TITLE 42 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - GENERAL PROVISIONS

42 USC 7601 - Administration

(a) Regulations; delegation of powers and duties; regional officers and employees 

(1) The Administrator is authorized to prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out his functions under this chapter. The Administrator may delegate to any officer or employee of the Environmental Protection Agency such of his powers and duties under this chapter, except the making of regulations subject to section 7607 (d) of this title, as he may deem necessary or expedient.
(2) Not later than one year after August 7, 1977, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing general applicable procedures and policies for regional officers and employees (including the Regional Administrator) to follow in carrying out a delegation under paragraph (1), if any. Such regulations shall be designed
(A) to assure fairness and uniformity in the criteria, procedures, and policies applied by the various regions in implementing and enforcing the chapter;

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(B) to assure at least an adequate quality audit of each States performance and adherence to the requirements of this chapter in implementing and enforcing the chapter, particularly in the review of new sources and in enforcement of the chapter; and
(C) to provide a mechanism for identifying and standardizing inconsistent or varying criteria, procedures, and policies being employed by such officers and employees in implementing and enforcing the chapter.
(b) Detail of Environmental Protection Agency personnel to air pollution control agencies 
Upon the request of an air pollution control agency, personnel of the Environmental Protection Agency may be detailed to such agency for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this chapter.
(c) Payments under grants; installments; advances or reimbursements 
Payments under grants made under this chapter may be made in installments, and in advance or by way of reimbursement, as may be determined by the Administrator.
(d) Tribal authority 

(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2), the Administrator
(A) is authorized to treat Indian tribes as States under this chapter, except for purposes of the requirement that makes available for application by each State no less than one-half of 1 percent of annual appropriations under section 7405 of this title; and
(B) may provide any such Indian tribe grant and contract assistance to carry out functions provided by this chapter.
(2) The Administrator shall promulgate regulations within 18 months after November 15, 1990, specifying those provisions of this chapter for which it is appropriate to treat Indian tribes as States. Such treatment shall be authorized only if
(A) the Indian tribe has a governing body carrying out substantial governmental duties and powers;

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(B) the functions to be exercised by the Indian tribe pertain to the management and protection of air resources within the exterior boundaries of the reservation or other areas within the tribes jurisdiction; and
(C) the Indian tribe is reasonably expected to be capable, in the judgment of the Administrator, of carrying out the functions to be exercised in a manner consistent with the terms and purposes of this chapter and all applicable regulations.
(3) The Administrator may promulgate regulations which establish the elements of tribal implementation plans and procedures for approval or disapproval of tribal implementation plans and portions thereof.
(4) In any case in which the Administrator determines that the treatment of Indian tribes as identical to States is inappropriate or administratively infeasible, the Administrator may provide, by regulation, other means by which the Administrator will directly administer such provisions so as to achieve the appropriate purpose.
(5) Until such time as the Administrator promulgates regulations pursuant to this subsection, the Administrator may continue to provide financial assistance to eligible Indian tribes under section 7405 of this title.

42 USC 7602 - Definitions

When used in this chapter
(a) The term Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
(b) The term air pollution control agency means any of the following:
(1) A single State agency designated by the Governor of that State as the official State air pollution control agency for purposes of this chapter.
(2) An agency established by two or more States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution.
(3) A city, county, or other local government health authority, or, in the case of any city, county, or other local government in which there is an agency other than the health authority charged with responsibility for enforcing ordinances or laws relating to the prevention and control of air pollution, such other agency.
(4) An agency of two or more municipalities located in the same State or in different States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution.
(5) An agency of an Indian tribe.
(c) The term interstate air pollution control agency means
(1) an air pollution control agency established by two or more States, or
(2) an air pollution control agency of two or more municipalities located in different States.
(d) The term State means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
(e) The term person includes an individual, corporation, partnership, association, State, municipality, political subdivision of a State, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent, or employee thereof.
(f) The term municipality means a city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or other public body created by or pursuant to State law.
(g) The term air pollutant means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. Such term includes any precursors to the formation of any air pollutant, to the extent the Administrator has identified such precursor or precursors for the particular purpose for which the term air pollutant is used.
(h) All language referring to effects on welfare includes, but is not limited to, effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, manmade materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility, and climate, damage to and deterioration of property, and hazards to transportation, as well as effects on economic values and on personal comfort and well-being, whether caused by transformation, conversion, or combination with other air pollutants.
(i) The term Federal land manager means, with respect to any lands in the United States, the Secretary of the department with authority over such lands.
(j) Except as otherwise expressly provided, the terms major stationary source and major emitting facility mean any stationary facility or source of air pollutants which directly emits, or has the potential to emit, one hundred tons per year or more of any air pollutant (including any major emitting facility or source of fugitive emissions of any such pollutant, as determined by rule by the Administrator).
(k) The terms emission limitation and emission standard mean a requirement established by the State or the Administrator which limits the quantity, rate, or concentration of emissions of air pollutants on a continuous basis, including any requirement relating to the operation or maintenance of a source to assure continuous emission reduction, and any design, equipment, work practice or operational standard promulgated under this chapter..[1]
(l) The term standard of performance means a requirement of continuous emission reduction, including any requirement relating to the operation or maintenance of a source to assure continuous emission reduction.
(m) The term means of emission limitation means a system of continuous emission reduction (including the use of specific technology or fuels with specified pollution characteristics).
(n) The term primary standard attainment date means the date specified in the applicable implementation plan for the attainment of a national primary ambient air quality standard for any air pollutant.
(o) The term delayed compliance order means an order issued by the State or by the Administrator to an existing stationary source, postponing the date required under an applicable implementation plan for compliance by such source with any requirement of such plan.
(p) The term schedule and timetable of compliance means a schedule of required measures including an enforceable sequence of actions or operations leading to compliance with an emission limitation, other limitation, prohibition, or standard.
(q) For purposes of this chapter, the term applicable implementation plan means the portion (or portions) of the implementation plan, or most recent revision thereof, which has been approved under section 7410 of this title, or promulgated under section 7410 (c) of this title, or promulgated or approved pursuant to regulations promulgated under section 7601 (d) of this title and which implements the relevant requirements of this chapter.
(r) Indian Tribe.— 
The term Indian tribe means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village, which is Federally recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.
(s) VOC.— 
The term VOC means volatile organic compound, as defined by the Administrator.
(t) PM–10.— 
The term PM10 means particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal ten micrometers, as measured by such method as the Administrator may determine.
(u) NAAQS and CTG.— 
The term NAAQS means national ambient air quality standard. The term CTG means a Control Technique Guideline published by the Administrator under section 7408 of this title.
(v) NOx.The term NOx means oxides of nitrogen.
(w) CO.— 
The term CO means carbon monoxide.
(x) Small Source.— 
The term small source means a source that emits less than 100 tons of regulated pollutants per year, or any class of persons that the Administrator determines, through regulation, generally lack technical ability or knowledge regarding control of air pollution.
(y) Federal Implementation Plan.— 
The term Federal implementation plan means a plan (or portion thereof) promulgated by the Administrator to fill all or a portion of a gap or otherwise correct all or a portion of an inadequacy in a State implementation plan, and which includes enforceable emission limitations or other control measures, means or techniques (including economic incentives, such as marketable permits or auctions of emissions allowances), and provides for attainment of the relevant national ambient air quality standard.
(z) Stationary Source.— 
The term stationary source means generally any source of an air pollutant except those emissions resulting directly from an internal combustion engine for transportation purposes or from a nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle as defined in section 7550 of this title.
[1] So in original.

