TITLE 41 - US CODE - PUBLIC CONTRACTS

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

1 to 4a. Repealed. Oct. 21, 1941, ch. 452, 55 Stat. 743

Section 1, R.S. 512; act Feb. 4, 1929, ch. 146, 1, 3, 45 Stat. 1147, establish a return office for filing returns of contracts made by Secretaries of War, Navy and Interior and appointed a clerk for this office. Section 2, R.S. 513, required clerk to file all returns. Section 3, R.S. 514, required clerk to keep an index book. Section 4, R.S. 515, required clerk to provide certified copies of any returns for an established fee. Section 4a, act Feb. 4, 1929, ch. 146, 1, 3, 45 Stat. 1147, transferred returns office to General Accounting Office and imposed duties relating thereto upon Comptroller General.

41 USC 5 - Advertisements for proposals for purchases and contracts for supplies or services for Government departments; application to Government sales and contracts to sell and to Government corporations

Unless otherwise provided in the appropriation concerned or other law, purchases and contracts for supplies or services for the Government may be made or entered into only after advertising a sufficient time previously for proposals, except (1) when the amount involved in any one case does not exceed $25,000, (2) when the public exigencies require the immediate delivery of the articles or performance of the service, (3) when only one source of supply is available and the Government purchasing or contracting officer shall so certify, or (4) when the services are required to be performed by the contractor in person and are (A) of a technical and professional nature or (B) under Government supervision and paid for on a time basis. Except (1) as authorized by section 16381 of Appendix to title 50, (2) when otherwise authorized by law, or (3) when the reasonable value involved in any one case does not exceed $500, sales and contracts of sale by the Government shall be governed by the requirements of this section for advertising. In the case of wholly owned Government corporations, this section shall apply to their administrative transactions only.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 5a - Definitions

The word department as used in this Act shall be construed to include independent establishments, other agencies, wholly owned Government corporations (the transactions of which corporations shall be subject to the authorizations and limitations of this Act, except that section 5 of this title shall apply to their administrative transactions only), and the government of the District of Columbia, but shall not include the Senate, House of Representatives, or office of the Architect of the Capitol, or the officers or employees thereof. The words continental United States as used herein shall be construed to mean the forty-eight States and the District of Columbia. The word Government shall be construed to include the government of the District of Columbia. The word appropriation shall be construed as including funds made available by legislation under section 9104 of title 31.

41 USC 6 - Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, 1(98)(105), 65 Stat. 705

Section, acts Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 851, 1, 54 Stat. 1109; June 28, 1941, ch. 258, titles II, III, IV, 55 Stat. 281, 289, 292, 302; June 8, 1942, ch. 396, 56 Stat. 347; July 2, 1942, ch. 472, titles II, III, IV, 56 Stat. 483, 500, 505; June 28, 1943, ch. 173, titles I, II, 57 Stat. 236, 243; June 26, 1944, ch. 277, titles I, II, 58 Stat. 351, 358; June 13, 1945, ch. 189, 59 Stat. 256; July 1, 1946, ch. 530, 60 Stat. 405; June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, 204, 61 Stat. 208; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, 103, 104 (a), 63 Stat. 380, which excepted from provisions of section 5 of this title a number of specified Government departments and agencies, when purchases or services were not in excess of certain specified amounts up to $500. Another provision of title III of act July 2, 1942, ch. 472, 56 Stat. 493, which also had been shown as one of the sources of this former section, made an exception with respect to purchases or services rendered for the Office of the Administrator of Civil Aeronautics, when the aggregate amount involved did not exceed $100. That provision was not repealed, but, if it did not expire with that act, which was an appropriation act, it was superseded by section 5 of this title, as amended. A prior section 6, acts Feb. 27, 1893, ch. 168, 27 Stat. 485; Mar. 1, 1899, ch. 325, 30 Stat. 957; Mar. 2, 1911, ch. 192, 36 Stat. 975; May 18, 1916, ch. 125, 39 Stat. 126; Mar. 1, 1919, ch. 86, 40 Stat. 1262; May 29, 1920, ch. 214, 41 Stat. 677; June 12, 1922, ch. 218, 42 Stat. 638; Feb. 13, 1923, ch. 72, 42 Stat. 1244; Feb. 15, 1934, ch. 13, 48 Stat. 351, related to exceptions to the requirements of section 5 of this title, prior to repeal by act Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 851, 4, 54 Stat. 1111. See sections 5, 6a, and 6b of this title.

41 USC 6a - Advertisements for proposals for purchases and contracts for supplies or services for Government departments; limited to particular agencies under specified circumstances

Section 5 of this title shall not be construed to apply under any appropriation Act to the following departments and independent offices under the circumstances specified herein:
(a) American Battle Monuments Commissionto any leases in foreign countries for office or garage space.
(b) to (e) Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, 1(107), 65 Stat. 705.
(f) The Bureau of Interparliamentary Union for Promotion of International Arbitrationto stenographic reporting services by contract if deemed necessary.
(g) Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, 1(107), 65 Stat. 705.
(h) Department of Statewhen the purchase or service relates to the packing of personal and household effects of Diplomatic, Consular, and Foreign Service officers and clerks for foreign shipment.
(i) Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, 1(107), 65 Stat. 705.
(j) The International Committee of Aerial Legal Expertsto stenographic and other service by contract as deemed necessary.

41 USC 6a1 - Architect of the Capitol, exception from advertisement requirements

On and after July 27, 1965, the purchase of supplies and equipment and the procurement of services for all branches under the Architect of the Capitol may be made in the open market without compliance with section 5 of this title in the manner common among businessmen, when the aggregate amount of the purchase or the service does not exceed $25,000 in any instance.

41 USC 6a2 - Architect of the Capitol, authority for personal services contracts with legal entities

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Architect of the Capitol is authorized to contract for personal services with any firm, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity in the same manner as he is authorized to contract for personal services with individuals under the provisions of section 5 of this title.

41 USC 6a3 - House of Representatives, exception from advertisement requirements

Section 5 of this title does not apply to purchases and contracts for supplies or services for any office of the House of Representatives in any fiscal year.

41 USC 6a4 - Director of the Congressional Budget Office, exception from advertisement requirements

(a) Exception 
The Director of the Congressional Budget Office may enter into agreements or contracts without regard to section 5 of this title.
(b) Effective Date 
This section shall apply to fiscal year 2003 and each fiscal year thereafter.

41 USC 6b - Miscellaneous exceptions from advertisement requirements

(a) Control of insects, pests, and grass diseases 
Materials and equipment for the control of incipient or emergency outbreaks of insects, pests, or grass diseases, including grasshoppers, Mormon crickets, and chinch bugs, may be procured with any sums appropriated to carry out the provisions of sections 148 to 148e1 of title 7 without regard to the provisions of section 5 of this title, and the transportation thereof may be under such conditions and means as shall be determined by the Secretary of Agriculture to be most advantageous.
(b) Omitted 
(c) Operations on Menominee Indian Reservation 
All contracts for labor or supplies necessary for the carrying on of operations on the Menominee Indian Reservation pursuant to the Act of March 28, 1908 (35 Stat. 51), as amended, shall be exempt from the requirements of section 5 of this title.
(d) Sale of Indian produced forest products 
The lumber and other forest products produced by Indian enterprises from the forests on Indian reservations may be sold under such regulations as the Secretary of the Interior may prescribe, without compliance with section 5 of this title.
[1] See References in Text note below.

6c to 6jj. Repealed. Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 851, 4, 54 Stat. 1111

Section 6c, acts June 22, 1936, ch. 689, 49 Stat. 1604; June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 341; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 424; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 539; June 25, 1940, ch. 421, 54 Stat. 566, excepted Rural Electrification Administration from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $100. Section 6d, acts June 22, 1936, ch. 689, 49 Stat. 1605; June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 344; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 426; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 540, excepted Social Security Board from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $100. Section 6e, acts May 14, 1937, ch. 180, title I, 50 Stat. 139; Mar. 28, 1938, ch. 55, 52 Stat. 123; May 6, 1939, ch. 115, title I, 53 Stat. 656; Mar. 25, 1940, ch. 71, title I, 54 Stat. 56, excepted Treasury Department from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6f, acts June 16, 1937, ch. 359, title I, 50 Stat. 273; Apr. 27, 1938, ch. 180, title I, 52 Stat. 258; June 29, 1939, ch. 248, title I, 53 Stat. 896; May 14, 1940, ch. 189, title I, 54 Stat. 192, excepted Department of State from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed certain specified amounts. Section 6g, acts June 16, 1937, ch. 359, title II, 50 Stat. 275; Apr. 27, 1938, ch. 180, title II, 52 Stat. 260; June 29, 1939, ch. 248, title II, 53 Stat. 898; May 14, 1940, ch. 189, title III, 54 Stat. 201, 202, excepted Federal Bureau of Investigation from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount did not exceed $50. Section 6h, acts June 16, 1937, ch. 359, title III, 50 Stat. 285; Apr. 27, 1938, ch. 180, title III, 52 Stat. 272, excepted Bureau of Air Commerce from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $100. Section 6i, acts June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 335; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 417; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 532; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 124, excepted Federal Trade Commission from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6j, acts June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 338; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 420; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 534; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 133, excepted Interstate Commerce Commission from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6k, acts June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 339; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 421; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 536; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 135, excepted National Archives from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount did not exceed $50. Section 6l, acts June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 339; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 422; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 537; June 26, 1940, ch. 428, title IV, 54 Stat. 595, excepted National Labor Relations Board from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6m, acts June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 341; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 423; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 538; June 26, 1940, ch. 428, title VI, 54 Stat. 596, excepted Railroad Retirement Board from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6n, acts June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 342; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 425; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 539; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 136, excepted Securities and Exchange Commission from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6o, act Apr. 6, 1937, ch. 69, 3, as added May 9, 1938, ch. 192, 52 Stat. 344, excepted control of insects and plant diseases from provisions of section 5 of this title. Section 6p, act May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 417, Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 531; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 124, excepted Federal Power Commission from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6q, acts June 25, 1938, ch. 681, title I, 52 Stat. 1117; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 535; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 134, excepted Maritime Labor Board from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $100. Section 6r, acts Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 527; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 116, excepted Civil Aeronautics Authority from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $100. Section 6s, acts Aug. 7, 1935, ch. 455, 49 Stat. 540; Feb. 11, 1936, ch. 49, 49 Stat. 1123; May 15, 1936, ch. 405, 49 Stat. 1316; June 16, 1937, ch. 359, 50 Stat. 267; Apr. 27, 1938, ch. 180, 52 Stat. 254; June 29, 1939, ch. 248, title I, 53 Stat. 892; May 14, 1940, ch. 189, title I, 54 Stat. 188, excepted International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Experts from provisions of section 5 of this title. Section 6t, acts May 15, 1936, ch. 405, 49 Stat. 1315; June 16, 1937, ch. 359, 50 Stat. 267; Apr. 27, 1938, ch. 180, 52 Stat. 253; June 29, 1939, ch. 248, title I, 53 Stat. 891, excepted Bureau of Interparliamentary Union for Promotion of International Arbitration from provisions of section 5 of this title. Section 6u, acts Feb. 20, 1929, ch. 270, 45 Stat. 1243; Apr. 19, 1930, ch. 201, 46 Stat. 243; Feb. 23, 1931, ch. 281, 46 Stat. 1370; Feb. 2, 1935, ch. 3, 49 Stat. 16; Mar. 19, 1936, ch. 156, 49 Stat. 1180; June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 345; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 427; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 542; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 137, excepted Tariff Commission (now International Trade Commission) from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6v, acts June 28, 1937, ch. 396, 50 Stat. 331; May 23, 1938, ch. 259, 52 Stat. 412; Mar. 16, 1939, ch. 11, 53 Stat. 525; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 113, excepted American Battle Monuments Commission from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $500. Section 6v–1, act Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 113, excepted American Battle Monuments Commission, when entering into leases in foreign countries, from provisions of section 5 of this title. Section 6w, acts June 16, 1938, ch. 464, 52 Stat. 750; June 30, 1939, ch. 253, title II, 53 Stat. 978; June 25, 1940, ch. 421, 54 Stat. 568, excepted Farm Credit Administration from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount did not exceed $50. Section 6x, act Aug. 25, 1937, ch. 757, title I, 50 Stat. 759, excepted United States Maritime Commission from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount did not exceed $100. Section 6y, acts Aug. 9, 1939, ch. 633, title I, 53 Stat. 1318; June 18, 1940, ch. 395, 54 Stat. 443, excepted Bureau of Mines from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount did not exceed $500. Section 6z, act Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 112, excepted Bureau of the Budget (now Office of Management and Budget) from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amounts involved did not exceed certain specified sums. Section 6aa, act Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 118, excepted Federal Communications Commission from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount did not exceed $50. Section 6bb, act Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 119, excepted Federal Loan Agency from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amounts involved did not exceed certain specified sums. Section 6cc, act Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 120, excepted Federal Home Loan Bank from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amounts involved did not exceed certain specified sums. Section 6dd, act Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 131, excepted General Accounting Office from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6ee, acts Feb. 11, 1927, ch. 104, 44 Stat. 1081; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, 54 Stat. 137, excepted Tariff Commission (now International Trade Commission) from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6ff, act May 14, 1940, ch. 189, title I, 54 Stat. 189, excepted International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico, from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $500. Section 6gg, act May 14, 1940, ch. 189, title IV, 54 Stat. 211, excepted Administrative Office of United States Courts from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6hh, act June 11, 1940, ch. 313, title I, 54 Stat. 290, excepted Navy Department from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50. Section 6ii, acts Jan. 25, 1929, ch. 102, title III, 45 Stat. 1119; Apr. 18, 1930, ch. 184, title III, 46 Stat. 198; Feb. 23, 1931, ch. 280, title III, 46 Stat. 1334; July 1, 1932, ch. 361, title III, 47 Stat. 502; Mar. 1, 1933, ch. 144, title III, 47 Stat. 1393; Apr. 7, 1934, ch. 104, title III, 48 Stat. 551; Mar. 22, 1935, ch. 39, 49 Stat. 90; May 15, 1936, ch. 405, 49 Stat. 1336; June 16, 1937, ch. 359, title III, 50 Stat. 287; Apr. 27, 1938, ch. 180, title III, 52 Stat. 273; June 29, 1939, ch. 248, title III, 53 Stat. 909, excepted Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $100. Section 6jj, acts May 13, 1926, ch. 294, 44 Stat. 548; Feb. 23, 1927, ch. 168, 44 Stat. 1157; May 14, 1928, ch. 551, 45 Stat. 528; Feb. 28, 1929, ch. 367, 45 Stat. 1397; June 6, 1930, ch. 407, 46 Stat. 516; Feb. 20, 1931, ch. 234, 46 Stat. 1186; June 30, 1932, ch. 314, 47 Stat. 393; Feb. 28, 1933, ch. 134, 47 Stat. 1362; May 30, 1934, ch. 372, 48 Stat. 828; July 8, 1935, ch. 374, 49 Stat. 471; Apr. 17, 1936, ch. 233, 49 Stat. 1226; May 18, 1937, ch. 223, 50 Stat. 181; May 17, 1938, ch. 236, 52 Stat. 392; June 16, 1939, ch. 208, 53 Stat. 834; June 18, 1940, ch. 396, 54 Stat. 474, excepted Botanic Garden, in purchase of trees and plants, from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $300.

41 USC 6kk - Omitted

41 USC 6ll - Repealed. Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 851, 4, 54 Stat. 1111

Section, act Apr. 22, 1926, ch. 171, 44 Stat. 314, excepted National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics from provisions of section 5 of this title when aggregate amount involved did not exceed $50.

41 USC 6mm - Transferred

7 to 7d. Repealed. June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title VI, 602(a)(29)(31), formerly title V, 502(a)(29)(31), 63 Stat. 401; renumbered Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, 6(a), (b), 64 Stat. 583

Section 7, act June 17, 1910, ch. 297, 4, 36 Stat. 531; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, 1, eff. June 10, 1933, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 6623, eff. Mar. 1, 1934, related to advertisements and contracts for miscellaneous supplies for executive departments and other government establishments in Washington; Procurement Division in Department of Treasury; bond of contractor; and purchase or drawing of supplies. Section 7a, act Feb. 27, 1929, ch. 354, 1, 45 Stat. 1341; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, 1, eff. June 10, 1933, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 6623, eff. Mar. 1, 1934, related to consolidation and coordination of government purchases. Section 7b, act Feb. 27, 1929, ch. 354, 2, 45 Stat. 1342; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, 1, June 10, 1933, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 6623, Mar. 1, 1934, provided for requisition of supplies and reimbursement. Section 7c, act Feb. 27, 1929, ch. 354, 3, 45 Stat. 1342; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, 1, eff. June 10, 1933, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 6623, eff. Mar. 1, 1934, provided for a general supply fund and reports and audits. Section 7c–1, act May 14, 1935, ch. 110, 49 Stat. 234; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, 1, eff. June 10, 1933, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 6623, eff. Mar. 1, 1934, related to expenditures incidental to operation of government fuel yards. Section 7d, act Feb. 27, 1929, ch. 354, 4, 45 Stat. 1342, related to Secretary of Treasurys authority to prescribe regulations.

41 USC 8 - Opening bids

Whenever proposals for supplies have been solicited, the parties responding to such solicitation shall be duly notified of the time and place of opening the bids, and be permitted to be present either in person or by attorney, and a record of each bid shall then and there be made.

41 USC 9 - Repealed. Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 11(a), 62 Stat. 25

Section, R.S. 3717, related to separate proposals for works or material or labor. See sections 2303 to 2305 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

41 USC 10 - Omitted

41 USC 10a - American materials required for public use

(a) In general 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and unless the head of the department or independent establishment concerned shall determine it to be inconsistent with the public interest, or the cost to be unreasonable, only such unmanufactured articles, materials, and supplies as have been mined or produced in the United States, and only such manufactured articles, materials, and supplies as have been manufactured in the United States substantially all from articles, materials, or supplies mined, produced, or manufactured, as the case may be, in the United States, shall be acquired for public use. This section shall not apply with respect to articles, materials, or supplies for use outside the United States, or if articles, materials, or supplies of the class or kind to be used or the articles, materials, or supplies from which they are manufactured are not mined, produced, or manufactured, as the case may be, in the United States in sufficient and reasonably available commercial quantities and of a satisfactory quality. This section shall not apply to manufactured articles, materials, or supplies procured under any contract the award value of which is less than or equal to the micro-purchase threshold under section 428 of this title.
(b) Reports 

(1) In general 
Not later than 180 days after the end of each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011, the head of each Federal agency shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives a report on the amount of the acquisitions made by the agency in that fiscal year of articles, materials, or supplies purchased from entities that manufacture the articles, materials, or supplies outside of the United States.
(2) Contents of report 
The report required by paragraph (1) shall separately include, for the fiscal year covered by such report
(A) the dollar value of any articles, materials, or supplies that were manufactured outside the United States;
(B) an itemized list of all waivers granted with respect to such articles, materials, or supplies under this Act, and a citation to the treaty, international agreement, or other law under which each waiver was granted;
(C) if any articles, materials, or supplies were acquired from entities that manufacture articles, materials, or supplies outside the United States, the specific exception under this section that was used to purchase such articles, materials, or supplies; and
(D) a summary of
(i) the total procurement funds expended on articles, materials, and supplies manufactured inside the United States; and
(ii) the total procurement funds expended on articles, materials, and supplies manufactured outside the United States.
(3) Public availability 
The head of each Federal agency submitting a report under paragraph (1) shall make the report publicly available to the maximum extent practicable.
(4) Exception for intelligence community 
This subsection shall not apply to acquisitions made by an agency, or component thereof, that is an element of the intelligence community as specified in, or designated under, section 401a (4) of title 50.

41 USC 10b - Contracts for public works; specification for use of American materials; blacklisting contractors violating requirements

(a) Every contract for the construction, alteration, or repair of any public building or public work in the United States growing out of an appropriation heretofore made or hereafter to be made shall contain a provision that in the performance of the work the contractor, subcontractors, material men, or suppliers, shall use only such unmanufactured articles, materials, and supplies as have been mined or produced in the United States, and only such manufactured articles, materials, and supplies as have been manufactured in the United States substantially all from articles, materials, or supplies mined, produced, or manufactured, as the case may be, in the United States except as provided in section 10a of this title: Provided, however, That if the head of the department or independent establishment making the contract shall find that in respect to some particular articles, materials, or supplies it is impracticable to make such requirement or that it would unreasonably increase the cost, an exception shall be noted in the specifications as to that particular article, material, or supply, and a public record made of the findings which justified the exception.
(b) If the head of a department, bureau, agency, or independent establishment which has made any contract containing the provision required by subsection (a) of this section finds that in the performance of such contract there has been a failure to comply with such provisions, he shall make public his findings, including therein the name of the contractor obligated under such contract, and no other contract for the construction, alteration, or repair of any public building or public work in the United States or elsewhere shall be awarded to such contractor, subcontractors, material men, or suppliers with which such contractor is associated or affiliated, within a period of three years after such findings is made public.

41 USC 10b1 - Omitted

41 USC 10b2 - Limitation on authority to waive Buy American Act requirement

(a) Buy American Act waiver rescissions 

(1) If the Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the United States Trade Representative, determines that a foreign country which is party to an agreement described in paragraph (2) has violated the terms of the agreement by discriminating against certain types of products produced in the United States that are covered by the agreement, the Secretary of Defense shall rescind the Secretarys blanket waiver of the Buy American Act with respect to such types of products produced in that foreign country.
(2) An agreement referred to in paragraph (1) is any reciprocal defense procurement memorandum of understanding between the United States and a foreign country pursuant to which the Secretary of Defense has prospectively waived the Buy American Act for certain products in that country.
(b) Definition 
For purposes of this section, the term Buy American Act means title III of the Act entitled An Act making appropriations for the Treasury and Post Office Departments for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, and for other purposes, approved March 3, 1933 (41 U.S.C. 10a et seq.).

41 USC 10b3 - Annual report relating to Buy American Act

The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress, not later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal year, a report on the amount of purchases by the Department of Defense from foreign entities in that fiscal year. Such report shall separately indicate the dollar value of items for which the Buy American Act (41 U.S.C. 10a et seq.) was waived pursuant to any of the following:
(1) Any reciprocal defense procurement memorandum of understanding described in section 10b–2 (a)(2) of this title.
(2) The Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.)
(3) Any international agreement to which the United States is a party.

41 USC 10c - Definition of terms used in sections 10a, 10b, and 10c

When used in sections 10a, 10b, and 10c of this title
(a) The term United States, when used in a geographical sense, includes the United States and any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof;
(b) The terms public use, public building, and public work shall mean use by, public building of, and public work of, the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Canal Zone, and the Virgin Islands.

41 USC 10d - Clarification of Congressional intent regarding sections 10a and 10b(a)

In order to clarify the original intent of Congress, hereafter, section 10a of this title and that part of section 10b (a) of this title preceding the words Provided, however, shall be regarded as requiring the purchase, for public use within the United States, of articles, materials, or supplies manufactured in the United States in sufficient and reasonably available commercial quantities and of a satisfactory quality, unless the head of the department or independent establishment concerned shall determine their purchase to be inconsistent with the public interest or their cost to be unreasonable.

41 USC 11 - No contracts or purchases unless authorized or under adequate appropriation; report to the Congress

(a) No contract or purchase on behalf of the United States shall be made, unless the same is authorized by law or is under an appropriation adequate to its fulfillment, except in the Department of Defense and in the Department of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, for clothing, subsistence, forage, fuel, quarters, transportation, or medical and hospital supplies, which, however, shall not exceed the necessities of the current year.
(b) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy shall immediately advise the Congress of the exercise of the authority granted in subsection (a) of this section, and shall report quarterly on the estimated obligations incurred pursuant to the authority granted in subsection (a) of this section.

41 USC 11a - Contracts for fuel by Secretary of the Army without regard to current fiscal year

When, in the opinion of the Secretary of the Army, it is in the interest of the United States so to do, he is authorized to enter into contracts and to incur obligations for fuel in sufficient quantities to meet the requirements for one year without regard to the current fiscal year, and payments for supplies delivered under such contracts may be made from funds appropriated for the fiscal year in which the contract is made, or from funds appropriated or which may be appropriated for such supplies for the ensuing fiscal year.

41 USC 12 - No contract to exceed appropriation

No contract shall be entered into for the erection, repair, or furnishing of any public building, or for any public improvement which shall bind the Government to pay a larger sum of money than the amount in the Treasury appropriated for the specific purpose.

41 USC 13 - Contracts limited to one year

Except as otherwise provided, it shall not be lawful for any of the executive departments to make contracts for stationery or other supplies for a longer term than one year from the time the contract is made.

41 USC 13a - Repealed. Pub. L. 86682, 12(c), Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 710

Section, Joint Res. Mar. 24, 1874, No. 6, 18 Stat. 286, excepted mail bags, mail locks, and keys from provisions of section 13 of this title.

41 USC 14 - Restriction on purchases of land

No land shall be purchased on account of the United States, except under a law authorizing such purchase.

41 USC 15 - Transfers of contracts; assignments; assignee not subject to reduction or setoff

(a) Transfer 
No contract or order, or any interest therein, shall be transferred by the party to whom such contract or order is given to any other party, and any such transfer shall cause the annulment of the contract or order transferred, so far as the United States is concerned. All rights of action, however, for any breach of such contract by the contracting parties, are reserved to the United States.
(b) Assignment 
The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply in any case in which the moneys due or to become due from the United States or from any agency or department thereof, under a contract providing for payments aggregating $1,000 or more, are assigned to a bank, trust company, or other financing institution, including any Federal lending agency, provided:
(1) That, in the case of any contract entered into after October 9, 1940, no claim shall be assigned if it arises under a contract which forbids such assignment.
(2) That, unless otherwise expressly permitted by such contract, any such assignment shall cover all amounts payable under such contract and not already paid, shall not be made to more than one party, and shall not be subject to further assignment, except that any such assignment may be made to one party as agent or trustee for two or more parties participating in such financing.
(3) That, in the event of any such assignment, the assignee thereof shall file written notice of the assignment together with a true copy of the instrument of the assignment with
(A) the contracting officer or the head of his department or agency;
(B) the surety or sureties upon the bond or bonds, if any, in connection with such contract; and
(C) the disbursing officer, if any, designated in such contract to make payment.
(c) Validity of assignment 
Notwithstanding any law to the contrary governing the validity of assignments, any assignment pursuant to this section shall constitute a valid assignment for all purposes.
(d) Assignee liability 
In any case in which moneys due or to become due under any contract are or have been assigned pursuant to this section, no liability of any nature of the assignor to the United States or any department or agency thereof, whether arising from or independently of such contract, shall create or impose any liability on the part of the assignee to make restitution, refund, or repayment to the United States of any amount heretofore since July 1, 1950, or hereafter received under the assignment.
(e) Amendment of contract 
Any contract of the Department of Defense, the General Services Administration, the Department of Energy, or any other department or agency of the United States designated by the President, except any such contract under which full payment has been made, may, upon a determination of need by the President, provide or be amended without consideration to provide that payments to be made to the assignee of any moneys due or to become due under such contract shall not be subject to reduction or setoff. Each such determination of need shall be published in the Federal Register.
(f) Assignor liability arising independent of contract 
If a provision described in subsection (e) of this section or a provision to the same general effect has been at any time heretofore or is hereafter included or inserted in any such contract, payments to be made thereafter to an assignee of any moneys due or to become due under such contract shall not be subject to reduction or setoff for any liability of any nature of the assignor to the United States or any department or agency thereof which arises independently of such contract, or hereafter for any liability of the assignor on account of
(1) renegotiation under any renegotiation statute or under any statutory renegotiation article in the contract;
(2) fines;
(3) penalties (which term does not include amounts which may be collected or withheld from the assignor in accordance with or for failure to comply with the terms of the contract); or
(4) taxes, social security contributions, or the withholding or non withholding of taxes or social security contributions, whether arising from or independently of such contract.
(g) Accrued rights and obligations 
Except as herein otherwise provided, nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect or impair rights or obligations heretofore accrued.

41 USC 16 - Repealed. Oct. 21, 1941, ch. 452, 55 Stat. 743

Section, R.S. 3744; acts June 15, 1917, ch. 29, 40 Stat. 198; Feb. 4, 1929, ch. 146, 45 Stat. 1147, related to requirement that contracts made by Secretaries of War, Navy, and Interior be in writing, and that copies thereof be filed in returns office of Department of the Interior.

16a to 16d. Omitted

17 to 19. Repealed. Oct. 21, 1941, ch. 452, 55 Stat. 743

Section 17, R.S. 3745, provided that an affidavit be affixed to the return of contract required by section 16 of this title. Section 18, R.S. 3746, provided punishment for failure to make returns of contracts as required by sections 16 and 17 of this title. Section 19, R.S. 3747, imposed duty on Secretaries of War, Navy, and Interior to furnish officers with letters of instruction relating to their duties under sections 17 and 18, contract forms, and affidavits, to insure uniformity.

41 USC 20 - Repealed. Pub. L. 103355, title II, 2452, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3326

Section, R.S. 3743; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, 19 Stat. 249; July 31, 1894, ch. 174, 18, 28 Stat. 210; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, title III, 304, 42 Stat. 24, provided for deposit of all contracts which required advance money or settlement of public accounts in the General Accounting Office.

20a, 20b. Repealed. Pub. L. 104106, div. D, title XLIII, 4321(i)(10), (11), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 676

Section 20a, act June 15, 1940, ch. 367, 54 Stat. 398, provided exemption from section 20 of this title for contracts, etc., concerning national-forest lands. Section 20b, act Nov. 28, 1943, ch. 328, 57 Stat. 592, provided exemption from section 20 of this title for contracts, etc., concerning use of lands or water under jurisdiction of Department of the Interior.

41 USC 21 - Repealed. Pub. L. 97258, 5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1069

Section, acts July 31, 1894, ch. 174, 22, 28 Stat. 210; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 304, 310, 42 Stat. 24, 25, provided that the heads of the several executive departments and the proper officers of other Government establishments, not within the jurisdiction of any executive department, make appropriate rules and regulations to secure a proper administrative examination of all accounts sent to them before their transmission to the General Accounting Office, and for the execution of other requirements of section 20 of this title, insofar as the same related to the several departments or establishments. See section 3521 (a) of Title 31, Money and Finance.

41 USC 22 - Interest of Member of Congress

No Member of Congress shall be admitted to any share or part of any contract or agreement made, entered into, or accepted by or on behalf of the United States, or to any benefit to arise thereupon. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any contracts or agreements heretofore or hereafter entered into under the Agricultural Adjustment Act [7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], the Federal Farm Loan Act, the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act of 1933, the Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation Act, the Farm Credit Act of 1933, and the Home Owners Loan Act of 1933 [12 U.S.C. 1461 et seq.], and shall not apply to contracts or agreements of a kind which the Secretary of Agriculture may enter into with farmers: Provided, That such exemption shall be made a matter of public record.

41 USC 23 - Orders or contracts for material placed with Government-owned establishments deemed obligations

All orders or contracts for work or material or for the manufacture of material pertaining to approved projects heretofore or hereafter placed with Government-owned establishments shall be considered as obligations in the same manner as provided for similar orders or contracts placed with commercial manufacturers or private contractors, and the appropriations shall remain available for the payment of the obligations so created as in the case of contracts or orders with commercial manufacturers or private contractors.

41 USC 24 - Contracts for transportation of moneys, bullion, coin, and securities

Whenever it is practicable contracts for the transportation of moneys, bullion, coin, notes, bonds, and other securities of the United States, and paper shall be let to the lowest responsible bidder therefor, after notice to all parties having means of transportation.

41 USC 24a - Omitted

41 USC 25 - Repealed. Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 11(a), 62 Stat. 25

Section, R.S. 3729, related to contracts for bunting. See section 2301 et seq. of Title 10, Armed Forces.

41 USC 26 - Repealed. June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title VI, 602(a)(26), formerly title V, 502(a)(26), 63 Stat. 401; renumbered Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, 6(a), (b), 64 Stat. 583

Section, acts Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 147, 5, 38 Stat. 1161; May 29, 1928, ch. 901, 1(5), 45 Stat. 986, related to exchange of typewriters and adding machines in part payment for new machines.

41 USC 27 - Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, 1(109), 65 Stat. 705

Section, act June 5, 1920, ch. 235, 7, 41 Stat. 947, related to disposition of typewriting machines by Government departments and establishments.

28 to 34. Omitted

41 USC 35 - Contracts for materials, etc., exceeding $10,000; representations and stipulations

In any contract made and entered into by any executive department, independent establishment, or other agency or instrumentality of the United States, or by the District of Columbia, or by any corporation all the stock of which is beneficially owned by the United States (all the foregoing being hereinafter designated as agencies of the United States), for the manufacture or furnishing of materials, supplies, articles, and equipment in any amount exceeding $10,000, there shall be included the following representations and stipulations:
(a) That all persons employed by the contractor in the manufacture or furnishing of the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment used in the performance of the contract will be paid, without subsequent deduction or rebate on any account, not less than the minimum wages as determined by the Secretary of Labor to be the prevailing minimum wages for persons employed on similar work or in the particular or similar industries or groups of industries currently operating in the locality in which the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment are to be manufactured or furnished under said contract;
(b) That no person employed by the contractor in the manufacture or furnishing of the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment used in the performance of the contract shall be permitted to work in excess of forty hours in any one week: Provided, That the provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any employer who shall have entered into an agreement with his employees pursuant to the provisions of paragraphs (1) or (2) of subsection (b) of section 207 of title 29;
(c) That no male person under sixteen years of age and no female person under eighteen years of age and no convict labor will be employed by the contractor in the manufacture or production or furnishing of any of the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment included in such contract, except that this section, or any other law or Executive order containing similar prohibitions against purchase of goods by the Federal Government, shall not apply to convict labor which satisfies the conditions of section 1761 (c) of title 18; and
(d) That no part of such contract will be performed nor will any of the materials, supplies, articles, or equipment to be manufactured or furnished under said contract be manufactured or fabricated in any plants, factories, buildings, or surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary or hazardous or dangerous to the health and safety of employees engaged in the performance of said contract. Compliance with the safety, sanitary, and factory inspection laws of the State in which the work or part thereof is to be performed shall be prima-facie evidence of compliance with this subsection.

41 USC 36 - Liability for contract breach; cancellation; completion by Government agency; employees wages

Any breach or violation of any of the representations and stipulations in any contract for the purposes set forth in section 35 of this title shall render the party responsible therefor liable to the United States of America for liquidated damages, in addition to damages for any other breach of such contract, the sum of $10 per day for each male person under sixteen years of age or each female person under eighteen years of age, or each convict laborer knowingly employed in the performance of such contract, and a sum equal to the amount of any deductions, rebates, refunds, or underpayment of wages due to any employee engaged in the performance of such contract; and, in addition, the agency of the United States entering into such contract shall have the right to cancel same and to make open-market purchases or enter into other contracts for the completion of the original contract, charging any additional cost to the original contractor. Any sums of money due to the United States of America by reason of any violation of any of the representations and stipulations of said contract set forth in section 35 of this title may be withheld from any amounts due on any such contracts or may be recovered in suits brought in the name of the United States of America by the Attorney General thereof. All sums withheld or recovered as deductions, rebates, refunds, or underpayments of wages shall be held in a special deposit account and shall be paid, on order of the Secretary of Labor, directly to the employees who have been paid less than minimum rates of pay as set forth in such contracts and on whose account such sums were withheld or recovered: Provided, That no claims by employees for such payments shall be entertained unless made within one year from the date of actual notice to the contractor of the withholding or recovery of such sums by the United States of America.

41 USC 37 - Distribution of list of persons breaching contract; future contracts prohibited

The Comptroller General is authorized and directed to distribute a list to all agencies of the United States containing the names of persons or firms found by the Secretary of Labor to have breached any of the agreements or representations required by sections 35 to 45 of this title. Unless the Secretary of Labor otherwise recommends no contracts shall be awarded to such persons or firms or to any firm, corporation, partnership, or association in which such persons or firms have a controlling interest until three years have elapsed from the date the Secretary of Labor determines such breach to have occurred.

41 USC 38 - Administration of Walsh-Healey provisions; officers and employees; appointment; investigations; rules and regulations

The Secretary of Labor is authorized and directed to administer the provisions of sections 35 to 45 of this title and to utilize such Federal officers and employees and, with the consent of the State, such State and local officers and employees as he may find necessary to assist in the administration of said sections and to prescribe rules and regulations with respect thereto. The Secretary shall appoint, subject to chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, an administrative officer, and such attorneys and experts, and other employees with regard to existing laws applicable to the employment and compensation of officers and employees of the United States, as he may from time to time find necessary for the administration of sections 35 to 45 of this title. The Secretary of Labor or his authorized representatives shall have power to make investigations and findings as provided in sections 35 to 45 of this title, and prosecute any inquiry necessary to his functions in any part of the United States. The Secretary of Labor shall have authority from time to time to make, amend, and rescind such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of sections 35 to 45 of this title.

41 USC 39 - Hearings on Walsh-Healey provisions by Secretary of Labor; witness fees; failure to obey order; punishment

Upon his own motion or on application of any person affected by any ruling of any agency of the United States in relation to any proposal or contract involving any of the provisions of sections 35 to 45 of this title, and on complaint of a breach or violation of any representation or stipulation as provided in said sections, the Secretary of Labor, or an impartial representative designated by him, shall have the power to hold hearings and to issue orders requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence under oath. Witnesses shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of contumacy, failure, or refusal of any person to obey such an order, any District Court of the United States or of any Territory or possession within the jurisdiction of which the inquiry is carried on, or within the jurisdiction of which said person who is guilty of contumacy, failure, or refusal is found, or resides or transacts business, upon the application by the Secretary of Labor or representative designated by him, shall have jurisdiction to issue to such person an order requiring such person to appear before him or representative designated by him, to produce evidence if, as, and when so ordered, and to give testimony relating to the matter under investigation or in question; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by said court as a contempt thereof; and shall make findings of fact after notice and hearing, which findings shall be conclusive upon all agencies of the United States, and if supported by the preponderance of the evidence, shall be conclusive in any court of the United States; and the Secretary of Labor or authorized representative shall have the power, and is authorized, to make such decisions, based upon findings of fact, as are deemed to be necessary to enforce the provisions of sections 35 to 45 of this title.

41 USC 40 - Exceptions from Walsh-Healey provisions; modification of contracts; variations; overtime; suspension of representations and stipulations

Upon a written finding by the head of the contracting agency or department that the inclusion in the proposal or contract of the representations or stipulations set forth in section 35 of this title will seriously impair the conduct of Government business, the Secretary of Labor shall make exceptions in specific cases or otherwise when justice or public interest will be served thereby. Upon the joint recommendation of the contracting agency and the contractor, the Secretary of Labor may modify the terms of an existing contract respecting minimum rates of pay and maximum hours of labor as he may find necessary and proper in the public interest or to prevent injustice and undue hardship. The Secretary of Labor may provide reasonable limitations and may make rules and regulations allowing reasonable variations, tolerances, and exemptions to and from any or all provisions of sections 35 to 45 of this title respecting minimum rates of pay and maximum hours of labor or the extent of the application of said sections to contractors, as hereinbefore described. Whenever the Secretary of Labor shall permit an increase in the maximum hours of labor stipulated in the contract, he shall set a rate of pay for any overtime, which rate shall be not less than one and one-half times the basic hourly rate received by any employee affected: Provided, That whenever in his judgment such course is in the public interest, the President is authorized to suspend any or all of the representations and stipulations contained in section 35 of this title.

41 USC 41 - Person defined in Walsh-Healey provisions

Whenever used in sections 35 to 45 of this title, the word person includes one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in cases under title 11, or receivers.

41 USC 42 - Effect of Walsh-Healey provisions on other laws

The provisions of sections 35 to 45 of this title shall not be construed to modify or amend Title III of the act entitled An Act making appropriations for the Treasury and Post Office Departments for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, and for other purposes, approved May 3, 1933 (commonly known as the Buy American Act) [41 U.S.C. 10a et seq.], nor shall the provisions of sections 35 to 45 of this title be construed to modify or amend sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40, nor the labor provisions of Title II of the National Industrial Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, as extended, or of section 7 of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, approved April 8, 1935; nor shall the provisions of sections 35 to 45 of this title be construed to modify or amend chapter 307 and section 41621 of title 18.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 43 - Walsh-Healey provisions not applicable to certain contracts

Sections 35 to 45 of this title shall not apply to purchases of such materials, supplies, articles, or equipment as may usually be bought in the open market; nor shall they apply to perishables, including dairy, livestock and nursery products, or to agricultural or farm products processed for first sale by the original producers; nor to any contracts made by the Secretary of Agriculture for the purchase of agricultural commodities or the products thereof. Nothing in said sections shall be construed to apply to carriage of freight or personnel by vessel, airplane, bus, truck, express, or railway line where published tariff rates are in effect or to common carriers subject to the Communications Act of 1934 [47 U.S.C. 151 et seq.].

41 USC 43a - Administrative procedure provisions

(a) Applicability 
Notwithstanding any provision of section 553 of title 5, subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of title 5 shall be applicable in the administration of sections 35 to 39 and 41 to 43 of this title.
(b) Wage determination; administrative review 
All wage determinations under section 35 (a) of this title shall be made on the record after opportunity for a hearing. Review of any such wage determination, or of the applicability of any such wage determination, may be had within ninety days after such determination is made in the manner provided in chapter 7 of title 5 by any person adversely affected or aggrieved thereby, who shall be deemed to include any supplier of materials, supplies, articles or equipment purchased or to be purchased by the Government from any source, who is in any industry to which such wage determination is applicable.
(c) Judicial review 
Notwithstanding the inclusion of any stipulations required by any provision of sections 35 to 45 of this title in any contract subject to said sections, any interested person shall have the right of judicial review of any legal question which might otherwise be raised, including, but not limited to, wage determinations and the interpretation of the terms locality and open market.

41 USC 43b - Manufacturers and regular dealers

(a) The Secretary of Labor may prescribe in regulations the standards for determining whether a contractor is a manufacturer of or a regular dealer in materials, supplies, articles, or equipment to be manufactured or used in the performance of a contract entered into by any executive department, independent establishment, or other agency or instrumentality of the United States, or by the District of Columbia, or by any corporation all the stock of which is beneficially owned by the United States, for the manufacture or furnishing of materials, supplies, articles, and equipment.
(b) Any interested person shall have the right of judicial review of any legal question regarding the interpretation of the terms regular dealer and manufacturer, as defined pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

41 USC 44 - Separability of Walsh-Healey provisions

If any provision of sections 35 to 45 of this title, or the application thereof to any persons or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of said sections, and the application of such provisions to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

41 USC 45 - Effective date of Walsh-Healey provisions; exception as to representations with respect to minimum wages

Sections 35 to 45 of this title shall apply to all contracts entered into pursuant to invitations for bids issued on or after ninety days from June 30, 1936: Provided, however, That the provisions requiring the inclusion of representations with respect to minimum wages shall apply only to purchases or contracts relating to such industries as have been the subject matter of a determination by the Secretary of Labor.

41 USC 46 - Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled

(a) Establishment 
There is established a committee to be known as the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled (hereafter in sections 46 to 48c of this title referred to as the Committee). The Committee shall be composed of fifteen members appointed as follows:
(1) The President shall appoint as a member one officer or employee from each of the following: The Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, the Department of Education, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Justice, the Department of Labor, and the General Services Administration. The head of each such department and agency shall nominate one officer or employee in his department or agency for appointment under this paragraph.
(2) 
(A) The President shall appoint one member from persons who are not officers or employees of the Government and who are conversant with the problems incident to the employment of the blind.
(B) The President shall appoint one member from persons who are not officers or employees of the Government and who are conversant with the problems incident to the employment of other severely handicapped individuals.
(C) The President shall appoint one member from persons who are not officers or employees of the Government and who represent blind individuals employed in qualified nonprofit agencies for the blind.
(D) The President shall appoint one member from persons who are not officers or employees of the Government and who represent severely handicapped individuals (other than blind individuals) employed in qualified nonprofit agencies for other severely handicapped individuals.
(b) Vacancy 
A vacancy in the membership of the Committee shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.
(c) Chairman 
The members of the Committee shall elect one of their number to be Chairman.
(d) Terms 

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), members appointed under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section shall be appointed for terms of five years. Any member appointed to the Committee under such paragraph may be reappointed to the Committee if he meets the qualifications prescribed by that paragraph.
(2) Of the members first appointed under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section
(A) one shall be appointed for a term of three years,
(B) one shall be appointed for a term of four years, and
(C) one shall be appointed for a term of five years,

as designated by the President at the time of appointment.

