that the results of such analysis are incorporated into the risk scores only for 2008, 2009, and 2010. In conducting such analysis, the Secretary shall use data submitted with respect to 2004 and subsequent years, as available.

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(D) Separate payment for Federal drug subsidies 
In the case of an enrollee in an MAPD plan, the MA organization offering such plan also receives
(i) subsidies under section 1395w–115 of this title (other than under subsection (g)); and
(ii) reimbursement for premium and cost-sharing reductions for low-income individuals under section 1395w–114 (c)(1)(C) of this title.
(E) Payment of rebate for plans with bids below benchmark 
In the case of a plan for which there are average per capita monthly savings described in section 1395w–24 (b)(3)(C) or 1395w–24 (b)(4)(C) of this title, as the case may be, the amount specified in this subparagraph is the amount of the monthly rebate computed under section 1395w–24 (b)(1)(C)(i) of this title for that plan and year (as reduced by the amount of any credit provided under section 1395w–24 (b)(1)(C)(iv) of this title).
(F) Adjustment for intra-area variations 

(i) Intra-regional variations In the case of payment with respect to an MA regional plan for an MA region, the Secretary shall also adjust the amounts specified under subparagraphs (B)(i) and (B)(ii) in a manner to take into account variations in MA local payment rates under this part among the different MA local areas included in such region.
(ii) Intra-service area variations In the case of payment with respect to an MA local plan for a service area that covers more than one MA local area, the Secretary shall also adjust the amounts specified under subparagraphs (B)(i) and (B)(ii) in a manner to take into account variations in MA local payment rates under this part among the different MA local areas included in such service area.
(G) Adjustment relating to risk adjustment 
The Secretary shall adjust payments with respect to MA plans as necessary to ensure that
(i) the sum of
(I) the monthly payment made under subparagraph (A)(ii); and
(II) the MA monthly basic beneficiary premium under section 1395w–24 (b)(2)(A) of this title; equals
(ii) the unadjusted MA statutory non-drug monthly bid amount, adjusted in the manner described in subparagraph (C) and, for an MA regional plan, subparagraph (F).
(H) Special rule for end-stage renal disease 
The Secretary shall establish separate rates of payment to a Medicare+Choice organization with respect to classes of individuals determined to have end-stage renal disease and enrolled in a Medicare+Choice plan of the organization. Such rates of payment shall be actuarially equivalent to rates that would have been paid with respect to other enrollees in the MA payment area (or such other area as specified by the Secretary) under the provisions of this section as in effect before December 8, 2003. In accordance with regulations, the Secretary shall provide for the application of the seventh sentence of section 1395rr (b)(7) of this title to payments under this section covering the provision of renal dialysis treatment in the same manner as such sentence applies to composite rate payments described in such sentence. In establishing such rates, the Secretary shall provide for appropriate adjustments to increase each rate to reflect the demonstration rate (including the risk adjustment methodology associated with such rate) of the social health maintenance organization end-stage renal disease capitation demonstrations (established by section 2355 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, as amended by section 13567(b) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993), and shall compute such rates by taking into account such factors as renal treatment modality, age, and the underlying cause of the end-stage renal disease. The Secretary may apply the competitive bidding methodology provided for in this section, with appropriate adjustments to account for the risk adjustment methodology applied to end stage renal disease payments.
(2) Adjustment to reflect number of enrollees 

(A) In general 
The amount of payment under this subsection may be retroactively adjusted to take into account any difference between the actual number of individuals enrolled with an organization under this part and the number of such individuals estimated to be so enrolled in determining the amount of the advance payment.
(B) Special rule for certain enrollees 

(i) In general Subject to clause (ii), the Secretary may make retroactive adjustments under subparagraph (A) to take into account individuals enrolled during the period beginning on the date on which the individual enrolls with a Medicare+Choice organization under a plan operated, sponsored, or contributed to by the individuals employer or former employer (or the employer or former employer of the individuals spouse) and ending on the date on which the individual is enrolled in the organization under this part, except that for purposes of making such retroactive adjustments under this subparagraph, such period may not exceed 90 days.
(ii) Exception No adjustment may be made under clause (i) with respect to any individual who does not certify that the organization provided the individual with the disclosure statement described in section 1395w–22 (c) of this title at the time the individual enrolled with the organization.
(3) Establishment of risk adjustment factors 

