26 USC 175 - Soil and water conservation expenditures

(a) In general 
A taxpayer engaged in the business of farming may treat expenditures which are paid or incurred by him during the taxable year for the purpose of soil or water conservation in respect of land used in farming, or for the prevention of erosion of land used in farming, as expenses which are not chargeable to capital account. The expenditures so treated shall be allowed as a deduction.
(b) Limitation 
The amount deductible under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed 25 percent of the gross income derived from farming during the taxable year. If for any taxable year the total of the expenditures treated as expenses which are not chargeable to capital account exceeds 25 percent of the gross income derived from farming during the taxable year, such excess shall be deductible for succeeding taxable years in order of time; but the amount deductible under this section for any one such succeeding taxable year (including the expenditures actually paid or incurred during the taxable year) shall not exceed 25 percent of the gross income derived from farming during the taxable year.
(c) Definitions 
For purposes of subsection (a)
(1) The term expenditures which are paid or incurred by him during the taxable year for the purpose of soil or water conservation in respect of land used in farming, or for the prevention of erosion of land used in farming means expenditures paid or incurred for the treatment or moving of earth, including (but not limited to) leveling, grading and terracing, contour furrowing, the construction, control, and protection of diversion channels, drainage ditches, earthen dams, watercourses, outlets, and ponds, the eradication of brush, and the planting of windbreaks. Such term does not include

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(A) the purchase, construction, installation, or improvement of structures, appliances, or facilities which are of a character which is subject to the allowance for depreciation provided in section 167, or
(B) any amount paid or incurred which is allowable as a deduction without regard to this section.

Notwithstanding the preceding sentences, such term also includes any amount, not otherwise allowable as a deduction, paid or incurred to satisfy any part of an assessment levied by a soil or water conservation or drainage district to defray expenditures made by such district (i) which, if paid or incurred by the taxpayer, would without regard to this sentence constitute expenditures deductible under this section, or (ii) for property of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation provided in section 167 and used in the soil or water conservation or drainage districts business as such (to the extent that the taxpayers share of the assessment levied on the members of the district for such property does not exceed 10 percent of such assessment).

(2) The term land used in farming means land used (before or simultaneously with the expenditures described in paragraph (1)) by the taxpayer or his tenant for the production of crops, fruits, or other agricultural products or for the sustenance of livestock.
(3) Additional limitations.— 

(A) Expenditures must be consistent with soil conservation plan.— 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, subsection (a) shall not apply to any expenditures unless such expenditures are consistent with
(i) the plan (if any) approved by the Soil Conservation Service of the Department of Agriculture for the area in which the land is located, or
(ii) if there is no plan described in clause (i), any soil conservation plan of a comparable State agency.
(B) Certain wetland, etc., activities not qualified.Subsection (a) shall not apply to any expenditures in connection with the draining or filling of wetlands or land preparation for center pivot irrigation systems.
(d) When method may be adopted 

(1) Without consent 
A taxpayer may, without the consent of the Secretary, adopt the method provided in this section for his first taxable year

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(A) which begins after December 31, 1953, and ends after August 16, 1954, and
(B) for which expenditures described in subsection (a) are paid or incurred.
(2) With consent 
A taxpayer may, with the consent of the Secretary, adopt at any time the method provided in this section.
(e) Scope 
The method adopted under this section shall apply to all expenditures described in subsection (a). The method adopted shall be adhered to in computing taxable income for the taxable year and for all subsequent taxable years unless, with the approval of the Secretary, a change to a different method is authorized with respect to part or all of such expenditures.
(f) Rules applicable to assessments for depreciable property 

(1) Amounts treated as paid or incurred over 9-year period 
In the case of an assessment levied to defray expenditures for property described in clause (ii) of the last sentence of subsection (c)(1), if the amount of such assessment paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the taxable year (determined without the application of this paragraph) is in excess of an amount equal to 10 percent of the aggregate amounts which have been and will be assessed as the taxpayers share of the expenditures by the district for such property, and if such excess is more than $500, the entire excess shall be treated as paid or incurred ratably over each of the 9 succeeding taxable years.
(2) Disposition of land during 9-year period 
If paragraph (1) applies to an assessment and the land with respect to which such assessment was made is sold or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer (other than by the reason of his death) during the 9 succeeding taxable years, any amount of the excess described in paragraph (1) which has not been treated as paid or incurred for a taxable year ending on or before the sale or other disposition shall be added to the adjusted basis of such land immediately prior to its sale or other disposition and shall not thereafter be treated as paid or incurred ratably under paragraph (1).
(3) Disposition by reason of death 
If paragraph (1) applies to an assessment and the taxpayer dies during the 9 succeeding taxable years, any amount of the excess described in paragraph (1) which has not been treated as paid or incurred for a taxable year ending before his death shall be treated as paid or incurred in the taxable year in which he dies.