42 USC 7603 - Emergency powers

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Administrator, upon receipt of evidence that a pollution source or combination of sources (including moving sources) is presenting an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or welfare, or the environment, may bring suit on behalf of the United States in the appropriate United States district court to immediately restrain any person causing or contributing to the alleged pollution to stop the emission of air pollutants causing or contributing to such pollution or to take such other action as may be necessary. If it is not practicable to assure prompt protection of public health or welfare or the environment by commencement of such a civil action, the Administrator may issue such orders as may be necessary to protect public health or welfare or the environment. Prior to taking any action under this section, the Administrator shall consult with appropriate State and local authorities and attempt to confirm the accuracy of the information on which the action proposed to be taken is based. Any order issued by the Administrator under this section shall be effective upon issuance and shall remain in effect for a period of not more than 60 days, unless the Administrator brings an action pursuant to the first sentence of this section before the expiration of that period. Whenever the Administrator brings such an action within the 60-day period, such order shall remain in effect for an additional 14 days or for such longer period as may be authorized by the court in which such action is brought.

42 USC 7604 - Citizen suits

(a) Authority to bring civil action; jurisdiction 
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any person may commence a civil action on his own behalf
(1) against any person (including (i) the United States, and (ii) any other governmental instrumentality or agency to the extent permitted by the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution) who is alleged to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or to be in violation of (A) an emission standard or limitation under this chapter or (B) an order issued by the Administrator or a State with respect to such a standard or limitation,
(2) against the Administrator where there is alleged a failure of the Administrator to perform any act or duty under this chapter which is not discretionary with the Administrator, or
(3) against any person who proposes to construct or constructs any new or modified major emitting facility without a permit required under part C of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to significant deterioration of air quality) or part D of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to nonattainment) or who is alleged to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or to be in violation of any condition of such permit.

The district courts shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce such an emission standard or limitation, or such an order, or to order the Administrator to perform such act or duty, as the case may be, and to apply any appropriate civil penalties (except for actions under paragraph (2)). The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to compel (consistent with paragraph (2) of this subsection) agency action unreasonably delayed, except that an action to compel agency action referred to in section 7607 (b) of this title which is unreasonably delayed may only be filed in a United States District Court within the circuit in which such action would be reviewable under section 7607 (b) of this title. In any such action for unreasonable delay, notice to the entities referred to in subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section shall be provided 180 days before commencing such action.

(b) Notice 
No action may be commenced
(1) under subsection (a)(1) of this section
(A) prior to 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of the violation
(i)  to the Administrator,
(ii)  to the State in which the violation occurs, and
(iii)  to any alleged violator of the standard, limitation, or order, or
(B) if the Administrator or State has commenced and is diligently prosecuting a civil action in a court of the United States or a State to require compliance with the standard, limitation, or order, but in any such action in a court of the United States any person may intervene as a matter of right.[1]
(2) under subsection (a)(2) of this section prior to 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of such action to the Administrator,

except that such action may be brought immediately after such notification in the case of an action under this section respecting a violation of section 7412 (i)(3)(A) or (f)(4) of this title or an order issued by the Administrator pursuant to section 7413 (a) of this title. Notice under this subsection shall be given in such manner as the Administrator shall prescribe by regulation.

(c) Venue; intervention by Administrator; service of complaint; consent judgment 

(1) Any action respecting a violation by a stationary source of an emission standard or limitation or an order respecting such standard or limitation may be brought only in the judicial district in which such source is located.
(2) In any action under this section, the Administrator, if not a party, may intervene as a matter of right at any time in the proceeding. A judgment in an action under this section to which the United States is not a party shall not, however, have any binding effect upon the United States.
(3) Whenever any action is brought under this section the plaintiff shall serve a copy of the complaint on the Attorney General of the United States and on the Administrator. No consent judgment shall be entered in an action brought under this section in which the United States is not a party prior to 45 days following the receipt of a copy of the proposed consent judgment by the Attorney General and the Administrator during which time the Government may submit its comments on the proposed consent judgment to the court and parties or may intervene as a matter of right.
(d) Award of costs; security 
The court, in issuing any final order in any action brought pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party, whenever the court determines such award is appropriate. The court may, if a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction is sought, require the filing of a bond or equivalent security in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
(e) Nonrestriction of other rights 
Nothing in this section shall restrict any right which any person (or class of persons) may have under any statute or common law to seek enforcement of any emission standard or limitation or to seek any other relief (including relief against the Administrator or a State agency). Nothing in this section or in any other law of the United States shall be construed to prohibit, exclude, or restrict any State, local, or interstate authority from
(1) bringing any enforcement action or obtaining any judicial remedy or sanction in any State or local court, or
(2) bringing any administrative enforcement action or obtaining any administrative remedy or sanction in any State or local administrative agency, department or instrumentality,

against the United States, any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or any officer, agent, or employee thereof under State or local law respecting control and abatement of air pollution. For provisions requiring compliance by the United States, departments, agencies, instrumentalities, officers, agents, and employees in the same manner as nongovernmental entities, see section 7418 of this title.