(A) Report 
The Secretary shall develop, and submit to Congress by not later than March 1, 1999, a report on the method of risk adjustment of payment rates under this section, to be implemented under subparagraph (C), that accounts for variations in per capita costs based on health status. Such report shall include an evaluation of such method by an outside, independent actuary of the actuarial soundness of the proposal.
(B) Data collection 
In order to carry out this paragraph, the Secretary shall require Medicare+Choice organizations (and eligible organizations with risk-sharing contracts under section 1395mm of this title) to submit data regarding inpatient hospital services for periods beginning on or after July 1, 1997, and data regarding other services and other information as the Secretary deems necessary for periods beginning on or after July 1, 1998. The Secretary may not require an organization to submit such data before January 1, 1998.
(C) Initial implementation 

(i) In general The Secretary shall first provide for implementation of a risk adjustment methodology that accounts for variations in per capita costs based on health status and other demographic factors for payments by no later than January 1, 2000.
(ii) Phase-in Except as provided in clause (iv), such risk adjustment methodology shall be implemented in a phased-in manner so that the methodology insofar as it makes adjustments to capitation rates for health status applies to
(I) 10 percent of 1/12 of the annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate in 2000 and each succeeding year through 2003;
(II) 30 percent of such capitation rate in 2004;
(III) 50 percent of such capitation rate in 2005;
(IV) 75 percent of such capitation rate in 2006; and
(V) 100 percent of such capitation rate in 2007 and succeeding years.
(iii) Data for risk adjustment methodology Such risk adjustment methodology for 2004 and each succeeding year, shall be based on data from inpatient hospital and ambulatory settings.
(iv) Full implementation of risk adjustment for congestive heart failure enrollees for 2001
(I) Exemption from phase-in Subject to subclause (II), the Secretary shall fully implement the risk adjustment methodology described in clause (i) with respect to each individual who has had a qualifying congestive heart failure inpatient diagnosis (as determined by the Secretary under such risk adjustment methodology) during the period beginning on July 1, 1999, and ending on June 30, 2000, and who is enrolled in a coordinated care plan that is the only coordinated care plan offered on January 1, 2001, in the service area of the individual.
(II) Period of application Subclause (I) shall only apply during the 1-year period beginning on January 1, 2001.
(D) Uniform application to all types of plans 
Subject to section 1395w–28 (e)(4) of this title, the methodology shall be applied uniformly without regard to the type of plan.
(4) Payment rule for federally qualified health center services 
If an individual who is enrolled with an MA plan under this part receives a service from a federally qualified health center that has a written agreement with the MA organization that offers such plan for providing such a service (including any agreement required under section 1395w–27 (e)(3) of this title)
(A) the Secretary shall pay the amount determined under section 1395l (a)(3)(B) of this title directly to the federally qualified health center not less frequently than quarterly; and
(B) the Secretary shall not reduce the amount of the monthly payments under this subsection as a result of the application of subparagraph (A).
(b) Annual announcement of payment rates 

(1) Annual announcements 

(A) For 2005 
The Secretary shall determine, and shall announce (in a manner intended to provide notice to interested parties), not later than the second Monday in May of 2004, with respect to each MA payment area, the following:
(i) MA capitation rates The annual MA capitation rate for each MA payment area for 2005.
(ii) Adjustment factors The risk and other factors to be used in adjusting such rates under subsection (a)(1)(C) of this section for payments for months in 2005.
(B) For 2006 and subsequent years 
For a year after 2005
(i) Initial announcement The Secretary shall determine, and shall announce (in a manner intended to provide notice to interested parties), not later than the first Monday in April before the calendar year concerned, with respect to each MA payment area, the following:
(I) MA capitation rates; MA local area benchmark The annual MA capitation rate for each MA payment area for the year.
(II) Adjustment factors The risk and other factors to be used in adjusting such rates under subsection (a)(1)(C) of this section for payments for months in such year.
(ii) Regional benchmark announcement The Secretary shall determine, and shall announce (in a manner intended to provide notice to interested parties), on a timely basis before the calendar year concerned, with respect to each MA region and each MA regional plan for which a bid was submitted under section 1395w–24 of this title, the MA region-specific non-drug monthly benchmark amount for that region for the year involved.
(iii) Benchmark announcement for CCA local areas The Secretary shall determine, and shall announce (in a manner intended to provide notice to interested parties), on a timely basis before the calendar year concerned, with respect to each CCA area (as defined in section 1395w–29 (b)(1)(A) of this title), the CCA non-drug monthly benchmark amount under section 1395w–29 (e)(1) of this title for that area for the year involved.
(2) Advance notice of methodological changes 
At least 45 days before making the announcement under paragraph (1) for a year, the Secretary shall provide for notice to Medicare+Choice organizations of proposed changes to be made in the methodology from the methodology and assumptions used in the previous announcement and shall provide such organizations an opportunity to comment on such proposed changes.
(3) Explanation of assumptions 
In each announcement made under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall include an explanation of the assumptions and changes in methodology used in such announcement.
(4) Continued computation and publication of county-specific per capita fee-for-service expenditure information 
The Secretary, through the Chief Actuary of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, shall provide for the computation and publication, on an annual basis beginning with 2001 at the time of publication of the annual Medicare+Choice capitation rates under paragraph (1), of the following information for the original medicare fee-for-service program under parts A and B of this subchapter (exclusive of individuals eligible for coverage under section 426–1 of this title) for each Medicare+Choice payment area for the second calendar year ending before the date of publication:
(A) Total expenditures per capita per month, computed separately for part A of this subchapter and for part B of this subchapter.
(B) The expenditures described in subparagraph (A) reduced by the best estimate of the expenditures (such as graduate medical education and disproportionate share hospital payments) not related to the payment of claims.
(C) The average risk factor for the covered population based on diagnoses reported for medicare inpatient services, using the same methodology as is expected to be applied in making payments under subsection (a) of this section.
(D) Such average risk factor based on diagnoses for inpatient and other sites of service, using the same methodology as is expected to be applied in making payments under subsection (a) of this section.
(c) Calculation of annual Medicare+Choice capitation rates 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this part, subject to paragraphs (6)(C) and (7), each annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate, for a Medicare+Choice payment area that is an MA local area for a contract year consisting of a calendar year, is equal to the largest of the amounts specified in the following subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D):
(A) Blended capitation rate 
For a year before 2005, the sum of
(i) the area-specific percentage (as specified under paragraph (2) for the year) of the annual area-specific Medicare+Choice capitation rate for the Medicare+Choice payment area, as determined under paragraph (3) for the year, and
(ii) the national percentage (as specified under paragraph (2) for the year) of the input-price-adjusted annual national Medicare+Choice capitation rate, as determined under paragraph (4) for the year,

