42 USC 300j1 - Research, technical assistance, information, training of personnel

(a) Specific powers and duties of Administrator 

(1) The Administrator may conduct research, studies, and demonstrations relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases and other impairments of man resulting directly or indirectly from contaminants in water, or to the provision of a dependably safe supply of drinking water, including
(A) improved methods
(i)  to identify and measure the existence of contaminants in drinking water (including methods which may be used by State and local health and water officials), and

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(ii)  to identify the source of such contaminants;
(B) improved methods to identify and measure the health effects of contaminants in drinking water;
(C) new methods of treating raw water to prepare it for drinking, so as to improve the efficiency of water treatment and to remove contaminants from water;
(D) improved methods for providing a dependably safe supply of drinking water, including improvements in water purification and distribution, and methods of assessing the health related hazards of drinking water; and
(E) improved methods of protecting underground water sources of public water systems from contamination.
(2) Information and research facilities.— 
In carrying out this subchapter, the Administrator is authorized to
(A) collect and make available information pertaining to research, investigations, and demonstrations with respect to providing a dependably safe supply of drinking water, together with appropriate recommendations in connection with the information; and
(B) make available research facilities of the Agency to appropriate public authorities, institutions, and individuals engaged in studies and research relating to this subchapter.
(3) The Administrator shall carry out a study of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of actual or potential sources of drinking water, contamination of such sources by other substances known or suspected to be harmful to public health, the effects of such contamination, and means of removing, treating, or otherwise controlling such contamination. To assist in carrying out this paragraph, the Administrator is authorized to make grants to public agencies and private nonprofit institutions.
(4) The Administrator shall conduct a survey and study of

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(A) disposal of waste (including residential waste) which may endanger underground water which supplies, or can reasonably be expected to supply, any public water systems, and
(B) means of control of such waste disposal.

Not later than one year after December 16, 1974, he shall transmit to the Congress the results of such survey and study, together with such recommendations as he deems appropriate.

(5) The Administrator shall carry out a study of methods of underground injection which do not result in the degradation of underground drinking water sources.
(6) The Administrator shall carry out a study of methods of preventing, detecting, and dealing with surface spills of contaminants which may degrade underground water sources for public water systems.
(7) The Administrator shall carry out a study of virus contamination of drinking water sources and means of control of such contamination.
(8) The Administrator shall carry out a study of the nature and extent of the impact on underground water which supplies or can reasonably be expected to supply public water systems of
(A)  abandoned injection or extraction wells;
(B)  intensive application of pesticides and fertilizers in underground water recharge areas; and
(C)  ponds, pools, lagoons, pits, or other surface disposal of contaminants in underground water recharge areas.
(9) The Administrator shall conduct a comprehensive study of public water supplies and drinking water sources to determine the nature, extent, sources of and means of control of contamination by chemicals or other substances suspected of being carcinogenic. Not later than six months after December 16, 1974, he shall transmit to the Congress the initial results of such study, together with such recommendations for further review and corrective action as he deems appropriate.
(10) The Administrator shall carry out a study of the reaction of chlorine and humic acids and the effects of the contaminants which result from such reaction on public health and on the safety of drinking water, including any carcinogenic effect.
(b) Emergency situations 
The Administrator is authorized to provide technical assistance and to make grants to States, or publicly owned water systems to assist in responding to and alleviating any emergency situation affecting public water systems (including sources of water for such systems) which the Administrator determines to present substantial danger to the public health. Grants provided under this subsection shall be used only to support those actions which
(i)  are necessary for preventing, limiting or mitigating danger to the public health in such emergency situation and
(ii)  would not, in the judgment of the Administrator, be taken without such emergency assistance. The Administrator may carry out the program authorized under this subsection as part of, and in accordance with the terms and conditions of, any other program of assistance for environmental emergencies which the Administrator is authorized to carry out under any other provision of law. No limitation on appropriations for any such other program shall apply to amounts appropriated under this subsection.
(c) Establishment of training programs and grants for training; training fees 
The Administrator shall
(1) provide training for, and make grants for training (including postgraduate training) of
(A)  personnel of State agencies which have primary enforcement responsibility and of agencies or units of local government to which enforcement responsibilities have been delegated by the State, and
(B)  personnel who manage or operate public water systems, and
(2) make grants for postgraduate training of individuals (including grants to educational institutions for traineeships) for purposes of qualifying such individuals to work as personnel referred to in paragraph (1).
(3) make grants to, and enter into contracts with, any public agency, educational institution, and any other organization, in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Administrator, under which he may pay all or part of the costs (as may be determined by the Administrator) of any project or activity which is designed
(A) to develop, expand, or carry out a program (which may combine training education and employment) for training persons for occupations involving the public health aspects of providing safe drinking water;
(B) to train inspectors and supervisory personnel to train or supervise persons in occupations involving the public health aspects of providing safe drinking water; or
(C) to develop and expand the capability of programs of States and municipalities to carry out the purposes of this subchapter (other than by carrying out State programs of public water system supervision or underground water source protection (as defined in section 300j–2 (c) of this title)).

Reasonable fees may be charged for training provided under paragraph (1)(B) to persons other than personnel of State or local agencies but such training shall be provided to personnel of State or local agencies without charge.

(d) Authorization of appropriations 
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subsection (b) of this section not more than $35,000,000 for the fiscal year 2002 and such sums as may be necessary for each fiscal year thereafter.
(e) Technical assistance 
The Administrator may provide technical assistance to small public water systems to enable such systems to achieve and maintain compliance with applicable national primary drinking water regulations. Such assistance may include circuit-rider and multi-State regional technical assistance programs, training, and preliminary engineering evaluations. The Administrator shall ensure that technical assistance pursuant to this subsection is available in each State. Each nonprofit organization receiving assistance under this subsection shall consult with the State in which the assistance is to be expended or otherwise made available before using assistance to undertake activities to carry out this subsection. There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator to be used for such technical assistance $15,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1997 through 2003. No portion of any State loan fund established under section 300j–12 of this title (relating to State loan funds) and no portion of any funds made available under this subsection may be used for lobbying expenses. Of the total amount appropriated under this subsection, 3 percent shall be used for technical assistance to public water systems owned or operated by Indian Tribes.