(f) “Emission standard or limitation under this chapter” defined 
For purposes of this section, the term emission standard or limitation under this chapter means
(1) a schedule or timetable of compliance, emission limitation, standard of performance or emission standard,
(2) a control or prohibition respecting a motor vehicle fuel or fuel additive, or[2]
(3) any condition or requirement of a permit under part C of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to significant deterioration of air quality) or part D of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to nonattainment),,[3] section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelter orders), any condition or requirement under an applicable implementation plan relating to transportation control measures, air quality maintenance plans, vehicle inspection and maintenance programs or vapor recovery requirements, section 7545 (e) and (f) of this title (relating to fuels and fuel additives), section 7491 of this title (relating to visibility protection), any condition or requirement under subchapter VI of this chapter (relating to ozone protection), or any requirement under section 7411 or 7412 of this title (without regard to whether such requirement is expressed as an emission standard or otherwise);[4] or
(4) any other standard, limitation, or schedule established under any permit issued pursuant to subchapter V of this chapter or under any applicable State implementation plan approved by the Administrator, any permit term or condition, and any requirement to obtain a permit as a condition of operations.[5]

which is in effect under this chapter (including a requirement applicable by reason of section 7418 of this title) or under an applicable implementation plan.

(g) Penalty fund 

(1) Penalties received under subsection (a) of this section shall be deposited in a special fund in the United States Treasury for licensing and other services. Amounts in such fund are authorized to be appropriated and shall remain available until expended, for use by the Administrator to finance air compliance and enforcement activities. The Administrator shall annually report to the Congress about the sums deposited into the fund, the sources thereof, and the actual and proposed uses thereof.
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) the court in any action under this subsection[6] to apply civil penalties shall have discretion to order that such civil penalties, in lieu of being deposited in the fund referred to in paragraph (1), be used in beneficial mitigation projects which are consistent with this chapter and enhance the public health or the environment. The court shall obtain the view of the Administrator in exercising such discretion and selecting any such projects. The amount of any such payment in any such action shall not exceed $100,000.
[1] So in original. The period probably should be “, or”.
[2] So in original. The word “or” probably should not appear.
[3] So in original.
[4] So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
[5] So in original. The period probably should be a comma.
[6] So in original. Probably should be “this section”.

42 USC 7605 - Representation in litigation

(a) Attorney General; attorneys appointed by Administrator 
The Administrator shall request the Attorney General to appear and represent him in any civil action instituted under this chapter to which the Administrator is a party. Unless the Attorney General notifies the Administrator that he will appear in such action, within a reasonable time, attorneys appointed by the Administrator shall appear and represent him.
(b) Memorandum of understanding regarding legal representation 
In the event the Attorney General agrees to appear and represent the Administrator in any such action, such representation shall be conducted in accordance with, and shall include participation by, attorneys appointed by the Administrator to the extent authorized by, the memorandum of understanding between the Department of Justice and the Environmental Protection Agency, dated June 13, 1977, respecting representation of the agency by the department in civil litigation.

42 USC 7606 - Federal procurement

(a) Contracts with violators prohibited 
No Federal agency may enter into any contract with any person who is convicted of any offense under section 7413 (c) of this title for the procurement of goods, materials, and services to perform such contract at any facility at which the violation which gave rise to such conviction occurred if such facility is owned, leased, or supervised by such person. The prohibition in the preceding sentence shall continue until the Administrator certifies that the condition giving rise to such a conviction has been corrected. For convictions arising under section 7413 (c)(2) of this title, the condition giving rise to the conviction also shall be considered to include any substantive violation of this chapter associated with the violation of 7413(c)(2) of this title. The Administrator may extend this prohibition to other facilities owned or operated by the convicted person.
(b) Notification procedures 
The Administrator shall establish procedures to provide all Federal agencies with the notification necessary for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section.
(c) Federal agency contracts 
In order to implement the purposes and policy of this chapter to protect and enhance the quality of the Nations air, the President shall, not more than 180 days after December 31, 1970, cause to be issued an order
(1)  requiring each Federal agency authorized to enter into contracts and each Federal agency which is empowered to extend Federal assistance by way of grant, loan, or contract to effectuate the purpose and policy of this chapter in such contracting or assistance activities, and
(2)  setting forth procedures, sanctions, penalties, and such other provisions, as the President determines necessary to carry out such requirement.
(d) Exemptions; notification to Congress 
The President may exempt any contract, loan, or grant from all or part of the provisions of this section where he determines such exemption is necessary in the paramount interest of the United States and he shall notify the Congress of such exemption.

42 USC 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

(a) Administrative subpenas; confidentiality; wit­nesses 
In connection with any determination under section 7410 (f) of this title, or for purposes of obtaining information under section 7521 (b)(4)1 or 7545 (c)(3) of this title, any investigation, monitoring, reporting requirement, entry, compliance inspection, or administrative enforcement proceeding under the[2] chapter (including but not limited to section 7413, section 7414, section 7420, section 7429, section 7477, section 7524, section 7525, section 7542, section 7603, or section 7606 of this title),,[3] the Administrator may issue subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents, and he may administer oaths. Except for emission data, upon a showing satisfactory to the Administrator by such owner or operator that such papers, books, documents, or information or particular part thereof, if made public, would divulge trade secrets or secret processes of such owner or operator, the Administrator shall consider such record, report, or information or particular portion thereof confidential in accordance with the purposes of section 1905 of title 18, except that such paper, book, document, or information may be disclosed to other officers, employees, or authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out this chapter, to persons carrying out the National Academy of Sciences study and investigation provided for in section 7521 (c) of this title, or when relevant in any proceeding under this chapter. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena served upon any person under this subparagraph,[4] the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the United States and after notice to such person, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony before the Administrator to appear and produce papers, books, and documents before the Administrator, or both, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.
(b) Judicial review 