multiplied (for a year other than 2004) by the budget neutrality adjustment factor determined under paragraph (5).

(B) Minimum amount 
12 multiplied by the following amount:
(i) For 1998, $367 (but not to exceed, in the case of an area outside the 50 States and the District of Columbia, 150 percent of the annual per capita rate of payment for 1997 determined under section 1395mm (a)(1)(C) of this title for the area).
(ii) For 1999 and 2000, the minimum amount determined under clause (i) or this clause, respectively, for the preceding year, increased by the national per capita Medicare+Choice growth percentage described in paragraph (6)(A) applicable to 1999 or 2000, respectively.
(iii) 
(I) Subject to subclause (II), for 2001, for any area in a Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population of more than 250,000, $525, and for any other area $475.
(II) In the case of an area outside the 50 States and the District of Columbia, the amount specified in this clause shall not exceed 120 percent of the amount determined under clause (ii) for such area for 2000.
(iv) For 2002, 2003, and 2004, the minimum amount specified in this clause (or clause (iii)) for the preceding year increased by the national per capita Medicare+Choice growth percentage, described in paragraph (6)(A) for that succeeding year.
(C) Minimum percentage increase 

(i) For 1998, 102 percent of the annual per capita rate of payment for 1997 determined under section 1395mm (a)(1)(C) of this title for the Medicare+Choice payment area.
(ii) For 1999 and 2000, 102 percent of the annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate under this paragraph for the area for the previous year.
(iii) For 2001, 103 percent of the annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate under this paragraph for the area for 2000.
(iv) For 2002 and 2003, 102 percent of the annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate under this paragraph for the area for the previous year.
(v) For 2004 and each succeeding year, the greater of
(I) 102 percent of the annual MA capitation rate under this paragraph for the area for the previous year; or
(II) the annual MA capitation rate under this paragraph for the area for the previous year increased by the national per capita MA growth percentage, described in paragraph (6) for that succeeding year, but not taking into account any adjustment under paragraph (6)(C) for a year before 2004.
(D) 100 percent of fee-for-service costs 