(3) Any member appointed under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall be appointed only for the remainder of such term. A member appointed under such paragraph may serve after the expiration of his term until his successor has taken office.
(4) The member first appointed under paragraph (2)(B) of subsection (a) of this section shall be appointed for a term of three years.
(e) Pay and travel expenses 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), members of the Committee shall each be entitled to receive the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in effect for grade GS18 of the General Schedule for each day (including traveltime) during which they are engaged in the actual performance of services for the Committee.
(2) Members of the Committee who are officers or employees of the Government shall receive no additional pay on account of their service on the Committee.
(3) While away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Committee, members of the Committee shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in the Government service are allowed expenses under section 5703 (b)1 of title 5.
(f) Staff 

(1) Subject to such rules as may be adopted by the Committee, the Chairman may appoint and fix the pay of such personnel as the Committee determines are necessary to assist it in carrying out its duties and powers under sections 46 to 48c of this title.
(2) Upon request of the Committee, the head of any entity of the Government is authorized to detail, on a reimbursable basis, any of the personnel of such entity to the Committee to assist it in carrying out its duties and powers under section 46 to 48c of this title.
(3) The staff of the Committee appointed under paragraph (1) shall be appointed subject to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, and shall be paid in accordance with the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title 5 relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates.
(g) Obtaining official data 
The Committee may secure directly from any entity of the Government information necessary to enable it to carry out sections 46 to 48c of this title. Upon request of the Chairman of the Committee, the head of such Government entity shall furnish such information to the Committee.
(h) Administrative support services 
The Administrator of General Services shall provide to the Committee on a reimbursable basis such administrative support services as the Committee may request.
(i) Annual report 
The Committee shall, not later than December 31 of each year, transmit to the President and to the Congress a report which shall include the names of the Committee members serving in the preceding fiscal year, the dates of Committee meetings in that year, a description of its activities under sections 46 to 48c of this title in that year, and any recommendations for changes in sections 46 to 48c of this title which it determines are necessary.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 47 - Duties and powers of the Committee

(a) Procurement list: publication in Federal Register; additions and removals 

(1) The Committee shall establish and publish in the Federal Register a list (hereafter in sections 46 to 48c of this title referred to as the procurement list) of
(A) the commodities produced by any qualified nonprofit agency for the blind or by any qualified nonprofit agency for other severely handicapped, and
(B) the services provided by any such agency,

which the Committee determines are suitable for procurement by the Government pursuant to sections 46 to 48c of this title. Such list shall be established and published in the Federal Register before the expiration of the thirty-day period beginning on Aug. 1, 1971, and shall initially consist of the commodities contained, on such date, in the schedule of blind-made products issued by the former Committee on Purchases of Blind-Made Products under its regulations.

(2) The Committee may, by rule made in accordance with the requirements of subsections (b), (c), (d), and (e) of section 553 of title 5, add to and remove from the procurement list commodities so produced and services so provided.
(b) Fair market price; price revisions 
The Committee shall determine the fair market price of commodities and services which are contained on the procurement list and which are offered for sale to the Government by any qualified nonprofit agency for the blind or any such agency for other severely handicapped. The Committee shall also revise from time to time in accordance with changing market conditions its price determinations with respect to such commodities and services.
(c) Central nonprofit agency; designation 
The Committee shall designate a central nonprofit agency or agencies to facilitate the distribution (by direct allocation, subcontract, or any other means) of orders of the Government for commodities and services on the procurement list among qualified nonprofit agencies for the blind or such agencies for other severely handicapped.
(d) Rules and regulations; blind-made products, priority 

(1) The Committee may make rules and regulations regarding
(A)  specifications for commodities and services on the procurement list,
(B)  the time of their delivery, and
(C)  such other matters as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of sections 46 to 48c of this title.
(2) The Committee shall prescribe regulations providing that
(A) in the purchase by the Government of commodities produced and offered for sale by qualified nonprofit agencies for the blind or such agencies for other severely handicapped, priority shall be accorded to commodities produced and offered for sale by qualified nonprofit agencies for the blind, and
(B) in the purchase by the Government of services offered by nonprofit agencies for the blind or such agencies for other severely handicapped, priority shall, until the end of the calendar year ending December 31, 1976, be accorded to services offered for sale by qualified nonprofit agencies for the blind.
(e) Problems and production methods; study and evaluation 
The Committee shall make a continuing study and evaluation of its activities under sections 46 to 48c of this title for the purpose of assuring effective and efficient administration of sections 46 to 48c of this title. The Committee may study (on its own or in cooperation with other public or nonprofit private agencies)
(1)  problems related to the employment of the blind and of other severely handicapped individuals, and
(2)  the development and adaptation of production methods which would enable a greater utilization of the blind and other severely handicapped individuals.

41 USC 48 - Procurement requirements for the Government; nonapplication to prison-made products

If any entity of the Government intends to procure any commodity or service on the procurement list, that entity shall, in accordance with rules and regulations of the Committee, procure such commodity or service, at the price established by the Committee, from a qualified nonprofit agency for the blind or such an agency for other severely handicapped if the commodity or service is available within the period required by that Government entity; except that this section shall not apply with respect to the procurement of any commodity which is available for procurement from an industry established under chapter 307 of title 18, and which, under section 4124 of such title 18, is required to be procured from such industry.

41 USC 48a - Audit

The Comptroller General of the United States, or any of his duly authorized representatives, shall have access, for the purpose of audit and examination, to any books, documents, papers, and other records of the Committee and of each agency designated by the Committee under section 47 (c) of this title. This section shall also apply to any qualified nonprofit agency for the blind and any such agency for other severely handicapped which have sold commodities or services under sections 46 to 48c of this title but only with respect to the books, documents, papers, and other records of such agency which relate to its activities in a fiscal year in which a sale was made under sections 46 to 48c of this title.

41 USC 48b - Definitions

For purposes of sections 46 to 48c of this title
(1) The term blind refers to an individual or class of individuals whose central visual acuity does not exceed 20/200 in the better eye with correcting lenses or whose visual acuity, if better than 20/200, is accompanied by a limit to the field of vision in the better eye to such a degree that its widest diameter subtends an angle of no greater than 20 degrees.
(2) The terms other severely handicapped and severely handicapped individuals mean an individual or class of individuals under a physical or mental disability, other than blindness, which (according to criteria established by the Committee after consultation with appropriate entities of the Government and taking into account the views of non-Government entities representing the handicapped) constitutes a substantial handicap to employment and is of such a nature as to prevent the individual under such disability from currently engaging in normal competitive employment.
(3) The term qualified nonprofit agency for the blind means an agency
(A) organized under the laws of the United States or of any State, operated in the interest of blind individuals, and the net income of which does not inure in whole or in part to the benefit of any shareholder or other individual;
(B) which complies with any applicable occupational health and safety standard prescribed by the Secretary of Labor; and
(C) which in the production of commodities and in the provision of services (whether or not the commodities or services are procured under sections 46 to 48c of this title) during the fiscal year employs blind individuals for not less than 75 per centum of the man-hours of direct labor required for the production or provision of the commodities or services.
(4) The term qualified nonprofit agency for other severely handicapped means an agency
(A) organized under the laws of the United States or of any State, operated in the interest of severely handicapped individuals who are not blind, and the net income of which does not inure in whole or in part to the benefit of any shareholder or other individual;
(B) which complies with any applicable occupational health and safety standard prescribed by the Secretary of Labor; and
(C) which in the production of commodities and in the provision of services (whether or not the commodities or services are procured under sections 46 to 48c of this title) during the fiscal year employs blind or other severely handicapped individuals for not less than 75 per centum of the man-hours of direct labor required for the production or provision of the commodities or services.
(5) The term direct labor includes all work required for preparation, processing, and packing of a commodity, or work directly relating to the performance of a service, but not supervision, administration, inspection, or shipping.
(6) The term fiscal year means the twelve-month period beginning on October 1 of each year.
(7) The terms Government and entity of the Government include any entity of the legislative branch or the judicial branch, any executive agency or military department (as such agency and department are respectively defined by sections 102 and 105 of title 5), the United States Postal Service, and any nonappropriated fund instrumentality under the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces.
(8) The term State includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

41 USC 48c - Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Committee to carry out sections 46 to 48c of this title $240,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, and such sums as may be necessary for the succeeding fiscal years.

41 USC 49 - Defense employment; honorable discharge from land and naval forces as equivalent to birth certificate

No defense contractor shall deny employment, on account of failure to produce a birth certificate, to any person who submits, in lieu of a birth certificate, an honorable discharge certificate or certificate issued in lieu thereof from the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard of the United States, unless such honorable discharge certificate shows on its face that such person may have been an alien at the time of its issuance.

41 USC 50 - Defense contractor defined

As used in sections 49 and 50 of this title the term defense contractor means an employer engaged in
(1) the production, maintenance, or storage of arms, armament, ammunition, implements of war, munitions, machinery, tools, clothing, food, fuel, or any articles or supplies, or parts or ingredients of any articles or supplies; or
(2) the construction, reconstruction, repair, or installation of a building, plant, structure, or facility;

under a contract with the United States or under any contract which the President, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Navy, or the Secretary of Transportation certifies to such employer to be necessary to the national defense.

41 USC 51 - Short title

Sections 51 to 58 of this title may be cited as the Anti-Kickback Act of 1986.

41 USC 52 - Definitions

As used in sections 51 to 58 of this title:
(1) The term contracting agency, when used with respect to a prime contractor, means any department, agency, or establishment of the United States which enters into a prime contract with a prime contractor.
(2) The term kickback means any money, fee, commission, credit, gift, gratuity, thing of value, or compensation of any kind which is provided, directly or indirectly, to any prime contractor, prime contractor employee, subcontractor, or subcontractor employee for the purpose of improperly obtaining or rewarding favorable treatment in connection with a prime contract or in connection with a subcontract relating to a prime contract.
(3) The term person means a corporation, partnership, business association of any kind, trust, joint-stock company, or individual.
(4) The term prime contract means a contract or contractual action entered into by the United States for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind.
(5) The term prime contractor means a person who has entered into a prime contract with the United States.
(6) The term prime contractor employee means any officer, partner, employee, or agent of a prime contractor.
(7) The term subcontract means a contract or contractual action entered into by a prime contractor or subcontractor for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind under a prime contract.
(8) The term subcontractor
(A) means any person, other than the prime contractor, who offers to furnish or furnishes any supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind under a prime contract or a subcontract entered into in connection with such prime contract; and
(B) includes any person who offers to furnish or furnishes general supplies to the prime contractor or a higher tier subcontractor.
(9) The term subcontractor employee means any officer, partner, employee, or agent of a subcontractor.

41 USC 53 - Prohibited conduct

It is prohibited for any person
(1) to provide, attempt to provide, or offer to provide any kickback;
(2) to solicit, accept, or attempt to accept any kickback; or
(3) to include, directly or indirectly, the amount of any kickback prohibited by clause (1) or (2) in the contract price charged by a subcontractor to a prime contractor or a higher tier subcontractor or in the contract price charged by a prime contractor to the United States.

41 USC 54 - Criminal penalties

Any person who knowingly and willfully engages in conduct prohibited by section 53 of this title shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or shall be subject to a fine in accordance with title 18, or both.

41 USC 55 - Civil actions

(a) 
(1) The United States may, in a civil action, recover a civil penalty from any person who knowingly engages in conduct prohibited by section 53 of this title. The amount of such civil penalty shall be
(A) twice the amount of each kickback involved in the violation; and
(B) not more than $10,000 for each occurrence of prohibited conduct.
(2) The United States may, in a civil action, recover a civil penalty from any person whose employee, subcontractor or subcontractor employee violates section 53 of this title by providing, accepting, or charging a kickback. The amount of such civil penalty shall be the amount of that kickback.
(b) A civil action under this section shall be barred unless the action is commenced within 6 years after the later of
(1)  the date on which the prohibited conduct establishing the cause of action occurred, and
(2)  the date on which the United States first knew or should reasonably have known that the prohibited conduct had occurred.

41 USC 56 - Administrative offsets

(a) Offset authority 
A contracting officer of a contracting agency may offset the amount of a kickback provided, accepted, or charged in violation of section 53 of this title against any moneys owed by the United States to the prime contractor under the prime contract to which such kickback relates.
(b) Duties of prime contractor 

(1) Upon direction of a contracting officer of a contracting agency with respect to a prime contract, the prime contractor shall withhold from any sums owed to a subcontractor under a subcontract of the prime contract the amount of any kickback which was or may be offset against that prime contractor under subsection (a) of this section.
(2) Such contracting officer may order that sums withheld under paragraph (1)
(A) be paid over to the contracting agency; or
(B) if the United States has already offset the amount of such sums against that prime contractor, be retained by the prime contractor.
(3) The prime contractor shall notify the contracting officer when an amount is withheld and retained under paragraph (2)(B).
(c) Claim of Government 
An offset under subsection (a) of this section or a direction or order of a contracting officer under subsection (b) of this section is a claim by the Government for the purposes of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978 [41 U.S.C. 601 et seq.].
(d) “Contracting officer” defined 
As used in this section, the term contracting officer has the meaning given that term for the purposes of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978 [41 U.S.C. 601 et seq.].

41 USC 57 - Contractor responsibilities

(a) Procedural requirements for prevention and detection of violations 
Each contracting agency shall include in each prime contract awarded by such agency a requirement that the prime contractor shall have in place and follow reasonable procedures designed to prevent and detect violations of section 53 of this title in its own operations and direct business relationships.
(b) Cooperation in investigations requirement 
Each contracting agency shall include in each prime contract awarded by such agency a requirement that the prime contractor shall cooperate fully with any Federal Government agency investigating a violation of section 53 of this title.
(c) Reporting requirement; supplying information as favorable evidence of responsibility 

(1) 
(A) Whenever a prime contractor or subcontractor has reasonable grounds to believe that a violation of section 53 of this title may have occurred, the prime contractor or subcontractor shall promptly report the possible violation in writing.
(B) A contractor shall make the reports required by subparagraph (A) to the inspector general of the contracting agency, the head of the contracting agency if the agency does not have an inspector general, or the Department of Justice.
(2) In the case of an administrative or contractual action to suspend or debar any person who is eligible to enter into contracts with the Federal Government, evidence that such person has supplied information to the United States pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be favorable evidence of such persons responsibility for the purposes of Federal procurement laws and regulations.
(d) Partial inapplicability to small contracts 
Subsections (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to a prime contract that is not greater than $100,000 or to a prime contract for the acquisition of commercial items (as defined in section 403 (12) of this title).
(e) Cooperation in investigations regardless of contract amount 
Notwithstanding subsection (d) of this section, a prime contractor shall cooperate fully with any Federal Government agency investigating a violation of section 53 of this title.

41 USC 58 - Inspection authority

For the purpose of ascertaining whether there has been a violation of section 53 of this title with respect to any prime contract, the Government Accountability Office and the inspector general of the contracting agency, or a representative of such contracting agency designated by the head of such agency if the agency does not have an inspector general, shall have access to and may inspect the facilities and audit the books and records, including any electronic data or records, of any prime contractor or subcontractor under a prime contract awarded by such agency. This section does not apply with respect to a prime contract for the acquisition of commercial items (as defined in section 403 (12) of this title).

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 2 - TERMINATION OF WAR CONTRACTS

41 USC 101 - Declaration of policy

The Congress declares that the objectives of this chapter are
(a) to facilitate maximum war production during the war, and to expedite reconversion from war production to civilian production as war conditions permit;
(b) to assure to prime contractors and subcontractors, small and large, speedy and equitable final settlement of claims under terminated war contracts, and adequate interim financing until such final settlement;
(c) to assure uniformity among Government agencies in basic policies and administration with respect to such termination settlements and interim financing;
(d) to facilitate the efficient use of materials, manpower, and facilities for war and civilian purposes by providing prime contractors and subcontractors with notice of termination of their war contracts as far in advance of the cessation of work thereunder as is feasible and consistent with the national security;
(e) to assure the expeditious removal from the plants of prime contractors and subcontractors of termination inventory not to be retained or sold by the contractor;
(f) to use all practicable methods compatible with the foregoing objectives to prevent improper payments and to detect and prosecute fraud.

41 USC 102 - Surveillance by Congress

(a) To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of this chapter and in developing such amendments or related legislation as may further be necessary to accomplish the objectives of this chapter, the appropriate committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall study each report submitted to the Congress under this chapter and shall otherwise maintain continuous surveillance of the operations of the Government agencies under this chapter.
(b) Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, 1(110), 65 Stat. 705.

41 USC 103 - Definitions

As used in this chapter
(a) The term prime contract means any contract, agreement, or purchase order heretofore or hereafter entered into by a contracting agency and connected with or related to the prosecution of the war; and the term prime contractor means any holder of one or more prime contracts.
(b) The term subcontract means any contract, agreement, or purchase order heretofore or hereafter entered into to perform any work, or to make or furnish any material to the extent that such work or material is required for the performance of any one or more prime contracts or of any one or more other subcontracts; and the term subcontractor means any holder of one or more subcontracts.
(c) The term war contract means a prime contract or a subcontract; and the term war contractor means any holder of one or more war contracts.
(d) The terms termination, terminate and terminated refer to the termination or cancellation, in whole or in part, of work under a prime contract for the convenience or at the option of the Government (except for default of the prime contractor) or of work under a subcontract for any reason except the default of the subcontractor.
(e) The term material includes any article, commodity, machinery, equipment, accessory, part, component, assembly, work in process, maintenance, repair, and operating supplies, and any product of any kind.
(f) The term Government agency means any executive department of the Government, or any administrative unit or subdivision thereof, any independent agency or any corporation owned or controlled by the United States in the executive branch of the Government, and includes any contracting agency.
(g) The term contracting agency means any Government agency, which has been or hereafter may be authorized to make contracts pursuant to section 6111 of Appendix to title 50, and includes the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and any corporation organized pursuant to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act, and the Secretary of Commerce.
(h) The term termination claim means any claim or demand by a war contractor for fair compensation for the termination of any war contract and any other claim under a terminated war contract, which regulations prescribed under this chapter authorize to be asserted and settled in connection with any termination settlement.
(i) The term interim financing includes advance payments, partial payments, loans, discounts, advances, and commitments in connection therewith, and guaranties of loans, discounts, advances, and commitments in connection therewith and any other type of financing made in contemplation of or related to termination of war contracts.
(j) The term Administrator means the Administrator of General Services.
(k) The term person means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, or other entity.
(l) The term termination inventory means any materials (including a proper part of any common materials), properly allocable to the terminated portion of a war contract, except any machinery or equipment subject to a separate contract specifically governing the use or disposition thereof.
(m) The term final and conclusive, as applied to any settlement, finding, or decision, means that such settlement, finding, or decision shall not be reopened, annulled, modified, set aside, or disregarded by any officer, employee, or agent of the United States or in any suit, action, or proceeding except as provided in this chapter.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 104 - Administration of chapter

(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, § 8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 652 
(b) Rules and regulations 
In order to insure uniform and efficient administration of the provisions of this chapter, the Administrator of General Services, subject to such provisions, by general orders or general regulations
(1) shall prescribe policies, principles, methods, procedures, and standards to govern the exercise of the authority and discretion and the performance of the duties and functions of all Government agencies under this chapter; and
(2) may require or restrict the exercise of any such authority and discretion, or the performance of any such duty or function, to such extent as he deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.
(c) Compliance 
The exercise of any authority or discretion and the performance of any duty or function, conferred or imposed on any Government agency by this chapter, shall be subject to such orders and regulations prescribed by the Administrator of General Services pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Each Government agency shall carry out such orders and regulations of the Administrator of General Services expeditiously, and shall issue such regulations with respect to its operations and procedures as may be necessary to carry out the policies, principles, methods, procedures, and standards prescribed by the Administrator of General Services. Any Government agency may issue such further regulations not inconsistent with the general orders or regulations of the Administrator of General Services as it deems necessary or desirable to carry out the provisions of this chapter.
(d) Personnel; supplies, facilities, and services 
The Administrator of General Services may, within the limits of funds which may be made available, employ and fix the compensation of necessary personnel in accordance with the provisions of the civil-service laws and chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, and make expenditures for supplies, facilities, and services necessary for the performance of his functions under this chapter. Without regard to the provisions of the civil-service laws, he may employ certified public accountants, qualified cost accountants, industrial engineers, appraisers, and other experts, and contract with certified public accounting firms and qualified firms of engineers in the discharge of the duties imposed upon him and in furtherance of the objectives and policies of this chapter. The Administrator of General Services shall perform the duties imposed upon him through the personnel and facilities of the contracting agencies and other established Government agencies, to the extent that this does not interfere with the function of the Administrator of General Services to insure uniform and efficient administration of the provisions of this chapter.
(e) Publication in Federal Register 
All orders and regulations prescribed by the Administrator of General Services or any Government agency under this chapter shall be published in the Federal Register.

41 USC 105 - Contract Settlement Advisory Board; composition; duties

There is created a Contract Settlement Advisory Board, with which the Administrator of General Services shall advise and consult. The Board shall be composed of the Administrator of General Services who shall act as its Chairman, and of the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of State, the chairman of the board of directors of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General or any alternate or representative designated by any of them. The Administrator of General Services shall request other Government agencies to participate in the deliberations of the Board whenever matters specially affecting them are under consideration.

41 USC 106 - Basis for settlement of termination claims

(a) Priority to private contractors 
It is the policy of the Government, and it shall be the responsibility of the contracting agencies and the Administrator of General Services to provide war contractors with speedy and fair compensation for the termination of any war contract, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this chapter, giving priority to contractors whose facilities are privately owned or privately operated. Such fair compensation for the termination of subcontracts shall be based on the same principles as compensation for the termination of prime contracts.
(b) Establishment of methods and standards 
Each contracting agency shall establish methods and standards, suitable to the conditions of various war contractors, for determining fair compensation for the termination of war contracts on the basis of actual, standard, average, or estimated costs, or of a percentage of the contract price based on the estimated percentage of completion of work under the terminated contract, or on any other equitable basis, as it deems appropriate. To the extent that such methods and standards require accounting, they shall be adapted, so far as practicable, to the accounting systems used by war contractors, if consistent with recognized commercial accounting practice.
(c) Conclusiveness of settlement 
Any contracting agency may settle all or any part of any termination claim under any war contract by agreement with the war contractor, or by determination of the amount due on the claim or part thereof without such agreement, or by any combination of these methods. Where any such settlement is made by agreement, the settlement shall be final and conclusive, except
(1)  to the extent otherwise agreed in the settlement;
(2)  for fraud;
(3)  upon renegotiation to eliminate excessive profits under section 1191 of Appendix to title 50, unless exempt or exempted under such section; or
(4)  by mutual agreement before or after payment. Where any such settlement is made by determination without agreement, it shall likewise be final and conclusive, subject to the same exceptions as if made by agreement, unless the war contractor appeals or brings suit in accordance with section 113 of this title: Provided, That no settlement agreement hereunder involving payment to a war contractor of an amount in excess of $50,000 (or such lesser amount as the Administrator of General Services may from time to time determine) shall become binding upon the Government until the agreement has been reviewed and approved by a settlement review board of three or more members established by the contracting agency in the bureau, division, regional or district office, or other unit of the contracting agency authorized to make such settlement, or in the event of disapproval by the settlement review board, unless approved by the head of such bureau, division, regional or district office, or other unit. Failure of the settlement review board to act upon any settlement within thirty days after its submission to the board shall operate as approval by the board. The sole function of settlement review boards shall be to determine the over-all reasonableness of proposed settlement agreements from the point of view of protecting the interests of the Government. In determining, for purposes of this subsection, whether review of any settlement agreement is required because of the amounts involved, no deduction shall be made on account of credits for property chargeable to the Government or for advance or partial payments, but amounts payable under such settlement agreement for completed articles or work at the contract price and for the discharge of the termination claims of subcontractors shall be deducted.
(d) Allowable costs 
Except as hereinafter provided, the methods and standards established under subsection (b) of this section for determining fair compensation for termination claims which are not settled by agreement shall be designed to compensate the war contractor fairly for the termination of the war contract, taking into account
(1) the direct and indirect manufacturing, selling and distribution, administrative and other costs and expenses incurred by the war contractor which are reasonably necessary for the performance of the war contract and properly allocable to the terminated portion thereof under recognized commercial accounting practices; and
(2) reasonable costs and expenses of settling termination claims of subcontractors related to the terminated portion of the war contract; and
(3) reasonable accounting, legal, clerical, and other costs and expenses incident to termination and settlement of the terminated war contract; and
(4) reasonable costs and expenses of removing, preserving, storing and disposing of termination inventories; and
(5) such allowance for profit on the preparations made and work done for the terminated portion of the war contract as is reasonable under the circumstances; and
(6) interest on the termination claim in accordance with subsection (f) of this section; and
(7) the contract price and all amounts otherwise paid or payable under the contract. The following shall not be included as elements of cost:
(i) Losses on other contracts, or from sales or exchanges of capital assets, fees and other expenses in connection with reorganization or recapitalization, antitrust or Federal income-tax litigation, or prosecution of Federal income-tax claims or other claims against the Government (except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection); losses on investments; provisions for contingencies; and premiums on life insurance where the contractor is the beneficiary.
(ii) The expense of conversion of the contractors facilities to uses other than the performance of the contract.
(iii) Expenses due to the negligence or willful failure of the contractor to discontinue with reasonable promptness the incurring of expenses after the effective date of the termination notice.
(iv) Costs incurred in respect to facilities, materials, or services purchased or work done in excess of the reasonable quantitative requirements of the entire contract. The failure specifically to mention in this subsection any item of cost is not intended to imply that it should be allowed or disallowed. The Administrator of General Services may interpret the provisions of this subsection and may provide for the inclusion or exclusion of other costs in accordance with recognized commercial accounting practice. Where the small size of claims or the nature of production or performance or other factors make it impracticable to apply the principles stated in this subsection to any class of settlements which are subject to this subsection, the contracting agencies may establish alternative methods and standards for determining fair compensation for that class of termination claims. The aggregate amount of compensation allowed in accordance with this subsection (excluding amounts allowed under paragraphs (3) and (4) of this subsection) shall not exceed the total contract price reduced by the amount of payments otherwise made or to be made under the contract.
(e) Settlement by agreement 
In order to carry out the objectives of this chapter, termination claims shall be settled by agreement to the maximum extent feasible and the methods and standards established under subsection (b) of this section shall be designed to facilitate such settlements. To the extent that he deems it practicable to do so without impeding expeditious settlements, the Administrator of General Services shall require the contracting agencies to take into account the factors enumerated in subsection (d) of this section in establishing methods and standards for determining fair compensation in the settlement of termination claims by agreement.
(f) Interest 
Each contracting agency shall allow and pay interest on the amount due and unpaid from time to time on any termination claim under a prime contract at the rate of 21/2 per centum per annum for the period beginning thirty days after the date fixed for termination and ending with the date of final payment, except that
(1)  if the prime contractor unreasonably delays the settlement of his claim, interest shall not accrue for the period of such delay,
(2)  if interest for the period after termination on any advance payment or loan, made or guaranteed by the Government, has been waived for the benefit of the contractor, the amount of the interest so waived allocable to the terminated contract or the terminated part of the contract shall be deducted from the interest otherwise payable hereunder, and
(3)  if after delivery of findings by a contracting agency, the contractor appeals or sues as provided in section 113 of this title, interest shall not accrue after the thirtieth day following the delivery of the findings on any amount allowed by such findings, unless such amount is increased upon such appeal or suit. In approving, ratifying, authorizing, or making termination settlements with subcontractors, each contracting agency shall allow interest on the termination claim of the subcontractor on the same basis and subject to the same conditions as are applicable to a prime contractor.
(g) Amendment of contracts 
Where any war contract does not provide for or provides against such fair compensation for its termination, the contracting agency, either before or after its termination, shall amend such war contract by agreement with the war contractor, or shall authorize, approve, or ratify an amendment of such war contract by the parties thereto, to provide for such fair compensation.

41 USC 107 - Settlement of subcontractors claims

(a) Conclusiveness of settlement 
Where, in connection with the settlement of any termination claim by a contracting agency, any war contractor makes settlements of the termination claims of his subcontractors, the contracting agency shall limit or omit its review of such settlements with subcontractors to the maximum extent compatible with the public interest. Any contracting agency
(1)  may approve, ratify, or authorize such settlements with subcontractors upon such evidence, terms, and conditions as it deems proper;
(2)  shall vary the scope and intensity of its review of such settlements according to the reliability of the war contractor, the size, number, and complexity of such claims, and other relevant factors; and
(3)  shall authorize war contractors to make such settlements with subcontractors without review by the contracting agency, whenever the reliability of the war contractor, the amount or nature of the claims, or other reasons appear to the contracting agency to justify such action. Any such settlement of a subcontract approved, ratified, or authorized by a contracting agency shall be final and conclusive as to the amount due to the same extent as a settlement under subsection (c) of section 106 of this title, and no war contractor shall be liable to the United States on account of any amounts paid thereon except for his own fraud.
(b) Supervision of payments to war contractors 
Whenever any contracting agency is satisfied of the inability of a war contractor to meet his obligations it shall exercise supervision or control over payments to the war contractor on account of termination claims of subcontractors of such war contractor to such extent and in such manner as it deems necessary or desirable for the purpose of assuring the receipt of the benefit of such payments by the subcontractors.
(c) Group settlements 
The Administrator of General Services shall prescribe policies and methods for the settlement as a group, or otherwise, by any contracting agency of some or all of the termination claims of a war contractor under war contracts with one or more
(1)  bureaus or divisions within a contracting agency,
(2)  contracting agencies, or
(3)  prime contractors and subcontractors, to the extent he deems such action necessary or desirable for expeditious and equitable settlement of such claims. After consulting with the contracting agencies concerned, the Administrator of General Services may provide for assigning any war contractor to a contracting agency for such settlement, and such agency shall have authority to settle, on behalf of any other contracting agency, some or all of the termination claims of such war contractor.
(d) Direct settlement by contracting agency 
Any contracting agency may settle directly termination claims of subcontractors to the extent that it deems such action necessary or desirable for the expeditious and equitable settlement of such claims. In making such termination settlements any contracting agency may discharge the claim of the subcontractor by payment or may purchase such claim, and may agree to assume, or indemnify the subcontractor against, any claims by any person in connection with such claim or the termination settlement. Any contracting agency undertaking to settle the termination claim of any subcontractor shall deliver to the subcontractor and the war contractor liable to him written notice stating its acceptance of responsibility for settling his claim and the conditions applicable thereto, which may include the release, or assignment to the contracting agency, of his claim against the war contractor liable to him; upon consent thereto by the subcontractor, the Government shall become liable for the settlement of his claims upon the conditions specified in the notice.
(e) Amount of settlement 
Any contracting agency may make settlements with subcontractors in accordance with any of the provisions of this chapter without regard to any limitation on the amount payable by the Government to the prime contractor.
(f) Equitable payments 
If any contracting agency determines that in the circumstances of a particular case equity and good conscience require fair compensation for the termination of a war contract to be paid to a subcontractor who has been deprived of and cannot otherwise reasonably secure such fair compensation, the contracting agency concerned may pay such compensation to him although such compensation already has been included and paid as part of a settlement with another war contractor.

41 USC 108 - Interim financing

(a) Prime contractors 
It is the policy of the Government, and it shall be the responsibility of the contracting agencies and the Administrator of General Services, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this chapter, to provide war contractors having any termination claim or claims, pending their settlement, with adequate interim financing, within thirty days after proper application therefor.
(b) Method of financing; amounts payable 
Each contracting agency shall, to the greatest extent it deems practicable, make available interim financing through loans and discounts, and commitments and guaranties in connection therewith, in contemplation of or related to termination of war contracts. Where interim financing is made by advance payments or partial payments, it shall, insofar as practicable, consist of the following:
(1) An amount equal to 100 per centum of the amount payable, at the contract price, on account of acceptable items completed prior to the termination date under the terms of the contract, or completed thereafter with the approval of the contracting agency; plus
(2) An amount equal to 90 per centum of the cost of raw materials, purchased parts, supplies, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead allocable to the terminated portion of the war contract; plus
(3) A reasonable percentage of other allowable costs, including administrative overhead, allocable to the terminated portion of the war contract not included in the foregoing; plus
(4) Such additional amounts, if any, as the contracting agency deems necessary to provide the war contractor with adequate interim financing.
(5) In lieu of the costs referred to in clauses (2) and (3) of this subsection, where a detailed ascertainment of such costs is not suitable to the conditions of any war contractor and is apt to cause delay in the obtaining of interim financing by him, that portion of such interim financing shall be equal to an amount not greater than 90 per centum of the estimated costs which are allocable to the terminated part or parts of the war contract or group of war contracts, and are ascertained in accordance with such methods and standards as the Administrator of General Services shall prescribe.
(6) There shall be deducted from the amount of such interim financing any unliquidated balances of advance and partial payments theretofore made to such war contractor, which are allocable to the terminated war contract or the terminated part of the war contract.
(c) Evidence to support financing 
The Administrator of General Services shall prescribe
(1)  the types of estimates, certificates, or other evidence to be required to support such interim financing;
(2)  the terms and conditions upon which such interim financing shall be made including the use of standard forms for agreements with respect to such interim financing to the extent practicable;
(3)  the classes of cases in which such interim financing shall be refused; and
(4)  such methods of supervision and control over such interim financing as he deems necessary or desirable to assure adequate and speedy interim financing to subcontractors of the war contractor.
(d) Penalty for overstatement of claims 
In case of an overstatement by any war contractor of the amount due on his termination claim or claims in connection with any interim financing under this chapter, such contractor shall pay to the United States, as a penalty, an amount equal to 6 per centum of the amount of the overstatement, but the Administrator of General Services may suspend or modify any such penalty if in his opinion the imposition thereof would be inequitable. Any penalty may be deducted from any amounts due the war contractor upon such termination claim or claims, or otherwise, or may be collected from the war contractor by suit. The obligation to pay any penalty imposed and to repay any interim financing made or assumed by the United States under this chapter shall constitute a debt due to the United States within the meaning of section 3713 (a) of title 31.
(e) Advance payments as part of termination settlement 
Any contracting agency may allow any advance payments, previously made or authorized by it in connection with the performance of a war contract, to be used for payments and expenses related to the termination settlement of such contract, upon such terms and conditions as it deems necessary or appropriate to protect the interest of the Government.
(f) Liquidation of loans, etc., prior to final settlement 
No interim financing shall be made by any contracting agency under this chapter unless the terms of such financing provide for the liquidation by the war contractor of all loans, discounts, advance payments, or partial payments thereunder not later than the time of final payment of the amount due on the settlement of the termination claim or claims of the war contractor involved or such time thereafter as the contracting agency deems necessary for the liquidation of such interim financing in an orderly manner.
(g) Settlement of claims; validation of prior financing 
Any contracting agency may settle, upon such terms and conditions as it deems proper, any claim or obligation due by or to the Government arising from or related to any interim financing made, acquired, or authorized by it. Any interim financing made, acquired, or authorized by any contracting agency before July 21, 1944, shall be valid to the extent it would be authorized under the provisions of this chapter if made after its effective date.

41 USC 109 - Advance or partial payments to subcontractors; excessive payments, interest, liability of war contractor

(a) Any contracting agency may make advance or partial payments to any war contractor on account of any termination claim or claims, and may authorize, approve, or ratify any such advance or partial payments by any war contractor to his subcontractors, upon such conditions as it deems necessary to insure compliance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section. Each contracting agency shall make final payments from time to time on partial settlements or on settlements fixing a minimum amount due before complete settlement, or as tentative payments before any settlement of the claim or claims.
(b) Where any such advance or partial payment is made to any war contractor by any contracting agency or by another war contractor under this section, except a final payment on a partial settlement, any amount in excess of the amount finally determined to be due on the termination claim shall be treated as a loan from the Government to the war contractor receiving it, and shall be payable upon demand together with a penalty computed at the rate of 6 per centum per annum, for the period from the date such excess advance or partial payment is received to the date on which such excess is repaid or extinguished. Where the advance or partial payment was made by a war contractor and authorized, approved, or ratified by any contracting agency, the war contractor making it shall not be liable for any such excess payment in the absence of fraud on his part and shall receive payment or credit from the Government for the amount of such excess payment.

41 USC 110 - Guarantee of loans, advances, etc.

(a) By contract 
Any contracting agency is authorized
(1) to enter into contracts with any Federal Reserve bank, or other public or private financing institution, guaranteeing such financing institution against loss of principal or interest on loans, discounts, or advances or on commitments in connection therewith, which such financing institution may make to any war contractor or to any person who is or has been engaged in performing any operation deemed by such contracting agency to be connected with or related to war production, for the purpose of financing such war contractor or other person in connection with or in contemplation of the termination of one or more such war contracts or operations; and
(2) to make, enter into contracts to make, or to participate with any Government agency, any Federal Reserve bank or public or private financing institution in making loans, discounts, or advances, or commitments in connection therewith, for the purpose of financing any such war contractor or other person in connection with or in contemplation of the termination of such war contracts or operations.
(b) By assignment 
Any such loan, discount, advance, guaranty, or commitment in connection therewith may be secured by assignment of, or covenants to assign, some or all of the rights of such war contractor or other person in connection with the termination of such war contracts or operations, or in such other manner as the contracting agency may prescribe.
(c) Federal Reserve bank as fiscal agent 
Subject to such regulations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe with the approval of the Administrator of General Services, any Federal Reserve bank is authorized to act, on behalf of the contracting agencies, as fiscal agent of the United States in carrying out the purposes of this chapter.
(d) Application of other laws 
This section shall not limit or affect any authority of any contracting agency, under any other statute, to make loans, discounts, or advances, or commitments in connection therewith or guaranties thereof.

41 USC 111 - Termination of contracts

(a) Advance notice; prime contracts 
In order to facilitate the efficient use of materials, manpower, and facilities for war and civilian purposes, each contracting agency
(1) shall provide its prime contractors with notice of termination of their prime contracts as far in advance of the cessation of work thereunder as is feasible and consistent with the national security without permitting unneeded production or performance;
(2) shall establish procedures whereby prime contractors shall provide affected subcontractors with immediate notice of termination; and
(3) shall permit the continuation of some or all of the work under a terminated prime contract whenever the agency deems that such continuation will benefit the Government or is necessary to avoid substantial injury to the plant or property.
(b) Cessation of work without termination 
Whenever a contracting agency hereafter directs a prime contractor to cease or suspend all or a substantial part of the work under a prime contract, without terminating the contract, then, unless the contract provides otherwise,
(1)  the contracting agency shall compensate the contractor for reasonable costs and expenses resulting from such cessation or suspension, and
(2)  if the cessation or suspension extends for thirty days or more, the contractor may elect to treat it as a termination by delivering written notice of his election so to do to the contracting agency, at any time before the contracting agency directs the prime contractor to resume work under the contract.
(c) Authority of Administrator of General Services; classes of contracts 
The Administrator of General Services shall have no authority under this chapter to regulate or control the classes of contracts to be terminated by the contracting agencies.

41 USC 112 - Removal and storage of materials

(a) Termination inventory 
It is the policy of the Government, upon the termination of any war contract, to assure the expeditious removal from the plant of the war contractor of the termination inventory not to be retained or sold by the war contractor.
(b) Statement on material of inventory 
Any war contractor may submit to the contracting agency concerned or to any other Government agency designated by the Administrator of General Services, one or more statements showing the materials which such war contractor claims to be termination inventory under one or more war contracts and desires to have removed by the Government. Such statements shall be prepared in such form and detail, shall be submitted in such manner, through the prime contractor or otherwise, and shall be supported by such certificates or other data, as may be prescribed under this chapter.
(c) Removal and storage by Government agency 
Within sixty days after the submission of any such statement by a war contractor, or such shorter period as may be prescribed under this chapter, or within such longer period as the war contractor may agree, the Government agency concerned
(1)  shall arrange, upon such terms and conditions as may be agreed, for the storage by the war contractor on his own premises or elsewhere of all such claimed termination inventory which the war contractor does not retain or dispose of, except any part which may be determined not to be allocable to the terminated war contract or contracts, or
(2)  shall remove from the plant or plants of the war contractor all of such claimed termination inventory not retained, disposed of, or stored by the war contractor or determined not to be allocable to the terminated war contract or contracts.
(d) Removal and storage by war contractor 
Upon the failure of the Government so to arrange for storage by the war contractor or to remove any termination inventory within the period specified under subsection (c) of this section, the war contractor, subject to regulations prescribed under this chapter, may remove some or all of such termination inventory from his plant or plants and may store it on his own premises or elsewhere for the account and at the risk and expense of the Government, using reasonable care for its transportation and preservation. If any war contractor intends so to remove any claimed termination inventory, he shall deliver to the Government agency concerned written notice of the date fixed for removal and a statement showing the quantities and condition of the materials so to be removed, certified on behalf of the war contractor to have been prepared in accordance with a concurrent physical inventory of such materials. Such notice and statement shall be delivered at least twenty days in advance of the date fixed for removal and may be delivered before or after the expiration of the period specified under subsection (c) of this section. If the Government agency fails to check such materials, at or before the time of their removal by the war contractor, a certificate of the war contractor specifying the materials shown on such statement which were so removed, and filed with the Government agency concerned within thirty days after the date fixed for removal, shall constitute prima facie evidence against the United States as to the quantities and condition of the materials so removed, and the fact of their removal.
(e) Acquisition by Government agency of inventory material; liability 
Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, but subject to subsection (h) of this section, the contracting agency concerned or the Administrator of General Services, or any Government agency designated by him, on behalf of the United States, may, by the exercise of any contract rights or otherwise, acquire and take possession of any termination inventory of any war contractor, and any materials removed by the Government or stored for its account under subsections (c) and (d) of this section, whether or not such materials are finally determined not to constitute termination inventory. With respect to any such materials, the Government shall be liable to any war contractor concerned only for their return to such war contractor or for their disposal value at the time of their removal or for the proceeds realized by the Government from their disposal, at the election of the Government agency concerned, unless the Government agency and the war contractor agree or have agreed on a different basis. Any amount so paid or payable to a war contractor for materials allocable to a terminated war contract shall be credited against the termination claim under such contract but shall not otherwise affect the amount due on the claim, unless the Government agency concerned and the war contractor agree or have agreed otherwise. Any materials to which the Administrator of General Services takes title under this section shall be delivered for disposal to any appropriate Government agency authorized to make such disposal.
(f) Postponement or delay of termination settlement 
No contracting agency shall postpone or delay any termination settlement beyond the period specified in subsection (c) of this section for the purpose of awaiting disposal by the war contractor or the Government of any termination inventory reported in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.
(g) Government-owned machinery 
Whenever any war contractor no longer requires, for the performance of any war contract, any Government-owned machinery, tools, or equipment installed in his plant for the performance of one or more war contracts, the Government agency concerned, upon written demand by the war contractor, and within sixty days after such demand or such other period as may be prescribed under this chapter, and upon such conditions as may be so prescribed, shall remove or provide for the removal of such machinery, tools, or equipment from such plant, unless the Government agency concerned and the war contractor, by facilities contract or otherwise, have made or make other provisions for the retention, storage, maintenance, or disposition of such machinery, tools or equipment. The Government agency concerned may waive or release on behalf of the United States any obligation of the war contractor with respect to such machinery, tools, or equipment upon such terms and conditions as the agency deems appropriate. Upon the failure of the Government so to remove or provide for removal of any such machinery, tools, or equipment, the war contractor, subject to regulations prescribed under this chapter, may remove all or part of such machinery, tools, or equipment from his plant and may store it on his own premises or elsewhere, for the account and at the risk and expense of the Government, using reasonable care for its transportation and preservation.
(h) Limitation on Government acquisition of inventories 
Nothing in this chapter shall limit or affect the authority of the Department of the Army, Department of the Air Force, Navy Department, or the Department of Transportation, respectively, to take over any termination inventories and to retain them for their use for any purpose or to dispose of such termination inventories for the purpose of war production, or to authorize any war contractor to retain or dispose of such termination inventories for the purpose of war production.
(i) Removal and storage by war contractor at own risk 
Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the removal and storage of any termination inventory by any war contractor, at his own risk, at any time after termination of any war contract to which it is allocable.