(1) A petition for review of action of the Administrator in promulgating any national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard, any emission standard or requirement under section 7412 of this title, any standard of performance or requirement under section 7411 of this title,,[3] any standard under section 7521 of this title (other than a standard required to be prescribed under section 7521 (b)(1) of this title), any determination under section 7521 (b)(5)1 of this title, any control or prohibition under section 7545 of this title, any standard under section 7571 of this title, any rule issued under section 7413, 7419, or under section 7420 of this title, or any other nationally applicable regulations promulgated, or final action taken, by the Administrator under this chapter may be filed only in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. A petition for review of the Administrators action in approving or promulgating any implementation plan under section 7410 of this title or section 7411 (d) of this title, any order under section 7411 (j) of this title, under section 7412 of this title, under section 7419 of this title, or under section 7420 of this title, or his action under section 1857c–10 (c)(2)(A), (B), or (C) of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977) or under regulations thereunder, or revising regulations for enhanced monitoring and compliance certification programs under section 7414 (a)(3) of this title, or any other final action of the Administrator under this chapter (including any denial or disapproval by the Administrator under subchapter I of this chapter) which is locally or regionally applicable may be filed only in the United States Court of Appeals for the appropriate circuit. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence a petition for review of any action referred to in such sentence may be filed only in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia if such action is based on a determination of nationwide scope or effect and if in taking such action the Administrator finds and publishes that such action is based on such a determination. Any petition for review under this subsection shall be filed within sixty days from the date notice of such promulgation, approval, or action appears in the Federal Register, except that if such petition is based solely on grounds arising after such sixtieth day, then any petition for review under this subsection shall be filed within sixty days after such grounds arise. The filing of a petition for reconsideration by the Administrator of any otherwise final rule or action shall not affect the finality of such rule or action for purposes of judicial review nor extend the time within which a petition for judicial review of such rule or action under this section may be filed, and shall not postpone the effectiveness of such rule or action.
(2) Action of the Administrator with respect to which review could have been obtained under paragraph (1) shall not be subject to judicial review in civil or criminal proceedings for enforcement. Where a final decision by the Administrator defers performance of any nondiscretionary statutory action to a later time, any person may challenge the deferral pursuant to paragraph (1).
(c) Additional evidence 
In any judicial proceeding in which review is sought of a determination under this chapter required to be made on the record after notice and opportunity for hearing, if any party applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shows to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the proceeding before the Administrator, the court may order such additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal thereof) to be taken before the Administrator, in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to[5] the court may deem proper. The Administrator may modify his findings as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of the additional evidence so taken and he shall file such modified or new findings, and his recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of his original determination, with the return of such additional evidence.
(d) Rulemaking 

(1) This subsection applies to
(A) the promulgation or revision of any national ambient air quality standard under section 7409 of this title,
(B) the promulgation or revision of an implementation plan by the Administrator under section 7410 (c) of this title,
(C) the promulgation or revision of any standard of performance under section 7411 of this title, or emission standard or limitation under section 7412 (d) of this title, any standard under section 7412 (f) of this title, or any regulation under section 7412 (g)(1)(D) and (F) of this title, or any regulation under section 7412 (m) or (n) of this title,
(D) the promulgation of any requirement for solid waste combustion under section 7429 of this title,
(E) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to any fuel or fuel additive under section 7545 of this title,
(F) the promulgation or revision of any aircraft emission standard under section 7571 of this title,
(G) the promulgation or revision of any regulation under subchapter IVA of this chapter (relating to control of acid deposition),
(H) promulgation or revision of regulations pertaining to primary nonferrous smelter orders under section 7419 of this title (but not including the granting or denying of any such order),
(I) promulgation or revision of regulations under subchapter VI of this chapter (relating to stratosphere and ozone protection),
(J) promulgation or revision of regulations under part C of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to prevention of significant deterioration of air quality and protection of visibility),
(K) promulgation or revision of regulations under section 7521 of this title and test procedures for new motor vehicles or engines under section 7525 of this title, and the revision of a standard under section 7521 (a)(3) of this title,
(L) promulgation or revision of regulations for noncompliance penalties under section 7420 of this title,
(M) promulgation or revision of any regulations promulgated under section 7541 of this title (relating to warranties and compliance by vehicles in actual use),
(N) action of the Administrator under section 7426 of this title (relating to interstate pollution abatement),
(O) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to consumer and commercial products under section 7511b (e) of this title,
(P) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to field citations under section 7413 (d)(3) of this title,
(Q) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to urban buses or the clean-fuel vehicle, clean-fuel fleet, and clean fuel programs under part C of subchapter II of this chapter,
(R) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles under section 7547 of this title,
(S) the promulgation or revision of any regulation relating to motor vehicle compliance program fees under section 7552 of this title,
(T) the promulgation or revision of any regulation under subchapter IVA of this chapter (relating to acid deposition),
(U) the promulgation or revision of any regulation under section 7511b (f) of this title pertaining to marine vessels, and
(V) such other actions as the Administrator may determine.

The provisions of section 553 through 557 and section 706 of title 5 shall not, except as expressly provided in this subsection, apply to actions to which this subsection applies. This subsection shall not apply in the case of any rule or circumstance referred to in subparagraphs (A) or (B) of subsection 553(b) of title 5.

(2) Not later than the date of proposal of any action to which this subsection applies, the Administrator shall establish a rulemaking docket for such action (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as a rule). Whenever a rule applies only within a particular State, a second (identical) docket shall be simultaneously established in the appropriate regional office of the Environmental Protection Agency.
(3) In the case of any rule to which this subsection applies, notice of proposed rulemaking shall be published in the Federal Register, as provided under section 553 (b) of title 5, shall be accompanied by a statement of its basis and purpose and shall specify the period available for public comment (hereinafter referred to as the comment period). The notice of proposed rulemaking shall also state the docket number, the location or locations of the docket, and the times it will be open to public inspection. The statement of basis and purpose shall include a summary of
(A) the factual data on which the proposed rule is based;
(B) the methodology used in obtaining the data and in analyzing the data; and
(C) the major legal interpretations and policy considerations underlying the proposed rule.

The statement shall also set forth or summarize and provide a reference to any pertinent findings, recommendations, and comments by the Scientific Review Committee established under section 7409 (d) of this title and the National Academy of Sciences, and, if the proposal differs in any important respect from any of these recommendations, an explanation of the reasons for such differences. All data, information, and documents referred to in this paragraph on which the proposed rule relies shall be included in the docket on the date of publication of the proposed rule.