(i) In general For each year specified in clause (ii), the adjusted average per capita cost for the year involved, determined under section 1395mm (a)(4) of this title and adjusted as appropriate for the purpose of risk adjustment, for the MA payment area for individuals who are not enrolled in an MA plan under this part for the year, but adjusted to exclude costs attributable to payments under section 1395ww (h) of this title.
(ii) Periodic rebasing The provisions of clause (i) shall apply for 2004 and for subsequent years as the Secretary shall specify (but not less than once every 3 years).
(iii) Inclusion of costs of VA and DOD military facility services to medicare-eligible beneficiaries In determining the adjusted average per capita cost under clause (i) for a year, such cost shall be adjusted to include the Secretarys estimate, on a per capita basis, of the amount of additional payments that would have been made in the area involved under this subchapter if individuals entitled to benefits under this subchapter had not received services from facilities of the Department of Defense or the Department of Veterans Affairs.
(2) Area-specific and national percentages 
For purposes of paragraph (1)(A)
(A) for 1998, the area-specific percentage is 90 percent and the national percentage is 10 percent,
(B) for 1999, the area-specific percentage is 82 percent and the national percentage is 18 percent,
(C) for 2000, the area-specific percentage is 74 percent and the national percentage is 26 percent,
(D) for 2001, the area-specific percentage is 66 percent and the national percentage is 34 percent,
(E) for 2002, the area-specific percentage is 58 percent and the national percentage is 42 percent, and
(F) for a year after 2002, the area-specific percentage is 50 percent and the national percentage is 50 percent.
(3) Annual area-specific Medicare+Choice capitation rate 

(A) In general 
For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), subject to subparagraphs (B) and (E), the annual area-specific Medicare+Choice capitation rate for a Medicare+Choice payment area
(i) for 1998 is, subject to subparagraph (D), the annual per capita rate of payment for 1997 determined under section 1395mm (a)(1)(C) of this title for the area, increased by the national per capita Medicare+Choice growth percentage for 1998 (described in paragraph (6)(A)); or
(ii) for a subsequent year is the annual area-specific Medicare+Choice capitation rate for the previous year determined under this paragraph for the area, increased by the national per capita Medicare+Choice growth percentage for such subsequent year.
(B) Removal of medical education from calculation of adjusted average per capita cost 

(i) In general In determining the area-specific Medicare+Choice capitation rate under subparagraph (A) for a year (beginning with 1998), the annual per capita rate of payment for 1997 determined under section 1395mm (a)(1)(C) of this title shall be adjusted to exclude from the rate the applicable percent (specified in clause (ii)) of the payment adjustments described in subparagraph (C).
(ii) Applicable percent For purposes of clause (i), the applicable percent for
(I) 1998 is 20 percent,
(II) 1999 is 40 percent,
(III) 2000 is 60 percent,
(IV) 2001 is 80 percent, and
(V) a succeeding year is 100 percent.
(C) Payment adjustment 

(i) In general Subject to clause (ii), the payment adjustments described in this subparagraph are payment adjustments which the Secretary estimates were payable during 1997
(I) for the indirect costs of medical education under section 1395ww (d)(5)(B) of this title, and
(II) for direct graduate medical education costs under section 1395ww (h) of this title.
(ii) Treatment of payments covered under State hospital reimbursement system To the extent that the Secretary estimates that an annual per capita rate of payment for 1997 described in clause (i) reflects payments to hospitals reimbursed under section 1395f (b)(3) of this title, the Secretary shall estimate a payment adjustment that is comparable to the payment adjustment that would have been made under clause (i) if the hospitals had not been reimbursed under such section.
(D) Treatment of areas with highly variable payment rates 
In the case of a Medicare+Choice payment area for which the annual per capita rate of payment determined under section 1395mm (a)(1)(C) of this title for 1997 varies by more than 20 percent from such rate for 1996, for purposes of this subsection the Secretary may substitute for such rate for 1997 a rate that is more representative of the costs of the enrollees in the area.
(E) Inclusion of costs of DOD and VA military facility services to Medicare-eligible beneficiaries 
In determining the area-specific MA capitation rate under subparagraph (A) for a year (beginning with 2004), the annual per capita rate of payment for 1997 determined under section 1395mm (a)(1)(C) of this title shall be adjusted to include in the rate the Secretarys estimate, on a per capita basis, of the amount of additional payments that would have been made in the area involved under this subchapter if individuals entitled to benefits under this subchapter had not received services from facilities of the Department of Defense or the Department of Veterans Affairs.
(4) Input-price-adjusted annual national Medicare+Choice capitation rate 

(A) In general 
For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the input-price-adjusted annual national Medicare+Choice capitation rate for a Medicare+Choice payment area for a year is equal to the sum, for all the types of medicare services (as classified by the Secretary), of the product (for each such type of service) of
(i) the national standardized annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate (determined under subparagraph (B)) for the year,
(ii) the proportion of such rate for the year which is attributable to such type of services, and
(iii) an index that reflects (for that year and that type of services) the relative input price of such services in the area compared to the national average input price of such services.

In applying clause (iii), the Secretary may, subject to subparagraph (C), apply those indices under this subchapter that are used in applying (or updating) national payment rates for specific areas and localities.