41 USC 113 - Appeals

(a) Failure to settle claims by agreement; preparation of findings; notice to war contractor 
Whenever the contracting agency responsible for settling any termination claim has not settled the claim by agreement or has so settled only a part of the claim,
(1)  the contracting agency at any time may determine the amount due on such claim or such unsettled part, and prepare written findings indicating the basis of the determination, and deliver a copy of such findings to the war contractor, or
(2)  if the termination claim has been submitted in the manner and substantially the form prescribed under this chapter, the contracting agency, upon written demand by the war contractor for such findings, shall determine the amount due on the claim or unsettled part and prepare and deliver such findings to the war contractor within ninety days after the receipt by the agency of such demand. In preparing such findings, the contracting agency may require the war contractor to furnish such information and to submit to such audits as may be reasonably necessary for that purpose. Within thirty days after the delivery of any such findings, the contracting agency shall pay to the war contractor at least 90 per centum of the amount thereby determined to be due, after deducting the amount of any outstanding interim financing applicable thereto.
(b) Rights of war contractor 
Whenever any war contractor is aggrieved by the findings of a contracting agency on his claim or part thereof or by its failure to make such findings in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, he may bring suit against the United States for such claim or such part thereof, in the United States Court of Federal Claims or in a United States district court, in accordance with sections 1346, 2401, and 2402 of title 28, except that, if the contracting agency is the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, or any corporation organized pursuant to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act, or any corporation owned or controlled by the United States, the suit shall be brought against such corporation in any court of competent jurisdiction in accordance with existing law.
(c) Procedure 
Any proceeding under subsection (b) of this section shall be governed by the following conditions:
(1) When any contracting agency provides a procedure within the agency for protest against such findings or for other appeal therefrom by the war contractor, the war contractor, before proceeding under subsection (b) of this section,
(i)  in his discretion may resort to such procedure within the time specified in his contract or, if no time is specified, within thirty days after the delivery to him of the findings; and
(ii)  shall resort to such procedure for protest or other appeal to the extent required by the Administrator of General Services, but failure of the contracting agency to act on any such required protest or appeal within thirty days shall operate as a refusal by the agency to modify its findings. Any revision of the findings by the contracting agency, upon protest or appeal within the agency, shall be treated as the findings of the agency for the purpose of appeal or suit under subsection (b) of this section. Notwithstanding any contrary provision in any war contract, no war contractor shall be required to protest or appeal from such findings within the contracting agency except in accordance with this paragraph.
(2) A war contractor may initiate proceedings in accordance with subsection (b) of this section (i) within ninety days after delivery to him of the findings by the contracting agency, or (ii) in case of protests or appeal within the agency, within ninety days after the determination of such protest or appeal, or (iii) in case of failure to deliver such findings, within one year after his demand therefor. If he does not initiate such proceedings within the time specified, he shall be precluded thereafter from initiating any proceedings in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, and the findings of the contracting agency shall be final and conclusive, or if no findings were made, he shall be deemed to have waived such termination claim.
(3) Notwithstanding any contrary provision in any war contract, the court shall not be bound by the findings of the contracting agency, but shall treat such findings as prima facie correct, and the burden shall be on the war contractor to establish that the amount due on his claim or part thereof exceeds the amount allowed by the findings of the contracting agency. Whenever the court finds that the war contractor failed to negotiate in good faith with the contracting agency for the settlement of his claim or part thereof before appeal or suit thereon, or failed to furnish to the agency any information reasonably requested by it regarding his termination claim or part thereof, or failed to prosecute diligently any protest or appeal required to be taken under subsection (c)(1)(ii) of this section, the court
(i)  may refuse to receive in evidence any information not submitted to the contracting agency;
(ii)  may deny interest on the claim or part thereof for such period as it deems proper; or
(iii)  may remand the case to the contracting agency for further proceedings upon such terms as the court may prescribe. Unless the case is remanded, the court shall enter the appropriate award or judgment on the basis of the law and facts, and may increase or decrease the amount allowed by the findings of the contracting agency.
(4) Any such proceedings shall not affect the authority of the contracting agency concerned to make a settlement of the termination claim, or any part thereof, by agreement with the war contractor at any time before such proceedings are concluded.
(d) Omitted 
(e) Arbitration 
The contracting agency responsible for settling any claim and the war contractor asserting the claim, by agreement, may submit all or any part of the termination claim to arbitration, without regard to the amount in dispute. Such arbitration proceedings shall be governed by the provisions of United States Arbitration Act to the same extent as if authorized by an effective agreement in writing between the Government and the war contractor. Any such arbitration award shall be final and conclusive upon the United States to the same extent as a settlement under subsection (c) of section 106 of this title, but shall not be subject to approval by any settlement review board.
(f) Conclusiveness of decisions 
Whenever any dispute exists between any war contractor and a subcontractor regarding any termination claim, either of them, by agreement with the other, may submit the dispute to a contracting agency for mediation or arbitration whenever authorized by the agency or required by the Administrator of General Services. Any award or decision in such proceedings shall be final and conclusive as to the parties so submitting any such dispute and shall not be questioned by the United States in settling any related claim, in the absence of fraud or collusion.

41 USC 114 - Court of Federal Claims

(a) Appointment of auditors 
For the purpose of expediting the adjudication of termination claims, the United States Court of Federal Claims is authorized to appoint not more than ten auditors.
(b) Procedure 
The United States Court of Federal Claims, on motion of either of the parties, or on its own motion, may summon any and all persons with legal capacity to be sued to appear as a party or parties in any suit or proceeding of any nature whatsoever pending in said court to assert and defend their interests, if any, in such suits or proceedings, within such period of time prior to judgment as the United States Court of Federal Claims shall prescribe. If the name and address of any such person is known or can be ascertained by reasonable diligence, and if he resides within the jurisdiction of the United States, he shall be summoned to appear by personal service; but if any such person resides outside of the jurisdiction of the United States, or is unknown, or if for any other good and sufficient reason appearing to the court personal service cannot be had, he may be summoned by publication, under such rules as the court may adopt, together with a copy of the summons mailed by registered mail to such persons last known address. The United States Court of Federal Claims may, upon motion of the Attorney General, in any suit or proceeding where there may be any number of persons having possible interests therein, notify such persons to appear to assert and defend such interests. Upon failure so to appear, any and all claims or interests in claims of any such person against the United States, in respect of the subject matter of such suit or proceeding, shall forever be barred and the court shall have jurisdiction to enter judgment pro confesso upon any claim or contingent claim asserted on behalf of the United States against any person who, having been duly served with summons, fails to respond thereto, to the same extent and with like effect as if such person had appeared and had admitted the truth of all allegations made on behalf of the United States. Upon appearance by any person pursuant to any such summons or notice, the case as to such person shall, for all purposes, be treated as if an independent proceeding has been instituted by such person pursuant to sections 1491, 1496, 1501, 1503, and 2501 of title 28, and as if such independent proceeding had then been consolidated, for purposes of trial and determination, with the case in respect of which the summons or notice was issued, except that the United States shall not be heard upon any counterclaims, claims for damages or other demands whatsoever against such person, other than claims and contingent claims for the recovery of money hereafter paid by the United States in respect of the transaction or matter which constitutes the subject matter of such case, unless and until such person shall assert therein a claim, or an interest in a claim, against the United States, and the United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to adjudicate, as between any and all adverse claimants, their respective several interests in any matter in suit and to award several judgments in accordance therewith.
(c) Jurisdiction 
The jurisdiction of the United States Court of Federal Claims shall not be affected by this chapter except to the extent necessary to give effect to this chapter, and no person shall recover judgment on any claim, or on any interest in any claim, in said court which such person would not have had a right to assert in said court if this section had not been enacted.

41 USC 115 - Personal financial liability of contracting officers

(a) Whenever any payment is made from Government funds to any war contractor or other person as an advance, partial or final payment on any termination claim, or pursuant to any loan, guaranty, or agreement for the purchase of any loan, or any commitment in connection therewith, entered into by the Government, no officer or other Government agent authorizing or approving such payment or settlement, or certifying the voucher for such payment, or making the payment in accordance with a duly certified voucher, shall be personally liable for such payment, in the absence of fraud on his part. In settling the accounts of any disbursing officer the Government Accountability Office shall allow any such disbursements made by him notwithstanding any other provisions of law.
(b) For the purpose of making termination settlements or interim financing any Government agency is authorized to rely upon such certificates of war contractors as it deems proper and to permit war contractors and other persons to rely upon such certificates without financial liability in the absence of fraud on their part.

41 USC 116 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104316, title I, 121(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3836

Section, acts July 1, 1944, ch. 358, 16, 58 Stat. 664; Ex. Ord. No. 9809, 8, eff. Dec. 12, 1946, 11 F.R. 14281; 1947 Reorg. Plan No. 1, 201, eff. July 1, 1947, 12 F.R. 4534, 61 Stat. 951; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, 102(b), 63 Stat. 380, related to functions and jurisdiction of General Accounting Office in reviewing final settlements made by contracting agency, in certifying settlements suspected of being fraudulent to Department of Justice, Administrator of General Services, and contracting agency, and in reporting on efficacy of settlement methods and procedures to Congress.

41 USC 117 - Defective, informal, and quasi contracts

(a) Lack of formalized contract 
Where any person has arranged to furnish or furnished to a contracting agency or to a war contractor any materials, services, or facilities related to the prosecution of the war, without a formal contract, relying in good faith upon the apparent authority of an officer or agent of a contracting agency, written or oral instructions, or any other request to proceed from a contracting agency, the contracting agency shall pay such person fair compensation therefor.
(b) Technical defects or omissions 
Whenever any formal or technical defect or omission in any prime contract, or in any grant of authority to an officer or agent of a contracting agency who ordered any materials, services, and facilities might invalidate the contract or commitment, the contracting agency
(1)  shall not take advantage of such defect or omission;
(2)  shall amend, confirm, or ratify such contract or commitment without consideration in order to cure such defect or omission; and
(3)  shall make a fair settlement of any obligation thereby created or incurred by such agency, whether expressed or implied, in fact or in law, or in the nature of an implied or quasi contract.
(c) Failure to settle 
Where a contracting agency fails to settle by agreement any claim asserted under this section, the dispute shall be subject to the provisions of section 113 of this title.
(d) Formalization of obligations; termination date for filing claims 
The Administrator of General Services shall require each contracting agency to formalize all such obligations and commitments within such period as the Administrator of General Services deems appropriate. No person shall be entitled to recover compensation, to receive a settlement of any alleged obligation, or to obtain the benefit of any amendment, confirmation, ratification, or formalization of any alleged contract or commitment under the provisions of subsections (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section, unless such person shall, on or before one hundred and eighty days after June 28, 1954, have filed a claim therefor with the contracting agency.

41 USC 118 - Administration

(a) Records and forms 
The Administrator of General Services shall establish policies for such supervision and review within the contracting agencies of termination settlements and interim financing as he deems necessary and appropriate to prevent and detect fraud and to assure uniformity in administration and to provide for expeditious settlements. For this purpose he shall prescribe such records to be prepared by the contracting agencies and by war contractors as he deems necessary in connection with such settlements and interim financing. He shall seek to reduce the amount of record keeping, reporting, and accounting in connection with the settlement of termination claims and interim financing to the minimum compatible with the reasonable protection of the public interest. Each contracting agency shall prescribe forms for use by war contractors in connection with termination settlements and interim financing to the extent it deems necessary and feasible.
(b) Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, § 1(111), 65 Stat. 705 
(c) Advance notice on cut-backs 
The Administrator of General Services, by regulation, shall provide for making available to any interested Government agency such advance notice and other information on cut-backs in war production resulting from terminations or failures to renew or extend war contracts, as he deems necessary and appropriate.
(d) Investigations 
The Administrator of General Services shall make such investigations as he deems necessary or desirable in connection with termination settlements and interim financing. For this purpose he may utilize the facilities of any existing agencies and if he determines that the facilities of existing agencies are inadequate, he may establish a unit in the General Services Administration to supplement and facilitate the work of existing agencies. He shall report to the Department of Justice any information received by him indicating any fraudulent practices, for appropriate action.
(e) Certification of fraudulent settlements to Department of Justice 
Whenever any contracting agency or the Administrator of General Services believes that any settlement was induced by fraud, the agency or Administrator of General Services shall report the facts to the Department of Justice. Thereupon,
(1)  the Department of Justice shall make an investigation to determine whether such settlement was induced by fraud, and
(2)  until the Department of Justice notifies the contracting agency that in its opinion the facts do not support the belief that the settlement was induced by fraud, the contracting agency, by set-off or otherwise, may withhold, from amounts owing to the war contractor by the United States under such settlement or otherwise, the amount of the settlement, or the portion thereof, which, in its opinion, was affected by the fraud. In any such case the Department of Justice shall take such action as it deems appropriate to recover payments made to such war contractor.

41 USC 119 - Fraudulent claims, vouchers, statements, etc.; jurisdiction

Every person who makes or causes to be made, or presents or causes to be presented to any officer, agent, or employee of any Government agency any claim, bill, receipt, voucher, statement, account, certificate, affidavit, or deposition, knowing the same to be false, fraudulent, or fictitious or knowing the same to contain or to be based on any false, fraudulent, or fictitious statement or entry, or who shall cover up or conceal any material fact, or who shall use or engage in any other fraudulent trick, scheme, or device, for the purpose of securing or obtaining, or aiding to secure or obtain, for any person any benefit, payment, compensation, allowance, loan, advance, or emolument from the United States or any Government agency in connection with the termination, cancelation, settlement, payment, negotiation, renegotiation, performance, procurement, or award of a contract with the United States or with any other person, and every person who enters into an agreement, combination, or conspiracy so to do,
(1)  shall pay to the United States an amount equal to 25 per centum of any amount thereby sought to be wrongfully secured or obtained but not actually received, and
(2)  shall forfeit and refund any such benefit, payment, compensation, allowance, loan, advance, and emolument received as a result thereof and
(3)  shall in addition pay to the United States the sum of $2,000 for each such act, and double the amount of any damage which the United States may have sustained by reason thereof, together with the costs of suit.

The several district courts of the United States, the several district courts of the Territories of the United States, within whose jurisdictional limits the person, or persons, doing or committing such act, or any one of them, resides or shall be found, shall, wheresoever such act may have been done or committed, have full power and jurisdiction to hear, try, and determine such suit, and such person or persons as are not inhabitants of or found within the district in which suit is brought may be brought in by order of the court to be served personally or by publication or in such other reasonable manner as the court may direct.

41 USC 120 - Powers and duties of contracting agencies

(a) Limitation 
Each contracting agency shall have authority, notwithstanding any provisions of law other than contained in this chapter,
(1)  to make any contract necessary and appropriate to carry out the provisions of this chapter;
(2)  to amend by agreement any existing contract, either before or after notice of its termination, on such terms and to such extent as it deems necessary and appropriate to carry out the provisions of this chapter; and
(3)  in settling any termination claim, to agree to assume, or indemnify the war contractor against, any claims by any person in connection with such termination claims or settlement. This subsection shall not limit or affect in any way any authority of any contracting agency under the First War Powers Act, 1941, or under any other statute.
(b) Evidence required; conclusiveness of determinations 
Any contracting agency may prescribe the amount and kind of evidence required to identify any person as a war contractor, or any contract, agreement, or purchase order as a war contract for any of the purposes of this chapter. Any determination so made that any person is a war contractor, or that any contract, agreement, or purchase order is a war contract, shall be final and conclusive for any of the purposes of this chapter.
(c) Appropriations 
There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for administering the provisions of this chapter.
(d) Validation of prior settlements 
All policies and procedures relating to termination of war contracts, termination settlements, and interim financing, prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or any contracting agency, in effect on July 21, 1944, and not inconsistent with this chapter, shall remain in full force and effect unless and until superseded by the Administrator of General Services in accordance with this chapter, or by regulations of the contracting agency not inconsistent with this chapter or the policies prescribed by the Administrator of General Services.
(e) Impairment of contract 
Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to impair or modify any war contract or any term or provision of any war contract or any assignment of any claim under a war contract, without the consent of the parties thereto, if the war contract, or the term, provision, or assignment thereof, is otherwise valid.
(f) Aid to war contractors 
Any contracting agency may authorize or direct its officers and employees, as a part of their official duties, to advise, aid, and assist war contractors in preparing and presenting termination claims, in obtaining interim financing, and in related matters, to such extent as it deems desirable. Such advice, aid, or assistance shall not constitute a violation of section 205 of title 18 or of any other law, provided the officer or employee does not receive therefor benefit or compensation of any kind, directly or indirectly, from any war contractor.

41 USC 121 - Administrator of General Services; additional duties

In addition to his other functions under this chapter, the Administrator of General Services shall
(a) promote the training of personnel for termination settlement and interim financing by contracting agencies, war contractors, and financing institutions;
(b) Omitted
(c) promote decentralization of the administration of termination settlements and interim financing by fostering delegation of authority within contracting agencies and to war contractors, to the extent he deems necessary and feasible; and
(d) consult with war contractors through advisory committees or such other methods as he deems appropriate.

41 USC 122 - Use of appropriated funds

Any contracting agency is authorized
(a) to use for interim financing, the payment of claims, and for any other purposes authorized in this chapter any funds which have heretofore been appropriated or allocated or which may hereafter be appropriated or allocated to it, or which are or may become available to it, for such purposes or for the purposes of war production or war procurement;
(b) to use any such funds appropriated, allocated, or available to it for expenditures for or in behalf of any other contracting agency for the purposes authorized in this chapter; and
(c) to determine by agreement, joint estimate, or any other method authorized by the Administrator of General Services, the part of any expenditure made pursuant to subsection (b) of this section to be paid by each contracting agency concerned and to make transfers of funds between such contracting agencies accordingly. Transfers of funds between appropriations carried upon the books of the Treasury shall be made by the Administrator of General Services in accordance with joint requests of the contracting agencies involved.

41 USC 123 - Delegation of authority by Administrator of General Services

(a) Officers and agencies of General Service Administration and other governmental agencies 
The Administrator of General Services may delegate any authority and discretion conferred upon him by this chapter to such officers and agencies of the General Services Administration as he may designate, and may delegate such authority and discretion, upon such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, to the head of any Government agency to the extent necessary to the handling and solution of problems peculiar to that agency.
(b) Authority delegated to other governmental agencies 
The head of any Government agency may delegate any authority and discretion conferred upon him or his agency by or pursuant to this chapter to any officer, agent, or employee of such agency or to any other Government agency, and may authorize successive redelegations of such authority and discretion.
(c) Joint exercise of delegated authority 
Any two or more Government agencies may exercise jointly any authority and discretion conferred upon each of them individually by or pursuant to this chapter.
(d) Application to other laws 
Nothing in this chapter shall prevent the Administrator of General Services from exercising any authority conferred upon him by any other statute.

41 USC 124 - Effective date; applicability to lend lease contracts

(a) This chapter shall become effective twenty days after July 1, 1944. With the exception of the provisions of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of section 112 of this title, and sections 106 to 110, and 113 of this title, this chapter shall be applicable in the case of any terminated war contract which has been finally settled at or before the effective date of this chapter.
(b) Nothing in this chapter shall limit or affect any authority conferred by sections 411 to 419 of title 22, or Acts supplemental thereto.

41 USC 125 - Exemption of certain contracts outside continental United States or in Alaska

Subject to policies prescribed by the Administrator of General Services, any contracting agency may exempt from some or all of the provisions of this chapter
(a)  any war contract made or to be performed outside the continental limits of the United States or in Alaska, or
(b)  any termination inventory situated outside of the continental limits of the United States or in Alaska, or
(c)  any modification of a war contract pursuant to its terms for the purpose of changing plans or specifications applicable to the work without substantially reducing its extent.

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 3 - PROCUREMENT OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES BY ARMED SERVICES

151 to 162. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 151, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 2, 62 Stat. 21, related to purchases and contracts for supplies and services for the Armed Services, stated the Congressional declaration of policy, provided for advertising requirements, excepted certain purchases and contracts, authorized reference to Attorney General where there is any evidence of violation of antitrust laws, excluded certain authorizations and contracts. See sections 2303 to 2305 of Title 10, Armed Forces. Section 152, acts Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 3, 62 Stat. 22; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 628, 15, 69 Stat. 551, related to advertisements for bids, opening of bids and award or rejection of bids. See section 2305 of Title 10. Act Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 628, 15, 69 Stat. 551, which amended section 152 of this title, was repealed by Pub. L. 85–861, § 36A, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1569. Section 153, acts Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 4, 62 Stat. 23; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 652, 65 Stat. 700, provided for types of contracts and examination of books, records, etc., of contractors. See sections 2306 and 2313 of Title 10. Section 154, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 5, 62 Stat. 24, authorized advance payments under negotiated contracts. See section 2307 of Title 10. Section 155, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 6, 62 Stat. 24, provided for remission of liquidated damages. See section 2312 of Title 10. Section 156, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 7, 62 Stat. 24, provided for determinations and decisions, powers of agency head, finality of decisions, delegations of powers, non-delegable powers, written decisions, preservation of data. See sections 2304, 2310, and 2311 of Title 10. Section 157, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 8, 62 Stat. 24, related to exemption of purchases or contracts from certain other provisions of law. See section 2304 of Title 10. Section 158, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 9, 62 Stat. 24, defined agency head and supplies. See sections 2302 and 2303 of Title 10. Section 159, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 10, 62 Stat. 25, related to assignment and delegation of joint procurement responsibilities by agency head, and allocation of appropriations. See section 2309 of Title 10. Section 160, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 11(b), 62 Stat. 25, provided that sections 5, 6, 6a, and 13 of this title should be inapplicable to procurement of supplies and services. See section 2314 of Title 10. Section 161, act Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, 12, 62 Stat. 26, related to concurrent authority of Secretaries of Army, Navy and Air Force. See section 2381 of Title 10. Section 162, act July 10, 1952, ch. 630, title VI, 638, 66 Stat. 537, related to obligation of funds by Department of Defense for procurement and distribution of supplies or equipment. See section 2202 of Title 10.

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 4 - PROCUREMENT PROCEDURES

TITLE 41 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL PROVISIONS

201 to 205. Transferred

TITLE 41 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION

211 to 219. Transferred

TITLE 41 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - PROPERTY MANAGEMENT

231 to 240. Transferred

TITLE 41 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER IV - PROCUREMENT PROVISIONS

41 USC 251 - Declaration of purpose of this subchapter

The purpose of this subchapter is to facilitate the procurement of property and services.

41 USC 252 - Purchases and contracts for property

(a) Applicability of subchapter; delegation of au­thority 
Executive agencies shall make purchases and contracts for property and services in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter and implementing regulations of the Administrator; but this subchapter does not apply
(1) to the Department of Defense, the Coast Guard, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; or
(2) when this subchapter is made inapplicable pursuant to section 113 (e) of title 40 or any other law, but when this subchapter is made inapplicable by any such provision of law, sections 5 and 8 of this title shall be applicable in the absence of authority conferred by statute to procure without advertising or without regard to said section 5 of this title.
(b) Small business concerns; share of business 
It is the declared policy of the Congress that a fair proportion of the total purchases and contracts for property and services for the Government shall be placed with small business concerns.
(c) Authorization of erection, repair, or furnishing of public buildings or improvements; contracts for construction or repair of buildings, roads, sidewalks, sewers, mains, etc.; Federal Highway Lands Program 

(1) This subchapter does not
(A)  authorize the erection, repair, or furnishing of any public building or public improvement, but such authorization shall be required in the same manner as heretofore, or
(B)  permit any contract for the construction or repair of buildings, roads, sidewalks, sewers, mains, or similar items using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures under section 253 (a)(2)(A) of this title, if the conditions set forth in section 253 (a)(2)(A) of this title apply or the contract is to be performed outside the United States.
(2) Section 253 (a)(2)(A) of this title does not require the use of sealed-bid procedures in cases in which section 204 (e) of title 23 applies.

41 USC 252a - Simplified acquisition threshold

(a) Simplified acquisition threshold 
For purposes of acquisitions by executive agencies, the simplified acquisition threshold is as specified in section 403 (11) of this title.
(b) Inapplicable laws 
No law properly listed in the Federal Acquisition Regulation pursuant to section 429 of this title shall apply to or with respect to a contract or subcontract that is not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.

41 USC 252b - Implementation of simplified acquisition procedures

The simplified acquisition procedures contained in the Federal Acquisition Regulation pursuant to section 427 of this title shall apply in executive agencies as provided in such section.

41 USC 252c - Implementation of electronic commerce capability

(a) Implementation of electronic commerce capability 

(1) The head of each executive agency shall implement the electronic commerce capability required by section 426 of this title.
(2) In implementing the electronic commerce capability pursuant to paragraph (1), the head of an executive agency shall consult with the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy.
(b) Designation of agency official 
The head of each executive agency shall designate a program manager to implement the electronic commerce capability for that agency. The program manager shall report directly to an official at a level not lower than the senior procurement executive designated for the executive agency under section 414 (3)1 of this title.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 253 - Competition requirements

(a) Procurement through full and open competition; competitive procedures 

(1) Except as provided in subsections (b), (c), and (g) of this section and except in the case of procurement procedures otherwise expressly authorized by statute, an executive agency in conducting a procurement for property or services
(A) shall obtain full and open competition through the use of competitive procedures in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter and the Federal Acquisition Regulation; and
(B) shall use the competitive procedure or combination of competitive procedures that is best suited under the circumstances of the procurement.
(2) In determining the competitive procedures appropriate under the circumstance, an executive agency
(A) shall solicit sealed bids if
(i) time permits the solicitation, submission, and evaluation of sealed bids;
(ii) the award will be made on the basis of price and other price-related factors;
(iii) it is not necessary to conduct discussions with the responding sources about their bids; and
(iv) there is a reasonable expectation of receiving more than one sealed bid; and
(B) shall request competitive proposals if sealed bids are not appropriate under clause (A).
(b) Exclusion of particular source; restriction of solicitation to small business concerns 

(1) An executive agency may provide for the procurement of property or services covered by this section using competitive procedures but excluding a particular source in order to establish or maintain any alternative source or sources of supply for that property or service if the agency head determines that to do so
(A) would increase or maintain competition and would likely result in reduced overall costs for such procurement, or for any anticipated procurement, of such property or services;
(B) would be in the interest of national defense in having a facility (or a producer, manufacturer, or other supplier) available for furnishing the property or service in case of a national emergency or industrial mobilization;
(C) would be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center;
(D) would ensure the continuous availability of a reliable source of supply of such property or service;
(E) would satisfy projected needs for such property or service determined on the basis of a history of high demand for the property or service; or
(F) in the case of medical supplies, safety supplies, or emergency supplies, would satisfy a critical need for such supplies.
(2) An executive agency may provide for the procurement of property or services covered by this section using competitive procedures, but excluding other than small business concerns in furtherance of sections 638 and 644 of title 15.
(3) A contract awarded pursuant to the competitive procedures referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not be subject to the justification and approval required by subsection (f)(1) of this section.
(4) A determination under paragraph (1) may not be made for a class of purchases or contracts.
(c) Use of noncompetitive procedures 
An executive agency may use procedures other than competitive procedures only when
(1) the property or services needed by the executive agency are available from only one responsible source and no other type of property or services will satisfy the needs of the executive agency;
(2) the executive agencys need for the property or services is of such an unusual and compelling urgency that the Government would be seriously injured unless the executive agency is permitted to limit the number of sources from which it solicits bids or proposals;
(3) it is necessary to award the contract to a particular source or sources in order
(A)  to maintain a facility, producer, manufacturer, or other supplier available for furnishing property or services in case of a national emergency or to achieve industrial mobilization,
(B)  to establish or maintain an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center, or
(C)  to procure the services of an expert for use, in any litigation or dispute (including any reasonably foreseeable litigation or dispute) involving the Federal Government, in any trial, hearing, or proceeding before any court, administrative tribunal, or agency, or to procure the services of an expert or neutral for use in any part of an alternative dispute resolution or negotiated rulemaking process, whether or not the expert is expected to testify;
(4) the terms of an international agreement or treaty between the United States Government and a foreign government or international organization, or the written directions of a foreign government reimbursing the executive agency for the cost of the procurement of the property or services for such government, have the effect of requiring the use of procedures other than competitive procedures;
(5) subject to subsection (h)1 of this section, a statute expressly authorizes or requires that the procurement be made through another executive agency or from a specified source, or the agencys need is for a brand-name commercial item for authorized resale;
(6) the disclosure of the executive agencys needs would compromise the national security unless the agency is permitted to limit the number of sources from which it solicits bids or proposals; or
(7) the head of the executive agency
(A) determines that it is necessary in the public interest to use procedures other than competitive procedures in the particular procurement concerned, and
(B) notifies the Congress in writing of such determination not less than 30 days before the award of the contract.
(d) Property or services deemed available from only one source; nondelegable authority 

(1) For the purposes of applying subsection (c)(1) of this section
(A) in the case of a contract for property or services to be awarded on the basis of acceptance of an unsolicited research proposal, the property or services shall be considered to be available from only one source if the source has submitted an unsolicited research proposal that demonstrates a unique and innovative concept the substance of which is not otherwise available to the United States and does not resemble the substance of a pending competitive procurement; and
(B) in the case of a follow-on contract for the continued development or production of a major system or highly specialized equipment when it is likely that award to a source other than the original source would result in
(i)  substantial duplication of cost to the Government which is not expected to be recovered through competition, or
(ii)  unacceptable delays in fulfilling the executive agencys needs, such property may be deemed to be available only from the original source and may be procured through procedures other than competitive procedures.
(2) The authority of the head of an executive agency under subsection (c)(7) of this section may not be delegated.
(e) Offer requests to potential sources 
An executive agency using procedures other than competitive procedures to procure property or services by reason of the application of subsection (c)(2) or (c)(6) of this section shall request offers from as many potential sources as is practicable under the circumstances.
(f) Justification for use of noncompetitive procedures 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), an executive agency may not award a contract using procedures other than competitive procedures unless
(A) the contracting officer for the contract justifies the use of such procedures in writing and certifies the accuracy and completeness of the justification;
(B) the justification is approved
(i) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $500,000 (but equal to or less than $10,000,000), by the competition advocate for the procuring activity (without further delegation) or by an official referred to in clause (ii) or (iii); and
(ii) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $10,000,000 (but equal to or less than $50,000,000), by the head of the procuring activity or a delegate who, if a member of the armed forces, is a general or flag officer or, if a civilian, is serving in a position in grade GS16 or above under the General Schedule (or in a comparable or higher position under another schedule); or
(iii) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $50,000,000, by the senior procurement executive of the agency designated pursuant to section 414 (3)1 of this title (without further delegation); and
(C) any required notice has been published with respect to such contract pursuant to section 416 of this title and all bids or proposals received in response to such notice have been considered by such executive agency.
(2) In the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(2), the justification and approval required by paragraph (1) may be made after the contract is awarded. The justification and approval required by paragraph (1) is not required
(A) when a statute expressly requires that the procurement be made from a specified source;
(B) when the agencys need is for a brand-name commercial item for authorized resale;
(C) in the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(7) of this section; or
(D) in the case of a procurement conducted under
(i)  the Javits-Wagner-ODay Act (41 U.S.C. 46 et seq.), or
(ii)  section 637 (a) of title 15.
(3) The justification required by paragraph (1)(A) shall include
(A) a description of the agencys needs;
(B) an identification of the statutory exception from the requirement to use competitive procedures and a demonstration, based on the proposed contractors qualifications or the nature of the procurement, of the reasons for using that exception;
(C) a determination that the anticipated cost will be fair and reasonable;
(D) a description of the market survey conducted or a statement of the reasons a market survey was not conducted;
(E) a listing of the sources, if any, that expressed in writing an interest in the procurement; and
(F) a statement of the actions, if any, the agency may take to remove or overcome a barrier to competition before a subsequent procurement for such needs.
(4) The justification required by paragraph (1)(A) and any related information shall be made available for inspection by the public consistent with the provisions of section 552 of title 5.
(5) In no case may an executive agency
(A) enter into a contract for property or services using procedures other than competitive procedures on the basis of the lack of advance planning or concerns related to the amount of funds available to the agency for procurement functions; or
(B) procure property or services from another executive agency unless such other executive agency complies fully with the requirements of this subchapter in its procurement of such property or services.

The restriction set out in clause (B) is in addition to, and not in lieu of, any other restriction provided by law.

(g) Simplified procedures for small purchases 

(1) In order to promote efficiency and economy in contracting and to avoid unnecessary burdens for agencies and contractors, the Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide for
(A) special simplified procedures for purchases of property and services for amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold; and
(B) special simplified procedures for purchases of property and services for amounts greater than the simplified acquisition threshold but not greater than $5,000,000 with respect to which the contracting officer reasonably expects, based on the nature of the property or services sought and on market research, that offers will include only commercial items.
(2) 
(A) The Administrator of General Services shall prescribe regulations that provide special simplified procedures for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real property at rental rates that do not exceed the simplified acquisition threshold.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the rental rate or rates under a multiyear lease do not exceed the simplified acquisition threshold if the average annual amount of the rent payable for the period of the lease does not exceed the simplified acquisition threshold.
(3) A proposed purchase or contract for an amount above the simplified acquisition threshold may not be divided into several purchases or contracts for lesser amounts in order to use the simplified procedures required by paragraph (1).
(4) In using the simplified procedures, an executive agency shall promote competition to the maximum extent practicable.
(5) An executive agency shall comply with the Federal Acquisition Regulation provisions referred to in section 427 (f) of this title.
(h) Efficient implementation of requirement 
The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall ensure that the requirement to obtain full and open competition is implemented in a manner that is consistent with the need to efficiently fulfill the Governments requirements.
(i) Merit-based award of contracts 

(1) It is the policy of Congress that an executive agency should not be required by legislation to award a new contract to a specific non-Federal Government entity. It is further the policy of Congress that any program, project, or technology identified in legislation be procured through merit-based selection procedures.
(2) A provision of law may not be construed as requiring a new contract to be awarded to a specified non-Federal Government entity unless that provision of law
(A) specifically refers to this subsection;
(B) specifically identifies the particular non-Federal Government entity involved; and
(C) specifically states that the award to that entity is required by such provision of law in contravention of the policy set forth in paragraph (1).
(3) For purposes of this subsection, a contract is a new contract unless the work provided for in the contract is a continuation of the work performed by the specified entity under a preceding contract.
(4) This subsection shall not apply with respect to any contract that calls upon the National Academy of Sciences to investigate, examine, or experiment upon any subject of science or art of significance to an executive agency and to report on such matters to the Congress or any agency of the Federal Government.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 253a - Planning and solicitation requirements

(a) Preparation; planning; specifications in solicitation 

(1) In preparing for the procurement of property or services, an executive agency shall
(A) specify its needs and solicit bids or proposals in a manner designed to achieve full and open competition for the procurement;
(B) use advance procurement planning and market research; and
(C) develop specifications in such manner as is necessary to obtain full and open competition with due regard to the nature of the property or services to be acquired.
(2) Each solicitation under this subchapter shall include specifications which
(A) consistent with the provisions of this subchapter, permit full and open competition;
(B) include restrictive provisions or conditions only to the extent necessary to satisfy the needs of the executive agency or as authorized by law.
(3) For the purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), the type of specification included in a solicitation shall depend on the nature of the needs of the executive agency and the market available to satisfy such needs. Subject to such needs, specifications may be stated in terms of
(A) function, so that a variety of products or services may qualify;
(B) performance, including specifications of the range of acceptable characteristics or of the minimum acceptable standards; or
(C) design requirements.
(b) Contents of solicitation 
In addition to the specifications described in subsection (a) of this section, each solicitation for sealed bids or competitive proposals (other than for a procurement for commercial items using special simplified procedures or a purchase for an amount not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold) shall at a minimum include
(1) a statement of
(A) all significant factors and significant subfactors which the executive agency reasonably expects to consider in evaluating sealed bids (including price) or competitive proposals (including cost or price, cost-related or price-related factors and subfactors, and noncost-related or nonprice-related factors and subfactors); and
(B) the relative importance assigned to each of those factors and subfactors; and
(2) 
(A) in the case of sealed bids
(i) a statement that sealed bids will be evaluated without discussions with the bidders; and
(ii) the time and place for the opening of the sealed bids; or
(B) in the case of competitive proposals
(i) either a statement that the proposals are intended to be evaluated with, and award made after, discussions with the offerors, or a statement that the proposals are intended to be evaluated, and award made, without discussions with the offerors (other than discussions conducted for the purpose of minor clarification) unless discussions are determined to be necessary; and
(ii) the time and place for submission of proposals.
(c) Evaluation factors 

(1) In prescribing the evaluation factors to be included in each solicitation for competitive proposals, an executive agency
(A) shall clearly establish the relative importance assigned to the evaluation factors and subfactors, including the quality of the product or services to be provided (including technical capability, management capability, prior experience, and past performance of the offeror);
(B) shall include cost or price to the Federal Government as an evaluation factor that must be considered in the evaluation of proposals; and
(C) shall disclose to offerors whether all evaluation factors other than cost or price, when combined, are
(i) significantly more important than cost or price;
(ii) approximately equal in importance to cost or price; or
(iii) significantly less important than cost or price.
(2) The regulations implementing subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) may not define the terms significantly more important and significantly less important as specific numeric weights that would be applied uniformly to all solicitations or a class of solicitations.
(d) Additional information in solicitation 
Nothing in this section prohibits an executive agency from
(1) providing additional information in a solicitation, including numeric weights for all evaluation factors and subfactors on a case-by-case basis; or
(2) stating in a solicitation that award will be made to the offeror that meets the solicitations mandatory requirements at the lowest cost or price.
(e) Evaluation of purchase options 
An executive agency, in issuing a solicitation for a contract to be awarded using sealed bid procedures, may not include in such solicitation a clause providing for the evaluation of prices for options to purchase additional property or services under the contract unless the executive agency has determined that there is a reasonable likelihood that the options will be exercised.

41 USC 253b - Evaluation and award

(a) Basis 
An executive agency shall evaluate sealed bids and competitive proposals, and award a contract, based solely on the factors specified in the solicitation.
(b) Rejection of bids or proposals 
All sealed bids or competitive proposals received in response to a solicitation may be rejected if the agency head determines that such action is in the public interest.
(c) Opening of bids; promptness of award; written notice 
Sealed bids shall be opened publicly at the time and place stated in the solicitation. The executive agency shall evaluate the bids in accordance with subsection (a) of this section without discussions with the bidders and, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, shall award a contract with reasonable promptness to the responsible source whose bid conforms to the solicitation and is most advantageous to the United States, considering only price and the other price-related factors included in the solicitation. The award of a contract shall be made by transmitting, in writing or by electronic means, notice of the award to the successful bidder. Within 3 days after the date of contract award, the executive agency shall notify, in writing or by electronic means, each bidder not awarded the contract that the contract has been awarded.
(d) Discussions with offerors; written notification 

(1) An executive agency shall evaluate competitive proposals in accordance with subsection (a) of this section and may award a contract
(A) after discussions with the offerors, provided that written or oral discussions have been conducted with all responsible offerors who submit proposals within the competitive range; or
(B) based on the proposals received and without discussions with the offerors (other than discussions conducted for the purpose of minor clarification), if, as required by section 253a (b)(2)(B)(i) of this title, the solicitation included a statement that proposals are intended to be evaluated, and award made, without discussions, unless discussions are determined to be necessary.
(2) If the contracting officer determines that the number of offerors that would otherwise be included in the competitive range under paragraph (1)(A) exceeds the number at which an efficient competition can be conducted, the contracting officer may limit the number of proposals in the competitive range, in accordance with the criteria specified in the solicitation, to the greatest number that will permit an efficient competition among the offerors rated most highly in accordance with such criteria.
(3) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, the executive agency shall award a contract with reasonable promptness to the responsible source whose proposal is most advantageous to the United States, considering only cost or price and the other factors included in the solicitation. The executive agency shall award the contract by transmitting, in writing or by electronic means, notice of the award to such source and, within 3 days after the date of contract award, shall notify, in writing or by electronic means, all other offerors of the rejection of their proposals.
(e) Post-award debriefings 

(1) When a contract is awarded by the head of an executive agency on the basis of competitive proposals, an unsuccessful offeror, upon written request received by the agency within 3 days after the date on which the unsuccessful offeror receives the notification of the contract award, shall be debriefed and furnished the basis for the selection decision and contract award. The executive agency shall debrief the offeror within, to the maximum extent practicable, 5 days after receipt of the request by the executive agency.
(2) The debriefing shall include, at a minimum
(A) the executive agencys evaluation of the significant weak or deficient factors in the offerors offer;
(B) the overall evaluated cost and technical rating of the offer of the contractor awarded the contract and the overall evaluated cost and technical rating of the offer of the debriefed offeror;
(C) the overall ranking of all offers;
(D) a summary of the rationale for the award;
(E) in the case of a proposal that includes a commercial item that is an end item under the contract, the make and model of the item being provided in accordance with the offer of the contractor awarded the contract; and
(F) reasonable responses to relevant questions posed by the debriefed offeror as to whether source selection procedures set forth in the solicitation, applicable regulations, and other applicable authorities were followed by the executive agency.
(3) The debriefing may not include point-by-point comparisons of the debriefed offerors offer with other offers and may not disclose any information that is exempt from disclosure under section 552 (b) of title 5.
(4) Each solicitation for competitive proposals shall include a statement that information described in paragraph (2) may be disclosed in post-award debriefings.
(5) If, within one year after the date of the contract award and as a result of a successful procurement protest, the executive agency seeks to fulfill the requirement under the protested contract either on the basis of a new solicitation of offers or on the basis of new best and final offers requested for that contract, the head of such executive agency shall make available to all offerors
(A) the information provided in debriefings under this subsection regarding the offer of the contractor awarded the contract; and
(B) the same information that would have been provided to the original offerors.
(f) Preaward debriefings 

(1) When the contracting officer excludes an offeror submitting a competitive proposal from the competitive range (or otherwise excludes such an offeror from further consideration prior to the final source selection decision), the excluded offeror may request in writing, within 3 days after the date on which the excluded offeror receives notice of its exclusion, a debriefing prior to award. The contracting officer shall make every effort to debrief the unsuccessful offeror as soon as practicable but may refuse the request for a debriefing if it is not in the best interests of the Government to conduct a debriefing at that time.
(2) The contracting officer is required to debrief an excluded offeror in accordance with subsection (e) of this section only if that offeror requested and was refused a preaward debriefing under paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(3) The debriefing conducted under this subsection shall include
(A) the executive agencys evaluation of the significant elements in the offerors offer;
(B) a summary of the rationale for the offerors exclusion; and
(C) reasonable responses to relevant questions posed by the debriefed offeror as to whether source selection procedures set forth in the solicitation, applicable regulations, and other applicable authorities were followed by the executive agency.
(4) The debriefing conducted pursuant to this subsection may not disclose the number or identity of other offerors and shall not disclose information about the content, ranking, or evaluation of other offerors proposals.
(g) Summary of debriefing 
The contracting officer shall include a summary of any debriefing conducted under subsection (e) or (f) of this section in the contract file.
(h) Alternative dispute resolution 
The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include a provision encouraging the use of alternative dispute resolution techniques to provide informal, expeditious, and inexpensive procedures for an offeror to consider using before filing a protest, prior to the award of a contract, of the exclusion of the offeror from the competitive range (or otherwise from further consideration) for that contract.
(i) Antitrust violations 
If the agency head considers that a bid or proposal evidences a violation of the antitrust laws, such agency head shall refer the bid or proposal to the Attorney General for appropriate action.
(j) Planning for future competition 

(1) 
(A) In preparing a solicitation for the award of a development contract for a major system, the head of an agency shall consider requiring in the solicitation that an offeror include in its offer proposals described in subparagraph (B). In determining whether to require such proposals, the head of the agency shall give due consideration to the purposes for which the system is being procured and the technology necessary to meet the systems required capabilities. If such proposals are required, the head of the agency shall consider them in evaluating the offerors price.
(B) The proposals that the head of an agency is to consider requiring in a solicitation for the award of a development contract are the following:
(i) Proposals to incorporate in the design of the major system items which are currently available within the supply system of the Federal agency responsible for the major system, available elsewhere in the national supply system, or commercially available from more than one source.
(ii) With respect to items that are likely to be required in substantial quantities during the systems service life, proposals to incorporate in the design of the major system items which the United States will be able to acquire competitively in the future.
(2) 
(A) In preparing a solicitation for the award of a production contract for a major system, the head of an agency shall consider requiring in the solicitation that an offeror include in its offer proposals described in subparagraph (B). In determining whether to require such proposals, the head of the agency shall give due consideration to the purposes for which the system is being procured and the technology necessary to meet the systems required capabilities. If such proposals are required, the head of the agency shall consider them in evaluating the offerors price.
(B) The proposals that the head of an agency is to consider requiring in a solicitation for the award of a production contract are proposals identifying opportunities to ensure that the United States will be able to obtain on a competitive basis items procured in connection with the system that are likely to be reprocured in substantial quantities during the service life of the system. Proposals submitted in response to such requirement may include the following:
(i) Proposals to provide to the United States the right to use technical data to be provided under the contract for competitive reprocurement of the item, together with the cost to the United States, if any, of acquiring such technical data and the right to use such data.
(ii) Proposals for the qualification or development of multiple sources of supply for the item.
(3) If the head of an agency is making a noncompetitive award of a development contract or a production contract for a major system, the factors specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) to be considered in evaluating an offer for a contract may be considered as objectives in negotiating the contract to be awarded.
(k) Protest file 

(1) If, in the case of a solicitation for a contract issued by, or an award or proposed award of a contract by, the head of an executive agency, a protest is filed pursuant to the procedures in subchapter V of chapter 35 of title 31, and an actual or prospective offeror so requests, a file of the protest shall be established by the procuring activity and reasonable access shall be provided to actual or prospective offerors.
(2) Information exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 may be redacted in a file established pursuant to paragraph (1) unless an applicable protective order provides otherwise.
(l) Agency actions on protests 
If, in connection with a protest, the head of an executive agency determines that a solicitation, proposed award, or award does not comply with the requirements of law or regulation, the head of such executive agency
(1) may take any action set out in subparagraphs (A) through (F) of subsection (b)(1) of section 3554 of title 31; and
(2) may pay costs described in paragraph (1) of section 3554(c) of such title within the limits referred to in paragraph (2) of such section.
(m) Prohibition on release of contractor proposals 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a proposal in the possession or control of an executive agency may not be made available to any person under section 552 of title 5.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to any proposal that is set forth or incorporated by reference in a contract entered into between the agency and the contractor that submitted the proposal.
(3) In this subsection, the term proposal means any proposal, including a technical, management, or cost proposal, submitted by a contractor in response to the requirements of a solicitation for a competitive proposal.