(4) 
(A) The rulemaking docket required under paragraph (2) shall be open for inspection by the public at reasonable times specified in the notice of proposed rulemaking. Any person may copy documents contained in the docket. The Administrator shall provide copying facilities which may be used at the expense of the person seeking copies, but the Administrator may waive or reduce such expenses in such instances as the public interest requires. Any person may request copies by mail if the person pays the expenses, including personnel costs to do the copying.
(B) 
(i) Promptly upon receipt by the agency, all written comments and documentary information on the proposed rule received from any person for inclusion in the docket during the comment period shall be placed in the docket. The transcript of public hearings, if any, on the proposed rule shall also be included in the docket promptly upon receipt from the person who transcribed such hearings. All documents which become available after the proposed rule has been published and which the Administrator determines are of central relevance to the rulemaking shall be placed in the docket as soon as possible after their availability.
(ii) The drafts of proposed rules submitted by the Administrator to the Office of Management and Budget for any interagency review process prior to proposal of any such rule, all documents accompanying such drafts, and all written comments thereon by other agencies and all written responses to such written comments by the Administrator shall be placed in the docket no later than the date of proposal of the rule. The drafts of the final rule submitted for such review process prior to promulgation and all such written comments thereon, all documents accompanying such drafts, and written responses thereto shall be placed in the docket no later than the date of promulgation.
(5) In promulgating a rule to which this subsection applies
(i)  the Administrator shall allow any person to submit written comments, data, or documentary information;
(ii)  the Administrator shall give interested persons an opportunity for the oral presentation of data, views, or arguments, in addition to an opportunity to make written submissions;
(iii)  a transcript shall be kept of any oral presentation; and
(iv)  the Administrator shall keep the record of such proceeding open for thirty days after completion of the proceeding to provide an opportunity for submission of rebuttal and supplementary information.
(6) 
(A) The promulgated rule shall be accompanied by
(i)  a statement of basis and purpose like that referred to in paragraph (3) with respect to a proposed rule and
(ii)  an explanation of the reasons for any major changes in the promulgated rule from the proposed rule.
(B) The promulgated rule shall also be accompanied by a response to each of the significant comments, criticisms, and new data submitted in written or oral presentations during the comment period.
(C) The promulgated rule may not be based (in part or whole) on any information or data which has not been placed in the docket as of the date of such promulgation.
(7) 
(A) The record for judicial review shall consist exclusively of the material referred to in paragraph (3), clause (i) of paragraph (4)(B), and subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (6).
(B) Only an objection to a rule or procedure which was raised with reasonable specificity during the period for public comment (including any public hearing) may be raised during judicial review. If the person raising an objection can demonstrate to the Administrator that it was impracticable to raise such objection within such time or if the grounds for such objection arose after the period for public comment (but within the time specified for judicial review) and if such objection is of central relevance to the outcome of the rule, the Administrator shall convene a proceeding for reconsideration of the rule and provide the same procedural rights as would have been afforded had the information been available at the time the rule was proposed. If the Administrator refuses to convene such a proceeding, such person may seek review of such refusal in the United States court of appeals for the appropriate circuit (as provided in subsection (b) of this section). Such reconsideration shall not postpone the effectiveness of the rule. The effectiveness of the rule may be stayed during such reconsideration, however, by the Administrator or the court for a period not to exceed three months.
(8) The sole forum for challenging procedural determinations made by the Administrator under this subsection shall be in the United States court of appeals for the appropriate circuit (as provided in subsection (b) of this section) at the time of the substantive review of the rule. No interlocutory appeals shall be permitted with respect to such procedural determinations. In reviewing alleged procedural errors, the court may invalidate the rule only if the errors were so serious and related to matters of such central relevance to the rule that there is a substantial likelihood that the rule would have been significantly changed if such errors had not been made.
(9) In the case of review of any action of the Administrator to which this subsection applies, the court may reverse any such action found to be
(A) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law;
(B) contrary to constitutional right, power, privilege, or immunity;
(C) in excess of statutory jurisdiction, authority, or limitations, or short of statutory right; or
(D) without observance of procedure required by law, if
(i)  such failure to observe such procedure is arbitrary or capricious,
(ii)  the requirement of paragraph (7)(B) has been met, and
(iii)  the condition of the last sentence of paragraph (8) is met.
(10) Each statutory deadline for promulgation of rules to which this subsection applies which requires promulgation less than six months after date of proposal may be extended to not more than six months after date of proposal by the Administrator upon a determination that such extension is necessary to afford the public, and the agency, adequate opportunity to carry out the purposes of this subsection.
(11) The requirements of this subsection shall take effect with respect to any rule the proposal of which occurs after ninety days after August 7, 1977.
(e) Other methods of judicial review not authorized 
Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to authorize judicial review of regulations or orders of the Administrator under this chapter, except as provided in this section.
(f) Costs 
In any judicial proceeding under this section, the court may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) whenever it determines that such award is appropriate.
(g) Stay, injunction, or similar relief in proceedings relating to noncompliance penalties 
In any action respecting the promulgation of regulations under section 7420 of this title or the administration or enforcement of section 7420 of this title no court shall grant any stay, injunctive, or similar relief before final judgment by such court in such action.
(h) Public participation 
It is the intent of Congress that, consistent with the policy of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, the Administrator in promulgating any regulation under this chapter, including a regulation subject to a deadline, shall ensure a reasonable period for public participation of at least 30 days, except as otherwise expressly provided in section[6] 7407(d), 7502(a), 7511(a) and (b), and 7512(a) and (b) of this title.
[1] See References in Text note below.
[2] So in original. Probably should be “this”.
[3] So in original.
[4] So in original. Probably should be “subsection,”.
[5] So in original. The word “to” probably should not appear.
[6] So in original. Probably should be “sections”.

42 USC 7608 - Mandatory licensing

Whenever the Attorney General determines, upon application of the Administrator
(1) that
(A) in the implementation of the requirements of section 7411, 7412, or 7521 of this title, a right under any United States letters patent, which is being used or intended for public or commercial use and not otherwise reasonably available, is necessary to enable any person required to comply with such limitation to so comply, and
(B) there are no reasonable alternative methods to accomplish such purpose, and
(2) that the unavailability of such right may result in a substantial lessening of competition or tendency to create a monopoly in any line of commerce in any section of the country,

the Attorney General may so certify to a district court of the United States, which may issue an order requiring the person who owns such patent to license it on such reasonable terms and conditions as the court, after hearing, may determine. Such certification may be made to the district court for the district in which the person owning the patent resides, does business, or is found.

