42 USC 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

(a) Research programs; grants; contracts; pilot and demonstration plants; byproducts research 
The Administrator shall give special emphasis to research and development into new and improved methods, having industry-wide application, for the prevention and control of air pollution resulting from the combustion of fuels. In furtherance of such research and development he shall
(1) conduct and accelerate research programs directed toward development of improved, cost-effective techniques for
(A) control of combustion byproducts of fuels,
(B) removal of potential air pollutants from fuels prior to combustion,

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(C) control of emissions from the evaporation of fuels,
(D) improving the efficiency of fuels combustion so as to decrease atmospheric emissions, and
(E) producing synthetic or new fuels which, when used, result in decreased atmospheric emissions.[1]
(2) provide for Federal grants to public or nonprofit agencies, institutions, and organizations and to individuals, and contracts with public or private agencies, institutions, or persons, for payment of
(A)  part of the cost of acquiring, constructing, or otherwise securing for research and development purposes, new or improved devices or methods having industrywide application of preventing or controlling discharges into the air of various types of pollutants;
(B)  part of the cost of programs to develop low emission alternatives to the present internal combustion engine;
(C)  the cost to purchase vehicles and vehicle engines, or portions thereof, for research, development, and testing purposes; and
(D)  carrying out the other provisions of this section, without regard to section 3324 (a) and (b) of title 31 and section 5 of title 41: Provided, That research or demonstration contracts awarded pursuant to this subsection (including contracts for construction) may be made in accordance with, and subject to the limitations provided with respect to research contracts of the military departments in, section 2353 of title 10, except that the determination, approval, and certification required thereby shall be made by the Administrator; Provided further, That no grant may be made under this paragraph in excess of $1,500,000;
(3) determine, by laboratory and pilot plant testing, the results of air pollution research and studies in order to develop new or improved processes and plant designs to the point where they can be demonstrated on a large and practical scale;
(4) construct, operate, and maintain, or assist in meeting the cost of the construction, operation, and maintenance of new or improved demonstration plants or processes which have promise of accomplishing the purposes of this chapter;[2]

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(5) study new or improved methods for the recovery and marketing of commercially valuable byproducts resulting from the removal of pollutants.
(b) Powers of Administrator in establishing research and development programs 
In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Administrator may
(1) conduct and accelerate research and development of cost-effective instrumentation techniques to facilitate determination of quantity and quality of air pollutant emissions, including, but not limited to, automotive emissions;
(2) utilize, on a reimbursable basis, the facilities of existing Federal scientific laboratories;
(3) establish and operate necessary facilities and test sites at which to carry on the research, testing, development, and programming necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section;
(4) acquire secret processes, technical data, inventions, patent applications, patents, licenses, and an interest in lands, plants, and facilities, and other property or rights by purchase, license, lease, or donation; and
(5) cause on-site inspections to be made of promising domestic and foreign projects, and cooperate and participate in their development in instances in which the purposes of the chapter will be served thereby.
(c) Clean alternative fuels 
The Administrator shall conduct a research program to identify, characterize, and predict air emissions related to the production, distribution, storage, and use of clean alternative fuels to determine the risks and benefits to human health and the environment relative to those from using conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. The Administrator shall consult with other Federal agencies to ensure coordination and to avoid duplication of activities authorized under this subsection.
[1] So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.
[2] So in original. The word “and” probably should appear.