41 USC 253c - Encouragement of new competition

(a) “Qualification requirement” defined 
In this section, qualification requirement means a requirement for testing or other quality assurance demonstration that must be completed by an offeror before award of a contract.
(b) Agency head; functions; prior to enforcement of qualification requirement 
Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the head of the agency shall, before enforcing any qualification requirement
(1) prepare a written justification stating the necessity for establishing the qualification requirement and specify why the qualification requirement must be demonstrated before contract award;
(2) specify in writing and make available to a potential offeror upon request all requirements which a prospective offeror, or its product, must satisfy in order to become qualified, such requirements to be limited to those least restrictive to meet the purposes necessitating the establishment of the qualification requirement;
(3) specify an estimate of the costs of testing and evaluation likely to be incurred by a potential offeror in order to become qualified;
(4) ensure that a potential offeror is provided, upon request, a prompt opportunity to demonstrate at its own expense (except as provided in subsection (d) of this section) its ability to meet the standards specified for qualification using qualified personnel and facilities of the agency concerned or of another agency obtained through interagency agreement, or under contract, or other methods approved by the agency (including use of approved testing and evaluation services not provided under contract to the agency);
(5) if testing and evaluation services are provided under contract to the agency for the purposes of clause (4), provide to the extent possible that such services be provided by a contractor who is not expected to benefit from an absence of additional qualified sources and who shall be required in such contract to adhere to any restriction on technical data asserted by the potential offeror seeking qualification; and
(6) ensure that a potential offeror seeking qualification is promptly informed as to whether qualification is attained and, in the event qualification is not attained, is promptly furnished specific information why qualification was not attained.
(c) Applicability; waiver authority; referral of offers 

(1) Subsection (b) of this section does not apply with respect to a qualification requirement established by statute prior to October 30, 1984.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), if it is unreasonable to specify the standards for qualification which a prospective offeror or its product must satisfy, a determination to that effect shall be submitted to the advocate for competition of the procuring activity responsible for the purchase of the item subject to the qualification requirement. After considering any comments of the advocate for competition reviewing such determination, the head of the procuring activity may waive the requirements of paragraphs (2) through (5) of subsection (b) of this section for up to two years with respect to the item subject to the qualification requirement.
(3) The waiver authority contained in paragraph (2) shall not apply with respect to any qualified products list.
(4) A potential offeror may not be denied the opportunity to submit and have considered an offer for a contract solely because the potential offeror has not been identified as meeting a qualification requirement, if the potential offeror can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the contracting officer that the potential offeror or its product meets the standards established for qualification or can meet such standards before the date specified for award of the contract.
(5) Nothing contained in this subsection requires the referral of an offer to the Small Business Administration pursuant to section 637 (b)(7) of title 15 if the basis for the referral is a challenge by the offeror to either the validity of the qualification requirement or the offerors compliance with such requirement.
(6) The head of an agency need not delay a proposed procurement in order to comply with subsection (b) of this section or in order to provide a potential offeror with an opportunity to demonstrate its ability to meet the standards specified for qualification.
(d) Number; qualified sources or products; fewer than two actual manufacturers; functions of agency head 

(1) If the number of qualified sources or qualified products available to compete actively for an anticipated future requirement is fewer than two actual manufacturers or the products of two actual manufacturers, respectively, the head of the agency concerned shall
(A) periodically publish notice in the Commerce Business Daily soliciting additional sources or products to seek qualification, unless the contracting officer determines that such publication would compromise national security; and
(B) bear the cost of conducting the specified testing and evaluation (excluding the costs associated with producing the item or establishing the production, quality control, or other system to be tested and evaluated) for a small business concern or a product manufactured by a small business concern which has met the standards specified for qualification and which could reasonably be expected to compete for a contract for that requirement, but such costs may be borne only if the head of the agency determines that such additional qualified sources or products are likely to result in cost savings from increased competition for future requirements sufficient to offset (within a reasonable period of time considering the duration and dollar value of anticipated future requirements) the costs incurred by the agency.
(2) The head of an agency shall require a prospective contractor requesting the United States to bear testing and evaluation costs under paragraph (1)(B) to certify as to its status as a small business concern under section 632 of title 15.
(e) Examination; need for qualification requirement 
Within seven years after the establishment of a qualification requirement, the need for such qualification requirement shall be examined and the standards of such requirement revalidated in accordance with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section. The preceding sentence does not apply in the case of a qualification requirement for which a waiver is in effect under subsection (c)(2) of this section.
(f) Enforcement determination by agency head 
Except in an emergency as determined by the head of the agency, whenever the head of the agency determines not to enforce a qualification requirement for a solicitation, the agency may not thereafter enforce that qualification requirement unless the agency complies with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section.

41 USC 253d - Validation of proprietary data restrictions

(a) Contracts; delivery of technical services; contents 
A contract for property or services entered into by an executive agency which provides for the delivery of technical data, shall provide that
(1) a contractor or subcontractor at any tier shall be prepared to furnish to the contracting officer a written justification for any restriction asserted by the contractor or subcontractor on the right of the United States to use such technical data; and
(2) the contracting officer may review the validity of any restriction asserted by the contractor or by a subcontractor under the contract on the right of the United States to use technical data furnished to the United States under the contract if the contracting officer determines that reasonable grounds exist to question the current validity of the asserted restriction and that the continued adherence to the asserted restriction by the United States would make it impracticable to procure the item competitively at a later time.
(b) Review; challenge; notice 
If after such review the contracting officer determines that a challenge to the asserted restriction is warranted, the contracting officer shall provide written notice to the contractor or subcontractor asserting the restriction. Such notice shall state
(1) the grounds for challenging the asserted restriction; and
(2) the requirement for a response within 60 days justifying the current validity of the asserted restriction.
(c) Written request; additional time; schedule of responses 
If a contractor or subcontractor asserting a restriction subject to this section submits to the contracting officer a written request, showing the need for additional time to comply with the requirement to justify the current validity of the asserted restriction, additional time to adequately permit the submission of such justification shall be provided by the contracting officer as appropriate. If a party asserting a restriction receives notices of challenges to restrictions on technical data from more than one contracting officer, and notifies each contracting officer of the existence of more than one challenge, the contracting officer initiating the first in time challenge, after consultation with the party asserting the restriction and the other contracting officers, shall formulate a schedule of responses to each of the challenges that will afford the party asserting the restriction with an equitable opportunity to respond to each such challenge.
(d) Decision; validity of asserted restriction; failure to submit response 

(1) Upon a failure by the contractor or subcontractor to submit any response under subsection (b) of this section, the contracting officer shall issue a decision pertaining to the validity of the asserted restriction.
(2) If a justification is submitted in response to the notice provided pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, a contracting officer shall within 60 days of receipt of any justification submitted, issue a decision or notify the party asserting the restriction of the time within which a decision will be issued.
(e) Claim; considered claim within Contract Disputes Act of 1978 
If a claim pertaining to the validity of the asserted restriction is submitted in writing to a contracting officer by a contractor or subcontractor at any tier, such claim shall be considered a claim within the meaning of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978 (41 U.S.C. 601 et seq.).
(f) Challenge; use of technical data; sustained; liability of United States for costs and fees 

(1) If, upon final disposition, the contracting officers challenge to the restriction on the right of the United States to use such technical data is sustained
(A) the restriction on the right of the United States to use the technical data shall be cancelled; and
(B) if the asserted restriction is found not to be substantially justified, the contractor or subcontractor, as appropriate, shall be liable to the United States for payment of the cost to the United States of reviewing the asserted restriction and the fees and other expenses (as defined in section 2412 (d)(2)(A) of title 28) incurred by the United States in challenging the asserted restriction, unless special circumstances would make such payment unjust.
(2) If, upon final disposition, the contracting officers challenge to the restriction on the right of the United States to use such technical data is not sustained
(A) the United States shall continue to be bound by the restriction; and
(B) the United States shall be liable for payment to the party asserting the restriction for fees and other expenses (as defined in section 2412 (d)(2)(A) of title 28) incurred by the party asserting the restriction in defending the asserted restriction if the challenge by the United States is found not to be made in good faith.

41 USC 253e - Repealed. Pub. L. 103355, title I, 1252, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3284

Section, act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, 303E, formerly 303F, as added Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–577, title II, § 204(a), 98 Stat. 3072; renumbered 303E, Nov. 8, 1985, Pub. L. 99–145, title XIII, § 1304(c)(4)(A), 99 Stat. 742, related to commercial pricing for supplies.

41 USC 253f - Economic order quantities

(a) Procurement of supplies; costs advantageous to United States 
Each executive agency shall procure supplies in such quantity as
(A)  will result in the total cost and unit cost most advantageous to the United States, where practicable, and
(B)  does not exceed the quantity reasonably expected to be required by the agency.
(b) Opinions; economic advantage to United States 
Each solicitation for a contract for supplies shall, if practicable, include a provision inviting each offeror responding to the solicitation to state an opinion on whether the quantity of the supplies proposed to be procured is economically advantageous to the United States and, if applicable, to recommend a quantity or quantities which would be more economically advantageous to the United States. Each such recommendation shall include a quotation of the total price and the unit price for supplies procured in each recommended quantity.

41 USC 253g - Prohibition of contractors limiting subcontractor sales directly to United States

(a) Contract restrictions 
Each contract for the purchase of property or services made by an executive agency shall provide that the contractor will not
(1) enter into any agreement with a subcontractor under the contract that has the effect of unreasonably restricting sales by the subcontractor directly to the United States of any item or process (including computer software) made or furnished by the subcontractor under the contract (or any follow-on production contract); or
(2) otherwise act to restrict unreasonably the ability of a subcontractor to make sales to the United States described in clause (1).
(b) Rights under law 
This section does not prohibit a contractor from asserting rights it otherwise has under law.
(c) Inapplicability to certain contracts 
This section does not apply to a contract for an amount that is not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.
(d) Inapplicability when Government treated similarly to other purchasers 
An agreement between the contractor in a contract for the acquisition of commercial items and a subcontractor under such contract that restricts sales by such subcontractor directly to persons other than the contractor may not be considered to unreasonably restrict sales by that subcontractor to the United States in violation of the provision included in such contract pursuant to subsection (a) of this section if the agreement does not result in the Federal Government being treated differently with regard to the restriction than any other prospective purchaser of such commercial items from that subcontractor.

41 USC 253h - Task and delivery order contracts: general authority

(a) Authority to award 
Subject to the requirements of this section, section 253j of this title, and other applicable law, the head of an executive agency may enter into a task or delivery order contract (as defined in section 253k of this title) for procurement of services or property.
(b) Solicitation 
The solicitation for a task or delivery order contract shall include the following:
(1) The period of the contract, including the number of options to extend the contract and the period for which the contract may be extended under each option, if any.
(2) The maximum quantity or dollar value of the services or property to be procured under the contract.
(3) A statement of work, specifications, or other description that reasonably describes the general scope, nature, complexity, and purposes of the services or property to be procured under the contract.
(c) Applicability of restriction on use of noncompetitive procedures 
The head of an executive agency may use procedures other than competitive procedures to enter into a task or delivery order contract under this section only if an exception in subsection (c) of section 253 of this title applies to the contract and the use of such procedures is approved in accordance with subsection (f) of such section.
(d) Single and multiple contract awards 

(1) The head of an executive agency may exercise the authority provided in this section
(A) to award a single task or delivery order contract; or
(B) if the solicitation states that the head of the executive agency has the option to do so, to award separate task or delivery order contracts for the same or similar services or property to two or more sources.
(2) No determination under section 253 (b) of this title is required for an award of multiple task or delivery order contracts under paragraph (1)(B).
(3) The regulations implementing this subsection shall
(A) establish a preference for awarding, to the maximum extent practicable, multiple task or delivery order contracts for the same or similar services or property under the authority of paragraph (1)(B); and
(B) establish criteria for determining when award of multiple task or delivery order contracts would not be in the best interest of the Federal Government.
(e) Contract modifications 
A task or delivery order may not increase the scope, period, or maximum value of the task or delivery order contract under which the order is issued. The scope, period, or maximum value of the contract may be increased only by modification of the contract.
(f) Inapplicability to contracts for advisory and assistance services 
Except as otherwise specifically provided in section 253i of this title, this section does not apply to a task or delivery order contract for the acquisition of advisory and assistance services (as defined in section 1105 (g) of title 31).
(g) Relationship to other contracting authority 
Nothing in this section may be construed to limit or expand any authority of the head of an executive agency or the Administrator of General Services to enter into schedule, multiple award, or task or delivery order contracts under any other provision of law.

41 USC 253i - Task order contracts: advisory and assistance services

(a) Authority to award 

(1) Subject to the requirements of this section, section 253j of this title, and other applicable law, the head of an executive agency may enter into a task order contract (as defined in section 253k of this title) for procurement of advisory and assistance services.
(2) The head of an executive agency may enter into a task order contract for advisory and assistance services only under the authority of this section.
(b) Limitation on contract period 
The period of a task order contract entered into under this section, including all periods of extensions of the contract under options, modifications, or otherwise, may not exceed five years unless a longer period is specifically authorized in a law that is applicable to such contract.
(c) Content of notice 
The notice required by section 416 of this title and section 637 (e) of title 15 shall reasonably and fairly describe the general scope, magnitude, and duration of the proposed task order contract in a manner that would reasonably enable a potential offeror to decide whether to request the solicitation and consider submitting an offer.
(d) Required content of solicitation and contract 

(1) The solicitation shall include the information (regarding services) described in section 253h (b) of this title.
(2) A task order contract entered into under this section shall contain the same information that is required by paragraph (1) to be included in the solicitation of offers for that contract.
(e) Multiple awards 

(1) The head of an executive agency may, on the basis of one solicitation, award separate task order contracts under this section for the same or similar services to two or more sources if the solicitation states that the head of the executive agency has the option to do so.
(2) If, in the case of a task order contract for advisory and assistance services to be entered into under the authority of this section, the contract period is to exceed three years and the contract amount is estimated to exceed $10,000,000 (including all options), the solicitation shall
(A) provide for a multiple award authorized under paragraph (1); and
(B) include a statement that the head of the executive agency may also elect to award only one task order contract if the head of the executive agency determines in writing that only one of the offerers is capable of providing the services required at the level of quality required.
(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply in the case of a solicitation for which the head of the executive agency concerned determines in writing that, because the services required under the contract are unique or highly specialized, it is not practicable to award more than one contract.
(f) Contract modifications 

(1) A task order may not increase the scope, period, or maximum value of the task order contract under which the order is issued. The scope, period, or maximum value of the contract may be increased only by modification of the contract.
(2) Unless use of procedures other than competitive procedures is authorized by an exception in subsection (c) of section 253 of this title and approved in accordance with subsection (f) of such section, competitive procedures shall be used for making such a modification.
(3) Notice regarding the modification shall be provided in accordance with section 416 of this title and section 637 (e) of title 15.
(g) Contract extensions 

(1) Notwithstanding the limitation on the contract period set forth in subsection (b) of this section or in a solicitation or contract pursuant to subsection (e) of this section, a contract entered into by the head of an executive agency under this section may be extended on a sole-source basis for a period not exceeding six months if the head of such executive agency determines that
(A) the award of a follow-on contract has been delayed by circumstances that were not reasonably foreseeable at the time the initial contract was entered into; and
(B) the extension is necessary in order to ensure continuity of the receipt of services pending the award of, and commencement of performance under, the follow-on contract.
(2) A task order contract may be extended under the authority of paragraph (1) only once and only in accordance with the limitations and requirements of this subsection.
(h) Inapplicability to certain contracts 
This section does not apply to a contract for the acquisition of property or services that includes acquisition of advisory and assistance services if the head of the executive agency entering into such contract determines that, under the contract, advisory and assistance services are necessarily incident to, and not a significant component of, the contract.
(i) “Advisory and assistance services” defined 
In this section, the term advisory and assistance services has the meaning given such term in section 1105 (g) of title 31.

41 USC 253j - Task and delivery order contracts: orders

(a) Issuance of orders 
The following actions are not required for issuance of a task or delivery order under a task or delivery order contract:
(1) A separate notice for such order under section 416 of this title or section 637 (e) of title 15.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, a competition (or a waiver of competition approved in accordance with section 253 (f) of this title) that is separate from that used for entering into the contract.
(b) Multiple award contracts 
When multiple contracts are awarded under section 253h (d)(1)(B) or 253i (e) of this title, all contractors awarded such contracts shall be provided a fair opportunity to be considered, pursuant to procedures set forth in the contracts, for each task or delivery order in excess of $2,500 that is to be issued under any of the contracts unless
(1) the executive agencys need for the services or property ordered is of such unusual urgency that providing such opportunity to all such contractors would result in unacceptable delays in fulfilling that need;
(2) only one such contractor is capable of providing the services or property required at the level of quality required because the services or property ordered are unique or highly specialized;
(3) the task or delivery order should be issued on a sole-source basis in the interest of economy and efficiency because it is a logical follow-on to a task or delivery order already issued on a competitive basis; or
(4) it is necessary to place the order with a particular contractor in order to satisfy a minimum guarantee.
(c) Statement of work 
A task or delivery order shall include a statement of work that clearly specifies all tasks to be performed or property to be delivered under the order.
(d) Protests 
A protest is not authorized in connection with the issuance or proposed issuance of a task or delivery order except for a protest on the ground that the order increases the scope, period, or maximum value of the contract under which the order is issued.
(e) Task and delivery order ombudsman 
The head of each executive agency who awards multiple task or delivery order contracts pursuant to section 253h (d)(1)(B) or 253i (e) of this title shall appoint or designate a task and delivery order ombudsman who shall be responsible for reviewing complaints from the contractors on such contracts and ensuring that all of the contractors are afforded a fair opportunity to be considered for task or delivery orders when required under subsection (b) of this section. The task and delivery order ombudsman shall be a senior agency official who is independent of the contracting officer for the contracts and may be the executive agencys competition advocate.
(f) Applicability 
This section applies to task and delivery order contracts entered into under sections 253h and 253i of this title.

41 USC 253k - Task and delivery order contracts: definitions

In sections 253h, 253i, and 253j of this title:
(1) The term task order contract means a contract for services that does not procure or specify a firm quantity of services (other than a minimum or maximum quantity) and that provides for the issuance of orders for the performance of tasks during the period of the contract.
(2) The term delivery order contract means a contract for property that does not procure or specify a firm quantity of property (other than a minimum or maximum quantity) and that provides for the issuance of orders for the delivery of property during the period of the contract.

41 USC 253l - Severable services contracts for periods crossing fiscal years

(a) Authority 
The head of an executive agency may enter into a contract for procurement of severable services for a period that begins in one fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year if (without regard to any option to extend the period of the contract) the contract period does not exceed one year.
(b) Obligation of funds 
Funds made available for a fiscal year may be obligated for the total amount of a contract entered into under the authority of subsection (a) of this section.

41 USC 253l1 - Contract authority of Comptroller General

The Comptroller General may use available funds, now and hereafter, to enter into contracts for the acquisition of severable services for a period that begins in one fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year and to enter in multiyear contracts for the acquisition of property and nonaudit-related services, to the same extent as executive agencies under the authority of sections 253l and 254c, respectively, of this title.

41 USC 253l2 - Contract authority of Library of Congress

The Library of Congress may use available funds, now and hereafter, to enter into contracts for the lease or acquisition of severable services for a period that begins in one fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year and to enter into multi-year contracts for the acquisition of property and services pursuant to sections 253l and 254c of this title, respectively.

41 USC 253l3 - Contract authority of Chief Administrative Officer of the House of Representatives

During fiscal year 2001 and any succeeding fiscal year, the Chief Administrative Officer of the House of Representatives may
(1) enter into contracts for the acquisition of severable services for a period that begins in 1 fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year to the same extent as the head of an executive agency under the authority of section 253l of this title; and
(2) enter into multiyear contracts for the acquisitions of property and nonaudit-related services to the same extent as executive agencies under the authority of section 254c of this title.

41 USC 253l4 - Contract authority of Congressional Budget Office

Beginning on December 21, 2000, and hereafter, the Congressional Budget Office may use available funds to enter into contracts for the procurement of severable services for a period that begins in one fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year and may enter into multi-year contracts for the acquisition of property and services, to the same extent as executive agencies under the authority of section[1] 253l and 254c, respectively, of this title.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “sections”.

41 USC 253l5 - Contract authority of Secretary and Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper of the Senate

(a) Subject to regulations prescribed by the Committee on Rules and Administration of the Senate, the Secretary and the Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper of the Senate may
(1) enter into contracts for the acquisition of severable services for a period that begins in one fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year to the same extent and under the same conditions as the head of an executive agency under the authority of section 253l of this title; and
(2) enter into multiyear contracts for the acquisition of property and services to the same extent and under the same conditions as the head of an executive agency under the authority of section 254c of this title.
(b) This section shall take effect on October 1, 2002, and shall apply in fiscal year 2003 and successive fiscal years.

41 USC 253l6 - Contract authority of Capitol Police

(a) In general 
The United States Capitol Police may
(1) enter into contracts for the acquisition of severable services for a period that begins in 1 fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year to the same extent as the head of an executive agency under the authority of section 253l of this title; and
(2) enter into multiyear contracts for the acquisitions of property and nonaudit-related services to the same extent as executive agencies under the authority of section 254c of this title.
(b) Effective date 
This section shall apply to fiscal year 2003 and each fiscal year thereafter.

41 USC 253l7 - Contract authority of Architect of the Capitol

(a) In general 
The Architect of the Capitol may
(1) enter into contracts for the acquisition of severable services for a period that begins in 1 fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year to the same extent as the head of an executive agency under the authority of section 253l of this title; and
(2) enter into multiyear contracts for the acquisitions of property and nonaudit-related services to the same extent as executive agencies under the authority of section 254c of this title.
(b) Effective date 
This section shall apply to fiscal year 2003 and each fiscal year thereafter.

41 USC 253l8 - Contract authority of Secretary of Smithsonian Institution

(a) In general 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution may
(1) enter into multi-year contracts for the acquisition of property and services under the authority of section 254c of this title; and
(2) enter into contracts for the acquisition of severable services for a period that begins in one fiscal year and ends in the next fiscal year under the authority of section 253l of this title.
(b) Effective date 
This section shall apply to contracts entered into on or after August 15, 2003.

41 USC 253m - Design-build selection procedures

(a) Authorization 
Unless the traditional acquisition approach of design-bid-build established under sections 1101 to 1104 of title 40 is used or another acquisition procedure authorized by law is used, the head of an executive agency shall use the two-phase selection procedures authorized in this section for entering into a contract for the design and construction of a public building, facility, or work when a determination is made under subsection (b) of this section that the procedures are appropriate for use.
(b) Criteria for use 
A contracting officer shall make a determination whether two-phase selection procedures are appropriate for use for entering into a contract for the design and construction of a public building, facility, or work when the contracting officer anticipates that three or more offers will be received for such contract, design work must be performed before an offeror can develop a price or cost proposal for such contract, the offeror will incur a substantial amount of expense in preparing the offer, and the contracting officer has considered information such as the following:
(1) The extent to which the project requirements have been adequately defined.
(2) The time constraints for delivery of the project.
(3) The capability and experience of potential contractors.
(4) The suitability of the project for use of the two-phase selection procedures.
(5) The capability of the agency to manage the two-phase selection process.
(6) Other criteria established by the agency.
(c) Procedures described 
Two-phase selection procedures consist of the following:
(1) The agency develops, either in-house or by contract, a scope of work statement for inclusion in the solicitation that defines the project and provides prospective offerors with sufficient information regarding the Governments requirements (which may include criteria and preliminary design, budget parameters, and schedule or delivery requirements) to enable the offerors to submit proposals which meet the Governments needs. If the agency contracts for development of the scope of work statement, the agency shall contract for architectural and engineering services as defined by and in accordance with sections 1101 to 1104 of title 40.
(2) The contracting officer solicits phase-one proposals that
(A) include information on the offerors
(i) technical approach; and
(ii) technical qualifications; and
(B) do not include
(i) detailed design information; or
(ii) cost or price information.
(3) The evaluation factors to be used in evaluating phase-one proposals are stated in the solicitation and include specialized experience and technical competence, capability to perform, past performance of the offerors team (including the architect-engineer and construction members of the team) and other appropriate factors, except that cost-related or price-related evaluation factors are not permitted. Each solicitation establishes the relative importance assigned to the evaluation factors and subfactors that must be considered in the evaluation of phase-one proposals. The agency evaluates phase-one proposals on the basis of the phase-one evaluation factors set forth in the solicitation.
(4) The contracting officer selects as the most highly qualified the number of offerors specified in the solicitation to provide the property or services under the contract and requests the selected offerors to submit phase-two competitive proposals that include technical proposals and cost or price information. Each solicitation establishes with respect to phase two
(A) the technical submission for the proposal, including design concepts or proposed solutions to requirements addressed within the scope of work (or both), and
(B) the evaluation factors and subfactors, including cost or price, that must be considered in the evaluations of proposals in accordance with subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 253a of this title.

The contracting officer separately evaluates the submissions described in subparagraphs (A) and (B).

(5) The agency awards the contract in accordance with section 253b of this title.
(d) Solicitation to state number of offerors to be selected for phase-two requests for competitive proposals 
A solicitation issued pursuant to the procedures described in subsection (c) of this section shall state the maximum number of offerors that are to be selected to submit competitive proposals pursuant to subsection (c)(4) of this section. The maximum number specified in the solicitation shall not exceed 5 unless the agency determines with respect to an individual solicitation that a specified number greater than 5 is in the Governments interest and is consistent with the purposes and objectives of the two-phase selection process.
(e) Requirement for guidance and regulations 
The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include guidance
(1) regarding the factors that may be considered in determining whether the two-phase contracting procedures authorized by subsection (a) of this section are appropriate for use in individual contracting situations;
(2) regarding the factors that may be used in selecting contractors; and
(3) providing for a uniform approach to be used Government-wide.

41 USC 254 - Contract requirements

(a) Contracts awarded using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures 
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, contracts awarded after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures may be of any type which in the opinion of the agency head will promote the best interests of the Government. Every contract awarded after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures shall contain a suitable warranty, as determined by the agency head, by the contractor that no person or selling agency has been employed or retained to solicit or secure such contract upon an agreement or understanding for a commission, percentage, brokerage, or contingent fee, excepting bona fide employees or bona fide established commercial or selling agencies maintained by the contractor for the purpose of securing business, for the breach or violation of which warranty the Government shall have the right to annul such contract without liability or in its discretion to deduct from the contract price or consideration the full amount of such commission, percentage, brokerage, or contingent fee. The preceding sentence does not apply to a contract for an amount that is not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold or to a contract for the acquisition of commercial items.
(b) Barred contracts; fee limitation; determination of use; advance notification 
The cost-plus-a-percentage-of-cost system of contracting shall not be used, and in the case of a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract the fee shall not exceed 10 percent of the estimated cost of the contract, exclusive of the fee, as determined by the agency head at the time of entering into such contract (except that a fee not in excess of 15 percent of such estimated cost is authorized in any such contract for experimental, developmental, or research work and that a fee inclusive of the contractors costs and not in excess of 6 percent of the estimated cost, exclusive of fees, as determined by the agency head at the time of entering into the contract, of the project to which such fee is applicable is authorized in contracts for architectural or engineering services relating to any public works or utility project). All cost and cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contracts shall provide for advance notification by the contractor to the procuring agency of any subcontract thereunder on a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee basis and of any fixed-price subcontract or purchase order which exceeds in dollar amount either the simplified acquisition threshold or 5 percent of the total estimated cost of the prime contract; and a procuring agency, through any authorized representative thereof, shall have the right to inspect the plans and to audit the books and records of any prime contractor or subcontractor engaged in the performance of a cost or cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract.

41 USC 254a - Cost-type research and development contracts with educational institutions

On and after September 5, 1962, provision may be made in cost-type research and development contracts (including grants) with universities, colleges, or other educational institutions for payment of reimbursable indirect costs on the basis of predetermined fixed-percentage rates applied to the total, or an element thereof, of the reimbursable direct costs incurred.

41 USC 254b - Cost or pricing data: truth in negotiations

(a) Required cost or pricing data and certification 

(1) The head of an executive agency shall require offerors, contractors, and subcontractors to make cost or pricing data available as follows:
(A) An offeror for a prime contract under this subchapter to be entered into using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the award of a contract if
(i) in the case of a prime contract entered into after October 13, 1994, the price of the contract to the United States is expected to exceed $500,000; and
(ii) in the case of a prime contract entered into on or before October 13, 1994, the price of the contract to the United States is expected to exceed $100,000.
(B) The contractor for a prime contract under this subchapter shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the pricing of a change or modification to the contract if
(i) in the case of a change or modification made to a prime contract referred to in subparagraph (A)(i), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $500,000;
(ii) in the case of a change or modification made to a prime contract that was entered into on or before October 13, 1994, and that has been modified pursuant to paragraph (6), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $500,000; and
(iii) in the case of a change or modification not covered by clause (i) or (ii), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $100,000.
(C) An offeror for a subcontract (at any tier) of a contract under this subchapter shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the award of the subcontract if the prime contractor and each higher-tier subcontractor have been required to make available cost or pricing data under this section and
(i) in the case of a subcontract under a prime contract referred to in subparagraph (A)(i), the price of the subcontract is expected to exceed $500,000;
(ii) in the case of a subcontract entered into under a prime contract that was entered into on or before October 13, 1994, and that has been modified pursuant to paragraph (6), the price of the subcontract is expected to exceed $500,000; and
(iii) in the case of a subcontract not covered by clause (i) or (ii), the price of the subcontract is expected to exceed $100,000.
(D) The subcontractor for a subcontract covered by subparagraph (C) shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the pricing of a change or modification to the subcontract if
(i) in the case of a change or modification to a subcontract referred to in subparagraph (C)(i) or (C)(ii), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $500,000; and
(ii) in the case of a change or modification to a subcontract referred to in subparagraph (C)(iii), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $100,000.
(2) A person required, as an offeror, contractor, or subcontractor, to submit cost or pricing data under paragraph (1) (or required by the head of the procuring activity concerned to submit such data under subsection (c) of this section) shall be required to certify that, to the best of the persons knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data submitted are accurate, complete, and current.
(3) Cost or pricing data required to be submitted under paragraph (1) (or under subsection (c) of this section), and a certification required to be submitted under paragraph (2), shall be submitted
(A) in the case of a submission by a prime contractor (or an offeror for a prime contract), to the contracting officer for the contract (or to a designated representative of the contracting officer); or
(B) in the case of a submission by a subcontractor (or an offeror for a subcontract), to the prime contractor.
(4) Except as provided under subsection (b) of this section, this section applies to contracts entered into by the head of an executive agency on behalf of a foreign government.
(5) A waiver of requirements for submission of certified cost or pricing data that is granted under subsection (b)(1)(C) of this section in the case of a contract or subcontract does not waive the requirement under paragraph (1)(C) for submission of cost or pricing data in the case of subcontracts under that contract or subcontract unless the head of the procuring activity granting the waiver determines that the requirement under that paragraph should be waived in the case of such subcontracts and justifies in writing the reasons for the determination.
(6) Upon the request of a contractor that was required to submit cost or pricing data under paragraph (1) in connection with a prime contract entered into on or before October 13, 1994, the head of the executive agency that entered into such contract shall modify the contract to reflect subparagraphs (B)(ii) and (C)(ii) of paragraph (1). All such modifications shall be made without requiring consideration.
(7) Effective on October 1 of each year that is divisible by 5, each amount set forth in paragraph (1) shall be adjusted to the amount that is equal to the fiscal year 1994 constant dollar value of the amount set forth. Any amount, as so adjusted, that is not evenly divisible by $50,000 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $50,000. In the case of an amount that is evenly divisible by $25,000 but not evenly divisible by $50,000, the amount shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $50,000.
(b) Exceptions 

(1) In general 
Submission of certified cost or pricing data shall not be required under subsection (a) of this section in the case of a contract, a subcontract, or a modification of a contract or subcontract
(A) for which the price agreed upon is based on
(i) adequate price competition; or
(ii) prices set by law or regulation;
(B) for the acquisition of a commercial item; or
(C) in an exceptional case when the head of the procuring activity, without delegation, determines that the requirements of this section may be waived and justifies in writing the reasons for such determination.
(2) Modifications of contracts and subcontracts for commercial items 
In the case of a modification of a contract or subcontract for a commercial item that is not covered by the exception to the submission of certified cost or pricing data in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B), submission of certified cost or pricing data shall not be required under subsection (a) of this section if
(A) the contract or subcontract being modified is a contract or subcontract for which submission of certified cost or pricing data may not be required by reason of paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B); and
(B) the modification would not change the contract or subcontract, as the case may be, from a contract or subcontract for the acquisition of a commercial item to a contract or subcontract for the acquisition of an item other than a commercial item.
(c) Cost or pricing data on below-threshold contracts 

(1) Authority to require submission 
Subject to paragraph (2), when certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted by subsection (a) of this section for a contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, such data may nevertheless be required to be submitted by the head of the procuring activity, but only if the head of the procuring activity determines that such data are necessary for the evaluation by the agency of the reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract. In any case in which the head of the procuring activity requires such data to be submitted under this subsection, the head of the procuring activity shall justify in writing the reason for such requirement.
(2) Exception 
The head of the procuring activity may not require certified cost or pricing data to be submitted under this paragraph for any contract or subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, covered by the exceptions in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(1) of this section.
(3) Delegation of authority prohibited 
The head of a procuring activity may not delegate the functions under this paragraph.
(d) Submission of other information 

(1) Authority to require submission 
When certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted under this section for a contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, the contracting officer shall require submission of data other than certified cost or pricing data to the extent necessary to determine the reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of the contract or subcontract. Except in the case of a contract or subcontract covered by the exceptions in subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section, the contracting officer shall require that the data submitted include, at a minimum, appropriate information on the prices at which the same item or similar items have previously been sold that is adequate for evaluating the reasonableness of the price for the procurement.
(2) Limitations on authority 
The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include the following provisions regarding the types of information that contracting officers may require under paragraph (1):
(A) Reasonable limitations on requests for sales data relating to commercial items.
(B) A requirement that a contracting officer limit, to the maximum extent practicable, the scope of any request for information relating to commercial items from an offeror to only that information that is in the form regularly maintained by the offeror in commercial operations.
(C) A statement that any information received relating to commercial items that is exempt from disclosure under section 552 (b) of title 5 shall not be disclosed by the Federal Government.
(e) Price reductions for defective cost or pricing data 

(1) 
(A) A prime contract (or change or modification to a prime contract) under which a certificate under subsection (a)(2) of this section is required shall contain a provision that the price of the contract to the United States, including profit or fee, shall be adjusted to exclude any significant amount by which it may be determined by the head of the executive agency that such price was increased because the contractor (or any subcontractor required to make available such a certificate) submitted defective cost or pricing data.
(B) For the purposes of this section, defective cost or pricing data are cost or pricing data which, as of the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or another date agreed upon between the parties), were inaccurate, incomplete, or noncurrent. If for purposes of the preceding sentence the parties agree upon a date other than the date of agreement on the price of the contract, the date agreed upon by the parties shall be as close to the date of agreement on the price of the contract as is practicable.
(2) In determining for purposes of a contract price adjustment under a contract provision required by paragraph (1) whether, and to what extent, a contract price was increased because the contractor (or a subcontractor) submitted defective cost or pricing data, it shall be a defense that the United States did not rely on the defective data submitted by the contractor or subcontractor.
(3) It is not a defense to an adjustment of the price of a contract under a contract provision required by paragraph (1) that
(A) the price of the contract would not have been modified even if accurate, complete, and current cost or pricing data had been submitted by the contractor or subcontractor because the contractor or subcontractor
(i) was the sole source of the property or services procured; or
(ii) otherwise was in a superior bargaining position with respect to the property or services procured;
(B) the contracting officer should have known that the cost or pricing data in issue were defective even though the contractor or subcontractor took no affirmative action to bring the character of the data to the attention of the contracting officer;
(C) the contract was based on an agreement between the contractor and the United States about the total cost of the contract and there was no agreement about the cost of each item procured under such contract; or
(D) the prime contractor or subcontractor did not submit a certification of cost or pricing data relating to the contract as required under subsection (a)(2) of this section.
(4) 
(A) A contractor shall be allowed to offset an amount against the amount of a contract price adjustment under a contract provision required by paragraph (1) if
(i) the contractor certifies to the contracting officer (or to a designated representative of the contracting officer) that, to the best of the contractors knowledge and belief, the contractor is entitled to the offset; and
(ii) the contractor proves that the cost or pricing data were available before the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or price of the modification), or, if applicable consistent with paragraph (1)(B), another date agreed upon between the parties, and that the data were not submitted as specified in subsection (a)(3) of this section before such date.
(B) A contractor shall not be allowed to offset an amount otherwise authorized to be offset under subparagraph (A) if
(i) the certification under subsection (a)(2) of this section with respect to the cost or pricing data involved was known to be false when signed; or
(ii) the United States proves that, had the cost or pricing data referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) been submitted to the United States before the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or price of the modification) or, if applicable under paragraph (1)(B), another date agreed upon between the parties, the submission of such cost or pricing data would not have resulted in an increase in that price in the amount to be offset.
(f) Interest and penalties for certain overpayments 

(1) If the United States makes an overpayment to a contractor under a contract with an executive agency subject to this section and the overpayment was due to the submission by the contractor of defective cost or pricing data, the contractor shall be liable to the United States
(A) for interest on the amount of such overpayment, to be computed
(i) for the period beginning on the date the overpayment was made to the contractor and ending on the date the contractor repays the amount of such overpayment to the United States; and
(ii) at the current rate prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury under section 6621 of title 26; and
(B) if the submission of such defective data was a knowing submission, for an additional amount equal to the amount of the overpayment.
(2) Any liability under this subsection of a contractor that submits cost or pricing data but refuses to submit the certification required by subsection (a)(2) of this section with respect to the cost or pricing data shall not be affected by the refusal to submit such certification.
(g) Right of United States to examine contractor records 
For the purpose of evaluating the accuracy, completeness, and currency of cost or pricing data required to be submitted by this section, an executive agency shall have the authority provided by section 254d (a)(2) of this title.
(h) Definitions 
In this section:
(1) Cost or pricing data 
The term cost or pricing data means all facts that, as of the date of agreement on the price of a contract (or the price of a contract modification) or, if applicable consistent with subsection (e)(1)(B) of this section, another date agreed upon between the parties, a prudent buyer or seller would reasonably expect to affect price negotiations significantly. Such term does not include information that is judgmental, but does include the factual information from which a judgment was derived.
(2) Subcontract 
The term subcontract includes a transfer of commercial items between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or a subcontractor.
(3) Commercial item 
The term commercial item has the meaning provided such term by section 403 (12) of this title.

41 USC 254c - Multiyear contracts

(a) Authority 
An executive agency may enter into a multiyear contract for the acquisition of property or services if
(1) funds are available and obligated for such contract, for the full period of the contract or for the first fiscal year in which the contract is in effect, and for the estimated costs associated with any necessary termination of such contract; and
(2) the executive agency determines that
(A) the need for the property or services is reasonably firm and continuing over the period of the contract; and
(B) a multiyear contract will serve the best interests of the United States by encouraging full and open competition or promoting economy in administration, performance, and operation of the agencys programs.
(b) Termination clause 
A multiyear contract entered into under the authority of this section shall include a clause that provides that the contract shall be terminated if funds are not made available for the continuation of such contract in any fiscal year covered by the contract. Amounts available for paying termination costs shall remain available for such purpose until the costs associated with termination of the contract are paid.
(c) Cancellation ceiling notice 
Before any contract described in subsection (a) of this section that contains a clause setting forth a cancellation ceiling in excess of $10,000,000 may be awarded, the executive agency shall give written notification of the proposed contract and of the proposed cancellation ceiling for that contract to the Congress, and such contract may not then be awarded until the end of a period of 30 days beginning on the date of such notification.
(d) Multiyear contract defined 
For the purposes of this section, a multiyear contract is a contract for the purchase of property or services for more than one, but not more than five, program years. Such a contract may provide that performance under the contract during the second and subsequent years of the contract is contingent upon the appropriation of funds and (if it does so provide) may provide for a cancellation payment to be made to the contractor if such appropriations are not made.
(e) Rule of construction 
Nothing in this section is intended to modify or affect any other provision of law that authorizes multiyear contracts.