42 USC 7609 - Policy review

(a) Environmental impact 
The Administrator shall review and comment in writing on the environmental impact of any matter relating to duties and responsibilities granted pursuant to this chapter or other provisions of the authority of the Administrator, contained in any
(1)  legislation proposed by any Federal department or agency,
(2)  newly authorized Federal projects for construction and any major Federal agency action (other than a project for construction) to which section 4332 (2)(C) of this title applies, and
(3)  proposed regulations published by any department or agency of the Federal Government. Such written comment shall be made public at the conclusion of any such review.
(b) Unsatisfactory legislation, action, or regulation 
In the event the Administrator determines that any such legislation, action, or regulation is unsatisfactory from the standpoint of public health or welfare or environmental quality, he shall publish his determination and the matter shall be referred to the Council on Environmental Quality.

42 USC 7610 - Other authority

(a) Authority and responsibilities under other laws not affected 
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, this chapter shall not be construed as superseding or limiting the authorities and responsibilities, under any other provision of law, of the Administrator or any other Federal officer, department, or agency.
(b) Nonduplication of appropriations 
No appropriation shall be authorized or made under section 241, 243, or 246 of this title for any fiscal year after the fiscal year ending June 30, 1964, for any purpose for which appropriations may be made under authority of this chapter.

42 USC 7611 - Records and audit

(a) Recipients of assistance to keep prescribed rec­ords 
Each recipient of assistance under this chapter shall keep such records as the Administrator shall prescribe, including records which fully disclose the amount and disposition by such recipient of the proceeds of such assistance, the total cost of the project or undertaking in connection with which such assistance is given or used, and the amount of that portion of the cost of the project or undertaking supplied by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an effective audit.
(b) Audits 
The Administrator and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall have access for the purpose of audit and examinations to any books, documents, papers, and records of the recipients that are pertinent to the grants received under this chapter.

42 USC 7612 - Economic impact analyses

(a) Cost-benefit analysis 
The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, and the Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis (as established under subsection (f) of this section), shall conduct a comprehensive analysis of the impact of this chapter on the public health, economy, and environment of the United States. In performing such analysis, the Administrator should consider the costs, benefits and other effects associated with compliance with each standard issued for
(1) a criteria air pollutant subject to a standard issued under section 7409 of this title;
(2) a hazardous air pollutant listed under section 7412 of this title, including any technology-based standard and any risk-based standard for such pollutant;
(3) emissions from mobile sources regulated under subchapter II of this chapter;
(4) a limitation under this chapter for emissions of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides;
(5) a limitation under subchapter VI of this chapter on the production of any ozone-depleting substance; and
(6) any other section of this chapter.
(b) Benefits 
In describing the benefits of a standard described in subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator shall consider all of the economic, public health, and environmental benefits of efforts to comply with such standard. In any case where numerical values are assigned to such benefits, a default assumption of zero value shall not be assigned to such benefits unless supported by specific data. The Administrator shall assess how benefits are measured in order to assure that damage to human health and the environment is more accurately measured and taken into account.
(c) Costs 
In describing the costs of a standard described in subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator shall consider the effects of such standard on employment, productivity, cost of living, economic growth, and the overall economy of the United States.
(d) Initial report 
Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, and the Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis, shall submit a report to the Congress that summarizes the results of the analysis described in subsection (a) of this section, which reports
(1) all costs incurred previous to November 15, 1990, in the effort to comply with such standards; and
(2) all benefits that have accrued to the United States as a result of such costs.
(e) Omitted 
(f) Appointment of Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis 
Not later than 6 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of Labor, shall appoint an Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis of not less than nine members (hereafter in this section referred to as the Council). In appointing such members, the Administrator shall appoint recognized experts in the fields of the health and environmental effects of air pollution, economic analysis, environmental sciences, and such other fields that the Administrator determines to be appropriate.
(g) Duties of Advisory Council 
The Council shall
(1) review the data to be used for any analysis required under this section and make recommendations to the Administrator on the use of such data;
(2) review the methodology used to analyze such data and make recommendations to the Administrator on the use of such methodology; and
(3) prior to the issuance of a report required under subsection (d) or (e) of this section, review the findings of such report, and make recommendations to the Administrator concerning the validity and utility of such findings.

42 USC 7613 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101549, title VIII, 803, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689

Section, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, 313, formerly 306, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, 81 Stat. 506; renumbered 313 and amended Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 12(a), 15 (c)(2), 84 Stat. 1705, 1713; Aug. 7, 1977, Pub. L. 95–95, title III, § 302(b), 91 Stat. 771, required annual report to Congress on progress of programs under this chapter.

42 USC 7614 - Labor standards

The Administrator shall take such action as may be necessary to insure that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors on projects assisted under this chapter shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing for the same type of work on similar construction in the locality as determined by the Secretary of Labor, in accordance with sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40. The Secretary of Labor shall have, with respect to the labor standards specified in this subsection,[1] the authority and functions set forth in Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950 (15 F.R. 3176; 64 Stat. 1267) and section 3145 of title 40.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “section,”.

42 USC 7615 - Separability

If any provision of this chapter, or the application of any provision of this chapter to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, and the remainder of this chapter shall not be affected thereby.

42 USC 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

(a) Construction 
No grant which the Administrator is authorized to make to any applicant for construction of sewage treatment works in any area in any State may be withheld, conditioned, or restricted by the Administrator on the basis of any requirement of this chapter except as provided in subsection (b) of this section.
(b) Withholding, conditioning, or restriction of construction grants 
The Administrator may withhold, condition, or restrict the making of any grant for construction referred to in subsection (a) of this section only if he determines that
(1) such treatment works will not comply with applicable standards under section 7411 or 7412 of this title,
(2) the State does not have in effect, or is not carrying out, a State implementation plan approved by the Administrator which expressly quantifies and provides for the increase in emissions of each air pollutant (from stationary and mobile sources in any area to which either part C or part D of subchapter I of this chapter applies for such pollutant) which increase may reasonably be anticipated to result directly or indirectly from the new sewage treatment capacity which would be created by such construction.[1]
(3) the construction of such treatment works would create new sewage treatment capacity which
(A) may reasonably be anticipated to cause or contribute to, directly or indirectly, an increase in emissions of any air pollutant in excess of the increase provided for under the provisions referred to in paragraph (2) for any such area, or
(B) would otherwise not be in conformity with the applicable implementation plan, or
(4) such increase in emissions would interfere with, or be inconsistent with, the applicable implementation plan for any other State.