(B) National standardized annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate 
In subparagraph (A)(i), the national standardized annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate for a year is equal to
(i) the sum (for all Medicare+Choice payment areas) of the product of
(I) the annual area-specific Medicare+Choice capitation rate for that year for the area under paragraph (3), and
(II) the average number of medicare beneficiaries residing in that area in the year, multiplied by the average of the risk factor weights used to adjust payments under subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section for such beneficiaries in such area; divided by
(ii) the sum of the products described in clause (i)(II) for all areas for that year.
(C) Special rules for 1998 
In applying this paragraph for 1998
(i) medicare services shall be divided into 2 types of services: part A services and part B services;
(ii) the proportions described in subparagraph (A)(ii)
(I) for part A services shall be the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the national average annual per capita rate of payment for part A of this subchapter for 1997 to the total national average annual per capita rate of payment for parts A and B of this subchapter for 1997, and
(II) for part B services shall be 100 percent minus the ratio described in subclause (I);
(iii) for part A services, 70 percent of payments attributable to such services shall be adjusted by the index used under section 1395ww (d)(3)(E) of this title to adjust payment rates for relative hospital wage levels for hospitals located in the payment area involved;
(iv) for part B services
(I) 66 percent of payments attributable to such services shall be adjusted by the index of the geographic area factors under section 1395w–4 (e) of this title used to adjust payment rates for physicians services furnished in the payment area, and
(II) of the remaining 34 percent of the amount of such payments, 40 percent shall be adjusted by the index described in clause (iii); and
(v) the index values shall be computed based only on the beneficiary population who are 65 years of age or older and who are not determined to have end stage renal disease.

The Secretary may continue to apply the rules described in this subparagraph (or similar rules) for 1999.

(5) Payment adjustment budget neutrality factor 
For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), for each year (other than 2004), the Secretary shall determine a budget neutrality adjustment factor so that the aggregate of the payments under this part (other than those attributable to subsections (a)(3)(C)(iv), (a)(4), and (i) of this section) shall equal the aggregate payments that would have been made under this part if payment were based entirely on area-specific capitation rates.
(6) “National per capita Medicare+Choice growth percentage” defined 

(A) In general 
In this part, the national per capita Medicare+Choice growth percentage for a year is the percentage determined by the Secretary, by March 1st before the beginning of the year involved, to reflect the Secretarys estimate of the projected per capita rate of growth in expenditures under this subchapter for an individual entitled to benefits under part A of this subchapter and enrolled under part B of this subchapter, reduced by the number of percentage points specified in subparagraph (B) for the year. Separate determinations may be made for aged enrollees, disabled enrollees, and enrollees with end-stage renal disease.
(B) Adjustment 
The number of percentage points specified in this subparagraph is
(i) for 1998, 0.8 percentage points,
(ii) for 1999, 0.5 percentage points,
(iii) for 2000, 0.5 percentage points,
(iv) for 2001, 0.5 percentage points,
(v) for 2002, 0.3 percentage points, and
(vi) for a year after 2002, 0 percentage points.
(C) Adjustment for over or under projection of national per capita Medicare+Choice growth percentage 
Beginning with rates calculated for 1999, before computing rates for a year as described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall adjust all area-specific and national Medicare+Choice capitation rates (and beginning in 2000, the minimum amount) for the previous year for the differences between the projections of the national per capita Medicare+Choice growth percentage for that year and previous years and the current estimate of such percentage for such years, except that for purposes of paragraph (1)(C)(v)(II), no such adjustment shall be made for a year before 2004.
(7) Adjustment for national coverage determinations and legislative changes in benefits 
If the Secretary makes a determination with respect to coverage under this subchapter or there is a change in benefits required to be provided under this part that the Secretary projects will result in a significant increase in the costs to Medicare+Choice of providing benefits under contracts under this part (for periods after any period described in section 1395w–22 (a)(5) of this title), the Secretary shall adjust appropriately the payments to such organizations under this part. Such projection and adjustment shall be based on an analysis by the Chief Actuary of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services of the actuarial costs associated with the new benefits.
(d) MA payment area; MA local area; MA region defined 

(1) MA payment area 
In this part, except as provided in this subsection, the term MA payment area means
(A) with respect to an MA local plan, an MA local area (as defined in paragraph (2)); and
(B) with respect to an MA regional plan, an MA region (as established under section 1395w–27a (a)(2) of this title).
(2) MA local area 
The term MA local area means a county or equivalent area specified by the Secretary.
(3) Rule for ESRD beneficiaries 
In the case of individuals who are determined to have end stage renal disease, the Medicare+Choice payment area shall be a State or such other payment area as the Secretary specifies.
(4) Geographic adjustment 

(A) In general 
Upon written request of the chief executive officer of a State for a contract year (beginning after 1998) made by not later than February 1 of the previous year, the Secretary shall make a geographic adjustment to a Medicare+Choice payment area in the State otherwise determined under paragraph (1) for MA local plans
(i) to a single statewide Medicare+Choice payment area,
(ii) to the metropolitan based system described in subparagraph (C), or
(iii) to consolidating into a single Medicare+Choice payment area noncontiguous counties (or equivalent areas described in paragraph (1)(A)) within a State.