41 USC 254d - Examination of records of contractor

(a) Agency authority 

(1) The head of an executive agency, acting through an authorized representative, is authorized to inspect the plant and audit the records of
(A) a contractor performing a cost-reimbursement, incentive, time-and-materials, labor-hour, or price-redeterminable contract, or any combination of such contracts, made by that executive agency under this subchapter; and
(B) a subcontractor performing any cost-reimbursement, incentive, time-and-materials, labor-hour, or price-redeterminable subcontract or any combination of such subcontracts under a contract referred to in subparagraph (A).
(2) The head of an executive agency, acting through an authorized representative, is authorized, for the purpose of evaluating the accuracy, completeness, and currency of certified cost or pricing data required to be submitted pursuant to section 254b of this title with respect to a contract or subcontract, to examine all records of the contractor or subcontractor related to
(A) the proposal for the contract or subcontract;
(B) the discussions conducted on the proposal;
(C) pricing of the contract or subcontract; or
(D) performance of the contract or subcontract.
(b) Subpoena power 

(1) The Inspector General of an executive agency appointed under section 3 or 8G1 of the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.) or, upon request of the head of an executive agency, the Director of the Defense Contract Audit Agency (or any successor agency) of the Department of Defense or the Inspector General of the General Services Administration may require by subpoena the production of records of a contractor, access to which is provided for that executive agency by subsection (a) of this section.
(2) Any such subpoena, in the case of contumacy or refusal to obey, shall be enforceable by order of an appropriate United States district court.
(3) The authority provided by paragraph (1) may not be delegated.
(4) In the year following a year in which authority provided in paragraph (1) is exercised for an executive agency, the head of the executive agency shall submit to the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives a report on the exercise of such authority during such preceding year and the reasons why such authority was exercised in any instance.
(c) Comptroller General authority 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), each contract awarded after using procedures other than sealed bid procedures shall provide that the Comptroller General and his representatives are authorized to examine any records of the contractor, or any of its subcontractors, that directly pertain to, and involve transactions relating to, the contract or subcontract.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a contract or subcontract with a foreign contractor or foreign subcontractor if the executive agency concerned determines, with the concurrence of the Comptroller General or his designee, that the application of that paragraph to the contract or subcontract would not be in the public interest. However, the concurrence of the Comptroller General or his designee is not required
(A) where the contractor or subcontractor is a foreign government or agency thereof or is precluded by the laws of the country involved from making its records available for examination; and
(B) where the executive agency determines, after taking into account the price and availability of the property and services from United States sources, that the public interest would be best served by not applying paragraph (1).
(3) Paragraph (1) may not be construed to require a contractor or subcontractor to create or maintain any record that the contractor or subcontractor does not maintain in the ordinary course of business or pursuant to another provision of law.
(d) Limitation on audits relating to indirect costs 
An executive agency may not perform an audit of indirect costs under a contract, subcontract, or modification before or after entering into the contract, subcontract, or modification in any case in which the contracting officer determines that the objectives of the audit can reasonably be met by accepting the results of an audit that was conducted by any other department or agency of the Federal Government within one year preceding the date of the contracting officers determination.
(e) Limitation 
The authority of an executive agency under subsection (a) of this section, and the authority of the Comptroller General under subsection (c) of this section, with respect to a contract or subcontract shall expire three years after final payment under such contract or subcontract.
(f) Inapplicability to certain contracts 
This section does not apply to the following contracts:
(1) Contracts for utility services at rates not exceeding those established to apply uniformly to the public, plus any applicable reasonable connection charge.
(2) A contract or subcontract that is not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.
(g) Form of original record storage 
Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude a contractor from duplicating or storing original records in electronic form.
(h) Use of images of original records 
An executive agency shall not require a contractor or subcontractor to provide original records in an audit carried out pursuant to this section if the contractor or subcontractor provides photographic or electronic images of the original records and meets the following requirements:
(1) The contractor or subcontractor has established procedures to ensure that the imaging process preserves the integrity, reliability, and security of the original records.
(2) The contractor or subcontractor maintains an effective indexing system to permit timely and convenient access to the imaged records.
(3) The contractor or subcontractor retains the original records for a minimum of one year after imaging to permit periodic validation of the imaging systems.
(i) “Records” defined 
In this section, the term records includes books, documents, accounting procedures and practices, and other data, regardless of type and regardless of whether such items are in written form, in the form of computer data, or in any other form.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 255 - Contract financing

(a) Payment authority 
Any executive agency may
(1) make advance, partial, progress or other payments under contracts for property or services made by the agency; and
(2) insert in solicitations for procurement of property or services a provision limiting to small business concerns advance or progress payments.
(b) Performance-based payments 
Whenever practicable, payments under subsection (a) of this section shall be made on any of the following bases:
(1) Performance measured by objective, quantifiable methods such as delivery of acceptable items, work measurement, or statistical process controls.
(2) Accomplishment of events defined in the program management plan.
(3) Other quantifiable measures of results.
(c) Payment amount 
Payments made under subsection (a) of this section may not exceed the unpaid contract price.
(d) Security for advance payments 
Advance payments under subsection (a) of this section may be made only upon adequate security and a determination by the agency head that to do so would be in the public interest. Such security may be in the form of a lien in favor of the Government on the property contracted for, on the balance in an account in which such payments are deposited, and on such of the property acquired for performance of the contract as the parties may agree. This lien shall be paramount to all other liens and is effective immediately upon the first advancement of funds without filing, notice, or any other action by the United States.
(e) Conditions for progress payments 

(1) The executive agency shall ensure that any payment for work in progress (including materials, labor, and other items) under a contract of an executive agency that provides for such payments is commensurate with the work accomplished that meets standards established under the contract. The contractor shall provide such information and evidence as the executive agency determines necessary to permit the executive agency to carry out the preceding sentence.
(2) The executive agency shall ensure that progress payments referred to in paragraph (1) are not made for more than 80 percent of the work accomplished under the contract so long as the executive agency has not made the contractual terms, specifications, and price definite.
(3) This subsection applies to any contract in an amount greater than $25,000.
(f) Conditions for payments for commercial items 

(1) Payments under subsection (a) of this section for commercial items may be made under such terms and conditions as the head of the executive agency determines are appropriate or customary in the commercial marketplace and are in the best interests of the United States. The head of the executive agency shall obtain adequate security for such payments. If the security is in the form of a lien in favor of the United States, such lien is paramount to all other liens and is effective immediately upon the first payment, without filing, notice, or other action by the United States.
(2) Advance payments made under subsection (a) of this section for commercial items may include payments, in a total amount of not more than 15 percent of the contract price, in advance of any performance of work under the contract.
(3) The conditions of subsections (d) and (e) of this section need not be applied if they would be inconsistent, as determined by the head of the executive agency, with commercial terms and conditions pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2).
(g) Action in case of fraud 

(1) In any case in which the remedy coordination official of an executive agency finds that there is substantial evidence that the request of a contractor for advance, partial, or progress payment under a contract awarded by that executive agency is based on fraud, the remedy coordination official shall recommend that the executive agency reduce or suspend further payments to such contractor.
(2) The head of an executive agency receiving a recommendation under paragraph (1) in the case of a contractors request for payment under a contract shall determine whether there is substantial evidence that the request is based on fraud. Upon making such a determination, the head of the executive agency may reduce or suspend further payments to the contractor under such contract.
(3) The extent of any reduction or suspension of payments by an executive agency under paragraph (2) on the basis of fraud shall be reasonably commensurate with the anticipated loss to the United States resulting from the fraud.
(4) A written justification for each decision of the head of an executive agency whether to reduce or suspend payments under paragraph (2), and for each recommendation received by the executive agency in connection with such decision, shall be prepared and be retained in the files of the executive agency.
(5) The head of each executive agency shall prescribe procedures to ensure that, before the head of the executive agency decides to reduce or suspend payments in the case of a contractor under paragraph (2), the contractor is afforded notice of the proposed reduction or suspension and an opportunity to submit matters to the executive agency in response to such proposed reduction or suspension.
(6) Not later than 180 days after the date on which the head of an executive agency reduces or suspends payments to a contractor under paragraph (2), the remedy coordination official of the executive agency shall
(A) review the determination of fraud on which the reduction or suspension is based; and
(B) transmit a recommendation to the head of such executive agency whether the suspension or reduction should continue.
(7) The head of each executive agency who receives recommendations made by a remedy coordination official of the executive agency to reduce or suspend payments under paragraph (2) during a fiscal year shall prepare for such year a report that contains the recommendations, the actions taken on the recommendations and the reasons for such actions, and an assessment of the effects of such actions on the Federal Government. Any such report shall be available to any Member of Congress upon request.
(8) The head of an executive agency may not delegate responsibilities under this subsection to any person in a position below level IV of the Executive Schedule.
(9) In this subsection, the term remedy coordination official, with respect to an executive agency, means the person or entity in that executive agency who coordinates within that executive agency the administration of criminal, civil, administrative, and contractual remedies resulting from investigations of fraud or corruption related to procurement activities.

41 USC 256 - Allowable costs

(a) Indirect cost that violates FAR cost principle 
An executive agency shall require that a covered contract provide that if the contractor submits to the executive agency a proposal for settlement of indirect costs incurred by the contractor for any period after such costs have been accrued and if that proposal includes the submission of a cost which is unallowable because the cost violates a cost principle in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (referred to in section 421 (c)(1) of this title) or an executive agency supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation, the cost shall be disallowed.
(b) Penalty for violation of cost principle 

(1) If the executive agency determines that a cost submitted by a contractor in its proposal for settlement is expressly unallowable under a cost principle referred to in subsection (a) of this section that defines the allowability of specific selected costs, the executive agency shall assess a penalty against the contractor in an amount equal to
(A) the amount of the disallowed cost allocated to covered contracts for which a proposal for settlement of indirect costs has been submitted; plus
(B) interest (to be computed based on provisions in the Federal Acquisition Regulation) to compensate the United States for the use of any funds which a contractor has been paid in excess of the amount to which the contractor was entitled.
(2) If the executive agency determines that a proposal for settlement of indirect costs submitted by a contractor includes a cost determined to be unallowable in the case of such contractor before the submission of such proposal, the executive agency shall assess a penalty against the contractor in an amount equal to two times the amount of the disallowed cost allocated to covered contracts for which a proposal for settlement of indirect costs has been submitted.
(c) Waiver of penalty 
The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide for a penalty under subsection (b) of this section to be waived in the case of a contractors proposal for settlement of indirect costs when
(1) the contractor withdraws the proposal before the formal initiation of an audit of the proposal by the Federal Government and resubmits a revised proposal;
(2) the amount of unallowable costs subject to the penalty is insignificant; or
(3) the contractor demonstrates, to the contracting officers satisfaction, that
(A) it has established appropriate policies and personnel training and an internal control and review system that provide assurances that unallowable costs subject to penalties are precluded from being included in the contractors proposal for settlement of indirect costs; and
(B) the unallowable costs subject to the penalty were inadvertently incorporated into the proposal.
(d) Applicability of contract disputes procedure to disallowance of cost and assessment of penalty 
An action of an executive agency under subsection (a) or (b) of this section
(1) shall be considered a final decision for the purposes of section 605 of this title; and
(2) is appealable in the manner provided in section 606 of this title.
(e) Specific costs not allowable 

(1) The following costs are not allowable under a covered contract:
(A) Costs of entertainment, including amusement, diversion, and social activities, and any costs directly associated with such costs (such as tickets to shows or sports events, meals, lodging, rentals, transportation, and gratuities).
(B) Costs incurred to influence (directly or indirectly) legislative action on any matter pending before Congress, a State legislature, or a legislative body of a political subdivision of a State.
(C) Costs incurred in defense of any civil or criminal fraud proceeding or similar proceeding (including filing of any false certification) brought by the United States where the contractor is found liable or had pleaded nolo contendere to a charge of fraud or similar proceeding (including filing of a false certification).
(D) Payments of fines and penalties resulting from violations of, or failure to comply with, Federal, State, local, or foreign laws and regulations, except when incurred as a result of compliance with specific terms and conditions of the contract or specific written instructions from the contracting officer authorizing in advance such payments in accordance with applicable provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(E) Costs of membership in any social, dining, or country club or organization.
(F) Costs of alcoholic beverages.
(G) Contributions or donations, regardless of the recipient.
(H) Costs of advertising designed to promote the contractor or its products.
(I) Costs of promotional items and memorabilia, including models, gifts, and souvenirs.
(J) Costs for travel by commercial aircraft which exceed the amount of the standard commercial fare.
(K) Costs incurred in making any payment (commonly known as a golden parachute payment) which is
(i) in an amount in excess of the normal severance pay paid by the contractor to an employee upon termination of employment; and
(ii) is paid to the employee contingent upon, and following, a change in management control over, or ownership of, the contractor or a substantial portion of the contractors assets.
(L) Costs of commercial insurance that protects against the costs of the contractor for correction of the contractors own defects in materials or workmanship.
(M) Costs of severance pay paid by the contractor to foreign nationals employed by the contractor under a service contract performed outside the United States, to the extent that the amount of severance pay paid in any case exceeds the amount paid in the industry involved under the customary or prevailing practice for firms in that industry providing similar services in the United States, as determined under the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(N) Costs of severance pay paid by the contractor to a foreign national employed by the contractor under a service contract performed in a foreign country if the termination of the employment of the foreign national is the result of the closing of, or the curtailment of activities at, a United States facility in that country at the request of the government of that country.
(O) Costs incurred by a contractor in connection with any criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding commenced by the United States or a State, to the extent provided in subsection (k) of this section.
(P) Costs of compensation of senior executives of contractors for a fiscal year, regardless of the contract funding source, to the extent that such compensation exceeds the benchmark compensation amount determined applicable for the fiscal year by the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy under section 435 of this title.
(2) 
(A) Pursuant to the Federal Acquisition Regulation and subject to the availability of appropriations, an executive agency, in awarding a covered contract, may waive the application of the provisions of paragraphs (1)(M) and (1)(N) to that contract if the executive agency determines that
(i) the application of such provisions to the contract would adversely affect the continuation of a program, project, or activity that provides significant support services for employees of the executive agency posted outside the United States;
(ii) the contractor has taken (or has established plans to take) appropriate actions within the contractors control to minimize the amount and number of incidents of the payment of severance pay by the contractor to employees under the contract who are foreign nationals; and
(iii) the payment of severance pay is necessary in order to comply with a law that is generally applicable to a significant number of businesses in the country in which the foreign national receiving the payment performed services under the contract or is necessary to comply with a collective bargaining agreement.
(B) An executive agency shall include in the solicitation for a covered contract a statement indicating
(i) that a waiver has been granted under subparagraph (A) for the contract; or
(ii) whether the executive agency will consider granting such a waiver, and, if the executive agency will consider granting a waiver, the criteria to be used in granting the waiver.
(C) An executive agency shall make the final determination regarding whether to grant a waiver under subparagraph (A) with respect to a covered contract before award of the contract.
(3) The provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation implementing this section may establish appropriate definitions, exclusions, limitations, and qualifications. Any submission by a contractor of costs which are incurred by the contractor and which are claimed to be allowable under Department of Energy management and operating contracts shall be considered a proposal for settlement of indirect costs incurred by the contractor for any period after such costs have been accrued, as used in this section.
(f) Required regulations 

(1) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall contain provisions on the allowability of contractor costs. Such provisions shall define in detail and in specific terms those costs which are unallowable, in whole or in part, under covered contracts. The regulations shall, at a minimum, clarify the cost principles applicable to contractor costs of the following:
(A) Air shows.
(B) Membership in civic, community, and professional organizations.
(C) Recruitment.
(D) Employee morale and welfare.
(E) Actions to influence (directly or indirectly) executive branch action on regulatory and contract matters (other than costs incurred in regard to contract proposals pursuant to solicited or unsolicited bids).
(F) Community relations.
(G) Dining facilities.
(H) Professional and consulting services, including legal services.
(I) Compensation.
(J) Selling and marketing.
(K) Travel.
(L) Public relations.
(M) Hotel and meal expenses.
(N) Expense of corporate aircraft.
(O) Company-furnished automobiles.
(P) Advertising.
(Q) Conventions.
(2) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall require that a contracting officer not resolve any questioned costs until the contracting officer has obtained
(A) adequate documentation with respect to such costs; and
(B) the opinion of the contract auditor on the allowability of such costs.
(3) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide that, to the maximum extent practicable, a contract auditor be present at any negotiation or meeting with the contractor regarding a determination of the allowability of indirect costs of the contractor.
(4) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall require that all categories of costs designated in the report of a contract auditor as questioned with respect to a proposal for settlement be resolved in such a manner that the amount of the individual questioned costs that are paid will be reflected in the settlement.
(g) Applicability of regulations to subcontractors 
The regulations referred to in subsections (e) and (f)(1) of this section shall require prime contractors of a covered contract, to the maximum extent practicable, to apply the provisions of such regulations to all subcontractors of the covered contract.
(h) Contractor certification required 

(1) A proposal for settlement of indirect costs applicable to a covered contract shall include a certification by an official of the contractor that, to the best of the certifying officials knowledge and belief, all indirect costs included in the proposal are allowable. Any such certification shall be in a form prescribed in the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(2) An executive agency may, in an exceptional case, waive the requirement for certification under paragraph (1) in the case of any contract if the agency
(A) determines in such case that it would be in the interest of the United States to waive such certification; and
(B) states in writing the reasons for that determination and makes such determination available to the public.
(i) Penalties for submission of cost known as not allowable 
The submission to an executive agency of a proposal for settlement of costs for any period after such costs have been accrued that includes a cost that is expressly specified by statute or regulation as being unallowable, with the knowledge that such cost is unallowable, shall be subject to the provisions of section 287 of title 18 and section 3729 of title 31.
(j) Contractor to have burden of proof 
In a proceeding before a board of contract appeals, the United States Court of Federal Claims, or any other Federal court in which the reasonableness of indirect costs for which a contractor seeks reimbursement from the United States is in issue, the burden of proof shall be upon the contractor to establish that those costs are reasonable.
(k) Proceeding costs not allowable 

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, costs incurred by a contractor in connection with any criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding commenced by the United States or a State are not allowable as reimbursable costs under a covered contract if the proceeding
(A)  relates to a violation of, or failure to comply with, a Federal or State statute or regulation, and
(B)  results in a disposition described in paragraph (2).
(2) A disposition referred to in paragraph (1)(B) is any of the following:
(A) In the case of a criminal proceeding, a conviction (including a conviction pursuant to a plea of nolo contendere) by reason of the violation or failure referred to in paragraph (1).
(B) In the case of a civil or administrative proceeding involving an allegation of fraud or similar misconduct, a determination of contractor liability on the basis of the violation or failure referred to in paragraph (1).
(C) In the case of any civil or administrative proceeding, the imposition of a monetary penalty by reason of the violation or failure referred to in paragraph (1).
(D) A final decision
(i) to debar or suspend the contractor,
(ii) to rescind or void the contract, or
(iii) to terminate the contract for default,

by reason of the violation or failure referred to in paragraph (1).

(E) A disposition of the proceeding by consent or compromise if such action could have resulted in a disposition described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D).
(3) In the case of a proceeding referred to in paragraph (1) that is commenced by the United States and is resolved by consent or compromise pursuant to an agreement entered into by a contractor and the United States, the costs incurred by the contractor in connection with such proceeding that are otherwise not allowable as reimbursable costs under such paragraph may be allowed to the extent specifically provided in such agreement.
(4) In the case of a proceeding referred to in paragraph (1) that is commenced by a State, the executive agency that awarded the covered contract involved in the proceeding may allow the costs incurred by the contractor in connection with such proceeding as reimbursable costs if the executive agency determines, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation, that the costs were incurred as a result of
(A)  a specific term or condition of the contract, or
(B)  specific written instructions of the executive agency.
(5) 
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), costs incurred by a contractor in connection with a criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding commenced by the United States or a State in connection with a covered contract may be allowed as reimbursable costs under the contract if such costs are not disallowable under paragraph (1), but only to the extent provided in subparagraph (B).
(B) 
(i) The amount of the costs allowable under subparagraph (A) in any case may not exceed the amount equal to 80 percent of the amount of the costs incurred, to the extent that such costs are determined to be otherwise allowable and allocable under the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(ii) Regulations issued for the purpose of clause (i) shall provide for appropriate consideration of the complexity of procurement litigation, generally accepted principles governing the award of legal fees in civil actions involving the United States as a party, and such other factors as may be appropriate.
(C) In the case of a proceeding referred to in subparagraph (A), contractor costs otherwise allowable as reimbursable costs under this paragraph are not allowable if
(i)  such proceeding involves the same contractor misconduct alleged as the basis of another criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding, and
(ii)  the costs of such other proceeding are not allowable under paragraph (1).
(6) In this subsection:
(A) The term proceeding includes an investigation.
(B) The term costs, with respect to a proceeding
(i) means all costs incurred by a contractor, whether before or after the commencement of any such proceeding; and
(ii) includes
(I) administrative and clerical expenses;
(II) the cost of legal services, including legal services performed by an employee of the contractor;
(III) the cost of the services of accountants and consultants retained by the contractor; and
(IV) the pay of directors, officers, and employees of the contractor for time devoted by such directors, officers, and employees to such proceeding.
(C) The term penalty does not include restitution, reimbursement, or compensatory damages.
(l) “Covered contract” defined 

(1) In this section, the term covered contract means a contract for an amount in excess of $500,000 that is entered into by an executive agency, except that such term does not include a fixed-price contract without cost incentives or any firm, fixed price contract for the purchase of commercial items.
(2) Effective on October 1 of each year that is divisible by five, the amount set forth in paragraph (1) shall be adjusted to the equivalent amount in constant fiscal year 1994 dollars. An amount, as so adjusted, that is not evenly divisible by $50,000 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $50,000. In the case of an amount that is evenly divisible by $25,000 but is not evenly divisible by $50,000, the amount shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $50,000.
(m) Other definitions 
In this section:
(1) The term compensation, for a fiscal year, means the total amount of wages, salary, bonuses and deferred compensation for the fiscal year, whether paid, earned, or otherwise accruing, as recorded in an employers cost accounting records for the fiscal year.
(2) The term senior executives, with respect to a contractor, means the five most highly compensated employees in management positions at each home office and each segment of the contractor.
(3) The term fiscal year means a fiscal year established by a contractor for accounting purposes.

41 USC 256a - Waiver of liquidated damages

Whenever any contract made on behalf of the Government by the head of any Federal Agency, or by officers authorized by him so to do, includes a provision for liquidated damages for delay, the Secretary of the Treasury upon recommendation of such head is authorized and empowered to remit the whole or any part of such damages as in his discretion may be just and equitable.

41 USC 257 - Administrative determinations

(a) Conclusiveness; delegation of powers 
Determinations and decisions provided in this Act to be made by the Administrator or other agency head shall be final. Such determinations or decisions may be made with respect to individual purchases or contracts or, except for determinations or decisions under sections 253, 253a, and 253b of this title, with respect to classes of purchases or contracts. Except as provided in section 253 (d)(2) of this title, and except as provided in section 121 (d)(1) and (2) of title 40 with respect to the Administrator, the agency head is authorized to delegate his powers provided by this Act, including the making of such determinations and decisions, in his discretion and subject to his direction, to any other officer or officers or officials of the agency.
(b) Basis of determinations; finding conclusive; preservation of findings; copy 
Each determination or decision required by section 254 or by section 255 (d) of this title shall be based upon written findings made by the official making such determination, which findings shall be final and shall be available within the agency for a period of at least six years following the date of the determination.

41 USC 258 - Repealed. Pub. L. 103355, title VII, 7205, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3382

Section, acts June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title III, 308, 63 Stat. 397; July 18, 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, 2714(a)(5), 98 Stat. 1185, related to application of certain laws to purchases or contracts.

41 USC 259 - Definitions

As used in this subchapter
(a) The term agency head shall mean the head or any assistant head of any executive agency, and may at the option of the Administrator include the chief official of any principal organizational unit of the General Services Administration.
(b) The term competitive procedures means procedures under which an executive agency enters into a contract pursuant to full and open competition. Such term also includes
(1) procurement of architectural or engineering services conducted in accordance with title IX of this Act;[1]
(2) the competitive selection of basic research proposals resulting from a general solicitation and the peer review or scientific review (as appropriate) of such proposals;
(3) the procedures established by the Administrator for the multiple awards schedule program of the General Services Administration if
(A) participation in the program has been open to all responsible sources; and
(B) orders and contracts under such procedures result in the lowest overall cost alternative to meet the needs of the Government;
(4) procurements conducted in furtherance of section 644 of title 15 as long as all responsible business concerns that are entitled to submit offers for such procurements are permitted to compete; and
(5) a competitive selection of research proposals resulting from a general solicitation and peer review or scientific review (as appropriate) solicited pursuant to section 638 of title 15.
(c) The following terms have the meanings provided such terms in section 403 of this title:
(1) The term procurement.
(2) The term procurement system.
(3) The term standards.
(4) The term full and open competition.
(5) The term responsible source.
(6) The term technical data.
(7) The term major system.
(8) The term item.
(9) The term item of supply.
(10) The term supplies.
(11) The term commercial item.
(12) The term nondevelopmental item.
(13) The term commercial component.
(14) The term component.
(d) 
(1) The term simplified acquisition threshold has the meaning provided that term in section 403 of this title, except that, in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States in support of a contingency operation or a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation, the term means an amount equal to two times the amount specified for that term in section 403 of this title.
(2) In paragraph (1):
(A) The term contingency operation has the meaning given such term in section 101 (a) of title 10.
(B) The term humanitarian or peacekeeping operation means a military operation in support of the provision of humanitarian or foreign disaster assistance or in support of a peacekeeping operation under chapter VI or VII of the Charter of the United Nations. The term does not include routine training, force rotation, or stationing.
(e) The term Federal Acquisition Regulation means the Federal Acquisition Regulation issued pursuant to section 421 (c)(1) of this title.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 260 - Laws not applicable to contracts

Sections 5, 8, and 13 of this title shall not apply to the procurement of property or services made by an executive agency pursuant to this subchapter. Any provision of law which authorizes an executive agency (other than an executive agency which is exempted from the provisions of this subchapter by section 252 (a) of this title), to procure any property or services without advertising or without regard to said section 5 of this title shall be construed to authorize the procurement of such property or services pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter relating to procedures other than sealed-bid procedures.

41 USC 261 - Assignment and delegation of procurement functions and responsibilities

(a) In general 
Except to the extent expressly prohibited by another provision of law, the head of an executive agency may delegate to any other officer or official of that agency, any power under this subchapter.
(b) Procurements for or with other agencies 
Subject to subsection (a) of this section, to facilitate the procurement of property and services covered by this subchapter by each executive agency for any other executive agency, and to facilitate joint procurement by those executive agencies
(1) the head of an executive agency may delegate functions and assign responsibilities relating to procurement to any officer or employee within such agency;
(2) the heads of two or more executive agencies may by agreement delegate procurement functions and assign procurement responsibilities, consistent with section 1535 of title 31 and regulations issued under section 1074 of the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994, from one executive agency to another of those executive agencies or to an officer or civilian employee of another of those executive agencies; and
(3) the heads of two or more executive agencies may establish joint or combined offices to exercise procurement functions and responsibilities.

41 USC 262 - Determinations and decisions

(a) Individual or class determinations and decisions authorized 
Determinations and decisions required to be made under this subchapter by the head of an executive agency may be made for an individual purchase or contract or, except to the extent expressly prohibited by another provision of law, for a class of purchases or contracts. Such determinations and decisions are final.
(b) Written findings required 

(1) Each determination under section 255 (d) of this title or section 254d (c)(2)(B) of this title shall be based on a written finding by the person making the determination or decision. The finding shall set out facts and circumstances that support the determination or decision.
(2) Each finding referred to in paragraph (1) is final.
(3) The head of an executive agency shall maintain for a period of not less than 6 years a copy of each finding referred to in paragraph (1) that is made by a person in that executive agency. The period begins on the date of the determination or decision to which the finding relates.

41 USC 263 - Performance based management: acquisition programs

(a) Congressional policy 
It is the policy of Congress that the head of each executive agency should achieve, on average, 90 percent of the cost, performance, and schedule goals established for major acquisition programs of the agency.
(b) Establishment of goals 

(1) The head of each executive agency shall approve or define the cost, performance, and schedule goals for major acquisition programs of the agency.
(2) The chief financial officer of an executive agency shall evaluate the cost goals proposed for each major acquisition program of the agency.
(c) Identification of noncompliant programs 
Whenever it is necessary to do so in order to implement the policy set out in subsection (a) of this section, the head of an executive agency shall
(1) determine whether there is a continuing need for programs that are significantly behind schedule, over budget, or not in compliance with performance or capability requirements; and
(2) identify suitable actions to be taken, including termination, with respect to such programs.

41 USC 264 - Relationship of commercial item provisions to other provisions of law

(a) Applicability of subchapter 
Unless otherwise specifically provided, nothing in this section, section 264a of this title, or section 264b of this title shall be construed as providing that any other provision of this subchapter relating to procurement is inapplicable to the procurement of commercial items.
(b) List of laws inapplicable to contracts for acquisition of commercial items 
No contract for the procurement of a commercial item entered into by the head of an executive agency shall be subject to any law properly listed in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (pursuant to section 430 of this title).

41 USC 264a - Definitions relating to procurement of commercial items

As used in this subchapter, the terms commercial item, nondevelopmental item, component, and commercial component have the meanings provided in section 403 of this title.

41 USC 264b - Preference for acquisition of commercial items

(a) Preference 
The head of each executive agency shall ensure that, to the maximum extent practicable
(1) requirements of the executive agency with respect to a procurement of supplies or services are stated in terms of
(A) functions to be performed;
(B) performance required; or
(C) essential physical characteristics;
(2) such requirements are defined so that commercial items or, to the extent that commercial items suitable to meet the executive agencys needs are not available, nondevelopmental items other than commercial items, may be procured to fulfill such requirements; and
(3) offerors of commercial items and nondevelopmental items other than commercial items are provided an opportunity to compete in any procurement to fill such requirements.
(b) Implementation 
The head of each executive agency shall ensure that procurement officials in that executive agency, to the maximum extent practicable
(1) acquire commercial items or nondevelopmental items other than commercial items to meet the needs of the executive agency;
(2) require prime contractors and subcontractors at all levels under the executive agency contracts to incorporate commercial items or nondevelopmental items other than commercial items as components of items supplied to the executive agency;
(3) modify requirements in appropriate cases to ensure that the requirements can be met by commercial items or, to the extent that commercial items suitable to meet the executive agencys needs are not available, nondevelopmental items other than commercial items;
(4) state specifications in terms that enable and encourage bidders and offerors to supply commercial items or, to the extent that commercial items suitable to meet the executive agencys needs are not available, nondevelopmental items other than commercial items in response to the executive agency solicitations;
(5) revise the executive agencys procurement policies, practices, and procedures not required by law to reduce any impediments in those policies, practices, and procedures to the acquisition of commercial items; and
(6) require training of appropriate personnel in the acquisition of commercial items.
(c) Preliminary market research 

(1) The head of an executive agency shall conduct market research appropriate to the circumstances
(A) before developing new specifications for a procurement by that executive agency; and
(B) before soliciting bids or proposals for a contract in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold.
(2) The head of an executive agency shall use the results of market research to determine whether there are commercial items or, to the extent that commercial items suitable to meet the executive agencys needs are not available, nondevelopmental items other than commercial items available that
(A) meet the executive agencys requirements;
(B) could be modified to meet the executive agencys requirements; or
(C) could meet the executive agencys requirements if those requirements were modified to a reasonable extent.
(3) In conducting market research, the head of an executive agency should not require potential sources to submit more than the minimum information that is necessary to make the determinations required in paragraph (2).

41 USC 265 - Contractor employees: protection from reprisal for disclosure of certain information

(a) Prohibition of reprisals 
An employee of a contractor may not be discharged, demoted, or otherwise discriminated against as a reprisal for disclosing to a Member of Congress or an authorized official of an executive agency or the Department of Justice information relating to a substantial violation of law related to a contract (including the competition for or negotiation of a contract).
(b) Investigation of complaints 
A person who believes that the person has been subjected to a reprisal prohibited by subsection (a) of this section may submit a complaint to the Inspector General of the executive agency. Unless the Inspector General determines that the complaint is frivolous, the Inspector General shall investigate the complaint and, upon completion of such investigation, submit a report of the findings of the investigation to the person, the contractor concerned, and the head of the agency. In the case of an executive agency that does not have an Inspector General, the duties of the Inspector General under this section shall be performed by an official designated by the head of the executive agency.
(c) Remedy and enforcement authority 

(1) If the head of an executive agency determines that a contractor has subjected a person to a reprisal prohibited by subsection (a) of this section, the head of the executive agency may take one or more of the following actions:
(A) Order the contractor to take affirmative action to abate the reprisal.
(B) Order the contractor to reinstate the person to the position that the person held before the reprisal, together with the compensation (including back pay), employment benefits, and other terms and conditions of employment that would apply to the person in that position if the reprisal had not been taken.
(C) Order the contractor to pay the complainant an amount equal to the aggregate amount of all costs and expenses (including attorneys fees and expert witnesses fees) that were reasonably incurred by the complainant for, or in connection with, bringing the complaint regarding the reprisal, as determined by the head of the executive agency.
(2) Whenever a person fails to comply with an order issued under paragraph (1), the head of the executive agency shall file an action for enforcement of such order in the United States district court for a district in which the reprisal was found to have occurred. In any action brought under this paragraph, the court may grant appropriate relief, including injunctive relief and compensatory and exemplary damages.
(3) Any person adversely affected or aggrieved by an order issued under paragraph (1) may obtain review of the orders conformance with this subsection, and any regulations issued to carry out this section, in the United States court of appeals for a circuit in which the reprisal is alleged in the order to have occurred. No petition seeking such review may be filed more than 60 days after issuance of the order by the head of the agency. Review shall conform to chapter 7 of title 5.
(d) Construction 
Nothing in this section may be construed to authorize the discharge of, demotion of, or discrimination against an employee for a disclosure other than a disclosure protected by subsection (a) of this section or to modify or derogate from a right or remedy otherwise available to the employee.
(e) Definitions 
In this section:
(1) The term contract means a contract awarded by the head of an executive agency.
(2) The term contractor means a person awarded a contract with an executive agency.
(3) The term Inspector General means an Inspector General appointed under the Inspector General Act of 1978.

41 USC 266 - Merit-based award of grants for research and development

(a) Policy 
It is the policy of Congress that an executive agency should not be required by legislation to award a new grant for research, development, test, or evaluation to a non-Federal Government entity. It is further the policy of Congress that any program, project, or technology identified in legislation be awarded through merit-based selection procedures.
(b) Rule of construction 
A provision of law may not be construed as requiring a new grant to be awarded to a specified non-Federal Government entity unless that provision of law
(1) specifically refers to this subsection;
(2) specifically identifies the particular non-Federal Government entity involved; and
(3) specifically states that the award to that entity is required by such provision of law in contravention of the policy set forth in subsection (a) of this section.
(c) New grant defined 
For purposes of this section, a grant is a new grant unless the work provided for in the grant is a continuation of the work performed by the specified entity under a preceding grant.
(d) Inapplicability to certain grants 
This section shall not apply with respect to any grant that calls upon the National Academy of Sciences to investigate, examine, or experiment upon any subject of science or art of significance to an executive agency and to report on such matters to Congress or any agency of the Federal Government.

41 USC 266a - Share-in-savings contracts

(a) Authority to enter into share-in-savings contracts 

(1) The head of an executive agency may enter into a share-in-savings contract for information technology (as defined in section 11101 (6) of title 40) in which the Government awards a contract to improve mission-related or administrative processes or to accelerate the achievement of its mission and share with the contractor in savings achieved through contract performance.
(2) 
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a share-in-savings contract shall be awarded for a period of not more than five years.
(B) A share-in-savings contract may be awarded for a period greater than five years, but not more than 10 years, if the head of the agency determines in writing prior to award of the contract that
(i) the level of risk to be assumed and the investment to be undertaken by the contractor is likely to inhibit the government from obtaining the needed information technology competitively at a fair and reasonable price if the contract is limited in duration to a period of five years or less; and
(ii) usage of the information technology to be acquired is likely to continue for a period of time sufficient to generate reasonable benefit for the government.
(3) Contracts awarded pursuant to the authority of this section shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be performance-based contracts that identify objective outcomes and contain performance standards that will be used to measure achievement and milestones that must be met before payment is made.
(4) Contracts awarded pursuant to the authority of this section shall include a provision containing a quantifiable baseline that is to be the basis upon which a savings share ratio is established that governs the amount of payment a contractor is to receive under the contract. Before commencement of performance of such a contract, the senior procurement executive of the agency shall determine in writing that the terms of the provision are quantifiable and will likely yield value to the Government.
(5) 
(A) The head of the agency may retain savings realized through the use of a share-in-savings contract under this section that are in excess of the total amount of savings paid to the contractor under the contract, but may not retain any portion of such savings that is attributable to a decrease in the number of civilian employees of the Federal Government performing the function. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), savings shall be credited to the appropriation or fund against which charges were made to carry out the contract and shall be used for information technology.
(B) Amounts retained by the agency under this subsection shall
(i) without further appropriation, remain available until expended; and
(ii) be applied first to fund any contingent liabilities associated with share-in-savings procurements that are not fully funded.
(b) Cancellation and termination 

(1) If funds are not made available for the continuation of a share-in-savings contract entered into under this section in a subsequent fiscal year, the contract shall be canceled or terminated. The costs of cancellation or termination may be paid out of
(A) appropriations available for the performance of the contract;
(B) appropriations available for acquisition of the information technology procured under the contract, and not otherwise obligated; or
(C) funds subsequently appropriated for payments of costs of cancellation or termination, subject to the limitations in paragraph (3).
(2) The amount payable in the event of cancellation or termination of a share-in-savings contract shall be negotiated with the contractor at the time the contract is entered into.
(3) 
(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the head of an executive agency may enter into share-in-savings contracts under this section in any given fiscal year even if funds are not made specifically available for the full costs of cancellation or termination of the contract if funds are available and sufficient to make payments with respect to the first fiscal year of the contract and the following conditions are met regarding the funding of cancellation and termination liability:
(i) The amount of unfunded contingent liability for the contract does not exceed the lesser of
(I) 25 percent of the estimated costs of a cancellation or termination; or
(II) $5,000,000.
(ii) Unfunded contingent liability in excess of $1,000,000 has been approved by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget or the Directors designee.
(B) The aggregate number of share-in-savings contracts that may be entered into under subparagraph (A) by all executive agencies to which this subchapter[1] applies in a fiscal year may not exceed 5 in each of fiscal years 2003, 2004, and 2005.
(c) Definitions 
In this section:
(1) The term contractor means a private entity that enters into a contract with an agency.
(2) The term savings means
(A) monetary savings to an agency; or
(B) savings in time or other benefits realized by the agency, including enhanced revenues (other than enhanced revenues from the collection of fees, taxes, debts, claims, or other amounts owed the Federal Government).
(3) The term share-in-savings contract means a contract under which
(A) a contractor provides solutions for
(i) improving the agencys mission-related or administrative processes; or
(ii) accelerating the achievement of agency missions; and
(B) the head of the agency pays the contractor an amount equal to a portion of the savings derived by the agency from
(i) any improvements in mission-related or administrative processes that result from implementation of the solution; or
(ii) acceleration of achievement of agency missions.
(d) Termination 
No share-in-savings contracts may be entered into under this section after September 30, 2005.
[1] See References in Text note below.

TITLE 41 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER V - FOREIGN EXCESS PROPERTY

271 to 274. Transferred

TITLE 41 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER VI - FEDERAL RECORD MANAGEMENT

281 to 291. Transferred

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 5 - JUDICIAL REVIEW OF ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS

41 USC 321 - Limitation on pleading contract provisions relating to finality; standards of review

No provision of any contract entered into by the United States, relating to the finality or conclusiveness of any decision of the head of any department or agency or his duly authorized representative or board in a dispute involving a question arising under such contract, shall be pleaded in any suit now filed or to be filed as limiting judicial review of any such decision to cases where fraud by such official or his said representative or board is alleged: Provided, however, That any such decision shall be final and conclusive unless the same is fradulent[1] or capricious or arbitrary or so grossly erroneous as necessarily to imply bad faith, or is not supported by substantial evidence.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “fraudulent”.

41 USC 322 - Contract provisions making decisions final on questions of law

No Government contract shall contain a provision making final on a question of law the decision of any administrative official, representative, or board.

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 6 - SERVICE CONTRACT LABOR STANDARDS

41 USC 351 - Required contract provisions; minimum wages

(a) Every contract (and any bid specification therefor) entered into by the United States or the District of Columbia in excess of $2,500, except as provided in section 356 of this title, whether negotiated or advertised, the principal purpose of which is to furnish services in the United States through the use of service employees, shall contain the following:
(1) A provision specifying the minimum monetary wages to be paid the various classes of service employees in the performance of the contract or any subcontract thereunder, as determined by the Secretary, or his authorized representative, in accordance with prevailing rates for such employees in the locality, or, where a collective-bargaining agreement covers any such service employees, in accordance with the rates for such employees provided for in such agreement, including prospective wage increases provided for in such agreement as a result of arms length negotiations. In no case shall such wages be lower than the minimum specified in subsection (b) of this section.
(2) A provision specifying the fringe benefits to be furnished in the various classes of service employees, engaged in the performance of the contract or any subcontract thereunder, as determined by the Secretary or his authorized representative to be prevailing for such employees in the locality, or, where a collective-bargaining agreement covers any such service employees, to be provided for in such agreement, including prospective fringe benefits increases provided for in such agreement as a result of arms-length negotiations. Such fringe benefits shall include medical or hospital care, pensions on retirement or death, compensation for injuries or illness resulting from occupational activity, or insurance to provide any of the foregoing, unemployment benefits, life insurance, disability and sickness insurance, accident insurance, vacation and holiday pay, costs of apprenticeship or other similar programs and other bona fide fringe benefits not otherwise required by Federal, State, or local law to be provided by the contractor or subcontractor. The obligation under this subparagraph may be discharged by furnishing any equivalent combinations of fringe benefits or by making equivalent or differential payments in cash under rules and regulations established by the Secretary.
(3) A provision that no part of the services covered by this chapter will be performed in buildings or surroundings or under working conditions, provided by or under the control or supervision of the contractor or any subcontractor, which are unsanitary or hazardous or dangerous to the health or safety of service employees engaged to furnish the services.
(4) A provision that on the date a service employee commences work on a contract to which this chapter applies, the contractor or subcontractor will deliver to the employee a notice of the compensation required under paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection, on a form prepared by the Federal agency, or will post a notice of the required compensation in a prominent place at the worksite.
(5) A statement of the rates that would be paid by the Federal agency to the various classes of service employees if section 5341 or section 5332 of title 5 were applicable to them. The Secretary shall give due consideration to such rates in making the wage and fringe benefit determinations specified in this section.
(b) 
(1) No contractor who enters into any contract with the Federal Government the principal purpose of which is to furnish services through the use of service employees and no subcontractor thereunder shall pay any of his employees engaged in performing work on such contracts less than the minimum wage specified under section 206 (a)(1) of title 29.
(2) The provisions of sections 352 to 354 of this title shall be applicable to violations of this subsection.

41 USC 352 - Violations

(a) Liability of responsible party; withholding payments due on contract; payment of underpaid employees from withheld payments 
Any violation of any of the contract stipulations required by section 351(a)(1) or (2) or of section 351(b) of this title shall render the party responsible therefor liable for a sum equal to the amount of any deductions, rebates, refunds, or underpayment of compensation due to any employee engaged in the performance of such contract. So much of the accrued payment due on the contract or any other contract between the same contractor and the Federal Government may be withheld as is necessary to pay such employees. Such withheld sums shall be held in a deposit fund. On order of the Secretary, any compensation which the head of the Federal agency or the Secretary has found to be due pursuant to this chapter shall be paid directly to the underpaid employees from any accrued payments withheld under this chapter.
(b) Enforcement of section 
In accordance with regulations prescribed pursuant to section 353 of this title, the Federal agency head or the Secretary is hereby authorized to carry out the provisions of this section.
(c) Cancellation of contract; contracts for completion of original contract; liability of original contractor for additional cost 
In addition, when a violation is found of any contract stipulation, the contract is subject upon written notice to cancellation by the contracting agency. Whereupon, the United States may enter into other contracts or arrangements for the completion of the original contract, charging any additional cost to the original contractor.

41 USC 353 - Law governing authority of Secretary

(a) Enforcement of chapter 
Sections 38 and 39 of this title shall govern the Secretarys authority to enforce this chapter, make rules, regulations, issue orders, hold hearings, and make decisions based upon findings of fact, and take other appropriate action hereunder.
(b) Limitations and regulations allowing variations, tolerances, and exemptions 
The Secretary may provide such reasonable limitations and may make such rules and regulations allowing reasonable variation, tolerances, and exemptions to and from any or all provisions of this chapter (other than section 358 of this title), but only in special circumstances where he determines that such limitation, variation, tolerance, or exemption is necessary and proper in the public interest or to avoid the serious impairment of government business, and is in accord with the remedial purpose of this chapter to protect prevailing labor standards.
(c) Predecessor contracts; employees’ wages and fringe benefits 
No contractor or subcontractor under a contract, which succeeds a contract subject to this chapter and under which substantially the same services are furnished, shall pay any service employee under such contract less than the wages and fringe benefits, including accrued wages and fringe benefits, and any prospective increases in wages and fringe benefits provided for in a collective-bargaining agreement as a result of arms-length negotiations, to which such service employees would have been entitled if they were employed under the predecessor contract: Provided, That in any of the foregoing circumstances such obligations shall not apply if the Secretary finds after a hearing in accordance with regulations adopted by the Secretary that such wages and fringe benefits are substantially at variance with those which prevail for services of a character similar in the locality.
(d) Duration of contract 
Subject to limitations in annual appropriation Acts but notwithstanding any other provision of law, contracts to which this chapter applies may, if authorized by the Secretary, be for any term of years not exceeding five, if each such contract provides for the periodic adjustment of wages and fringe benefits pursuant to future determinations, issued in the manner prescribed in section 351 of this title no less often than once every two years during the term of the contract, covering the various classes of service employees.

41 USC 354 - List of violators; prohibition of contract award to firms appearing on list; actions to recover underpayments; payment of sums recovered

(a) The Comptroller General is directed to distribute a list to all agencies of the Government giving the names of persons or firms that the Federal agencies or the Secretary have found to have violated this chapter. Unless the Secretary otherwise recommends because of unusual circumstances, no contract of the United States shall be awarded to the persons or firms appearing on this list or to any firm, corporation, partnership, or association in which such persons or firms have a substantial interest until three years have elapsed from the date of publication of the list containing the name of such persons or firms. Where the Secretary does not otherwise recommend because of unusual circumstances, he shall, not later than ninety days after a hearing examiner has made a finding of a violation of this chapter, forward to the Comptroller General the name of the individual or firm found to have violated the provisions of this chapter.
(b) If the accrued payments withheld under the terms of the contract are insufficient to reimburse all service employees with respect to whom there has been a failure to pay the compensation required pursuant to this chapter, the United States may bring action against the contractor, subcontractor, or any sureties in any court of competent jurisdiction to recover the remaining amount of underpayments. Any sums thus recovered by the United States shall be held in the deposit fund and shall be paid, on order of the Secretary, directly to the underpaid employee or employees. Any sum not paid to an employee because of inability to do so within three years shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

41 USC 355 - Exclusion of fringe benefit payments in determining overtime pay

In determining any overtime pay to which such service employees are entitled under any Federal law, the regular or basic hourly rate of pay of such an employee shall not include any fringe benefit payments computed hereunder which are excluded from the regular rate under the Fair Labor Standards Act [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.] by provisions of section 7 (d) thereof [29 U.S.C. 207 (d)].

