8 USC 1439 - Naturalization through service in the armed forces

(a) Requirements 
A person who has served honorably at any time in the armed forces of the United States for a period or periods aggregating one year, and, who, if separated from such service, was never separated except under honorable conditions, may be naturalized without having resided, continuously immediately preceding the date of filing such persons application, in the United States for at least five years, and in the State or district of the Service in the United States in which the application for naturalization is filed for at least three months, and without having been physically present in the United States for any specified period, if such application is filed while the applicant is still in the service or within six months after the termination of such service.
(b) Exceptions 
A person filing an application under subsection (a) of this section shall comply in all other respects with the requirements of this subchapter, except that
(1) no residence within a State or district of the Service in the United States shall be required;
(2) notwithstanding section 1429 of this title insofar as it relates to deportability, such applicant may be naturalized immediately if the applicant be then actually in the Armed Forces of the United States, and if prior to the filing of the application, the applicant shall have appeared before and been examined by a representative of the Service;

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(3) the applicant shall furnish to the Secretary of Homeland Security, prior to any hearing upon his application, a certified statement from the proper executive department for each period of his service upon which he relies for the benefits of this section, clearly showing that such service was honorable and that no discharges from service, including periods of service not relied upon by him for the benefits of this section, were other than honorable (the certificate or certificates herein provided for shall be conclusive evidence of such service and discharge); and
(4) notwithstanding any other provision of law, no fee shall be charged or collected from the applicant for filing the application, or for the issuance of a certificate of naturalization upon being granted citizenship, and no clerk of any State court shall charge or collect any fee for such services unless the laws of the State require such charge to be made, in which case nothing more than the portion of the fee required to be paid to the State shall be charged or collected.
(c) Periods when not in service 
In the case such applicants service was not continuous, the applicants residence in the United States and State or district of the Service in the United States, good moral character, attachment to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorable disposition toward the good order and happiness of the United States, during any period within five years immediately preceding the date of filing such application between the periods of applicants service in the Armed Forces, shall be alleged in the application filed under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, and proved at any hearing thereon. Such allegation and proof shall also be made as to any period between the termination of applicants service and the filing of the application for naturalization.
(d) Residence requirements 
The applicant shall comply with the requirements of section 1427 (a) of this title, if the termination of such service has been more than six months preceding the date of filing the application for naturalization, except that such service within five years immediately preceding the date of filing such application shall be considered as residence and physical presence within the United States.
(e) Moral character 
Any such period or periods of service under honorable conditions, and good moral character, attachment to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorable disposition toward the good order and happiness of the United States, during such service, shall be proved by duly authenticated copies of the records of the executive departments having custody of the records of such service, and such authenticated copies of records shall be accepted in lieu of compliance with the provisions of section 1427 (a) of this title.
(f) Revocation 
Citizenship granted pursuant to this section may be revoked in accordance with section 1451 of this title if the person is separated from the Armed Forces under other than honorable conditions before the person has served honorably for a period or periods aggregating five years. Such ground for revocation shall be in addition to any other provided by law, including the grounds described in section 1451 of this title. The fact that the naturalized person was separated from the service under other than honorable conditions shall be proved by a duly authenticated certification from the executive department under which the person was serving at the time of separation. Any period or periods of service shall be proved by duly authenticated copies of the records of the executive departments having custody of the records of such service.
(g) Processing and adjudication of applications 
Not later than 6 months after receiving an application for naturalization filed by a current member of the Armed Forces under subsection (a), section 1440(a) of this title, or section 1440–1 of this title, by the spouse of such member under section 1430 (b) of this title, or by a surviving spouse or child under section 1430 (d) of this title, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services shall
(1) process and adjudicate the application, including completing all required background checks to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Homeland Security; or
(2) provide the applicant with
(A) an explanation for its inability to meet the processing and adjudication deadline under this subsection; and

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(B) an estimate of the date by which the application will be processed and adjudicated.
(h) Annual report 
The Director of United States Citizenship and Immigration Services shall submit an annual report to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Refugees and the Subcommittee on Homeland Security of the Senate and the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law and the Subcommittee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives that identifies every application filed under subsection (a), subsection (b) or (d) of section 1430 of this title, section 1440 (a) of this title, or section 1440–1 of this title that is not processed and adjudicated within 1 year after it was filed due to delays in conducting required background checks.