Such adjustment shall be effective for payments for months beginning with January of the year following the year in which the request is received.

(B) Budget neutrality adjustment 
In the case of a State requesting an adjustment under this paragraph, the Secretary shall initially (and annually thereafter) adjust the payment rates otherwise established under this section with respect to MA local plans for Medicare+Choice payment areas in the State in a manner so that the aggregate of the payments under this section for such plans in the State shall not exceed the aggregate payments that would have been made under this section for such plans for Medicare+Choice payment areas in the State in the absence of the adjustment under this paragraph.
(C) Metropolitan based system 
The metropolitan based system described in this subparagraph is one in which
(i) all the portions of each metropolitan statistical area in the State or in the case of a consolidated metropolitan statistical area, all of the portions of each primary metropolitan statistical area within the consolidated area within the State, are treated as a single Medicare+Choice payment area, and
(ii) all areas in the State that do not fall within a metropolitan statistical area are treated as a single Medicare+Choice payment area.
(D) Areas 
In subparagraph (C), the terms metropolitan statistical area, consolidated metropolitan statistical area, and primary metropolitan statistical area mean any area designated as such by the Secretary of Commerce.
(e) Special rules for individuals electing MSA plans 

(1) In general 
If the amount of the Medicare+Choice monthly MSA premium (as defined in section 1395w–24 (b)(2)(C) of this title) for an MSA plan for a year is less than 1/12 of the annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate applied under this section for the area and year involved, the Secretary shall deposit an amount equal to 100 percent of such difference in a Medicare+Choice MSA established (and, if applicable, designated) by the individual under paragraph (2).
(2) Establishment and designation of Medicare+Choice medical savings account as requirement for payment of contribution 
In the case of an individual who has elected coverage under an MSA plan, no payment shall be made under paragraph (1) on behalf of an individual for a month unless the individual
(A) has established before the beginning of the month (or by such other deadline as the Secretary may specify) a Medicare+Choice MSA (as defined in section 138(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), and
(B) if the individual has established more than one such Medicare+Choice MSA, has designated one of such accounts as the individuals Medicare+Choice MSA for purposes of this part.

Under rules under this section, such an individual may change the designation of such account under subparagraph (B) for purposes of this part.

(3) Lump-sum deposit of medical savings account contribution 
In the case of an individual electing an MSA plan effective beginning with a month in a year, the amount of the contribution to the Medicare+Choice MSA on behalf of the individual for that month and all successive months in the year shall be deposited during that first month. In the case of a termination of such an election as of a month before the end of a year, the Secretary shall provide for a procedure for the recovery of deposits attributable to the remaining months in the year.
(f) Payments from Trust Funds 
The payment to a Medicare+Choice organization under this section for individuals enrolled under this part with the organization and payments to a Medicare+Choice MSA under subsection (e)(1) of this section shall be made from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund in such proportion as the Secretary determines reflects the relative weight that benefits under part A of this subchapter and under part B of this subchapter represents of the actuarial value of the total benefits under this subchapter. Payments to MA organizations for statutory drug benefits provided under this subchapter are made from the Medicare Prescription Drug Account in the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund. Monthly payments otherwise payable under this section for October 2000 shall be paid on the first business day of such month. Monthly payments otherwise payable under this section for October 2001 shall be paid on the last business day of September 2001. Monthly payments otherwise payable under this section for October 2006 shall be paid on the first business day of October 2006.
(g) Special rule for certain inpatient hospital stays 
In the case of an individual who is receiving inpatient hospital services from a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in section 1395ww (d)(1)(B) of this title), a rehabilitation hospital described in section 1395ww (d)(1)(B)(ii) of this title or a distinct part rehabilitation unit described in the matter following clause (v) of section 1395ww (d)(1)(B) of this title, or a long-term care hospital (described in section 1395ww (d)(1)(B)(iv) of this title) as of the effective date of the individuals
(1) election under this part of a Medicare+Choice plan offered by a Medicare+Choice organization
(A) payment for such services until the date of the individuals discharge shall be made under this subchapter through the Medicare+Choice plan or the original medicare fee-for-service program option described in section 1395w–21 (a)(1)(A) of this title (as the case may be) elected before the election with such organization,
(B) the elected organization shall not be financially responsible for payment for such services until the date after the date of the individuals discharge, and
(C) the organization shall nonetheless be paid the full amount otherwise payable to the organization under this part; or
(2) termination of election with respect to a Medicare+Choice organization under this part
(A) the organization shall be financially responsible for payment for such services after such date and until the date of the individuals discharge,
(B) payment for such services during the stay shall not be made under section 1395ww (d) of this title or other payment provision under this subchapter for inpatient services for the type of facility, hospital, or unit involved, described in the matter preceding paragraph (1), as the case may be, or by any succeeding Medicare+Choice organization, and
(C) the terminated organization shall not receive any payment with respect to the individual under this part during the period the individual is not enrolled.
(h) Special rule for hospice care 