41 USC 356 - Exemptions

This chapter shall not apply to
(1) any contract of the United States or District of Columbia for construction, alteration and/or repair, including painting and decorating of public buildings or public works;
(2) any work required to be done in accordance with the provisions of the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act [41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.];
(3) any contract for the carriage of freight or personnel by vessel, airplane, bus, truck, express, railway line or oil or gas pipeline where published tariff rates are in effect;
(4) any contract for the furnishing of services by radio, telephone, telegraph, or cable companies, subject to the Communications Act of 1934 [47 U.S.C. 151 et seq.];
(5) any contract for public utility services, including electric light and power, water, steam, and gas;
(6) any employment contract providing for direct services to a Federal agency by an individual or individuals; and
(7) any contract with the United States Postal Service, the principal purpose of which is the operation of postal contract stations.

41 USC 357 - Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter
(a) Secretary means Secretary of Labor.
(b) The term service employee means any person engaged in the performance of a contract entered into by the United States and not exempted under section 356 of this title, whether negotiated or advertised, the principal purpose of which is to furnish services in the United States (other than any person employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity, as those terms are defined in part 541 of title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, as of July 30, 1976, and any subsequent revision of those regulations); and shall include all such persons regardless of any contractual relationship that may be alleged to exist between a contractor or subcontractor and such persons.
(c) The term compensation means any of the payments or fringe benefits described in section 351 of this title.
(d) The term United States when used in a geographical sense shall include any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Outer Continental Shelf lands as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, American Samoa, Guam, Wake Island, Eniwetok Atoll, Kwajalein Atoll, Johnston Island, and Canton Island, but shall not include any other territory under the jurisdiction of the United States or any United States base or possession within a foreign country.

41 USC 358 - Wage and fringe benefit determinations of Secretary

It is the intent of the Congress that determinations of minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits for the various classes of service employees under the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 3511 of this title should be made with respect to all contracts subject to this chapter, as soon as it is administratively feasible to do so. In any event, the Secretary shall make such determinations with respect to at least the following contracts subject to this chapter which are entered into during the applicable fiscal year:
(1) For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, all contracts under which more than twenty-five service employees are to be employed.
(2) For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, all contracts, under which more than twenty service employees are to be employed.
(3) For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975, all contracts under which more than fifteen service employees are to be employed.
(4) For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, all contracts under which more than ten service employees are to be employed.
(5) On or after July 1, 1976, all contracts under which more than five service employees are to be employed.
[1] So in original. Probably should be section “351(a)”.

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 7 - OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY

401, 402. Repealed. Pub. L. 104106, div. D, title XLIII, 4305(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 665

Section 401, Pub. L. 93–400, § 2, Aug. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 796; Pub. L. 96–83, § 2, Oct. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 648; Pub. L. 98–191, § 3, Dec. 1, 1983, 97 Stat. 1325; Pub. L. 100–679, § 2(a), Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4055; Pub. L. 103–355, title I, § 1091(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3272, stated policy of United States Government relating to procurement of property and services. Section 402, Pub. L. 93–400, § 3, Aug. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 796; Pub. L. 100–679, § 2(b), Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4055, stated findings of Congress and purpose of this chapter.

41 USC 403 - Definitions

As used in this chapter:
(1) The term executive agency means
(A) an executive department specified in section 101 of title 5;
(B) a military department specified in section 102 of such title;
(C) an independent establishment as defined in section 104(1) of such title; and
(D) a wholly owned Government corporation fully subject to the provisions of chapter 91 of title 31.
(2) The term procurement includes all stages of the process of acquiring property or services, beginning with the process for determining a need for property or services and ending with contract completion and closeout.
(3) The term procurement system means the integration of the procurement process, the professional development of procurement personnel, and the management structure for carrying out the procurement function.
(4) The term standards means the criteria for determining the effectiveness of the procurement system by measuring the performance of the various elements of such system.
(5) The term competitive procedures means procedures under which an agency enters into a contract pursuant to full and open competition.
(6) The term full and open competition, when used with respect to a procurement, means that all responsible sources are permitted to submit sealed bids or competitive proposals on the procurement.
(7) The term responsible source means a prospective contractor who
(A) has adequate financial resources to perform the contract or the ability to obtain such resources;
(B) is able to comply with the required or proposed delivery or performance schedule, taking into consideration all existing commercial and Government business commitments;
(C) has a satisfactory performance record;
(D) has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics;
(E) has the necessary organization, experience, accounting and operational controls, and technical skills, or the ability to obtain such organization, experience, controls, and skills;
(F) has the necessary production, construction, and technical equipment and facilities, or the ability to obtain such equipment and facilities; and
(G) is otherwise qualified and eligible to receive an award under applicable laws and regulations.
(8) The term technical data means recorded information (regardless of the form or method of the recording) of a scientific or technical nature (including computer software documentation) relating to supplies procured by an agency. Such term does not include computer software or financial, administrative, cost or pricing, or management data or other information incidental to contract administration.
(9) 
(A) The term major system means a combination of elements that will function together to produce the capabilities required to fulfill a mission need, which elements may include hardware, equipment, software or any combination thereof, but excludes construction or other improvements to real property; and
(B) a system shall be considered a major system if
(i)  the Department of Defense is responsible for the system and the total expenditures for research, development, test and evaluation for the system are estimated to be more than $75,000,000 (based on fiscal year 1980 constant dollars) or the eventual total expenditure for procurement of more than $300,000,000 (based on fiscal year 1980 constant dollars);
(ii)  a civilian agency is responsible for the system and total expenditures for the system are estimated to exceed $750,000 (based on fiscal year 1980 constant dollars) or the dollar threshold for a major system established by the agency pursuant to Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A109, entitled Major Systems Acquisitions, whichever is greater; or
(iii)  the system is designated a major system by the head of the agency responsible for the system.
(10) The term item, item of supply, or supplies means any individual part, component, subassembly, assembly, or subsystem integral to a major system, and other property which may be replaced during the service life of the system, and includes spare parts and replenishment spare parts, but does not include packaging or labeling associated with shipment or identification of an item.
(11) The term simplified acquisition threshold means $100,000.
(12) The term commercial item means any of the following:
(A) Any item, other than real property, that is of a type customarily used by the general public or by nongovernmental entities for purposes other than governmental purposes, and that
(i) has been sold, leased, or licensed to the general public; or
(ii) has been offered for sale, lease, or license to the general public.
(B) Any item that evolved from an item described in subparagraph (A) through advances in technology or performance and that is not yet available in the commercial marketplace, but will be available in the commercial marketplace in time to satisfy the delivery requirements under a Federal Government solicitation.
(C) Any item that, but for
(i) modifications of a type customarily available in the commercial marketplace, or
(ii) minor modifications made to meet Federal Government requirements,

would satisfy the criteria in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(D) Any combination of items meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (E) that are of a type customarily combined and sold in combination to the general public.
(E) Installation services, maintenance services, repair services, training services, and other services if
(i) the services are procured for support of an item referred to in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D), regardless of whether such services are provided by the same source or at the same time as the item; and
(ii) the source of the services provides similar services contemporaneously to the general public under terms and conditions similar to those offered to the Federal Government.
(F) Services offered and sold competitively, in substantial quantities, in the commercial marketplace based on established catalog or market prices for specific tasks performed or specific outcomes to be achieved and under standard commercial terms and conditions.
(G) Any item, combination of items, or service referred to in subparagraphs (A) through (F) notwithstanding the fact that the item, combination of items, or service is transferred between or among separate divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor.
(H) A nondevelopmental item, if the procuring agency determines, in accordance with conditions set forth in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, that the item was developed exclusively at private expense and has been sold in substantial quantities, on a competitive basis, to multiple State and local governments.
(13) The term nondevelopmental item means any of the following:
(A) Any commercial item.
(B) Any previously developed item of supply that is in use by a department or agency of the United States, a State or local government, or a foreign government with which the United States has a mutual defense cooperation agreement.
(C) Any item of supply described in subparagraph (A) or (B) that requires only minor modification or modification of the type customarily available in the commercial marketplace in order to meet the requirements of the procuring department or agency.
(D) Any item of supply currently being produced that does not meet the requirements of subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) solely because the item is not yet in use.
(14) The term component means any item supplied to the Federal Government as part of an end item or of another component.
(15) The term commercial component means any component that is a commercial item.
(16) The term acquisition
(A) means the process of acquiring, with appropriated funds, by contract for purchase or lease, property or services (including construction) that support the missions and goals of an executive agency, from the point at which the requirements of the executive agency are established in consultation with the chief acquisition officer of the executive agency; and
(B) includes
(i) the process of acquiring property or services that are already in existence, or that must be created, developed, demonstrated, and evaluated;
(ii) the description of requirements to satisfy agency needs;
(iii) solicitation and selection of sources;
(iv) award of contracts;
(v) contract performance;
(vi) contract financing;
(vii) management and measurement of contract performance through final delivery and payment; and
(viii) technical and management functions directly related to the process of fulfilling agency requirements by contract.
(17) The term Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council means the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council established under section 421 of this title.

41 USC 404 - Establishment of Office of Federal Procurement Policy; appointment of Administrator

(a) There is in the Office of Management and Budget an Office of Federal Procurement Policy (hereinafter referred to as the Office) to provide overall direction of Government-wide procurement policies, regulations, procedures, and forms for executive agencies and to promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the procurement of property and services by the executive branch of the Federal Government.
(b) There shall be at the head of the Office an Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy (hereinafter referred to as the Administrator), who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

41 USC 405 - Authority and functions of the Administrator

(a) Development of procurement policy; leadership 
The Administrator shall provide overall direction of procurement policy and leadership in the development of procurement systems of the executive agencies. To the extent that the Administrator considers appropriate, in carrying out the policies and functions set forth in this chapter, and with due regard for applicable laws and the program activities of the executive agencies, the Administrator may prescribe Government-wide procurement policies. These policies shall be implemented in a single Government-wide procurement regulation called the Federal Acquisition Regulation and shall be followed by executive agencies in the procurement of
(1) property other than real property in being;
(2) services, including research and development; and
(3) construction, alteration, repair, or maintenance of real property.
(b) Government-wide procurement regulations 
In any instance in which the Administrator determines that the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the General Services Administration are unable to agree on or fail to issue Government-wide regulations, procedures and forms in a timely manner, including any such regulations, procedures, and forms as are necessary to implement prescribed policy initiated by the Administrator under subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator shall, with due regard for applicable laws and the program activities of the executive agencies and consistent with the policies and functions set forth in this chapter, prescribe Government-wide regulations, procedures and forms which shall be followed by executive agencies in the procurement of
(1) property other than real property in being;
(2) services, including research and development; and
(3) construction, alteration, repair, or maintenance of real property.
(c) Noninterference with executive agencies 
The authority of the Administrator under this chapter shall not be construed to
(1) impair or interfere with the determination by executive agencies of their need for, or their use of, specific property, services, or construction, including particular specifications therefor; or
(2) interfere with the determination by executive agencies of specific actions in the award or administration of procurement contracts.
(d) Enumeration of included functions 
The functions of the Administrator shall include
(1) providing leadership and ensuring action by the executive agencies in the establishment, development and maintenance of the single system of simplified Government-wide procurement regulations and resolving differences among the executive agencies in the development of simplified Government-wide procurement regulations, procedures and forms;
(2) coordinating the development of Government-wide procurement system standards that shall be implemented by the executive agencies in their procurement systems;
(3) providing leadership and coordination in the formulation of the executive branch position on legislation relating to procurement;
(4) 
(A) providing for and directing the activities of the computer-based Federal Procurement Data System (including recommending to the Administrator of General Services a sufficient budget for such activities), which shall be located in the General Services Administration, in order to adequately collect, develop, and disseminate procurement data; and
(B) ensuring executive agency compliance with the record requirements of section 417 of this title;
(5) providing for and directing the activities of the Federal Acquisition Institute (including recommending to the Administrator of General Services a sufficient budget for such activities), which shall be located in the General Services Administration, in order to
(A) foster and promote the development of a professional acquisition workforce Government-wide;
(B) promote and coordinate Government-wide research and studies to improve the procurement process and the laws, policies, methods, regulations, procedures, and forms relating to acquisition by the executive agencies;
(C) collect data and analyze acquisition workforce data from the Office of Personnel Management, the heads of executive agencies, and, through periodic surveys, from individual employees;
(D) periodically analyze acquisition career fields to identify critical competencies, duties, tasks, and related academic prerequisites, skills, and knowledge;
(E) coordinate and assist agencies in identifying and recruiting highly qualified candidates for acquisition fields;
(F) develop instructional materials for acquisition personnel in coordination with private and public acquisition colleges and training facilities;
(G) evaluate the effectiveness of training and career development programs for acquisition personnel;
(H) promote the establishment and utilization of academic programs by colleges and universities in acquisition fields;
(I) facilitate, to the extent requested by agencies, interagency intern and training programs; and
(J) perform other career management or research functions as directed by the Administrator;
(6) administering the provisions of section 433 of this title;
(7) establishing criteria and procedures to ensure the effective and timely solicitation of the viewpoints of interested parties in the development of procurement policies, regulations, procedures, and forms;
(8) developing standard contract forms and contract language in order to reduce the Governments cost of procuring property and services and the private sectors cost of doing business with the Government;
(9) providing for a Government-wide award to recognize and promote vendor excellence;
(10) providing for a Government-wide award to recognize and promote excellence in officers and employees of the Federal Government serving in procurement-related positions;
(11) developing policies, in consultation with the Administrator of the Small Business Administration, that ensure that small businesses, qualified HUBZone small business concerns (as defined in section 632 (p) of title 15), small businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, and small businesses owned and controlled by women are provided with the maximum practicable opportunities to participate in procurements that are conducted for amounts below the simplified acquisition threshold;
(12) developing policies that will promote achievement of goals for participation by small businesses, qualified HUBZone small business concerns (as defined in section 632 (p) of title 15), small businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, and small businesses owned and controlled by women; and
(13) completing action, as appropriate, on the recommendations of the Commission on Government Procurement.
(e) Consultation; assistance of existing executive agencies; advisory committees and interagency groups 
In carrying out the functions set forth in subsection (d) of this section, the Administrator
(1) shall consult with the affected executive agencies, including the Small Business Administration;
(2) may, with the concurrence of the heads of affected executive agencies, designate an executive agency or executive agencies to assist in the performance of such functions; and
(3) may establish advisory committees or other interagency groups to assist in providing for the establishment, development, and maintenance of a single system of simplified Government-wide procurement regulations and to assist in the performance of any of the other functions which the Administrator considers appropriate.
(f) Oversight of regulations promulgated by other agencies relating to procurement 
The Administrator, with the concurrence of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and with consultation with the head of the agency or agencies concerned, may deny the promulgation of or rescind any Government-wide regulation or final rule or regulation of any executive agency relating to procurement if the Administrator determines that such rule or regulation is inconsistent with any policies, regulations, or procedures issued pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.
(g) Assignment, delegation, or transfer of functions prohibited 
Except as otherwise provided by law, no duties, functions, or responsibilities, other than those expressly assigned by this chapter, shall be assigned, delegated, or transferred to the Administrator.
(h) Real property procurement; Office of Management and Budget 
Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to
(1) impair or affect the authorities or responsibilities conferred by the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949[1] with respect to the procurement of real property; or
(2) limit the current authorities and responsibilities of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
(i) Recipients of Federal grants or assistance 

(1) With due regard to applicable laws and the program activities of the executive agencies administering Federal programs of grants or assistance, the Administrator may prescribe Government-wide policies, regulations, procedures, and forms which the Administrator considers appropriate and which shall be followed by such executive agencies in providing for the procurement, to the extent required under such programs, of property or services referred to in clauses (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a) of this section by recipients of Federal grants or assistance under such programs.
(2) Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed to
(A) permit the Administrator to authorize procurement or supply support, either directly or indirectly, to recipients of Federal grants or assistance; or
(B) authorize any action by such recipients contrary to State and local laws, in the case of programs to provide Federal grants or assistance to States and political subdivisions.
(j) Policy regarding consideration of contractor past performance 

(1) The Administrator shall prescribe for executive agencies guidance regarding consideration of the past contract performance of offerors in awarding contracts. The guidance shall include
(A) standards for evaluating past performance with respect to cost (when appropriate), schedule, compliance with technical or functional specifications, and other relevant performance factors that facilitate consistent and fair evaluation by all executive agencies;
(B) policies for the collection and maintenance of information on past contract performance that, to the maximum extent practicable, facilitate automated collection, maintenance, and dissemination of information and provide for ease of collection, maintenance, and dissemination of information by other methods, as necessary;
(C) policies for ensuring that
(i) offerors are afforded an opportunity to submit relevant information on past contract performance, including performance under contracts entered into by the executive agency concerned, contracts entered into by other departments and agencies of the Federal Government, contracts entered into by agencies of State and local governments, and contracts entered into by commercial customers; and
(ii) such information submitted by offerors is considered; and
(D) the period for which information on past performance of offerors may be maintained and considered.
(2) In the case of an offeror with respect to which there is no information on past contract performance or with respect to which information on past contract performance is not available, the offeror may not be evaluated favorably or unfavorably on the factor of past contract performance.
(k) Annual reporting requirement 
The Administrator shall submit to Congress, on an annual basis, an assessment of the progress made in executive agencies in implementing the policy regarding major acquisitions that is stated in section 263 (a) of this title. The Administrator shall use data from existing management systems in making the assessment.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 405a - Uniform Federal procurement regulations and procedures

The Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy is authorized and directed, pursuant to the authority conferred by Public Law 93400 [41 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] and subject to the procedures set forth in such Public Law, to promulgate a single, simplified, uniform Federal procurement regulation and to establish procedures for insuring compliance with such provisions by all Federal agencies. In formulating such regulations and procedures the Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy shall, in consultation with the Small Business Administration, conduct analyses of the impact on small business concerns resulting from revised procurement regulations, and incorporate into revised procurement regulations simplified bidding, contract performance, and contract administration procedures for small business concerns.

41 USC 405b - Conflict of interest standards for individuals providing consulting services

(a) Issuance of policy and regulations 
Not later than 90 days after October 1, 1988, the Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy shall issue a policy, and not later than 180 days thereafter Government-wide regulations shall be issued under the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) which set forth
(1) conflict of interest standards for persons who provide consulting services described in subsection (b) of this section; and
(2) procedures, including such registration, certification, and enforcement requirements as may be appropriate, to promote compliance with such standards.
(b) Services subject to regulations 
The regulations required by subsection (a) of this section shall apply to the following types of consulting services:
(1) advisory and assistance services provided to the Government to the extent necessary to identify and evaluate the potential for conflicts of interest that could be prejudicial to the interests of the United States;
(2) services related to support of the preparation or submission of bids and proposals for Federal contracts to the extent that inclusion of such services in such regulations is necessary to identify and evaluate the potential for conflicts of interest that could be prejudicial to the interests of the United States; and
(3) such other services related to Federal contracts as may be specified in the regulations prescribed under subsection (a) of this section to the extent necessary to identify and evaluate the potential for conflicts of interest that could be prejudicial to the interests of the United States.
(c) Report to Congress by Comptroller General on effectiveness of regulations 
The Comptroller General shall report to Congress not later than one year after October 1, 1988, his assessment of the effectiveness of the regulations prescribed under this section.
(d) Intelligence activities exemption; annual report by Director of Central Intelligence 
Intelligence activities as defined in section 3.4(e) of Executive order 12333 or a comparable definitional section in any successor order may be exempt from the regulations required by subsection (a) of this section: Provided, That the Director of Central Intelligence shall report to the Intelligence and Appropriations Committees of the Congress no later than January 1, 1990, and annually thereafter delineating those activities and organizations which have been exempted from the regulations required by subsection (a) of this section in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.
(e) Adverse effect determination by President prior to issuance of regulations; report to Congressional committees; voiding of regulations requirement 
The President shall, before issuance of the regulations required by subsection (a) of this section, determine if the promulgation of such regulations would have a significantly adverse effect on the accomplishment of the mission of the Department of Defense or other Federal Government agencies: Provided, That if the President determines that the regulations required by subsection (a) of this section would have such an adverse effect, the President shall so report to the appropriate committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives, stating in full the reasons for such a determination: Provided further, That in the event of submission of a report to the committees containing an adverse effect determination, the requirement for the regulations prescribed by subsection (a) of this section shall be null and void.

41 USC 406 - Administrative powers

Upon the request of the Administrator, each executive agency is directed to
(1) make its services, personnel, and facilities available to the Office to the greatest practicable extent for the performance of functions under this chapter; and
(2) except when prohibited by law, furnish to the Administrator and give him access to all information and records in its possession which the Administrator may determine to be necessary for the performance of the functions of the Office.

41 USC 407 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104106, div. D, title XLIII, 4305(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 665

Section, Pub. L. 93–400, § 8, Aug. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 798; Pub. L. 96–83, § 5, Oct. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 651; Pub. L. 98–191, § 8(a), Dec. 1, 1983, 97 Stat. 1331, related to responsiveness to Congress.

41 USC 408 - Applicability of existing laws

The authority of an executive agency under any other law to prescribe policies, regulations, procedures, and forms for procurement is subject to the authority conferred in section 405 of this title.

41 USC 409 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104106, div. D, title XLIII, 4305(c)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 665

Section, Pub. L. 93–400, § 10, Aug. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 799; Pub. L. 96–83, § 6, Oct. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 651; Pub. L. 98–191, § 8(b), Dec. 1, 1983, 97 Stat. 1331, related to continuation in effect of procurement policies, regulations, procedures, and forms in effect on Dec. 1, 1983.

41 USC 410 - Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated for the Office of Federal Procurement Policy each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary for carrying out the responsibilities of that office for such fiscal year.

41 USC 411 - Delegation of authority by Administrator

(a) The Administrator may delegate, and authorize successive redelegations of, any authority, function, or power of the Administrator under this chapter (other than the authority to provide overall direction of Federal procurement policy and to prescribe policies and regulations to carry out such policy), to any other executive agency with the consent of the head of such executive agency or at the direction of the President.
(b) The Administrator may make and authorize such delegations within the Office as he determines to be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

41 USC 412 - Comptroller Generals access to information from Administrator; rule making procedure

(a) The Administrator and personnel in his Office shall furnish such information as the Comptroller General may require for the discharge of his responsibilities. For this purpose, the Comptroller General or his representatives shall have access to all books, documents, papers, and records of the Office.
(b) The Administrator shall, by regulation, require that formal meetings of the Office, as designated by him, for the purpose of developing procurement policies and regulations shall be open to the public, and that public notice of each such meeting shall be given not less than ten days prior thereto.

41 USC 413 - Tests of innovative procurement methods and procedures

(a) The Administrator may develop innovative procurement methods and procedures to be tested by selected executive agencies. In developing any program to test innovative procurement methods and procedures under this subsection, the Administrator shall consult with the heads of executive agencies to
(1) ascertain the need for and specify the objectives of such program;
(2) develop the guidelines and procedures for carrying out such program and the criteria to be used in measuring the success of such program;
(3) evaluate the potential costs and benefits which may be derived from the innovative procurement methods and procedures tested under such program;
(4) select the appropriate executive agencies or components of executive agencies to carry out such program;
(5) specify the categories and types of products or services to be procured under such program; and
(6) develop the methods to be used to analyze the results of such program.

A program to test innovative procurement methods and procedures may not be carried out unless approved by the heads of the executive agencies selected to carry out such program.

(b) If the Administrator determines that it is necessary to waive the application of any provision of law in order to carry out a proposed program to test innovative procurement methods and procedures under subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator shall transmit notice of the proposed program to the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate and request that such committees take such action as may be necessary to provide that such provision of law does not apply with respect to the proposed program. The notification to Congress shall include a description of the proposed program (including the scope and purpose of the proposed program), the procedures to be followed in carrying out the proposed program, the provisions of law affected and any provision of law the application of which must be waived in order to carry out the proposed program, and the executive agencies involved in carrying out the proposed program.

41 USC 414 - Chief Acquisition Officers and senior procurement executives

(a) Establishment of agency Chief Acquisition Officers 

(1) [1] The head of each executive agency described in section 901 (b)(1) (other than the Department of Defense) or section 901 (b)(2)(C) of title 31 with a Chief Financial Officer appointed or designated under section 901(a) of such title shall appoint or designate a non-career employee as Chief Acquisition Officer for the agency, who shall
(A) have acquisition management as that officials primary duty; and
(B) advise and assist the head of the executive agency and other agency officials to ensure that the mission of the executive agency is achieved through the management of the agencys acquisition activities.
(b) Authority and functions of agency Chief Acquisition Officers 
The functions of each Chief Acquisition Officer shall include
(1) monitoring the performance of acquisition activities and acquisition programs of the executive agency, evaluating the performance of those programs on the basis of applicable performance measurements, and advising the head of the executive agency regarding the appropriate business strategy to achieve the mission of the executive agency;
(2) increasing the use of full and open competition in the acquisition of property and services by the executive agency by establishing policies, procedures, and practices that ensure that the executive agency receives a sufficient number of sealed bids or competitive proposals from responsible sources to fulfill the Governments requirements (including performance and delivery schedules) at the lowest cost or best value considering the nature of the property or service procured;
(3) increasing appropriate use of performance-based contracting and performance specifications;
(4) making acquisition decisions consistent with all applicable laws and establishing clear lines of authority, accountability, and responsibility for acquisition decisionmaking within the executive agency;
(5) managing the direction of acquisition policy for the executive agency, including implementation of the unique acquisition policies, regulations, and standards of the executive agency;
(6) developing and maintaining an acquisition career management program in the executive agency to ensure that there is an adequate professional workforce; and
(7) as part of the strategic planning and performance evaluation process required under section 306 of title 5 and sections 1105 (a)(28), 1115, 1116, and 9703 of title 31
(A) assessing the requirements established for agency personnel regarding knowledge and skill in acquisition resources management and the adequacy of such requirements for facilitating the achievement of the performance goals established for acquisition management;
(B) in order to rectify any deficiency in meeting such requirements, developing strategies and specific plans for hiring, training, and professional development; and
(C) reporting to the head of the executive agency on the progress made in improving acquisition management capability.
(c) Senior procurement executive 

(1) The head of each executive agency shall designate a senior procurement executive who shall be responsible for management direction of the procurement system of the executive agency, including implementation of the unique procurement policies, regulations, and standards of the executive agency.
(2) In the case of an executive agency for which a Chief Acquisition Officer has been appointed or designated under subsection (a) of this section, the head of such executive agency shall either
(A) designate the Chief Acquisition Officer as the senior procurement executive for the executive agency; or
(B) ensure that the senior procurement executive designated for the executive agency under paragraph (1) reports directly to the Chief Acquisition Officer without intervening authority.
[1] So in original. No par. (2) has been enacted.

41 USC 414a - Personnel evaluation

The head of each executive agency that is subject to the provisions of title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 [41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.] shall ensure, with respect to the employees of that agency whose primary duties and responsibilities pertain to the award of contracts subject to the provisions of this Act, that the performance appraisal system applicable to such employees affords appropriate recognition to, among other factors, efforts
(1) to increase competition and achieve cost savings through the elimination of procedures that unnecessarily inhibit full and open competition;
(2) to further the purposes of the Small Business and Federal Procurement Competition Enhancement Act of 1984 and the Defense Procurement Reform Act of 1984; and
(3) to further such other objectives and purposes of the Federal acquisition system as may be authorized by law.

41 USC 414b - Chief Acquisition Officers Council

(a) Establishment 
There is established in the executive branch a Chief Acquisition Officers Council.
(b) Membership 
The members of the Council shall be as follows:
(1) The Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget, who shall act as Chairman of the Council.
(2) The Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy.
(3) The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.
(4) The chief acquisition officer of each executive agency that is required to have a chief acquisition officer under section 414 of this title and the senior procurement executive of each military department.
(5) Any other senior agency officer of each executive agency, appointed by the head of the agency in consultation with the Chairman, who can effectively assist the Council in performing the functions set forth in subsection (e) of this section and supporting the associated range of acquisition activities.
(c) Leadership; support 

(1) The Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy shall lead the activities of the Council on behalf of the Deputy Director for Management.
(2) 
(A) The Vice Chairman of the Council shall be selected by the Council from among its members.
(B) The Vice Chairman shall serve a 1-year term, and may serve multiple terms.
(3) The Administrator of General Services shall provide administrative and other support for the Council.
(d) Principal forum 
The Council is designated the principal interagency forum for monitoring and improving the Federal acquisition system.
(e) Functions 
The Council shall perform functions that include the following:
(1) Develop recommendations for the Director of the Office of Management and Budget on Federal acquisition policies and requirements.
(2) Share experiences, ideas, best practices, and innovative approaches related to Federal acquisition.
(3) Assist the Administrator in the identification, development, and coordination of multiagency projects and other innovative initiatives to improve Federal acquisition.
(4) Promote effective business practices that ensure the timely delivery of best value products to the Federal Government and achieve appropriate public policy objectives.
(5) Further integrity, fairness, competition, openness, and efficiency in the Federal acquisition system.
(6) Work with the Office of Personnel Management to assess and address the hiring, training, and professional development needs of the Federal Government related to acquisition.
(7) Work with the Administrator and the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council to promote the business practices referred to in paragraph (4) and other results of the functions carried out under this subsection.

41 USC 415 - Repealed. Pub. L. 103355, title VI, 6003, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3364

Section, Pub. L. 93–400, § 17, as added Pub. L. 98–191, § 7, Dec. 1, 1983, 97 Stat. 1330, directed Administrator to conduct studies and issue report by Apr. 1, 1984, to Congressional committees on extent of competition in award of subcontracts by Federal prime contractors.

41 USC 416 - Procurement notice

(a) Covered executive agency activities; publication of notice; time limitations 

(1) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section
(A) an executive agency intending to
(i) solicit bids or proposals for a contract for property or services for a price expected to exceed $25,000; or
(ii) place an order, expected to exceed $25,000, under a basic agreement, basic ordering agreement, or similar arrangement,

shall publish a notice of solicitation described in subsection (b) of this section;

(B) an executive agency intending to solicit bids or proposals for a contract for property or services for a price expected to exceed $10,000, but not to exceed $25,000, shall post, for a period of not less than ten days, in a public place at the contracting office issuing the solicitation a notice of solicitation described in subsection (b) of this section; and
(C) an executive agency awarding a contract for property or services for a price exceeding $25,000, or placing an order referred to in clause (A)(ii) exceeding $25,000, shall furnish for publication by the Secretary of Commerce a notice announcing the award or order if there is likely to be any subcontract under such contract or order.
(2) 
(A) A notice of solicitation required to be published under paragraph (1) may be published
(i) by electronic means that meets the requirements for accessibility under paragraph (7); or
(ii) by the Secretary of Commerce in the Commerce Business Daily.
(B) The Secretary of Commerce shall promptly publish in the Commerce Business Daily each notice or announcement received under this subsection for publication by that means.
(3) Whenever an executive agency is required by paragraph (1)(A) to publish a notice of solicitation, such executive agency may not
(A) issue the solicitation earlier than 15 days after the date on which the notice is published; or
(B) in the case of a contract or order expected to be greater than the simplified acquisition threshold, establish a deadline for the submission of all bids or proposals in response to the notice required by paragraph (1)(A) that
(i) in the case of an order under a basic agreement, basic ordering agreement, or similar arrangement, is earlier than the date 30 days after the date the notice required by paragraph (1)(A)(ii) is published;
(ii) in the case of a solicitation for research and development, is earlier than the date 45 days after the date the notice required by paragraph (1)(A)(i) is published; or
(iii) in any other case, is earlier than the date 30 days after the date the solicitation is issued.
(4) An executive agency intending to solicit offers for a contract for which a notice of solicitation is required to be posted under paragraph (1)(B) shall ensure that contracting officers consider each responsive offer timely received from an offeror.
(5) An executive agency shall establish a deadline for the submission of all bids or proposals in response to a solicitation with respect to which no such deadline is provided by statute. Each deadline for the submission of offers shall afford potential offerors a reasonable opportunity to respond.
(6) The Administrator shall prescribe regulations defining limited circumstances in which flexible deadlines can be used under paragraph (3) for the issuance of solicitations and the submission of bids or proposals for the procurement of commercial items.
(7) A publication of a notice of solicitation by electronic means meets the requirements for accessibility under this paragraph if the notice is electronically accessible in a form that allows convenient and universal user access through the single Government-wide point of entry designated in the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(b) Contents of notice 
Each notice of solicitation required by subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(1) shall include
(1) an accurate description of the property or services to be contracted for, which description
(A)  shall not be unnecessarily restrictive of competition, and
(B)  shall include, as appropriate, the agency nomenclature, National Stock Number or other part number, and a brief description of the items form, fit, or function, physical dimensions, predominant material of manufacture, or similar information that will assist a prospective contractor to make an informed business judgment as to whether a copy of the solicitation should be requested;
(2) provisions that
(A) state whether the technical data required to respond to the solicitation will not be furnished as part of such solicitation, and identify the source in the Government, if any, from which the technical data may be obtained; and
(B) state whether an offeror, its product, or service must meet a qualification requirement in order to be eligible for award, and, if so, identify the office from which the qualification requirement may be obtained;
(3) the name, business address, and telephone number of the contracting officer;
(4) a statement that all responsible sources may submit a bid, proposal, or quotation (as appropriate) which shall be considered by the agency;
(5) in the case of a procurement using procedures other than competitive procedures, a statement of the reason justifying the use of such procedures and the identity of the intended source; and
(6) in the case of a contract in an amount estimated to be greater than $25,000 but not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold, or a contract for the procurement of commercial items using special simplified procedures
(A) a description of the procedures to be used in awarding the contract; and
(B) a statement specifying the periods for prospective offerors and the contracting officer to take the necessary preaward and award actions.
(c) Exempted, etc., activities of executive agency 

(1) A notice is not required under subsection (a)(1) of this section if
(A) the proposed procurement is for an amount not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold and is to be conducted by
(i) using widespread electronic public notice of the solicitation in a form that allows convenient and universal user access through a single, Government-wide point of entry; and
(ii) permitting the public to respond to the solicitation electronically;
(B) the notice would disclose the executive agencys needs and the disclosure of such needs would compromise the national security;
(C) the proposed procurement would result from acceptance of
(i) any unsolicited proposal that demonstrates a unique and innovative research concept and the publication of any notice of such unsolicited research proposal would disclose the originality of thought or innovativeness of the proposal or would disclose proprietary information associated with the proposal; or
(ii) a proposal submitted under section 638 of title 15;
(D) the procurement is made against an order placed under a requirements contract, a task order contract, or a delivery order contract;
(E) the procurement is made for perishable subsistence supplies;
(F) the procurement is for utility services, other than telecommunication services, and only one source is available;
(G) the procurement is for the services of an expert for use in any litigation or dispute (including any reasonably foreseeable litigation or dispute) involving the Federal Government in any trial, hearing, or proceeding before any court, administrative tribunal, or agency, or in any part of an alternative dispute resolution process, whether or not the expert is expected to testify; or
(H) the procurement is by the Secretary of Homeland Security pursuant to the special procedures provided in section 393 (c) of title 6.
(2) The requirements of subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section do not apply to any procurement under conditions described in paragraph (2), (3), (4), (5), or (7) of section 253 (c) of this title or paragraph (2), (3), (4), (5), or (7) of section 2304 (c) of title 10.
(3) The requirements of subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section shall not apply in the case of any procurement for which the head of the executive agency makes a determination in writing, after consultation with the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy and the Administrator of the Small Business Administration, that it is not appropriate or reasonable to publish a notice before issuing a solicitation.
(d) Availability of complete solicitation package; payment of fee 
An executive agency shall make available to any business concern, or the authorized representative of such concern, the complete solicitation package for any on-going procurement announced pursuant to a notice of solicitation under subsection (a) of this section. An executive agency may require the payment of a fee, not exceeding the actual cost of duplication, for a copy of such package.

41 USC 417 - Record requirements

(a) Establishment and maintenance of computer file by executive agency; time period coverage 
Each executive agency shall establish and maintain for a period of five years a computer file, by fiscal year, containing unclassified records of all procurements greater than the simplified acquisition threshold in such fiscal year.
(b) Contents 
The record established under subsection (a) of this section shall include
(1) with respect to each procurement carried out using competitive procedures
(A) the date of contract award;
(B) information identifying the source to whom the contract was awarded;
(C) the property or services obtained by the Government under the procurement; and
(D) the total cost of the procurement;
(2) with respect to each procurement carried out using procedures other than competitive procedures
(A) the information described in clauses (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), and (1)(D);
(B) the reason under section 253 (c) of this title or section 2304 (c) of title 10, as the case may be, for the use of such procedures; and
(C) the identity of the organization or activity which conducted the procurement.
(c) Record categories 
The information that is included in such record pursuant to subsection (b)(1) of this section and relates to procurements resulting in the submission of a bid or proposal by only one responsible source shall be separately categorized from the information relating to other procurements included in such record. The record of such information shall be designated noncompetitive procurements using competitive procedures.
(d) Transmission and data system entry of information 
The information included in the record established and maintained under subsection (a) of this section shall be transmitted to the General Services Administration and shall be entered in the Federal Procurement Data System referred to in section 405 (d)(4) of this title.

41 USC 417a - Procurement data

(a) Reporting 
Each Federal agency shall report to the Office of Federal Procurement Policy the number of qualified HUBZone small business concerns, the number of small businesses owned and controlled by women, and the number of small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged businesses, by gender, that are first time recipients of contracts from such agency. The Office of Federal Procurement Policy shall take such actions as may be appropriate to ascertain for each fiscal year the number of such small businesses that have newly entered the Federal market.
(b) Definitions 
For purposes of this section the terms small business concern owned and controlled by women and small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals shall be given the same meaning as those terms are given under section 637 (d) of title 15 and section 204 of this Act, and the term qualified HUBZone small business concern has the meaning given that term in section 632 (p) of title 15..[1]
[1] So in original.

41 USC 418 - Advocates for competition

(a) Establishment, designation, etc., in executive agency 

(1) There is established in each executive agency an advocate for competition.
(2) The head of each executive agency shall
(A) designate for the executive agency and for each procuring activity of the executive agency one officer or employee serving in a position authorized for such executive agency on July 18, 1984 (other than the senior procurement executive designated pursuant to section 414 (3)1 of this title) to serve as the advocate for competition;
(B) not assign such officers or employees any duties or responsibilities that are inconsistent with the duties and responsibilities of the advocates for competition; and
(C) provide such officers or employees with such staff or assistance as may be necessary to carry out the duties and responsibilities of the advocate for competition, such as persons who are specialists in engineering, technical operations, contract administration, financial management, supply management, and utilization of small and disadvantaged business concerns.
(b) Duties and functions 
The advocate for competition of an executive agency shall
(1) be responsible for challenging barriers to and promoting full and open competition in the procurement of property and services by the executive agency;
(2) review the procurement activities of the executive agency;
(3) identify and report to the senior procurement executive of the executive agency designated pursuant to section 414 (3)1 of this title
(A) opportunities and actions taken to achieve full and open competition in the procurement activities of the executive agency; and
(B) any condition or action which has the effect of unnecessarily restricting competition in the procurement actions of the executive agency; and[2]
(4) prepare and transmit to such senior procurement executive an annual report describing
(A) such advocates activities under this section;
(B) new initiatives required to increase competition; and
(C) barriers to full and open competition that remain;
(5) recommend to the senior procurement executive of the executive agency goals and the plans for increasing competition on a fiscal year basis;
(6) recommend to the senior procurement executive of the executive agency a system of personal and organizational accountability for competition, which may include the use of recognition and awards to motivate program managers, contracting officers, and others in authority to promote competition in procurement programs; and
(7) describe other ways in which the executive agency has emphasized competition in programs for procurement training and research.
(c) Responsibilities 
The advocate for competition for each procuring activity shall be responsible for promoting full and open competition, promoting the acquisition of commercial items, and challenging barriers to such acquisition, including such barriers as unnecessarily restrictive statements of need, unnecessarily detailed specifications, and unnecessarily burdensome contract clauses.
[1] See References in Text note below.
[2] So in original. The word “and” probably should not appear.

41 USC 418a - Rights in technical data

(a) Regulations; legitimate proprietary interest of United States 
The legitimate proprietary interest of the United States and of a contractor in technical or other data shall be defined in regulations prescribed as part of the single system of Government-wide procurement regulations as defined in section 403 (4)1 of this title. Such regulations may not impair any right of the United States or of any contractor with respect to patents or copyrights or any other right in technical data otherwise established by law. Such regulations shall provide, with respect to executive agencies that are subject to the provisions of title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 [41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.], that the United States may not require persons who have developed products or processes offered or to be offered for sale to the public as a condition for the procurement of such products or processes by the United States, to provide to the United States technical data relating to the design, development, or manufacture of such products or processes (except for such data as may be necessary for the United States to operate and maintain the product or use the process if obtained by the United States as an element of performance under the contract).
(b) Unlimited rights; technical data; developed with Federal funds; unrestricted, royalty-free right to use; rights under law 

(1) Except as otherwise expressly provided by Federal statute, the regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall provide, with respect to executive agencies that are subject to the provisions of title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 [41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.], that the United States shall have unlimited rights in technical data developed exclusively with Federal funds if delivery of such data
(A) was required as an element of performance under a contract; and
(B) is needed to ensure the competitive acquisition of supplies or services that will be required in substantial quantities in the future.
(2) Except as otherwise expressly provided by Federal statute, the regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall provide, with respect to executive agencies that are subject to the provisions of title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 [41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.], that the United States (and each agency thereof) shall have an unrestricted, royalty-free right to use, or to have its contractors use, for governmental purposes (excluding publication outside the Government) technical data developed exclusively with Federal funds.
(3) The requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any other rights that the United States may have pursuant to law.
(c) Factors; regulations 
The following factors shall be considered in prescribing regulations pursuant to subsection (a) of this section:
(1) Whether the item or process to which the technical data pertains was developed
(A) exclusively with Federal funds;
(B) exclusively at private expense; or
(C) in part with Federal funds and in part at private expense.
(2) The statement of congressional policy and objectives in section 200 of title 35, the statement of purposes in section 2(b) of the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982 (Public Law 97219; 15 U.S.C. 638 note ), and the declaration of policy in section 631 of title 15.
(3) The interest of the United States in increasing competition and lowering costs by developing and locating alternative sources of supply and manufacture.
(d) Provisions; contracts; regulations 
Regulations prescribed under subsection (a) of this section shall require that a contract for property or services entered into by an executive agency contain appropriate provisions relating to technical data, including provisions
(1) defining the respective rights of the United States and the contractor or subcontractor (at any tier) regarding any technical data to be delivered under the contract;
(2) specifying the technical data, if any, to be delivered under the contract and delivery schedules for such delivery;
(3) establishing or referencing procedures for determining the acceptability of technical data to be delivered under the contract;
(4) establishing separate contract line items for the technical data, if any, to be delivered under the contract;
(5) to the maximum practicable extent, identifying, in advance of delivery, technical data which is to be delivered with restrictions on the right of the United States to use such data;
(6) requiring the contractor to revise any technical data delivered under the contract to reflect engineering design changes made during the performance of the contract and affecting the form, fit, and function of the items specified in the contract and to deliver such revised technical data to an agency within a time specified in the contract;
(7) requiring the contractor to furnish written assurance at the time the technical data is delivered or is made available that the technical data is complete and accurate and satisfies the requirements of the contract concerning technical data;
(8) establishing remedies to be available to the United States when technical data required to be delivered or made available under the contract is found to be incomplete or inadequate or to not satisfy the requirements of the contract concerning technical data; and
(9) authorizing the head of the agency to withhold payments under the contract (or exercise such other remedies as the head of the agency considers appropriate) during any period if the contractor does not meet the requirements of the contract pertaining to the delivery of technical data.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 418b - Publication of proposed regulations

(a) Effective date; procurement policy, regulations, procedure or form; publication in Federal Register 
Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, no procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form (including amendments or modifications thereto) relating to the expenditure of appropriated funds that has
(1)  a significant effect beyond the internal operating procedures of the agency issuing the procurement policy, regulation, procedure or form, or
(2)  a significant cost or administrative impact on contractors or offerors, may take effect until 60 days after the procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form is published for public comment in the Federal Register pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, such a policy, regulation, procedure, or form may take effect earlier than 60 days after the publication date when there are compelling circumstances for the earlier effective date, but in no event may that effective date be less than 30 days after the publication date.
(b) Publication in Federal Register 
Subject to subsection (c) of this section, the head of the agency shall cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice of the proposed procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form and provide for a public comment period for receiving and considering the views of all interested parties on such proposal. The length of such comment period may not be less than 30 days.
(c) Notice; proposed policy; contents 
Any notice of a proposed procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form prepared for publication in the Federal Register shall include
(1) the text of the proposal or, if it is impracticable to publish the full text of the proposal, a summary of the proposal and a statement specifying the name, address, and telephone number of the officer or employee of the executive agency from whom the full text may be obtained; and
(2) a request for interested parties to submit comments on the proposal and shall include the name and address of the officer or employee of the Government designated to receive such comments.
(d) Waiver 

(1) The requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of this section may be waived by the officer authorized to issue a procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form if urgent and compelling circumstances make compliance with such requirements impracticable.
(2) A procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form with respect to which the requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of this section are waived under paragraph (1) shall be effective on a temporary basis if
(A) a notice of such procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form is published in the Federal Register and includes a statement that the procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form is temporary; and
(B) provision is made for a public comment period of 30 days beginning on the date on which the notice is published.
(3) After considering the comments received, the head of the agency waiving the requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of this section under paragraph (1) may issue the final procurement policy, regulation, procedure, or form.

