49 USC 5331 - Alcohol and controlled substances testing

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section
(1) controlled substance means any substance under section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802) whose use the Secretary of Transportation decides has a risk to transportation safety.
(2) person includes any entity organized or existing under the laws of the United States, a State, territory, or possession of the United States, or a foreign country.
(3) public transportation means any form of public transportation, except a form the Secretary decides is covered adequately, for employee alcohol and controlled substances testing purposes, under section 20140 or 31306 of this title or section 2303a, 7101 (i), or 7302 (e) of title 46. The Secretary may also decide that a form of public transportation is covered adequately, for employee alcohol and controlled substances testing purposes, under the alcohol and controlled substance statutes or regulations of an agency within the Department of Transportation or the Coast Guard.

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(b) Testing Program for Public Transportation Employees.— 

(1) 
(A) In the interest of public transportation safety, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations that establish a program requiring public transportation operations that receive financial assistance under section 5307, 5309, or 5311 of this title to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of public transportation employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation, and to conduct reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of such employees for the use of alcohol in violation of law or a United States Government regulation. The regulations shall permit such operations to conduct preemployment testing of such employees for the use of alcohol.
(B) When the Secretary of Transportation considers it appropriate in the interest of safety, the Secretary may prescribe regulations for conducting periodic recurring testing of public transportation employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation.
(2) In prescribing regulations under this subsection, the Secretary of Transportation
(A) shall require that post-accident testing of such a public transportation employee be conducted when loss of human life occurs in an accident involving public transportation; and
(B) may require that post-accident testing of such a public transportation employee be conducted when bodily injury or significant property damage occurs in any other serious accident involving public transportation.
(c) Disqualifications for Use.— 

(1) When the Secretary of Transportation considers it appropriate, the Secretary shall require disqualification for an established period of time or dismissal of any employee referred to in subsection (b)(1) of this section who is found
(A) to have used or been impaired by alcohol when on duty; or

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(B) to have used a controlled substance, whether or not on duty, except as allowed for medical purposes by law or regulation.
(2) This section does not supersede any penalty applicable to a public transportation employee under another law.
(d) Testing and Laboratory Requirements.— 
In carrying out subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall develop requirements that shall
(1) promote, to the maximum extent practicable, individual privacy in the collection of specimens;
(2) for laboratories and testing procedures for controlled substances, incorporate the Department of Health and Human Services scientific and technical guidelines dated April 11, 1988, and any amendments to those guidelines, including mandatory guidelines establishing
(A) comprehensive standards for every aspect of laboratory controlled substances testing and laboratory procedures to be applied in carrying out this section, including standards requiring the use of the best available technology to ensure the complete reliability and accuracy of controlled substances tests and strict procedures governing the chain of custody of specimens collected for controlled substances testing;
(B) the minimum list of controlled substances for which individuals may be tested; and
(C) appropriate standards and procedures for periodic review of laboratories and criteria for certification and revocation of certification of laboratories to perform controlled substances testing in carrying out this section;
(3) require that a laboratory involved in controlled substances testing under this section have the capability and facility, at the laboratory, of performing screening and confirmation tests;
(4) provide that all tests indicating the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation be confirmed by a scientifically recognized method of testing capable of providing quantitative information about alcohol or a controlled substance;
(5) provide that each specimen be subdivided, secured, and labeled in the presence of the tested individual and that a part of the specimen be retained in a secure manner to prevent the possibility of tampering, so that if the individuals confirmation test results are positive the individual has an opportunity to have the retained part tested by a 2d confirmation test done independently at another certified laboratory if the individual requests the 2d confirmation test not later than 3 days after being advised of the results of the first confirmation test;
(6) ensure appropriate safeguards for testing to detect and quantify alcohol in breath and body fluid samples, including urine and blood, through the development of regulations that may be necessary and in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services;
(7) provide for the confidentiality of test results and medical information (except information about alcohol or a controlled substance) of employees, except that this clause does not prevent the use of test results for the orderly imposition of appropriate sanctions under this section; and
(8) ensure that employees are selected for tests by nondiscriminatory and impartial methods, so that no employee is harassed by being treated differently from other employees in similar circumstances.
(e) Rehabilitation.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations establishing requirements for rehabilitation programs that provide for the identification and opportunity for treatment of any public transportation employee referred to in subsection (b)(1) of this section who is found to have used alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation. The Secretary shall decide on the circumstances under which employees shall be required to participate in a program. This subsection does not prevent a public transportation operation from establishing a program under this section in cooperation with another public transportation operation.
(f) Relationship to Other Laws, Regulations, Standards, and Orders.— 

(1) A State or local government may not prescribe, issue, or continue in effect a law, regulation, standard, or order that is inconsistent with regulations prescribed under this section. However, a regulation prescribed under this section does not preempt a State criminal law that imposes sanctions for reckless conduct leading to loss of life, injury, or damage to property.
(2) In prescribing regulations under this section, the Secretary of Transportation
(A) shall establish only requirements that are consistent with international obligations of the United States; and
(B) shall consider applicable laws and regulations of foreign countries.
(g) Ineligibility for Assistance.— 
A person is not eligible for financial assistance under section 5307, 5309, or 5311 of this title if the person is required, under regulations the Secretary of Transportation prescribes under this section, to establish a program of alcohol and controlled substances testing and does not establish the program.