(1) Information 
A contract under this part shall require the Medicare+Choice organization to inform each individual enrolled under this part with a Medicare+Choice plan offered by the organization about the availability of hospice care if
(A) a hospice program participating under this subchapter is located within the organizations service area; or
(B) it is common practice to refer patients to hospice programs outside such service area.
(2) Payment 
If an individual who is enrolled with a Medicare+Choice organization under this part makes an election under section 1395d (d)(1) of this title to receive hospice care from a particular hospice program
(A) payment for the hospice care furnished to the individual shall be made to the hospice program elected by the individual by the Secretary;
(B) payment for other services for which the individual is eligible notwithstanding the individuals election of hospice care under section 1395d (d)(1) of this title, including services not related to the individuals terminal illness, shall be made by the Secretary to the Medicare+Choice organization or the provider or supplier of the service instead of payments calculated under subsection (a) of this section; and
(C) the Secretary shall continue to make monthly payments to the Medicare+Choice organization in an amount equal to the value of the additional benefits required under section 1395w–24 (f)(1)(A) of this title.
(i) New entry bonus 

(1) In general 
Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), in the case of Medicare+Choice payment area in which a Medicare+Choice plan has not been offered since 1997 (or in which all organizations that offered a plan since such date have filed notice with the Secretary, as of October 13, 1999, that they will not be offering such a plan as of January 1, 2000, or filed notice with the Secretary as of October 3, 2000, that they will not be offering such a plan as of January 1, 2001), the amount of the monthly payment otherwise made under this section shall be increased
(A) only for the first 12 months in which any Medicare+Choice plan is offered in the area, by 5 percent of the total monthly payment otherwise computed for such payment area; and
(B) only for the subsequent 12 months, by 3 percent of the total monthly payment otherwise computed for such payment area.
(2) Period of application 
Paragraph (1) shall only apply to payment for Medicare+Choice plans which are first offered in a Medicare+Choice payment area during the 2-year period beginning on January 1, 2000.
(3) Limitation to organization offering first plan in an area 
Paragraph (1) shall only apply to payment to the first Medicare+Choice organization that offers a Medicare+Choice plan in each Medicare+Choice payment area, except that if more than one such organization first offers such a plan in an area on the same date, paragraph (1) shall apply to payment for such organizations.
(4) Construction 
Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed as affecting the calculation of the annual Medicare+Choice capitation rate under subsection (c) of this section for any payment area or as applying to payment for any period not described in such paragraph and paragraph (2).
(5) Offered defined 
In this subsection, the term offered means, with respect to a Medicare+Choice plan as of a date, that a Medicare+Choice eligible individual may enroll with the plan on that date, regardless of when the enrollment takes effect or when the individual obtains benefits under the plan.
(j) Computation of benchmark amounts 
For purposes of this part, the term MA area-specific non-drug monthly benchmark amount means for a month in a year
(1) with respect to
(A) a service area that is entirely within an MA local area, subject to section 1395w–29 (d)(2)(A) of this title, an amount equal to 1/12 of the annual MA capitation rate under subsection (c)(1) (or, beginning with 2007, 1/12 of the applicable amount determined under subsection (k)(1)) for the area for the year, adjusted as appropriate (for years before 2007) for the purpose of risk adjustment; or
(B) a service area that includes more than one MA local area, an amount equal to the average of the amounts described in subparagraph (A) for each such local MA area, weighted by the projected number of enrollees in the plan residing in the respective local MA areas (as used by the plan for purposes of the bid and disclosed to the Secretary under section 1395w–24 (a)(6)(A)(iii) of this title), adjusted as appropriate (for years before 2007) for the purpose of risk adjustment; or
(2) with respect to an MA region for a month in a year, the MA region-specific non-drug monthly benchmark amount, as defined in section 1395w–27a (f) of this title for the region for the year.
(k) Determination of applicable amount for purposes of calculating the benchmark amounts 