41 USC 419 - Contracting functions performed by Federal personnel

(a) Limitation on payment for advisory and assistance services 

(1) No person who is not a person described in subsection (b) of this section may be paid by an executive agency for services to conduct evaluations or analyses of any aspect of a proposal submitted for an acquisition unless personnel described in subsection (b) of this section with adequate training and capabilities to perform such evaluations and analyses are not readily available within the agency or another Federal agency, as determined in accordance with standards and procedures prescribed in the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(2) In the administration of this subsection, the head of each executive agency shall determine in accordance with the standards and procedures set forth in the Federal Acquisition Regulation whether
(A) a sufficient number of personnel described in subsection (b) of this section within the agency or another Federal agency are readily available to perform a particular evaluation or analysis for the head of the executive agency making the determination; and
(B) the readily available personnel have the training and capabilities necessary to perform the evaluation or analysis.
(b) Covered personnel 
For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the personnel described in this subsection are as follows:
(1) An employee, as defined in section 2105 of title 5.
(2) A member of the Armed Forces of the United States.
(3) A person assigned to a Federal agency pursuant to subchapter VI of chapter 33 of title 5.
(c) Rule of construction 
Nothing in this section is intended to affect the relationship between the Federal Government and a federally funded research and development center.

41 USC 420 - Repealed. Pub. L. 103355, title II, 2191, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3315

Section, Pub. L. 93–400, § 24, as added Pub. L. 99–234, title II, § 201, Jan. 2, 1986, 99 Stat. 1759; amended Pub. L. 100–679, § 12, Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4070, related to limits on allowable travel expenses of Government contractors.

41 USC 421 - Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council

(a) Establishment 
There is established a Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council (hereinafter in this section referred to as the Council) to assist in the direction and coordination of Government-wide procurement policy and Government-wide procurement regulatory activities in the Federal Government.
(b) Membership 

(1) The Council shall consist of the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy and
(A) the Secretary of Defense,
(B) the Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space; and
(C) the Administrator of General Services.
(2) Notwithstanding section 121 (d)(1) and (2) of title 40, the officials specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) may designate to serve on and attend meetings of the Council in place of that official
(A)  the official assigned by statute with the responsibility for acquisition policy in each of their respective agencies or, in the case of the Secretary of Defense, an official at an organizational level not lower than an Assistant Secretary of Defense within the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics; or
(B)  if no official of such agency is assigned by statute with the responsibility for acquisition policy for that agency, the official designated pursuant to section 414 (3)1 of this title. No other official or employee may be designated to serve on the Council.
(c) Functions 

(1) Subject to the provisions of section 405 of this title, the General Services Administration, the Department of Defense, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, pursuant to their respective authorities under title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 251, et seq.), chapters 4 and 137 of title 10, and the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451, et seq.), shall jointly issue and maintain in accordance with subsection (f) of this section a single Government-wide procurement regulation, to be known as the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(2) Any other regulations relating to procurement issued by an executive agency shall be limited to
(A)  regulations essential to implement Government-wide policies and procedures within the agency, and
(B)  additional policies and procedures required to satisfy the specific and unique needs of the agency.
(3) The Administrator, in consultation with the Council, shall ensure that procurement regulations promulgated by executive agencies are consistent with the Federal Acquisition Regulation and in accordance with any policies issued pursuant to section 405 (a) of this title.
(4) 
(A) Under procedures established by the Administrator, a person may request the Administrator to review any regulation relating to procurement on the basis that such regulation is inconsistent with the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(B) Unless the request is frivolous or does not, on its face, state a valid basis for such review, the Administrator shall complete such a review not later than 60 days after receiving the request. The time for completion of the review may be extended if the Administrator determines that an additional period of review is required. The Administrator shall advise the requester of the reasons for the extension and the date by which the review will be completed.
(5) If the Administrator determines that a regulation relating to procurement is inconsistent with the Federal Acquisition Regulation or that the regulation should otherwise be revised to remove an inconsistency with any policies issued under section 405 (a) of this title, the Administrator shall rescind or deny the promulgation of the regulation or take such other action authorized under section 405 of this title as may be necessary to remove the inconsistency. If the Administrator determines that such a regulation, although not inconsistent with the Federal Acquisition Regulation or such policies, should be revised to improve compliance with such Regulation or policies, the Administrator shall take such action authorized under section 405 of this title as may be necessary and appropriate.
(6) The decisions of the Administrator shall be in writing and made publicly available. The Administrator shall provide a listing of such decisions in the annual report to Congress required by section 4071 of this title.
(d) Additional responsibilities of membership 
Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the head of the agency concerned, each official who represents an agency on the Council pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall
(1) approve or disapprove all regulations that are, after 60 days after November 17, 1988, proposed for public comment, promulgated in final form, or otherwise made effective by such agency relating to procurement before such regulation may be promulgated in final form, or otherwise made effective, except that such official may grant an interim approval, without review, for not more than 60 days for a procurement regulation in urgent and compelling circumstances;
(2) carry out the responsibilities of such agency set forth in chapter 35 of title 44 for each information collection request (as that term is defined in section 3502 (11)1 of title 44) that relates to procurement rules or regulations; and
(3) eliminate or reduce
(A)  any redundant or unnecessary levels of review and approval, in the procurement system of such agency, and
(B)  redundant or unnecessary procurement regulations which are unique to that agency.

The authority to review and approve or disapprove regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection may not be delegated to any person outside the office of the official who represents the agency on the Council pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

(e) Governing policies 
All actions of the Council and of members of the Council shall be in accordance with and furtherance of the policies prescribed under section 405 (a) of this title.
(f) General authority with respect to FAR 
Subject to section 405 (b) of this title, the Council shall manage, coordinate, control, and monitor the maintenance of, and issuance of and changes in, the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 422 - Cost Accounting Standards Board

(a) Establishment; membership; terms 

(1) There is established within the Office of Federal Procurement Policy an independent board to be known as the Cost Accounting Standards Board (hereinafter referred to as the Board). The Board shall consist of 5 members, including the Administrator, who shall serve as Chairman, and 4 members, all of whom shall have experience in Government contract cost accounting, and who shall be appointed as follows:
(A) two representatives of the Federal Government
(i) one of whom shall be a representative of the Department of Defense and be appointed by the Secretary of Defense; and
(ii) one of whom shall be an officer or employee of the General Services Administration appointed by the Administrator of General Services; and
(B) two individuals from the private sector, each of whom shall be appointed by the Administrator and
(i) one of whom shall be a representative of industry; and
(ii) one of whom shall be particularly knowledgeable about cost accounting problems and systems.
(2) 
(A) The term of office of each of the members of the Board, other than the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy, shall be 4 years, except that
(i) of the initial members, two shall be appointed for terms of two years, one shall be appointed for a term of three years, and one shall be appointed for a term of four years;
(ii) any member appointed to fill a vacancy in the Board shall serve for the remainder of the term for which his predecessor was appointed; and
(iii) no individual who is appointed under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall continue to serve after ceasing to be an officer or employee of the agency from which he or she was appointed.
(B) A vacancy on the Board shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.
(C) The initial members of the Board shall be appointed within 120 days after November 17, 1988.
(b) Senior staff 
The Administrator, after consultation with the Board, may appoint an executive secretary and two additional staff members without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, and may pay such employees without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that no individual so appointed may receive pay in excess of the annual rate of basic pay payable for GS18 of the General Schedule.
(c) Other staff 
The Administrator may appoint, fix the compensation, and remove additional employees of the Board under the applicable provisions of title 5.
(d) Detailed and temporary personnel 

(1) The Board may use, without reimbursement, any personnel of a Federal agency (with the consent of the head of the agency concerned) to serve on advisory committees and task forces to assist the Board in carrying out the functions and responsibilities of the Board under this section.
(2) The Administrator, after consultation with the Board, may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109 (b) of title 5 of personnel for the purpose of serving on advisory committees and task forces to assist the Board in carrying out the functions and responsibilities of the Board under this section.
(e) Compensation 
Except as otherwise provided in subsection (a) of this section, the members of the Board who are officers or employees of the Federal Government, and officers and employees of other agencies of the Federal Government who are used under subsection (d)(1) of this section, shall receive no additional compensation for services, but shall continue to be compensated by the employing Department or agency of such officer or employee. Each member of the Board appointed from private life shall receive compensation at a rate not to exceed the daily equivalent of the rate prescribed for level IV of the Executive Schedule for each day (including travel time) in which the member is engaged in the actual performance of duties vested in the Board. Individuals hired under subsection (d)(2) of this section may receive compensation at rates fixed by the Administrator, but not to exceed the daily equivalent of the rate prescribed for level V of the Federal Executive Salary Schedule under section 5316 of title 5 for each day (including travel time) in which such appointees are properly engaged in the actual performance of duties under this section. While serving away from homes or the regular place of business, Board members and other appointees serving on an intermittent basis under this section shall be allowed travel expenses in accordance with section 5703 of title 5.
(f) Cost accounting standards authority 

(1) The Board shall have the exclusive authority to make, promulgate, amend, and rescind cost accounting standards and interpretations thereof designed to achieve uniformity and consistency in the cost accounting standards governing measurement, assignment, and allocation of costs to contracts with the United States.
(2) 
(A) Cost accounting standards promulgated under this section shall be mandatory for use by all executive agencies and by contractors and subcontractors in estimating, accumulating, and reporting costs in connection with pricing and administration of, and settlement of disputes concerning, all negotiated prime contract and subcontract procurements with the United States in excess of the amount set forth in section 2306a (a)(1)(A)(i) of title 10, as such amount is adjusted in accordance with applicable requirements of law.
(B) Subparagraph (A) does not apply to the following contracts or subcontracts:
(i) Contracts or subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.
(ii) Contracts or subcontracts where the price negotiated is based on prices set by law or regulation.
(iii) Firm, fixed-price contracts or subcontracts awarded on the basis of adequate price competition without submission of certified cost or pricing data.
(iv) A contract or subcontract with a value of less than $7,500,000 if, at the time the contract or subcontract is entered into, the segment of the contractor or subcontractor that will perform the work has not been awarded at least one contract or subcontract with a value of more than $7,500,000 that is covered by the cost accounting standards.
(C) In this paragraph, the term subcontract includes a transfer of commercial items between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or subcontractor.
(3) The Administrator, after consultation with the Board, shall prescribe rules and procedures governing actions of the Board under this section. Such rules and procedures shall require that any cost accounting standard promulgated, amended, or rescinded (and interpretations thereof) shall be adopted by majority vote of the Board members.
(4) The Board is authorized
(A) to exempt classes or categories of contractors and subcontractors from the requirements of this section; and
(B) to establish procedures for the waiver of the requirements of this section with respect to individual contracts and subcontracts.
(5) 
(A) The head of an executive agency may waive the applicability of the cost accounting standards for a contract or subcontract with a value less than $15,000,000 if that official determines in writing that the segment of the contractor or subcontractor that will perform the work
(i) is primarily engaged in the sale of commercial items; and
(ii) would not otherwise be subject to the cost accounting standards under this section, as in effect on or after the effective date of this paragraph.
(B) The head of an executive agency may also waive the applicability of the cost accounting standards for a contract or subcontract under exceptional circumstances when necessary to meet the needs of the agency. A determination to waive the applicability of the cost accounting standards under this subparagraph shall be set forth in writing and shall include a statement of the circumstances justifying the waiver.
(C) The head of an executive agency may not delegate the authority under subparagraph (A) or (B) to any official in the executive agency below the senior policymaking level in the executive agency.
(D) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include the following:
(i) Criteria for selecting an official to be delegated authority to grant waivers under subparagraph (A) or (B).
(ii) The specific circumstances under which such a waiver may be granted.
(E) The head of each executive agency shall report the waivers granted under subparagraphs (A) and (B) for that agency to the Board on an annual basis.
(g) Requirements for standards 

(1) Prior to the promulgation under this section of cost accounting standards and interpretations thereof, the Board shall
(A) take into account, after consultation and discussions with the Comptroller General and professional accounting organizations, contractors, and other interested parties
(i) the probable costs of implementation, including inflationary effects, if any, compared to the probable benefits;
(ii) the advantages, disadvantages, and improvements anticipated in the pricing and administration of, and settlement of disputes concerning, contracts; and
(iii) the scope of, and alternatives available to, the action proposed to be taken;
(B) prepare and publish a report in the Federal Register on the issues reviewed under paragraph (1)(A);
(C) 
(i) publish an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register in order to solicit comments on the report prepared pursuant to subparagraph (B);
(ii) provide all parties affected a period of not less than 60 days after such publication to submit their views and comments; and
(iii) during this 60-day period, consult with the Comptroller General and consider any recommendation the Comptroller General may make; and
(D) publish a notice of such proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register and provide all parties affected a period of not less than 60 days after such publication to submit their views and comments.
(2) Rules, regulations, cost accounting standards, and modifications thereof promulgated or amended under this section shall have the full force and effect of law, and shall become effective within 120 days after publication in the Federal Register in final form, unless the Board determines a longer period is necessary. Implementation dates for contractors and subcontractors shall be determined by the Board, but in no event shall such dates be later than the beginning of the second fiscal year of the contractor or subcontractor after the standard becomes effective. Rules, regulations, cost accounting standards, and modifications thereof promulgated or amended under this section shall be accompanied by prefatory comments and by illustrations, if necessary.
(3) The functions exercised under this section are excluded from the operation of sections 551, 553 through 559, and 701 through 706 of title 5.
(h) Implementing regulations 

(1) The Board shall promulgate rules and regulations for the implementation of cost accounting standards promulgated or interpreted under subsection (f) of this section. Such regulations shall be incorporated into the Federal Acquisition Regulation and shall require contractors and subcontractors as a condition of contracting with the United States to
(A) disclose in writing their cost accounting practices, including methods of distinguishing direct costs from indirect costs and the basis used for allocating indirect costs; and
(B) agree to a contract price adjustment, with interest, for any increased costs paid to such contractor or subcontractor by the United States by reason of a change in the contractors or subcontractors cost accounting practices or by reason of a failure by the contractor or subcontractor to comply with applicable cost accounting standards.
(2) If the United States and a contractor or subcontractor fail to agree on a contract price adjustment, including whether the contractor or subcontractor has complied with the applicable cost accounting standards, the disagreement will constitute a dispute under the Contract Disputes Act [41 U.S.C. 601 et seq.].
(3) Any contract price adjustment undertaken pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) shall be made, where applicable, on relevant contracts between the United States and the contractor that are subject to the cost accounting standards so as to protect the United States from payment, in the aggregate, of increased costs (as defined by the Board). In no case shall the Government recover costs greater than the increased cost (as defined by the Board) to the Government, in the aggregate, on the relevant contracts subject to the price adjustment, unless the contractor made a change in its cost accounting practices of which it was aware or should have been aware at the time of the price negotiation and which it failed to disclose to the Government.
(4) The interest rate applicable to any contract price adjustment shall be the annual rate of interest established under section 6621 of title 26 for such period. Such interest shall accrue from the time payments of the increased costs were made to the contractor or subcontractor to the time the United States receives full compensation for the price adjustment.
(i) Omitted 
(j) Effect on other standards and regulations 

(1) All cost accounting standards, waivers, exemptions, interpretations, modifications, rules, and regulations promulgated by the Cost Accounting Standards Board under section 21681 of title 50, Appendix, shall remain in effect unless and until amended, superseded, or rescinded by the Board pursuant to this section.
(2) Existing cost accounting standards referred to in paragraph (1) shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter in the same manner as if promulgated by the Board under this chapter.
(3) The Administrator, under the authority set forth in section 405 of this title, shall ensure that no regulation or proposed regulation of an executive agency is inconsistent with a cost accounting standard promulgated or amended under this section by rescinding or denying the promulgation of any such inconsistent regulation or proposed regulation and taking such other action authorized under section 405 of this title as may be appropriate.
(4) Costs which are the subject of cost accounting standards promulgated under this section shall not be subject to regulations that are established by another executive agency that differ from such standards with respect to the measurement, assignment, and allocation of such costs.
(k) Examinations 
For the purpose of determining whether a contractor or subcontractor has complied with cost accounting standards promulgated under this section and has followed consistently the contractors or subcontractors disclosed cost accounting practices, any authorized representative of the head of the agency concerned, of the offices of inspector general established pursuant to the Inspector General Act of 1978, or of the Comptroller General of the United States shall have the right to examine and make copies of any documents, papers, or records of such contractor or subcontractor relating to compliance with such cost accounting standards.
(l) Authorization of appropriations 
There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 423 - Restrictions on disclosing and obtaining contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information

(a) Prohibition on disclosing procurement information 

(1) A person described in paragraph (2) shall not, other than as provided by law, knowingly disclose contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information before the award of a Federal agency procurement contract to which the information relates. In the case of an employee of a private sector organization assigned to an agency under chapter 37 of title 5, in addition to the restriction in the preceding sentence, such employee shall not, other than as provided by law, knowingly disclose contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information during the three-year period after the end of the assignment of such employee.
(2) Paragraph (1) applies to any person who
(A) is a present or former official of the United States, or a person who is acting or has acted for or on behalf of, or who is advising or has advised the United States with respect to, a Federal agency procurement; and
(B) by virtue of that office, employment, or relationship has or had access to contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information.
(b) Prohibition on obtaining procurement information 
A person shall not, other than as provided by law, knowingly obtain contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information before the award of a Federal agency procurement contract to which the information relates.
(c) Actions required of procurement officers when contacted by offerors regarding non-Federal employment 

(1) If an agency official who is participating personally and substantially in a Federal agency procurement for a contract in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold contacts or is contacted by a person who is a bidder or offeror in that Federal agency procurement regarding possible non-Federal employment for that official, the official shall
(A) promptly report the contact in writing to the officials supervisor and to the designated agency ethics official (or designee) of the agency in which the official is employed; and
(B) 
(i) reject the possibility of non-Federal employment; or
(ii) disqualify himself or herself from further personal and substantial participation in that Federal agency procurement until such time as the agency has authorized the official to resume participation in such procurement, in accordance with the requirements of section 208 of title 18 and applicable agency regulations on the grounds that
(I) the person is no longer a bidder or offeror in that Federal agency procurement; or
(II) all discussions with the bidder or offeror regarding possible non-Federal employment have terminated without an agreement or arrangement for employment.
(2) Each report required by this subsection shall be retained by the agency for not less than two years following the submission of the report. All such reports shall be made available to the public upon request, except that any part of a report that is exempt from the disclosure requirements of section 552 of title 5 under subsection (b)(1) of such section may be withheld from disclosure to the public.
(3) An official who knowingly fails to comply with the requirements of this subsection shall be subject to the penalties and administrative actions set forth in subsection (e) of this section.
(4) A bidder or offeror who engages in employment discussions with an official who is subject to the restrictions of this subsection, knowing that the official has not complied with subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), shall be subject to the penalties and administrative actions set forth in subsection (e) of this section.
(d) Prohibition on former official’s acceptance of compensation from contractor 

(1) A former official of a Federal agency may not accept compensation from a contractor as an employee, officer, director, or consultant of the contractor within a period of one year after such former official
(A) served, at the time of selection of the contractor or the award of a contract to that contractor, as the procuring contracting officer, the source selection authority, a member of the source selection evaluation board, or the chief of a financial or technical evaluation team in a procurement in which that contractor was selected for award of a contract in excess of $10,000,000;
(B) served as the program manager, deputy program manager, or administrative contracting officer for a contract in excess of $10,000,000 awarded to that contractor; or
(C) personally made for the Federal agency
(i) a decision to award a contract, subcontract, modification of a contract or subcontract, or a task order or delivery order in excess of $10,000,000 to that contractor;
(ii) a decision to establish overhead or other rates applicable to a contract or contracts for that contractor that are valued in excess of $10,000,000;
(iii) a decision to approve issuance of a contract payment or payments in excess of $10,000,000 to that contractor; or
(iv) a decision to pay or settle a claim in excess of $10,000,000 with that contractor.
(2) Nothing in paragraph (1) may be construed to prohibit a former official of a Federal agency from accepting compensation from any division or affiliate of a contractor that does not produce the same or similar products or services as the entity of the contractor that is responsible for the contract referred to in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of such paragraph.
(3) A former official who knowingly accepts compensation in violation of this subsection shall be subject to penalties and administrative actions as set forth in subsection (e) of this section.
(4) A contractor who provides compensation to a former official knowing that such compensation is accepted by the former official in violation of this subsection shall be subject to penalties and administrative actions as set forth in subsection (e) of this section.
(5) Regulations implementing this subsection shall include procedures for an official or former official of a Federal agency to request advice from the appropriate designated agency ethics official regarding whether the official or former official is or would be precluded by this subsection from accepting compensation from a particular contractor.
(e) Penalties and administrative actions 

(1) Criminal penalties 
Whoever engages in conduct constituting a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section for the purpose of either
(A) exchanging the information covered by such subsection for anything of value, or
(B) obtaining or giving anyone a competitive advantage in the award of a Federal agency procurement contract,

shall be imprisoned for not more than 5 years or fined as provided under title 18, or both.

(2) Civil penalties 
The Attorney General may bring a civil action in an appropriate United States district court against any person who engages in conduct constituting a violation of subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section. Upon proof of such conduct by a preponderance of the evidence, the person is subject to a civil penalty. An individual who engages in such conduct is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each violation plus twice the amount of compensation which the individual received or offered for the prohibited conduct. An organization that engages in such conduct is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $500,000 for each violation plus twice the amount of compensation which the organization received or offered for the prohibited conduct.
(3) Administrative actions 

(A) If a Federal agency receives information that a contractor or a person has engaged in conduct constituting a violation of subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section, the Federal agency shall consider taking one or more of the following actions, as appropriate:
(i) Cancellation of the Federal agency procurement, if a contract has not yet been awarded.
(ii) Rescission of a contract with respect to which
(I) the contractor or someone acting for the contractor has been convicted for an offense punishable under paragraph (1), or
(II) the head of the agency that awarded the contract has determined, based upon a preponderance of the evidence, that the contractor or someone acting for the contractor has engaged in conduct constituting such an offense.
(iii) Initiation of suspension or debarment proceedings for the protection of the Government in accordance with procedures in the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(iv) Initiation of adverse personnel action, pursuant to the procedures in chapter 75 of title 5 or other applicable law or regulation.
(B) If a Federal agency rescinds a contract pursuant to subparagraph (A)(ii), the United States is entitled to recover, in addition to any penalty prescribed by law, the amount expended under the contract.
(C) For purposes of any suspension or debarment proceedings initiated pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iii), engaging in conduct constituting an offense under subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section affects the present responsibility of a Government contractor or subcontractor.
(f) Definitions 
As used in this section:
(1) The term contractor bid or proposal information means any of the following information submitted to a Federal agency as part of or in connection with a bid or proposal to enter into a Federal agency procurement contract, if that information has not been previously made available to the public or disclosed publicly:
(A) Cost or pricing data (as defined by section 2306a (h) of title 10, with respect to procurements subject to that section, and section 254b (h) of this title, with respect to procurements subject to that section).
(B) Indirect costs and direct labor rates.
(C) Proprietary information about manufacturing processes, operations, or techniques marked by the contractor in accordance with applicable law or regulation.
(D) Information marked by the contractor as contractor bid or proposal information, in accordance with applicable law or regulation.
(2) The term source selection information means any of the following information prepared for use by a Federal agency for the purpose of evaluating a bid or proposal to enter into a Federal agency procurement contract, if that information has not been previously made available to the public or disclosed publicly:
(A) Bid prices submitted in response to a Federal agency solicitation for sealed bids, or lists of those bid prices before public bid opening.
(B) Proposed costs or prices submitted in response to a Federal agency solicitation, or lists of those proposed costs or prices.
(C) Source selection plans.
(D) Technical evaluation plans.
(E) Technical evaluations of proposals.
(F) Cost or price evaluations of proposals.
(G) Competitive range determinations that identify proposals that have a reasonable chance of being selected for award of a contract.
(H) Rankings of bids, proposals, or competitors.
(I) The reports and evaluations of source selection panels, boards, or advisory councils.
(J) Other information marked as source selection information based on a case-by-case determination by the head of the agency, his designee, or the contracting officer that its disclosure would jeopardize the integrity or successful completion of the Federal agency procurement to which the information relates.
(3) The term Federal agency has the meaning provided such term in section 102 of title 40.
(4) The term Federal agency procurement means the acquisition (by using competitive procedures and awarding a contract) of goods or services (including construction) from non-Federal sources by a Federal agency using appropriated funds.
(5) The term contracting officer means a person who, by appointment in accordance with applicable regulations, has the authority to enter into a Federal agency procurement contract on behalf of the Government and to make determinations and findings with respect to such a contract.
(6) The term protest means a written objection by an interested party to the award or proposed award of a Federal agency procurement contract, pursuant to subchapter V of chapter 35 of title 31.
(7) The term official means the following:
(A) An officer, as defined in section 2104 of title 5.
(B) An employee, as defined in section 2105 of title 5.
(C) A member of the uniformed services, as defined in section 2101 (3) of title 5.
(g) Limitation on protests 
No person may file a protest against the award or proposed award of a Federal agency procurement contract alleging a violation of subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section, nor may the Comptroller General of the United States consider such an allegation in deciding a protest, unless that person reported to the Federal agency responsible for the procurement, no later than 14 days after the person first discovered the possible violation, the information that the person believed constitutes evidence of the offense.
(h) Savings provisions 
This section does not
(1) restrict the disclosure of information to, or its receipt by, any person or class of persons authorized, in accordance with applicable agency regulations or procedures, to receive that information;
(2) restrict a contractor from disclosing its own bid or proposal information or the recipient from receiving that information;
(3) restrict the disclosure or receipt of information relating to a Federal agency procurement after it has been canceled by the Federal agency before contract award unless the Federal agency plans to resume the procurement;
(4) prohibit individual meetings between a Federal agency official and an offeror or potential offeror for, or a recipient of, a contract or subcontract under a Federal agency procurement, provided that unauthorized disclosure or receipt of contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information does not occur;
(5) authorize the withholding of information from, nor restrict its receipt by, Congress, a committee or subcommittee of Congress, the Comptroller General, a Federal agency, or an inspector general of a Federal agency;
(6) authorize the withholding of information from, nor restrict its receipt by, the Comptroller General of the United States in the course of a protest against the award or proposed award of a Federal agency procurement contract; or
(7) limit the applicability of any requirements, sanctions, contract penalties, and remedies established under any other law or regulation.

41 USC 424 - Repealed. Pub. L. 103355, title VIII, 8303(b), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3398

Section, Pub. L. 93–400, § 28, as added Pub. L. 100–679, § 9, Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4069, related to establishment and duties of Advocate for the Acquisition of Commercial Products.

41 USC 425 - Contract clauses and certifications

(a) Nonstandard contract clauses 
The Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council shall promulgate regulations to discourage the use of a nonstandard contract clause on a repetitive basis. The regulations shall include provisions that
(1) clearly define what types of contract clauses are to be treated as nonstandard clauses; and
(2) require prior approval for the use of a nonstandard clause on a repetitive basis by an official at a level of responsibility above the contracting officer.
(b) Construction of certification requirements 
A provision of law may not be construed as requiring a certification by a contractor or offeror in a procurement made or to be made by the Federal Government unless that provision of law specifically provides that such a certification shall be required.
(c) Prohibition on certification requirements 

(1) A requirement for a certification by a contractor or offeror may not be included in the Federal Acquisition Regulation unless
(A) the certification requirement is specifically imposed by statute; or
(B) written justification for such certification requirement is provided to the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy by the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council, and the Administrator approves in writing the inclusion of such certification requirement.
(2) 
(A) A requirement for a certification by a contractor or offeror may not be included in a procurement regulation of an executive agency unless
(i) the certification requirement is specifically imposed by statute; or
(ii) written justification for such certification requirement is provided to the head of the executive agency by the senior procurement executive of the agency, and the head of the executive agency approves in writing the inclusion of such certification requirement.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term head of the executive agency with respect to a military department means the Secretary of Defense.

41 USC 426 - Use of electronic commerce in Federal procurement

(a) In general 
The head of each executive agency, after consulting with the Administrator, shall establish, maintain, and use, to the maximum extent that is practicable and cost-effective, procedures and processes that employ electronic commerce in the conduct and administration of its procurement system.
(b) Applicable standards 
In conducting electronic commerce, the head of an agency shall apply nationally and internationally recognized standards that broaden interoperability and ease the electronic interchange of information.
(c) Agency procedures 
The head of each executive agency shall ensure that systems, technologies, procedures, and processes established pursuant to this section
(1) are implemented with uniformity throughout the agency, to the extent practicable;
(2) are implemented only after granting due consideration to the use or partial use, as appropriate, of existing electronic commerce and electronic data interchange systems and infrastructures such[1] the Federal acquisition computer network architecture known as FACNET;
(3) facilitate access to Federal Government procurement opportunities, including opportunities for small business concerns, socially and economically disadvantaged small business concerns, and business concerns owned predominantly by women; and
(4) ensure that any notice of agency requirements or agency solicitation for contract opportunities is provided in a form that allows convenient and universal user access through a single, Government-wide point of entry.
(d) Implementation 
The Administrator shall, in carrying out the requirements of this section
(1) issue policies to promote, to the maximum extent practicable, uniform implementation of this section by executive agencies, with due regard for differences in program requirements among agencies that may require departures from uniform procedures and processes in appropriate cases, when warranted because of the agency mission;
(2) ensure that the head of each executive agency complies with the requirements of subsection (c) of this section with respect to the agency systems, technologies, procedures, and processes established pursuant to this section; and
(3) consult with the heads of appropriate Federal agencies with applicable technical and functional expertise, including the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the General Services Administration, and the Department of Defense.
(e) Report 
Not later than March 1 of each even-numbered year through 2004, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report setting forth in detail the progress made in implementing the requirements of this section. The report shall include the following:
(1) A strategic plan for the implementation of a Government-wide electronic commerce capability.
(2) An agency-by-agency summary of implementation of the requirements of subsection (c) of this section, including timetables, as appropriate, addressing when individual agencies will come into full compliance.
(3) A specific assessment of compliance with the requirement in subsection (c) of this section to provide universal public access through a single, Government-wide point of entry.
(4) An agency-by-agency summary of the volume and dollar value of transactions that were conducted using electronic commerce methods during the previous two fiscal years.
(5) A discussion of possible incremental changes to the electronic commerce capability referred to in subsection (c)(4) of this section to increase the level of government contract information available to the private sector, including an assessment of the advisability of including contract award information in the electronic commerce functional standard.
(f) “Electronic commerce” defined 
For the purposes of this section, the term electronic commerce means electronic techniques for accomplishing business transactions, including electronic mail or messaging, World Wide Web technology, electronic bulletin boards, purchase cards, electronic funds transfers, and electronic data interchange.
[1] So in original. Probably should be followed by “as”.

41 USC 426a - Repealed. Pub. L. 10585, div. A, title VIII, 850(b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1848

Section, Pub. L. 93–400, § 30A, as added Pub. L. 103–355, title IX, § 9001(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3400, related to Federal acquisition computer network implementation.

41 USC 427 - Simplified acquisition procedures

(a) Requirement 
In order to promote efficiency and economy in contracting and to avoid unnecessary burdens for agencies and contractors, the Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide for
(1) special simplified procedures for purchases of property and services for amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold; and
(2) special simplified procedures for purchases of property and services for amounts greater than the simplified acquisition threshold but not greater than $5,000,000 with respect to which the contracting officer reasonably expects, based on the nature of the property or services sought and on market research, that offers will include only commercial items.
(b) Prohibition on dividing purchases 
A proposed purchase or contract for an amount above the simplified acquisition threshold may not be divided into several purchases or contracts for lesser amounts in order to use the simplified acquisition procedures required by subsection (a) of this section.
(c) Promotion of competition required 
In using simplified acquisition procedures, the head of an executive agency shall promote competition to the maximum extent practicable.
(d) Consideration of offers timely received 
The simplified acquisition procedures contained in the Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include a requirement that a contracting officer consider each responsive offer timely received from an eligible offeror.
(e) Interim reporting rule 
Until October 1, 2004, procuring activities shall continue to report under section 417 (d) of this title procurement awards with a dollar value of at least $25,000, but less than $100,000, in conformity with the procedures for the reporting of a contract award greater than $25,000 that were in effect on October 1, 1992.
(f) Special rules for commercial items 
The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide that, in the case of a purchase of commercial items using special simplified procedures, an executive agency
(1) shall publish a notice in accordance with section 416 of this title and, as provided in subsection (b)(4) of such section, permit all responsible sources to submit a bid, proposal, or quotation (as appropriate) which shall be considered by the agency;
(2) may not conduct the purchase on a sole source basis unless the need to do so is justified in writing and approved in accordance with section 2304 of title 10 or section 253 of this title, as applicable; and
(3) shall include in the contract file a written description of the procedures used in awarding the contract and the number of offers received.

41 USC 428 - Procedures applicable to purchases below micro-purchase threshold

(a) Requirements 

(1) The head of each executive agency shall ensure that procuring activities of that agency, in awarding a contract with a price exceeding the micro-purchase threshold, comply with the requirements of section 637(a) of title 15, section 2323 of title 10, and section 7102 of the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994.
(2) The authority under part 13.106(a)(1) of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 C.F.R. 13.106(a)(1)), as in effect on November 18, 1993, to make purchases without securing competitive quotations does not apply to any purchases with a price exceeding the micro-purchase threshold.
(b) Exclusion for micro-purchases 
A purchase by an executive agency with an anticipated value of the micro-purchase threshold or less is not subject to section 644 (j) of title 15 and the Buy American Act (41 U.S.C. 10a–10c).
(c) Purchases without competitive quotations 
A purchase not greater than $2,500 may be made without obtaining competitive quotations if an employee of an executive agency or a member of the Armed Forces of the United States authorized to do so determines that the price for the purchase is reasonable.
(d) Equitable distribution 
Purchases not greater than $2,500 shall be distributed equitably among qualified suppliers.
(e) Implementation through FAR 
This section shall be implemented through the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
(f) Micro-purchase threshold defined 
For purposes of this section, the micro-purchase threshold is the amount of $2,500.

41 USC 428a - Special emergency procurement authority

(a) Applicability 
The authorities provided in this section apply with respect to any procurement of property or services by or for an executive agency that, as determined by the head of such executive agency, are to be used
(1) in support of a contingency operation; or
(2) to facilitate the defense against or recovery from nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack against the United States.
(b) Increased thresholds 
For a procurement to which this section applies under subsection (a) of this section
(1) the amount specified in subsections (c), (d), and (f) of section 428 of this title shall be deemed to be
(A) $15,000 in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, inside the United States; and
(B) $25,000 in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States; and
(2) the term simplified acquisition threshold means
(A) $250,000 in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, inside the United States; and
(B) $1,000,000 in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States.
(c) Increased limitation on use of simplified acquisition procedures 
For a procurement to which this section applies under subsection (a) of this section, the $5,000,000 limitation in the following provisions of law shall be deemed to be $10,000,000:
(1) Section 427 (a)(2) of this title.
(2) Section 2304 (g)(1)(B) of title 10.
(3) Section 253 (g)(1)(B) of this title.
(d) Commercial items authority 

(1) The head of an executive agency carrying out a procurement of property or a service to which this section applies under subsection (a)(2) of this section may treat such property or service as a commercial item for the purpose of carrying out such procurement.
(2) A contract in an amount greater than $15,000,000 that is awarded on a sole source basis for an item or service treated as a commercial item under paragraph (1) shall not be exempt from
(A) cost accounting standards promulgated pursuant to section 422 of this title; or
(B) cost or pricing data requirements (commonly referred to as truth in negotiating) under section 2306a of title 10 and section 254b of this title.
(e) Contingency operation defined 
In this section, the term contingency operation has the meaning given such term in section 101 (a)(13) of title 10.

41 USC 429 - List of laws inapplicable to contracts not greater than simplified acquisition threshold in Federal Acquisition Regulation

(a) List of inapplicable provisions of law 

(1) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include a list of provisions of law that are inapplicable to contracts or subcontracts in amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold. A provision of law that is properly included on the list pursuant to paragraph (2) may not be construed as applicable to such contracts or subcontracts (as the case may be) by an executive agency. Nothing in this section shall be construed to render inapplicable to contracts and subcontracts in amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold any provision of law that is not included on such list.
(2) A provision of law described in subsection (b) of this section that is enacted after October 13, 1994, shall be included on the list of inapplicable provisions of law required by paragraph (1), unless the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council makes a written determination that it would not be in the best interest of the Federal Government to exempt contracts or subcontracts in amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold from the applicability of the provision.
(b) Covered law 
A provision of law referred to in subsection (a)(2) of this section is any provision of law that, as determined by the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council, sets forth policies, procedures, requirements, or restrictions for the procurement of property or services by the Federal Government, except for a provision of law that
(1) provides for criminal or civil penalties; or
(2) specifically refers to this section and provides that, notwithstanding this section, it shall be applicable to contracts or subcontracts in amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.
(c) Petition 
In the event that a provision of law described in subsection (b) of this section is not included on the list of inapplicable provisions of law as required by subsection (a) of this section, and no written determination has been made by the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section, a person may petition the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy to take appropriate action. The Administrator shall revise the Federal Acquisition Regulation to include the provision on the list of inapplicable provisions of law unless the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council makes a determination pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section within 60 days after the date on which the petition is received.

41 USC 430 - List of laws inapplicable to procurements of commercial items in Federal Acquisition Regulation

(a) List of inapplicable provisions of law 

(1) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include a list of provisions of law that are inapplicable to contracts for the procurement of commercial items. A provision of law that is properly included on the list pursuant to paragraph (2) may not be construed as applicable to purchases of commercial items by an executive agency. Nothing in this section shall be construed to render inapplicable to contracts for the procurement of commercial items any provision of law that is not included on such list.
(2) A provision of law described in subsection (c) of this section that is enacted after October 13, 1994, shall be included on the list of inapplicable provisions of law required by paragraph (1), unless the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council makes a written determination that it would not be in the best interest of the Federal Government to exempt contracts for the procurement of commercial items from the applicability of the provision.
(b) Subcontracts 

(1) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include a list of provisions of law that are inapplicable to subcontracts under either a contract for the procurement of commercial items or a subcontract for the procurement of commercial items. A provision of law that is properly included on the list pursuant to paragraph (2) may not be construed as applicable to such subcontracts. Nothing in this section shall be construed to render inapplicable to subcontracts under a contract for the procurement of commercial items any provision of law that is not included on such list.
(2) A provision of law described in subsection (c) of this section shall be included on the list of inapplicable provisions of law required by paragraph (1) unless the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council makes a written determination that it would not be in the best interest of the Federal Government to exempt subcontracts under a contract for the procurement of commercial items from the applicability of the provision.
(3) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the waiver of the applicability of any provision of law with respect to any subcontract under a contract with a prime contractor reselling or distributing commercial items of another contractor without adding value.
(4) In this subsection, the term subcontract includes a transfer of commercial items between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or subcontractor.
(c) Covered law 
A provision of law referred to in subsections (a)(2) and (b) of this section is any provision of law that, as determined by the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council, sets forth policies, procedures, requirements, or restrictions for the procurement of property or services by the Federal Government, except for a provision of law that
(1) provides for criminal or civil penalties; or
(2) specifically refers to this section and provides that, notwithstanding this section, it shall be applicable to contracts for the procurement of commercial items.
(d) Petition 
In the event that a provision of law described in subsection (c) of this section is not included on the list of inapplicable provisions of law as required by subsection (a) or (b) of this section, and no written determination has been made by the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council pursuant to subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2) of this section, a person may petition the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy to take appropriate action. The Administrator shall revise the Federal Acquisition Regulation to include the provision on the list of inapplicable provisions of law unless the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council makes a determination pursuant to subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2) of this section within 60 days after the date on which the petition is received.

41 USC 431 - Commercially available off-the-shelf item acquisitions: lists of inapplicable laws in Federal Acquisition Regulation

(a) Lists of inapplicable provisions of law 

(1) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include a list of provisions of law that are inapplicable to contracts for the procurement of commercially available off-the-shelf items.
(2) A provision of law that, pursuant to paragraph (3), is properly included on a list referred to in paragraph (1) may not be construed as being applicable to contracts referred to in paragraph (1). Nothing in this section shall be construed to render inapplicable to such contracts any provision of law that is not included on such list.
(3) A provision of law described in subsection (b) of this section shall be included on the list of inapplicable provisions of law required by paragraph (1) unless the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy makes a written determination that it would not be in the best interest of the United States to exempt such contracts from the applicability of that provision of law. Nothing in this section shall be construed as modifying or superseding, or as being intended to impair or restrict authorities or responsibilities under
(A) section 644 of title 15; or
(B) bid protest procedures developed under the authority of subchapter V of chapter 35 of title 31; subsections (e) and (f) of section 2305 of title 10; or subsections (h) and (i) of section 253b of this title.
(b) Covered law 
Except as provided in subsection (a)(3) of this section, the list referred to in subsection (a)(1) of this section shall include each provision of law that, as determined by the Administrator, imposes on persons who have been awarded contracts by the Federal Government for the procurement of commercially available off-the-shelf items Government-unique policies, procedures, requirements, or restrictions for the procurement of property or services, except the following:
(1) A provision of law that provides for criminal or civil penalties.
(2) A provision of law that specifically refers to this section and provides that, notwithstanding this section, such provision of law shall be applicable to contracts for the procurement of commercially available off-the-shelf items.
(c) “Commercially available off-the-shelf item” defined 

(1) As used in this section, the term commercially available off-the-shelf item means, except as provided in paragraph (2), an item that
(A) is a commercial item (as described in section 403 (12)(A) of this title);
(B) is sold in substantial quantities in the commercial marketplace; and
(C) is offered to the Government, without modification, in the same form in which it is sold in the commercial marketplace.
(2) The term commercially available off-the-shelf item does not include bulk cargo, as defined in section 40102 (4) of title 46, such as agricultural products and petroleum products.