In the case of construction of a treatment works which would result, directly or indirectly, in an increase in emissions of any air pollutant from stationary and mobile sources in an area to which part D of subchapter I of this chapter applies, the quantification of emissions referred to in paragraph (2) shall include the emissions of any such pollutant resulting directly or indirectly from areawide and nonmajor stationary source growth (mobile and stationary) for each such area.

(c) National Environmental Policy Act 
Nothing in this section shall be construed to amend or alter any provision of the National Environmental Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] or to affect any determination as to whether or not the requirements of such Act have been met in the case of the construction of any sewage treatment works.
[1] So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

42 USC 7617 - Economic impact assessment

(a) Notice of proposed rulemaking; substantial revisions 
This section applies to action of the Administrator in promulgating or revising
(1) any new source standard of performance under section 7411 of this title,
(2) any regulation under section 7411 (d) of this title,
(3) any regulation under part B[1] of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to ozone and stratosphere protection),
(4) any regulation under part C of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to prevention of significant deterioration of air quality),
(5) any regulation establishing emission standards under section 7521 of this title and any other regulation promulgated under that section,
(6) any regulation controlling or prohibiting any fuel or fuel additive under section 7545 (c) of this title, and
(7) any aircraft emission standard under section 7571 of this title.

Nothing in this section shall apply to any standard or regulation described in paragraphs (1) through (7) of this subsection unless the notice of proposed rulemaking in connection with such standard or regulation is published in the Federal Register after the date ninety days after August 7, 1977. In the case of revisions of such standards or regulations, this section shall apply only to revisions which the Administrator determines to be substantial revisions.

(b) Preparation of assessment by Administrator 
Before publication of notice of proposed rulemaking with respect to any standard or regulation to which this section applies, the Administrator shall prepare an economic impact assessment respecting such standard or regulation. Such assessment shall be included in the docket required under section 7607 (d)(2) of this title and shall be available to the public as provided in section 7607 (d)(4) of this title. Notice of proposed rulemaking shall include notice of such availability together with an explanation of the extent and manner in which the Administrator has considered the analysis contained in such economic impact assessment in proposing the action. The Administrator shall also provide such an explanation in his notice of promulgation of any regulation or standard referred to in subsection (a) of this section. Each such explanation shall be part of the statements of basis and purpose required under sections 7607 (d)(3) and 7607 (d)(6) of this title.
(c) Analysis 
Subject to subsection (d) of this section, the assessment required under this section with respect to any standard or regulation shall contain an analysis of
(1) the costs of compliance with any such standard or regulation, including extent to which the costs of compliance will vary depending on
(A)  the effective date of the standard or regulation, and
(B)  the development of less expensive, more efficient means or methods of compliance with the standard or regulation;
(2) the potential inflationary or recessionary effects of the standard or regulation;
(3) the effects on competition of the standard or regulation with respect to small business;
(4) the effects of the standard or regulation on consumer costs; and
(5) the effects of the standard or regulation on energy use.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to provide that the analysis of the factors specified in this subsection affects or alters the factors which the Administrator is required to consider in taking any action referred to in subsection (a) of this section.

(d) Extensiveness of assessment 
The assessment required under this section shall be as extensive as practicable, in the judgment of the Administrator taking into account the time and resources available to the Environmental Protection Agency and other duties and authorities which the Administrator is required to carry out under this chapter.
(e) Limitations on construction of section 
Nothing in this section shall be construed
(1) to alter the basis on which a standard or regulation is promulgated under this chapter;
(2) to preclude the Administrator from carrying out his responsibility under this chapter to protect public health and welfare; or
(3) to authorize or require any judicial review of any such standard or regulation, or any stay or injunction of the proposal, promulgation, or effectiveness of such standard or regulation on the basis of failure to comply with this section.
(f) Citizen suits 
The requirements imposed on the Administrator under this section shall be treated as nondiscretionary duties for purposes of section 7604 (a)(2) of this title, relating to citizen suits. The sole method for enforcement of the Administrators duty under this section shall be by bringing a citizen suit under such section 7604 (a)(2) for a court order to compel the Administrator to perform such duty. Violation of any such order shall subject the Administrator to penalties for contempt of court.
(g) Costs 
In the case of any provision of this chapter in which costs are expressly required to be taken into account, the adequacy or inadequacy of any assessment required under this section may be taken into consideration, but shall not be treated for purposes of judicial review of any such provision as conclusive with respect to compliance or noncompliance with the requirement of such provision to take cost into account.
[1] See References in Text note below.

42 USC 7618 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101549, title I, 108(q), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2469

Section, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, 318, as added Aug. 7, 1977, Pub. L. 95–95, title III, § 308, 91 Stat. 780, related to financial disclosure and conflicts of interest.

42 USC 7619 - Air quality monitoring

(a) In general 
After notice and opportunity for public hearing, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing an air quality monitoring system throughout the United States which
(1) utilizes uniform air quality monitoring criteria and methodology and measures such air quality according to a uniform air quality index,
(2) provides for air quality monitoring stations in major urban areas and other appropriate areas throughout the United States to provide monitoring such as will supplement (but not duplicate) air quality monitoring carried out by the States required under any applicable implementation plan,
(3) provides for daily analysis and reporting of air quality based upon such uniform air quality index, and
(4) provides for recordkeeping with respect to such monitoring data and for periodic analysis and reporting to the general public by the Administrator with respect to air quality based upon such data.

The operation of such air quality monitoring system may be carried out by the Administrator or by such other departments, agencies, or entities of the Federal Government (including the National Weather Service) as the President may deem appropriate. Any air quality monitoring system required under any applicable implementation plan under section 7410 of this title shall, as soon as practicable following promulgation of regulations under this section, utilize the standard criteria and methodology, and measure air quality according to the standard index, established under such regulations.