(1) Applicable amount defined 
For purposes of subsection (j), subject to paragraph (2), the term applicable amount means for an area
(A) for 2007
(i) if such year is not specified under subsection (c)(1)(D)(ii), an amount equal to the amount specified in subsection (c)(1)(C) for the area for 2006
(I) first adjusted by the rescaling factor for 2006 for the area (as made available by the Secretary in the announcement of the rates on April 4, 2005, under subsection (b)(1), but excluding any national adjustment factors for coding intensity and risk adjustment budget neutrality that were included in such factor); and
(II) then increased by the national per capita MA growth percentage, described in subsection (c)(6) for 2007, but not taking into account any adjustment under subparagraph (C) of such subsection for a year before 2004;
(ii) if such year is specified under subsection (c)(1)(D)(ii), an amount equal to the greater of
(I) the amount determined under clause (i) for the area for the year; or
(II) the amount specified in subsection (c)(1)(D) for the area for the year; and
(B) for a subsequent year
(i) if such year is not specified under subsection (c)(1)(D)(ii), an amount equal to the amount determined under this paragraph for the area for the previous year (determined without regard to paragraph (2)), increased by the national per capita MA growth percentage, described in subsection (c)(6) for that succeeding year, but not taking into account any adjustment under subparagraph (C) of such subsection for a year before 2004; and
(ii) if such year is specified under subsection (c)(1)(D)(ii), an amount equal to the greater of
(I) the amount determined under clause (i) for the area for the year; or
(II) the amount specified in subsection (c)(1)(D) for the area for the year.
(2) Phase-out of budget neutrality factor 

(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraph (D), in the case of 2007 through 2010, the applicable amount determined under paragraph (1) shall be multiplied by a factor equal to 1 plus the product of
(i) the percent determined under subparagraph (B) for the year; and
(ii) the applicable phase-out factor for the year under subparagraph (C).
(B) Percent determined 

(i) In general For purposes of subparagraph (A)(i), subject to clause (iv), the percent determined under this subparagraph for a year is a percent equal to a fraction the numerator of which is described in clause (ii) and the denominator of which is described in clause (iii).
(ii) Numerator based on difference between demographic rate and risk rate
(I) In general The numerator described in this clause is an amount equal to the amount by which the demographic rate described in subclause (II) exceeds the risk rate described in subclause (III).
(II) Demographic rate The demographic rate described in this subclause is the Secretarys estimate of the total payments that would have been made under this part in the year if all the monthly payment amounts for all MA plans were equal to 1/12 of the annual MA capitation rate under subsection (c)(1) for the area and year, adjusted pursuant to subsection (a)(1)(C).
(III) Risk rate The risk rate described in this subclause is the Secretarys estimate of the total payments that would have been made under this part in the year if all the monthly payment amounts for all MA plans were equal to the amount described in subsection (j)(1)(A) (determined as if this paragraph had not applied) under subsection (j) for the area and year, adjusted pursuant to subsection (a)(1)(C).
(iii) Denominator based on risk rate The denominator described in this clause is equal to the total amount estimated for the year under clause (ii)(III).
(iv) Requirements In estimating the amounts under the previous clauses, the Secretary shall
(I) use a complete set of the most recent and representative Medicare Advantage risk scores under subsection (a)(3) that are available from the risk adjustment model announced for the year;
(II) adjust the risk scores to reflect changes in treatment and coding practices in the fee-for-service sector;
(III) adjust the risk scores for differences in coding patterns between Medicare Advantage plans and providers under the original Medicare fee-for-service program under parts A and B to the extent that the Secretary has identified such differences, as required in subsection (a)(1)(C);
(IV) as necessary, adjust the risk scores for late data submitted by Medicare Advantage organizations;
(V) as necessary, adjust the risk scores for lagged cohorts; and
(VI) as necessary, adjust the risk scores for changes in enrollment in Medicare Advantage plans during the year.
(v) Authority In computing such amounts the Secretary may take into account the estimated health risk of enrollees in preferred provider organization plans (including MA regional plans) for the year.
(C) Applicable phase-out factor 
For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii), the term applicable phase-out factor means
(i) for 2007, 0.55;
(ii) for 2008, 0.40;
(iii) for 2009, 0.25; and
(iv) for 2010, 0.05.
(D) Termination of application 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in a year if the amount estimated under subparagraph (B)(ii)(III) for the year is equal to or greater than the amount estimated under subparagraph (B)(ii)(II) for the year.
(3) No revision in percent 

(A) In general 
The Secretary may not make any adjustment to the percent determined under paragraph (2)(B) for any year.
(B) Rule of construction 
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary to make adjustments to the applicable amounts determined under paragraph (1) as appropriate for purposes of updating data or for purposes of adopting an improved risk adjustment methodology.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “parts”.