41 USC 431a - Inflation adjustment of acquisition-related dollar thresholds

(a) Requirement for periodic adjustment 

(1) On October 1 of each year that is evenly divisible by five, the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council shall adjust each acquisition-related dollar threshold provided by law, as described in subsection (c) of this section, to the baseline constant dollar value of that threshold.
(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1), the baseline constant dollar value
(A) for a dollar threshold in effect on October 1, 2000, that was first specified in a law that took effect on or before such date shall be the October 1, 2000, constant dollar value of that dollar threshold; and
(B) for a dollar threshold specified in a law that takes effect after October 1, 2000, shall be the constant dollar value of that threshold as of the effective date of that dollar threshold pursuant to such law.
(b) Adjustments effective upon publication 
The Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council shall publish a notice of the adjusted dollar thresholds under this section in the Federal Register. The adjusted dollar thresholds shall take effect on the date of publication.
(c) Acquisition-related dollar thresholds 
Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the requirement for adjustment under subsection (a) of this section applies to a dollar threshold that is specified in law as a factor in defining the scope of the applicability of a policy, procedure, requirement, or restriction provided in that law to the procurement of property or services by an executive agency, as determined by the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council.
(d) Excluded thresholds 
Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to
(1) dollar thresholds in sections 3141 through 3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40;
(2) dollar thresholds in the Service Contract Act of 1965 (41 U.S.C. 351, et seq.); or
(3) dollar thresholds established by the United States Trade Representative pursuant to title III of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2511 et seq.).
(e) Calculation of adjustments 
An adjustment under this section shall
(1) be calculated on the basis of changes in the Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers published monthly by the Department of Labor; and
(2) be rounded
(A) in the case of a dollar threshold that (as in effect on the day before the adjustment) is less than $10,000, to the nearest $500;
(B) in the case of a dollar threshold that (as in effect on the day before the adjustment) is not less than $10,000, but is less than $100,000, to the nearest $5,000;
(C) in the case of a dollar threshold that (as in effect on the day before the adjustment) is not less than $100,000, but is less than $1,000,000, to the nearest $50,000; and
(D) in the case of a dollar threshold that (as in effect on the day before the adjustment) is $1,000,000 or more, to the nearest $500,000.
(f) Petition for inclusion of omitted threshold 

(1) If a dollar threshold adjustable under this section is not included in a notice of adjustment published under subsection (b) of this section, any person may request adjustment of that dollar threshold by submitting a petition for adjustment to the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy.
(2) Upon receipt of a petition for adjustment of a dollar threshold under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall
(A) determine, in writing, whether that dollar threshold is required to be adjusted under this section; and
(B) if so, shall publish in the Federal Register a revised notice of the adjusted dollar thresholds under this section that includes the adjustment of the dollar threshold covered by the petition.
(3) The adjustment of a dollar threshold pursuant to a petition under this subsection shall take effect on the date of the publication of the revised notice adding the adjustment of that dollar threshold under paragraph (2)(B).

41 USC 432 - Value engineering

(a) In general 
Each executive agency shall establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes.
(b) “Value engineering” defined 
As used in this section, the term value engineering means an analysis of the functions of a program, project, system, product, item of equipment, building, facility, service, or supply of an executive agency, performed by qualified agency or contractor personnel, directed at improving performance, reliability, quality, safety, and life cycle costs.

41 USC 433 - Acquisition workforce

(a) Applicability 
Except as provided in subsection (h)(3) of this section, this section does not apply to an executive agency that is subject to chapter 87 of title 10.
(b) Management policies 

(1) Policies and procedures 
The head of each executive agency, after consultation with the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy, shall establish policies and procedures for the effective management (including accession, education, training, career development, and performance incentives) of the acquisition workforce of the agency. The development of acquisition workforce policies under this section shall be carried out consistent with the merit system principles set forth in section 2301 (b) of title 5.
(2) Uniform implementation 
The head of each executive agency shall ensure that, to the maximum extent practicable, acquisition workforce policies and procedures established are uniform in their implementation throughout the agency.
(3) Government-wide policies and evaluation 
The Administrator shall issue policies to promote uniform implementation of this section by executive agencies, with due regard for differences in program requirements among agencies that may be appropriate and warranted in view of the agency mission. The Administrator shall coordinate with the Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget to ensure that such policies are consistent with the policies and procedures established and enhanced system of incentives provided pursuant to section 5051(c) of the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 (41 U.S.C. 263 note ). The Administrator shall evaluate the implementation of the provisions of this section by executive agencies.
(c) Senior procurement executive authorities and responsibilities 
Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the head of an executive agency, the senior procurement executive of the agency shall carry out all powers, functions, and duties of the head of the agency with respect to implementation of this section. The senior procurement executive shall ensure that the policies of the head of the executive agency established in accordance with this section are implemented throughout the agency.
(d) Management information systems 
The Administrator shall ensure that the heads of executive agencies collect and maintain standardized information on the acquisition workforce related to implementation of this section. To the maximum extent practicable, such data requirements shall conform to standards established by the Office of Personnel Management for the Central Personnel Data File.
(e) Applicability to acquisition workforce 
The programs established by this section shall apply to the acquisition workforce of each executive agency. For purposes of this section, the acquisition workforce of an agency consists of all employees serving in acquisition positions listed in subsection (g)(1)(A) of this section.
(f) Career development 

(1) Career paths 
The head of each executive agency shall ensure that appropriate career paths for personnel who desire to pursue careers in acquisition are identified in terms of the education, training, experience, and assignments necessary for career progression to the most senior acquisition positions. The head of each executive agency shall make information available on such career paths.
(2) Critical duties and tasks 
For each career path, the head of each executive agency shall identify the critical acquisition-related duties and tasks in which, at minimum, employees of the agency in the career path shall be competent to perform at full performance grade levels. For this purpose, the head of the executive agency shall provide appropriate coverage of the critical duties and tasks identified by the Director of the Federal Acquisition Institute.
(3) Mandatory training and education 
For each career path, the head of each executive agency shall establish requirements for the completion of course work and related on-the-job training in the critical acquisition-related duties and tasks of the career path. The head of each executive agency shall also encourage employees to maintain the currency of their acquisition knowledge and generally enhance their knowledge of related acquisition management disciplines through academic programs and other self-developmental activities.
(4) Performance incentives 
The head of each executive agency shall provide for an enhanced system of incentives for the encouragement of excellence in the acquisition workforce which rewards performance of employees that contribute to achieving the agencys performance goals. The system of incentives shall include provisions that
(A) relate pay to performance (including the extent to which the performance of personnel in such workforce contributes to achieving the cost goals, schedule goals, and performance goals established for acquisition programs pursuant to section 263 (b) of this title); and
(B) provide for consideration, in personnel evaluations and promotion decisions, of the extent to which the performance of personnel in such workforce contributes to achieving such cost goals, schedule goals, and performance goals.
(g) Qualification requirements 

(1) In general 

(A) Subject to paragraph (2), the Administrator shall establish qualification requirements, including education requirements, for the following positions:
(i) Entry-level positions in the General Schedule Contracting series (GS1102).
(ii) Senior positions in the General Schedule Contracting series (GS1102).
(iii) All positions in the General Schedule Purchasing series (GS1105).
(iv) Positions in other General Schedule series in which significant acquisition-related functions are performed.
(B) Subject to paragraph (2), the Administrator shall prescribe the manner and extent to which such qualification requirements shall apply to any person serving in a position described in subparagraph (A) at the time such requirements are established.
(2) Relationship to requirements applicable to defense acquisition workforce 
The Administrator shall establish qualification requirements and make prescriptions under paragraph (1) that are comparable to those established for the same or equivalent positions pursuant to chapter 87 of title 10 with appropriate modifications.
(3) Approval of requirements 
The Administrator shall submit any requirement established or prescription made under paragraph (1) to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management for approval. If the Director does not disapprove a requirement or prescription within 30 days after the date on which the Director receives it, the requirement or prescription is deemed to be approved by the Director.
(h) Education and training 

(1) Funding levels 

(A) The head of an executive agency shall set forth separately the funding levels requested for education and training of the acquisition workforce in the budget justification documents submitted in support of the Presidents budget submitted to Congress under section 1105 of title 31.
(B) Funds appropriated for education and training under this section may not be obligated for any other purpose.
(2) Tuition assistance 
The head of an executive agency may provide tuition reimbursement in education (including a full-time course of study leading to a degree) in accordance with section 4107 of title 5 for personnel serving in acquisition positions in the agency.
(3) Acquisition workforce training fund 

(A) The Administrator of General Services shall establish an acquisition workforce training fund. The Administrator shall manage the fund through the Federal Acquisition Institute to support the training of the acquisition workforce of the executive agencies, except as provided in subparagraph (D). The Administrator shall consult with the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy in managing the fund.
(B) There shall be credited to the acquisition workforce training fund 5 percent of the fees collected by executive agencies (other than the Department of Defense) under the following contracts:
(i) Governmentwide task and delivery-order contracts entered into under sections 253h and 253i of this title.
(ii) Governmentwide contracts for the acquisition of information technology as defined in section 11101 of title 40 and multiagency acquisition contracts for such technology authorized by section 11314 of such title.
(iii) Multiple-award schedule contracts entered into by the Administrator of General Services.
(C) The head of an executive agency that administers a contract described in subparagraph (B) shall remit to the General Services Administration the amount required to be credited to the fund with respect to such contract at the end of each quarter of the fiscal year.
(D) The Administrator of General Services shall transfer to the Secretary of Defense fees collected from the Department of Defense pursuant to subparagraph (B), to be used by the Defense Acquisition University for purposes of acquisition workforce training.
(E) The Administrator of General Services, through the Office of Federal Acquisition Policy, shall ensure that funds collected for training under this section are not used for any purpose other than the purpose specified in subparagraph (A).
(F) Amounts credited to the fund shall be in addition to funds requested and appropriated for education and training referred to in paragraph (1).
(G) Amounts credited to the fund shall remain available to be expended only in the fiscal year for which credited and the two succeeding fiscal years.
(H) This paragraph shall cease to be effective five years after November 24, 2003.
(i) Provisions relating to reemployment 

(1) Policies and procedures 
The head of each executive agency, after consultation with the Administrator and the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, shall establish policies and procedures under which the agency head may reemploy in an acquisition-related position (as described in subsection (g)(1)(A)) an individual receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, on the basis of such individuals service, without discontinuing such annuity. The head of each executive agency shall keep the Administrator informed of the agencys use of this authority.
(2) Service not subject to CSRS or FERS 
An individual so reemployed shall not be considered an employee for the purposes of chapter 83 or 84 of title 5.
(3) Criteria for exercise of authority 
Polices[1] and procedures established pursuant to this subsection shall authorize the head of the executive agency, on a case-by-case basis, to continue an annuity if
(A) the unusually high or unique qualifications of an individual receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund on the basis of such individuals service,
(B) the exceptional difficulty in recruiting or retaining a qualified employee, or
(C) a temporary emergency hiring need,

makes the reemployment of an individual essential.

(4) Reporting requirement 
The Administrator shall submit annually to the Committee on Government Reform of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report on the use of the authority under this subsection, including the number of employees reemployed under authority of this subsection.
(5) Sunset provision 
The authority under this subsection shall expire on December 31, 2011.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “Policies”.

41 USC 434 - Modular contracting for information technology

(a) In general 
The head of an executive agency should, to the maximum extent practicable, use modular contracting for an acquisition of a major system of information technology.
(b) Modular contracting described 
Under modular contracting, an executive agencys need for a system is satisfied in successive acquisitions of interoperable increments. Each increment complies with common or commercially accepted standards applicable to information technology so that the increments are compatible with other increments of information technology comprising the system.
(c) Implementation 
The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide that
(1) under the modular contracting process, an acquisition of a major system of information technology may be divided into several smaller acquisition increments that
(A) are easier to manage individually than would be one comprehensive acquisition;
(B) address complex information technology objectives incrementally in order to enhance the likelihood of achieving workable solutions for attainment of those objectives;
(C) provide for delivery, implementation, and testing of workable systems or solutions in discrete increments each of which comprises a system or solution that is not dependent on any subsequent increment in order to perform its principal functions; and
(D) provide an opportunity for subsequent increments of the acquisition to take advantage of any evolution in technology or needs that occur during conduct of the earlier increments;
(2) a contract for an increment of an information technology acquisition should, to the maximum extent practicable, be awarded within 180 days after the date on which the solicitation is issued and, if the contract for that increment cannot be awarded within such period, the increment should be considered for cancellation; and
(3) the information technology provided for in a contract for acquisition of information technology should be delivered within 18 months after the date on which the solicitation resulting in award of the contract was issued.

41 USC 435 - Levels of compensation of certain contractor personnel not allowable as costs under certain contracts

(a) Determination required 
For purposes of section 2324 (e)(1)(P) of title 10 and section 256 (e)(1)(P) of this title, the Administrator shall review commercially available surveys of executive compensation and, on the basis of the results of the review, determine a benchmark compensation amount to apply for each fiscal year. In making determinations under this subsection the Administrator shall consult with the Director of the Defense Contract Audit Agency and such other officials of executive agencies as the Administrator considers appropriate.
(b) Benchmark compensation amount 
The benchmark compensation amount applicable for a fiscal year is the median amount of the compensation provided for all senior executives of all benchmark corporations for the most recent year for which data is available at the time the determination under subsection (a) of this section is made.
(c) Definitions 
In this section:
(1) The term compensation, for a fiscal year, means the total amount of wages, salary, bonuses and deferred compensation for the fiscal year, whether paid, earned, or otherwise accruing, as recorded in an employers cost accounting records for the fiscal year.
(2) The term senior executives, with respect to a contractor, means the five most highly compensated employees in management positions at each home office and each segment of the contractor.
(3) The term benchmark corporation, with respect to a fiscal year, means a publicly-owned United States corporation that has annual sales in excess of $50,000,000 for the fiscal year.
(4) The term publicly-owned United States corporation means a corporation organized under the laws of a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a possession of the United States the voting stock of which is publicly traded.
(5) The term fiscal year means a fiscal year established by a contractor for accounting purposes.

41 USC 436 - Protection of constitutional rights of contractors

(a) Prohibition 
A contractor may not be required, as a condition for entering into a contract with the Federal Government, to waive any right under the Constitution for any purpose related to Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1997 [22 U.S.C. 6701 et seq.] or the Chemical Weapons Convention (as defined in section 3 of such Act [22 U.S.C. 6701]).
(b) Construction 
Nothing in subsection (a) of this section shall be construed to prohibit an executive agency from including in a contract a clause that requires the contractor to permit inspections for the purpose of ensuring that the contractor is performing the contract in accordance with the provisions of the contract.

41 USC 437 - Incentives for efficient performance of services contracts

(a) Incentive for use of performance-based services contracts 
A performance-based contract for the procurement of services entered into by an executive agency or a performance-based task order for services issued by an executive agency may be treated as a contract for the procurement of commercial items if
(1) the value of the contract or task order is estimated not to exceed $25,000,000;
(2) the contract or task order sets forth specifically each task to be performed and, for each task
(A) defines the task in measurable, mission-related terms;
(B) identifies the specific end products or output to be achieved; and
(C) contains firm, fixed prices for specific tasks to be performed or outcomes to be achieved; and
(3) the source of the services provides similar services to the general public under terms and conditions similar to those offered to the Federal Government.
(b) Regulations 
The regulations implementing this section shall require agencies to collect and maintain reliable data sufficient to identify the contracts or task orders treated as contracts for commercial items using the authority of this section. The data may be collected using the Federal Procurement Data System or other reporting mechanism.
(c) Report 
Not later than two years after November 24, 2003, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall prepare and submit to the Committees on Governmental Affairs and on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committees on Government Reform and on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report on the contracts or task orders treated as contracts for commercial items using the authority of this section. The report shall include data on the use of such authority both government-wide and for each department and agency.
(d) Expiration 
The authority under this section shall expire 10 years after November 24, 2003.

41 USC 438 - Civilian Board of Contract Appeals

(a) Board established 
There is established in the General Services Administration a board of contract appeals to be known as the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals (in this section referred to as the Civilian Board).
(b) Membership 

(1) Appointment 

(A) The Civilian Board shall consist of members appointed by the Administrator of General Services (in consultation with the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy) from a register of applicants maintained by the Administrator of General Services, in accordance with rules issued by the Administrator of General Services (in consultation with the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy) for establishing and maintaining a register of eligible applicants and selecting Civilian Board members. The Administrator of General Services shall appoint a member without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of the professional qualifications required to perform the duties and responsibilities of a Civilian Board member.
(B) The members of the Civilian Board shall be selected and appointed to serve in the same manner as administrative law judges appointed pursuant to section 3105 of title 5, with an additional requirement that such members shall have had not fewer than five years of experience in public contract law.
(C) Notwithstanding subparagraph (B) and subject to paragraph (2), the following persons shall serve as Civilian Board members: any full-time member of any agency board of contract appeals other than the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals, the Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals, and the board of contract appeals of the Tennessee Valley Authority serving as such on the day before the effective date of this section.
(2) Removal 
Members of the Civilian Board shall be subject to removal in the same manner as administrative law judges, as provided in section 7521 of title 5.
(3) Compensation 
Compensation for members of the Civilian Board shall be determined under section 5372a of title 5.
(c) Functions 

(1) In general 
The Civilian Board shall have jurisdiction as provided by section 607 (d) of this title.
(2) Additional jurisdiction 
The Civilian Board may, with the concurrence of the Federal agency or agencies affected
(A) assume jurisdiction over any additional category of laws or disputes over which an agency board of contract appeals established pursuant to section 607 of this title exercised jurisdiction before the effective date of this section; and
(B) assume any other functions performed by such a board before such effective date on behalf of such agencies.

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 8 - FEDERAL GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS

501 to 509. Repealed. Pub. L. 97258, 5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1083

Section 501, Pub. L. 95–224, § 2, Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 3, set out the Congressional findings and statement of purposes in enacting the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act of 1977 [this chapter]. Sections 1 and 10(b) of Pub. L. 95–224, setting out the short title provisions and savings provisions respectively of that Act, were set out as notes under this section, and were repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, § 5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1083. Section 10(d) of Pub. L. 95–224, as amended by Pub. L. 97–162, Apr. 1, 1982, 96 Stat. 23, setting out the excepted transactions provisions of that Act was set out as a note under this section, and was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, § 5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1083. See sections 6301 and 6307 (2) of Title 31, Money and Finance. Section 502, Pub. L. 95–224, § 3, Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 4, defined State government, local government, other recipient, executive agency, and grant or cooperative agreement. See section 6302 of Title 31. Section 503, Pub. L. 95–224, § 4, Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 4, provided for use of procurement contracts by executive agencies. See section 6303 of Title 31. Section 504, Pub. L. 95–224, § 5, Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 4, provided for use of grant agreements by executive agencies. See section 6304 of Title 31. Section 505, Pub. L. 95–224, § 6, Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 5, provided for use of cooperative agreements by executive agencies. See section 6305 of Title 31. Section 506, Pub. L. 95–224, § 7, Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 5, pertained to required and discretionary authorities. See section 6306 of Title 31. Section 507, Pub. L. 95–224, § 8, Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 5, directed Director of Office of Management and Budget to undertake a study to develop a better understanding of alternate means of implementing Federal assistance programs. Section 508, Pub. L. 95–224, § 9, Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 6, authorized Director of Office of Management and Budget to issue supplemental interpretive guidelines to promote consistent and efficient use of contracts, grant agreements, and cooperative agreements. See section 6307 (1) of Title 31. Section 509, Pub. L. 95–224, § 10(c), Feb. 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 6, related to use of multiple relationships for different components of jointly funded projects. See section 6308 of Title 31.

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 9 - CONTRACT DISPUTES

41 USC 601 - Definitions

As used in this chapter
(1) the term agency head means the head and any assistant head of an executive agency, and may upon the designation by the head of an executive agency include the chief official of any principal division of the agency;
(2) the term executive agency means an executive department as defined in section 101 of title 5, an independent establishment as defined by section 104 of title 5 (except that it shall not include the Government Accountability Office), a military department as defined by section 102 of title 5, and a wholly owned Government corporation as defined by section 9101 (3) of title 31;
(3) the term contracting officer means any person who, by appointment in accordance with applicable regulations, has the authority to enter into and administer contracts and make determinations and findings with respect thereto. The term also includes the authorized representative of the contracting officer, acting within the limits of his authority;
(4) the term contractor means a party to a Government contract other than the Government;
(5) the term Administrator means the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy appointed pursuant to the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act [41 U.S.C. 401 et seq.];
(6) the terms agency board or agency board of contract appeals mean
(A) the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals established under section 607 (a)(1) of this title;
(B) the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals established under section 42 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act [41 U.S.C. 438];
(C) the board of contract appeals of the Tennessee Valley Authority; or
(D) the Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals established under section 607 (c) of this title;
(7) the term Armed Services Board means the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals established under section 607 (a)(1) of this title;
(8) the term Civilian Board means the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals established under section 42 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act [41 U.S.C. 438]; and
(9) the term misrepresentation of fact means a false statement of substantive fact, or any conduct which leads to a belief of a substantive fact material to proper understanding of the matter in hand, made with intent to deceive or mislead.

41 USC 602 - Applicability of law

(a) Executive agency contracts 
Unless otherwise specifically provided herein, this chapter applies to any express or implied contract (including those of the nonappropriated fund activities described in sections 1346 and 1491 of title 28) entered into by an executive agency for
(1) the procurement of property, other than real property in being;
(2) the procurement of services;
(3) the procurement of construction, alteration, repair or maintenance of real property; or,
(4) the disposal of personal property.
(b) Tennessee Valley Authority contracts 
With respect to contracts of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the provisions of this chapter shall apply only to those contracts which contain a disputes clause requiring that a contract dispute be resolved through an agency administrative process. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, contracts of the Tennessee Valley Authority for the sale of fertilizer or electric power or related to the conduct or operation of the electric power system shall be excluded from the chapter.
(c) Foreign government or international organization contracts 
This chapter does not apply to a contract with a foreign government, or agency thereof, or international organization, or subsidiary body thereof, if the head of the agency determines that the application of the chapter to the contract would not be in the public interest.

41 USC 603 - Maritime contracts

Appeals under paragraph (g) of section 607 of this title and suits under section 609 of this title, arising out of maritime contracts, shall be governed by the Act of March 9, 1920, as amended (41 Stat. 525, as amended; 46 U.S.C. 741–752)[1] or the Act of March 3, 1925, as amended (43 Stat. 1112, as amended; 46 U.S.C. 781–790)[1] as applicable, to the extent that those Acts are not inconsistent with this chapter.
[1] See References in Text note below.

41 USC 604 - Fraudulent claims

If a contractor is unable to support any part of his claim and it is determined that such inability is attributable to misrepresentation of fact or fraud on the part of the contractor, he shall be liable to the Government for an amount equal to such unsupported part of the claim in addition to all costs to the Government attributable to the cost of reviewing said part of his claim. Liability under this subsection[1] shall be determined within six years of the commission of such misrepresentation of fact or fraud.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “section”.

41 USC 605 - Decision by contracting officer

(a) Contractor claims 
All claims by a contractor against the government relating to a contract shall be in writing and shall be submitted to the contracting officer for a decision. All claims by the government against a contractor relating to a contract shall be the subject of a decision by the contracting officer. Each claim by a contractor against the government relating to a contract and each claim by the government against a contractor relating to a contract shall be submitted within 6 years after the accrual of the claim. The preceding sentence does not apply to a claim by the government against a contractor that is based on a claim by the contractor involving fraud. The contracting officer shall issue his decisions in writing, and shall mail or otherwise furnish a copy of the decision to the contractor. The decision shall state the reasons for the decision reached, and shall inform the contractor of his rights as provided in this chapter. Specific findings of fact are not required, but, if made, shall not be binding in any subsequent proceeding. The authority of this subsection shall not extend to a claim or dispute for penalties or forfeitures prescribed by statute or regulation which another Federal agency is specifically authorized to administer, settle, or determine. This section shall not authorize any agency head to settle, compromise, pay, or otherwise adjust any claim involving fraud.
(b) Review; performance of contract pending appeal 
The contracting officers decision on the claim shall be final and conclusive and not subject to review by any forum, tribunal, or Government agency, unless an appeal or suit is timely commenced as authorized by this chapter. Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit executive agencies from including a clause in government contracts requiring that pending final decision of an appeal, action, or final settlement, a contractor shall proceed diligently with performance of the contract in accordance with the contracting officers decision.
(c) Amount of claim; certification; notification; time of issuance; presumption 

(1) A contracting officer shall issue a decision on any submitted claim of $100,000 or less within sixty days from his receipt of a written request from the contractor that a decision be rendered within that period. For claims of more than $100,000, the contractor shall certify that the claim is made in good faith, that the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of his knowledge and belief, that the amount requested accurately reflects the contract adjustment for which the contractor believes the government is liable, and that the certifier is duly authorized to certify the claim on behalf of the contractor.
(2) A contracting officer shall, within sixty days of receipt of a submitted certified claim over $100,000
(A) issue a decision; or
(B) notify the contractor of the time within which a decision will be issued.
(3) The decision of a contracting officer on submitted claims shall be issued within a reasonable time, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the agency, taking into account such factors as the size and complexity of the claim and the adequacy of the information in support of the claim provided by the contractor.
(4) A contractor may request the tribunal concerned to direct a contracting officer to issue a decision in a specified period of time, as determined by the tribunal concerned, in the event of undue delay on the part of the contracting officer.
(5) Any failure by the contracting officer to issue a decision on a contract claim within the period required will be deemed to be a decision by the contracting officer denying the claim and will authorize the commencement of the appeal or suit on the claim as otherwise provided in this chapter. However, in the event an appeal or suit is so commenced in the absence of a prior decision by the contracting officer, the tribunal concerned may, at its option, stay the proceedings to obtain a decision on the claim by the contracting officer.
(6) The contracting officer shall have no obligation to render a final decision on any claim of more than $100,000 that is not certified in accordance with paragraph (1) if, within 60 days after receipt of the claim, the contracting officer notifies the contractor in writing of the reasons why any attempted certification was found to be defective. A defect in the certification of a claim shall not deprive a court or an agency board of contract appeals of jurisdiction over that claim. Prior to the entry of a final judgment by a court or a decision by an agency board of contract appeals, the court or agency board shall require a defective certification to be corrected.
(7) The certification required by paragraph (1) may be executed by any person duly authorized to bind the contractor with respect to the claim.
(d) Alternative means of dispute resolution 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a contractor and a contracting officer may use any alternative means of dispute resolution under subchapter IV of chapter 5 of title 5, or other mutually agreeable procedures, for resolving claims. The contractor shall certify the claim when required to do so as provided under subsection (c)(1) of this section or as otherwise required by law. All provisions of subchapter IV of chapter 5 of title 5 shall apply to such alternative means of dispute resolution.
(e) Termination of authority to engage in alternative means of dispute resolution; savings provision 
In any case in which the contracting officer rejects a contractors request for alternative dispute resolution proceedings, the contracting officer shall provide the contractor with a written explanation, citing one or more of the conditions in section 572 (b) of title 5 or such other specific reasons that alternative dispute resolution procedures are inappropriate for the resolution of the dispute. In any case in which a contractor rejects a request of an agency for alternative dispute resolution proceedings, the contractor shall inform the agency in writing of the contractors specific reasons for rejecting the request.

41 USC 606 - Contractors right of appeal to board of contract appeals

Within ninety days from the date of receipt of a contracting officers decision under section 605 of this title, the contractor may appeal such decision to an agency board of contract appeals, as provided in section 607 of this title.

41 USC 607 - Agency boards of contract appeals

(a) Establishment; consultation; Tennessee Valley Authority 

(1) An Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals may be established within the Department of Defense when the Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the Administrator, determines from a workload study that the volume of contract claims justifies the establishment of a full-time agency board of at least three members who shall have no other inconsistent duties. Workload studies will be updated at least once every three years and submitted to the Administrator.
(2) The Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority may establish a board of contract appeals for the Authority of an indeterminate number of members.
(b) Appointment of members; chairman; compensation 

(1) The members of the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals shall be selected and appointed to serve in the same manner as administrative law judges appointed pursuant to section 3105 of title 5, with an additional requirement that such members shall have had not fewer than five years experience in public contract law. Full-time members of such Board serving as such on the effective date of this chapter shall be considered qualified. The chairman and vice chairman of such Board shall be designated by the Secretary of Defense from members so appointed. Compensation for the chairman, the vice chairman, and all other members of such Board shall be determined under section 5372a of title 5.
(2) The Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority shall establish criteria for the appointment of members to its agency board of contract appeals established in subsection (a)(2) of this section, and shall designate a chairman of such board. The chairman and all other members of such board shall receive compensation, at the daily equivalent of the rates determined under section 5372a of title 5, for each day they are engaged in the actual performance of their duties as members of the board.
(c) Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals 
There is established an agency board of contract appeals to be known as the Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals. Such board shall have jurisdiction to decide any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer of the United States Postal Service or the Postal Regulatory Commission relative to a contract made by either agency. Such board shall consist of judges appointed by the Postmaster General who shall meet the qualifications of and serve in the same manner as members of the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals. This chapter shall apply to contract disputes before the Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals in the same manner as they apply to contract disputes before the Civilian Board.
(d) Jurisdiction 
The Armed Services Board shall have jurisdiction to decide any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer of the Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration relative to a contract made by that department or agency. The Civilian Board shall have jurisdiction to decide any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer of any executive agency (other than the Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the United States Postal Service, the Postal Regulatory Commission, or the Tennessee Valley Authority) relative to a contract made by that agency. Each other agency board shall have jurisdiction to decide any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer relative to a contract made by its agency. In exercising this jurisdiction, the agency board is authorized to grant any relief that would be available to a litigant asserting a contract claim in the United States Court of Federal Claims.
(e) Decisions 
An agency board shall provide to the fullest extent practicable, informal, expeditious, and inexpensive resolution of disputes, and shall issue a decision in writing or take other appropriate action on each appeal submitted, and shall mail or otherwise furnish a copy of the decision to the contractor and the contracting officer.
(f) Accelerated appeal disposition 
The rules of each agency board shall include a procedure for the accelerated disposition of any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer where the amount in dispute is $100,000 or less. The accelerated procedure shall be applicable at the sole election of only the contractor. Appeals under the accelerated procedure shall be resolved, whenever possible, within one hundred and eighty days from the date the contractor elects to utilize such procedure.
(g) Review 

(1) The decision of an agency board of contract appeals shall be final, except that
(A) a contractor may appeal such a decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit within one hundred twenty days after the date of receipt of a copy of such decision, or
(B) the agency head, if he determines that an appeal should be taken, and with the prior approval of the Attorney General, transmits the decision of the board of contract appeals to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit for judicial review under section 1295 of title 28, within one hundred and twenty days from the date of the agencys receipt of a copy of the boards decision.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), the decision of the board of contract appeals of the Tennessee Valley Authority shall be final, except that
(A) a contractor may appeal such a decision to a United States district court pursuant to the provisions of section 1337 of title 28, within one hundred twenty days after the date of receipt of a copy of such decision, or
(B) The Tennessee Valley Authority may appeal the decision to a United States district court pursuant to the provisions of section 1337 of title 28, within one hundred twenty days after the date of the decision in any case.
(3) An award by an arbitrator under this chapter shall be reviewed pursuant to sections 9 through 13 of title 9, except that the court may set aside or limit any award that is found to violate limitations imposed by Federal statute.

41 USC 608 - Small claims

(a) Accelerated disposition of appeals 
The rules of each agency board shall include a procedure for the expedited disposition of any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer where the amount in dispute is $50,000 or less or, in the case of a small business concern (as defined in the Small Business Act [15 U.S.C. 631 et seq.] and regulations under that Act), $150,000 or less. The small claims procedure shall be applicable at the sole election of the contractor.
(b) Simplified rules of procedure 
The small claims procedure shall provide for simplified rules of procedure to facilitate the decision of any appeal thereunder. Such appeals may be decided by a single member of the agency board with such concurrences as may be provided by rule or regulation.
(c) Time of decision 
Appeals under the small claims procedure shall be resolved, whenever possible, within one hundred twenty days from the date on which the contractor elects to utilize such procedure.
(d) Finality of decision 
A decision against the Government or the contractor reached under the small claims procedure shall be final and conclusive and shall not be set aside except in cases of fraud.
(e) Effect of decision 
Administrative determinations and final decisions under this section shall have no value as precedent for future cases under this chapter.
(f) Review of requisite amount in controversy 
The Administrator is authorized to review at least every three years, beginning with the third year after November 1, 1978, the dollar amount defined in subsection (a) of this section as a small claim, and based upon economic indexes selected by the Administrator adjust that level accordingly.

41 USC 609 - Judicial review of board decisions

(a) Actions in United States Court of Federal Claims; district court actions; time for filing 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), and in lieu of appealing the decision of the contracting officer under section 605 of this title to an agency board, a contractor may bring an action directly on the claim in the United States Court of Federal Claims, notwithstanding any contract provision, regulation, or rule of law to the contrary.
(2) In the case of an action against the Tennessee Valley Authority, the contractor may only bring an action directly on the claim in a United States district court pursuant to section 1337 of title 28, notwithstanding any contract provision, regulation, or rule of law to the contrary.
(3) Any action under paragraph (1) or (2) shall be filed within twelve months from the date of the receipt by the contractor of the decision of the contracting officer concerning the claim, and shall proceed de novo in accordance with the rules of the appropriate court.
(b) Finality of board decision 
In the event of an appeal by a contractor or the Government from a decision of any agency board pursuant to section 607 of this title, notwithstanding any contract provision, regulation, or rules of law to the contrary, the decision of the agency board on any question of law shall not be final or conclusive, but the decision on any question of fact shall be final and conclusive and shall not be set aside unless the decision is fraudulent, or arbitrary, or capricious, or so grossly erroneous as to necessarily imply bad faith, or if such decision is not supported by substantial evidence.
(c) Remand or retention of case 
In any appeal by a contractor or the Government from a decision of an agency board pursuant to section 607 of this title, the court may render an opinion and judgement and remand the case for further action by the agency board or by the executive agency as appropriate, with such direction as the court considers just and proper.
(d) Consolidation 
If two or more suits arising from one contract are filed in the United States Court of Federal Claims and one or more agency boards, for the convenience of parties or witnesses or in the interest of justice, the United States Court of Federal Claims may order the consolidation of such suits in that court or transfer any suits to or among the agency boards involved.
(e) Judgments as to fewer than all claims 
In any suit filed pursuant to this chapter involving two or more claims, counterclaims, cross-claims, or third-party claims, and where a portion of one such claim can be divided for purposes of decision or judgment, and in any such suit where multiple parties are involved, the court, whenever such action is appropriate, may enter a judgment as to one or more but fewer than all of the claims, portions thereof, or parties.
(f) Advisory opinions 

(1) Whenever an action involving an issue described in paragraph (2) is pending in a district court of the United States, the district court may request a board of contract appeals to provide the court with an advisory opinion on the matters of contract interpretation at issue.
(2) An issue referred to in paragraph (1) is any issue that could be the proper subject of a final decision of a contracting officer appealable under this chapter.
(3) A district court shall direct any request under paragraph (1) to the board of contract appeals having jurisdiction under this chapter to adjudicate appeals of contract claims under the contract or contracts being interpreted by the court.
(4) After receiving a request for an advisory opinion under paragraph (1), a board of contract appeals shall provide the advisory opinion in a timely manner to the district court making the request.

41 USC 610 - Subpena, discovery, and deposition

A member of an agency board of contract appeals may administer oaths to witnesses, authorize depositions and discovery proceedings, and require by subpena the attendance of witnesses, and production of books and papers, for the taking of testimony or evidence by deposition or in the hearing of an appeal by the agency board. In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena by a person who resides, is found, or transacts business within the jurisdiction of a United States district court, the court, upon application of the agency board through the Attorney General; or upon application by the board of contract appeals of the Tennessee Valley Authority, shall have jurisdiction to issue the person an order requiring him to appear before the agency board or a member thereof, to produce evidence or to give testimony, or both. Any failure of any such person to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof.

41 USC 611 - Interest

Interest on amounts found due contractors on claims shall be paid to the contractor from the date the contracting officer receives the claim pursuant to section 605 (a) of this title from the contractor until payment thereof. The interest provided for in this section shall be paid at the rate established by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to Public Law 9241 (85 Stat. 97) for the Renegotiation Board.

41 USC 612 - Payment of claims

(a) Judgments 
Any judgment against the United States on a claim under this chapter shall be paid promptly in accordance with the procedures provided by section 1304 of title 31.
(b) Monetary awards 
Any monetary award to a contractor by an agency board of contract appeals shall be paid promptly in accordance with the procedures contained in subsection (a) of this section.
(c) Reimbursement 
Payments made pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be reimbursed to the fund provided by section 1304 of title 31 by the agency whose appropriations were used for the contract out of available funds or by obtaining additional appropriations for such purposes.
(d) Tennessee Valley Authority 

(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) through (c) of this section, any judgment against the Tennessee Valley Authority on a claim under this chapter shall be paid promptly in accordance with the provisions of section 831h (b) of title 16.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) through (c), any monetary award to a contractor by the board of contract appeals for the Tennessee Valley Authority shall be paid in accordance with the provisions of section 831h (b) of title 16.

41 USC 613 - Separability

If any provision of this chapter, or the application of such provision to any persons or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of this chapter, or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby.

TITLE 41 - US CODE - CHAPTER 10 - DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE

41 USC 701 - Drug-free workplace requirements for Federal contractors

(a) Drug-free workplace requirement 

(1) Requirement for persons other than individuals 
No person, other than an individual, shall be considered a responsible source, under the meaning of such term as defined in section 403 (8) of this title, for the purposes of being awarded a contract for the procurement of any property or services of a value greater than the simplified acquisition threshold (as defined in section 403 (11) of this title) by any Federal agency, other than a contract for the procurement of commercial items (as defined in section 403 (12) of this title), unless such person agrees to provide a drug-free workplace by
(A) publishing a statement notifying employees that the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensation, possession, or use of a controlled substance is prohibited in the persons workplace and specifying the actions that will be taken against employees for violations of such prohibition;
(B) establishing a drug-free awareness program to inform employees about
(i) the dangers of drug abuse in the workplace;
(ii) the persons policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace;
(iii) any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee assistance programs; and
(iv) the penalties that may be imposed upon employees for drug abuse violations;
(C) making it a requirement that each employee to be engaged in the performance of such contract be given a copy of the statement required by subparagraph (A);
(D) notifying the employee in the statement required by subparagraph (A), that as a condition of employment on such contract, the employee will
(i) abide by the terms of the statement; and
(ii) notify the employer of any criminal drug statute conviction for a violation occurring in the workplace no later than 5 days after such conviction;
(E) notifying the contracting agency within 10 days after receiving notice under subparagraph (D)(ii) from an employee or otherwise receiving actual notice of such conviction;
(F) imposing a sanction on, or requiring the satisfactory participation in a drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program by, any employee who is so convicted, as required by section 703 of this title; and
(G) making a good faith effort to continue to maintain a drug-free workplace through implementation of subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), and (F).
(2) Requirement for individuals 
No Federal agency shall enter into a contract with an individual unless such individual agrees that the individual will not engage in the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensation, possession, or use of a controlled substance in the performance of the contract.
(b) Suspension, termination, or debarment of contractor 

(1) Grounds for suspension, termination, or debarment 
Each contract awarded by a Federal agency shall be subject to suspension of payments under the contract or termination of the contract, or both, and the contractor thereunder or the individual who entered the contract with the Federal agency, as applicable, shall be subject to suspension or debarment in accordance with the requirements of this section if the head of the agency determines that
(A) the contractor violates the requirements of subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), or (F) of subsection (a)(1) of this section; or
(B) such a number of employees of such contractor have been convicted of violations of criminal drug statutes for violations occurring in the workplace as to indicate that the contractor has failed to make a good faith effort to provide a drug-free workplace as required by subsection (a) of this section.
(2) Conduct of suspension, termination, and debarment proceedings 

(A) If a contracting officer determines, in writing, that cause for suspension of payments, termination, or suspension or debarment exists, an appropriate action shall be initiated by a contracting officer of the agency, to be conducted by the agency concerned in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation and applicable agency procedures.
(B) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall be revised to include rules for conducting suspension and debarment proceedings under this subsection, including rules providing notice, opportunity to respond in writing or in person, and such other procedures as may be necessary to provide a full and fair proceeding to a contractor or individual in such proceeding.
(3) Effect of debarment 
Upon issuance of any final decision under this subsection requiring debarment of a contractor or individual, such contractor or individual shall be ineligible for award of any contract by any Federal agency, and for participation in any future procurement by any Federal agency, for a period specified in the decision, not to exceed 5 years.

41 USC 702 - Drug-free workplace requirements for Federal grant recipients

(a) Drug-free workplace requirement 

(1) Persons other than individuals 
No person, other than an individual, shall receive a grant from any Federal agency unless such person agrees to provide a drug-free workplace by
(A) publishing a statement notifying employees that the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensation, possession, or use of a controlled substance is prohibited in the grantees workplace and specifying the actions that will be taken against employees for violations of such prohibition;
(B) establishing a drug-free awareness program to inform employees about
(i) the dangers of drug abuse in the workplace;
(ii) the grantees policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace;
(iii) any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee assistance programs; and
(iv) the penalties that may be imposed upon employees for drug abuse violations;
(C) making it a requirement that each employee to be engaged in the performance of such grant be given a copy of the statement required by subparagraph (A);
(D) notifying the employee in the statement required by subparagraph (A), that as a condition of employment in such grant, the employee will
(i) abide by the terms of the statement; and
(ii) notify the employer of any criminal drug statute conviction for a violation occurring in the workplace no later than 5 days after such conviction;
(E) notifying the granting agency within 10 days after receiving notice of a conviction under subparagraph (D)(ii) from an employee or otherwise receiving actual notice of such conviction;
(F) imposing a sanction on, or requiring the satisfactory participation in a drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program by, any employee who is so convicted, as required by section 703 of this title; and
(G) making a good faith effort to continue to maintain a drug-free workplace through implementation of subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), and (F).
(2) Individuals 
No Federal agency shall make a grant to any individual unless such individual agrees as a condition of such grant that the individual will not engage in the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensation, possession, or use of a controlled substance in conducting any activity with such grant.
(b) Suspension, termination, or debarment of grantee 

(1) Grounds for suspension, termination, or debarment 
Each grant awarded by a Federal agency shall be subject to suspension of payments under the grant or termination of the grant, or both, and the grantee thereunder shall be subject to suspension or debarment, in accordance with the requirements of this section if the agency head of the granting agency or his official designee determines, in writing, that
(A) the grantee violates the requirements of subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), (F), or (G) of subsection (a)(1) of this section; or
(B) such a number of employees of such grantee have been convicted of violations of criminal drug statutes for violations occurring in the workplace as to indicate that the grantee has failed to make a good faith effort to provide a drug-free workplace as required by subsection (a)(1) of this section.
(2) Conduct of suspension, termination, and debarment proceedings 
A suspension of payments, termination, or suspension or debarment proceeding subject to this subsection shall be conducted in accordance with applicable law, including Executive Order 12549 or any superseding Executive order and any regulations promulgated to implement such law or Executive order.
(3) Effect of debarment 
Upon issuance of any final decision under this subsection requiring debarment of a grantee, such grantee shall be ineligible for award of any grant from any Federal agency and for participation in any future grant from any Federal agency for a period specified in the decision, not to exceed 5 years.

41 USC 703 - Employee sanctions and remedies

A grantee or contractor shall, within 30 days after receiving notice from an employee of a conviction pursuant to section 701 (a)(1)(D)(ii) or 702 (a)(1)(D)(ii) of this title
(1) take appropriate personnel action against such employee up to and including termination; or
(2) require such employee to satisfactorily participate in a drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program approved for such purposes by a Federal, State, or local health, law enforcement, or other appropriate agency.

41 USC 704 - Waiver

(a) In general 
A termination, suspension of payments, or suspension or debarment under this chapter may be waived by the head of an agency with respect to a particular contract or grant if
(1) in the case of a waiver with respect to a contract, the head of the agency determines under section 701 (b)(1) of this title, after the issuance of a final determination under such section, that suspension of payments, or termination of the contract, or suspension or debarment of the contractor, or refusal to permit a person to be treated as a responsible source for a contract, as the case may be, would severely disrupt the operation of such agency to the detriment of the Federal Government or the general public; or
(2) in the case of a waiver with respect to a grant, the head of the agency determines that suspension of payments, termination of the grant, or suspension or debarment of the grantee would not be in the public interest.
(b) Exclusive authority 
The authority of the head of an agency under this section to waive a termination, suspension, or debarment shall not be delegated.

41 USC 705 - Regulations

Not later than 90 days after November 18, 1988, the governmentwide regulations governing actions under this chapter shall be issued pursuant to the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).

41 USC 706 - Definitions

For purposes of this chapter
(1) the term drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific grant or contract described in section 701 or 702 of this title of an entity at which employees of such entity are prohibited from engaging in the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensation, possession, or use of a controlled substance in accordance with the requirements of this Act;
(2) the term employee means the employee of a grantee or contractor directly engaged in the performance of work pursuant to the provisions of the grant or contract described in section 701 or 702 of this title;
(3) the term controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of section 812 of title 21;
(4) the term conviction means a finding of guilt (including a plea of nolo contendere) or imposition of sentence, or both, by any judicial body charged with the responsibility to determine violations of the Federal or State criminal drug statutes;
(5) the term criminal drug statute means a criminal statute involving manufacture, distribution, dispensation, use, or possession of any controlled substance;
(6) the term grantee means the department, division, or other unit of a person responsible for the performance under the grant;
(7) the term contractor means the department, division, or other unit of a person responsible for the performance under the contract; and
(8) the term Federal agency means an agency as that term is defined in section 552 (f) of title 5.

41 USC 707 - Construction of chapter

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require law enforcement agencies, if the head of the agency determines it would be inappropriate in connection with the agencys undercover operations, to comply with the provisions of this chapter.