(b) Air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events 

(1) Definition of exceptional event 
In this section:
(A) In general 
The term exceptional event means an event that
(i) affects air quality;
(ii) is not reasonably controllable or preventable;
(iii) is an event caused by human activity that is unlikely to recur at a particular location or a natural event; and
(iv) is determined by the Administrator through the process established in the regulations promulgated under paragraph (2) to be an exceptional event.
(B) Exclusions 
In this subsection, the term exceptional event does not include
(i) stagnation of air masses or meteorological inversions;
(ii) a meteorological event involving high temperatures or lack of precipitation; or
(iii) air pollution relating to source noncompliance.
(2) Regulations 

(A) Proposed regulations 
Not later than March 1, 2006, after consultation with Federal land managers and State air pollution control agencies, the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register proposed regulations governing the review and handling of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.
(B) Final regulations 
Not later than 1 year after the date on which the Administrator publishes proposed regulations under subparagraph (A), and after providing an opportunity for interested persons to make oral presentations of views, data, and arguments regarding the proposed regulations, the Administrator shall promulgate final regulations governing the review and handling or[1] air quality monitoring data influenced by an exceptional event that are consistent with paragraph (3).
(3) Principles and requirements 

(A) Principles 
In promulgating regulations under this section, the Administrator shall follow
(i) the principle that protection of public health is the highest priority;
(ii) the principle that timely information should be provided to the public in any case in which the air quality is unhealthy;
(iii) the principle that all ambient air quality data should be included in a timely manner,[2] an appropriate Federal air quality database that is accessible to the public;
(iv) the principle that each State must take necessary measures to safeguard public health regardless of the source of the air pollution; and
(v) the principle that air quality data should be carefully screened to ensure that events not likely to recur are represented accurately in all monitoring data and analyses.
(B) Requirements 
Regulations promulgated under this section shall, at a minimum, provide that
(i) the occurrence of an exceptional event must be demonstrated by reliable, accurate data that is promptly produced and provided by Federal, State, or local government agencies;
(ii) a clear causal relationship must exist between the measured exceedances of a national ambient air quality standard and the exceptional event to demonstrate that the exceptional event caused a specific air pollution concentration at a particular air quality monitoring location;
(iii) there is a public process for determining whether an event is exceptional; and
(iv) there are criteria and procedures for the Governor of a State to petition the Administrator to exclude air quality monitoring data that is directly due to exceptional events from use in determinations by the Administrator with respect to exceedances or violations of the national ambient air quality standards.
(4) Interim provision 
Until the effective date of a regulation promulgated under paragraph (2), the following guidance issued by the Administrator shall continue to apply:
(A) Guidance on the identification and use of air quality data affected by exceptional events (July 1986).
(B) Areas affected by PM10 natural events, May 30, 1996.
(C) Appendices I, K, and N to part 50 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “of”.
[2] So in original. Probably should be followed by “in”.

42 USC 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

(a) Conferences 
Not later than six months after August 7, 1977, and at least every three years thereafter, the Administrator shall conduct a conference on air quality modeling. In conducting such conference, special attention shall be given to appropriate modeling necessary for carrying out part C of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to prevention of significant deterioration of air quality).
(b) Conferees 
The conference conducted under this section shall provide for participation by the National Academy of Sciences, representatives of State and local air pollution control agencies, and appropriate Federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation;[1] the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
(c) Comments; transcripts 
Interested persons shall be permitted to submit written comments and a verbatim transcript of the conference proceedings shall be maintained.
(d) Promulgation and revision of regulations relating to air quality modeling 
The comments submitted and the transcript maintained pursuant to subsection (c) of this section shall be included in the docket required to be established for purposes of promulgating or revising any regulation relating to air quality modeling under part C of subchapter I of this chapter.
[1] So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.

42 USC 7621 - Employment effects

(a) Continuous evaluation of potential loss or shifts of employment 
The Administrator shall conduct continuing evaluations of potential loss or shifts of employment which may result from the administration or enforcement of the provision of this chapter and applicable implementation plans, including where appropriate, investigating threatened plant closures or reductions in employment allegedly resulting from such administration or enforcement.
(b) Request for investigation; hearings; record; report 
Any employee, or any representative of such employee, who is discharged or laid off, threatened with discharge or layoff, or whose employment is otherwise adversely affected or threatened to be adversely affected because of the alleged results of any requirement imposed or proposed to be imposed under this chapter, including any requirement applicable to Federal facilities and any requirement imposed by a State or political subdivision thereof, may request the Administrator to conduct a full investigation of the matter. Any such request shall be reduced to writing, shall set forth with reasonable particularity the grounds for the request, and shall be signed by the employee, or representative of such employee, making the request. The Administrator shall thereupon investigate the matter and, at the request of any party, shall hold public hearings on not less than five days notice. At such hearings, the Administrator shall require the parties, including the employer involved, to present information relating to the actual or potential effect of such requirements on employment and the detailed reasons or justification therefor. If the Administrator determines that there are no reasonable grounds for conducting a public hearing he shall notify (in writing) the party requesting such hearing of such a determination and the reasons therefor. If the Administrator does convene such a hearing, the hearing shall be on the record. Upon receiving the report of such investigation, the Administrator shall make findings of fact as to the effect of such requirements on employment and on the alleged actual or potential discharge, layoff, or other adverse effect on employment, and shall make such recommendations as he deems appropriate. Such report, findings, and recommendations shall be available to the public.
(c) Subpenas; confidential information; witnesses; penalty 
In connection with any investigation or public hearing conducted under subsection (b) of this section or as authorized in section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelter orders), the Administrator may issue subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books and documents, and he may administer oaths. Except for emission data, upon a showing satisfactory to the Administrator by such owner or operator that such papers, books, documents, or information or particular part thereof, if made public, would divulge trade secrets or secret processes of such owner, or operator, the Administrator shall consider such record, report, or information or particular portion thereof confidential in accordance with the purposes of section 1905 of title 18, except that such paper, book, document, or information may be disclosed to other officers, employees, or authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out this chapter, or when relevant in any proceeding under this chapter. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. In cases of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena served upon any person under this subparagraph,[1] the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the United States and after notice to such person, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony before the Administrator, to appear and produce papers, books, and documents before the Administrator, or both, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.
(d) Limitations on construction of section 
Nothing in this section shall be construed to require or authorize the Administrator, the States, or political subdivisions thereof, to modify or withdraw any requirement imposed or proposed to be imposed under this chapter.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “subsection,”

42 USC 7622 - Employee protection

(a) Discharge or discrimination prohibited 
No employer may discharge any employee or otherwise discriminate against any employee with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because the employee (or any person acting pursuant to a request of the employee)
(1) commenced, caused to be commenced, or is about to commence or cause to be commenced a proceeding under this chapter or a proceeding for the administration or enforcement of any requirement imposed under this chapter or under any applicable implementation plan,
(2) testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding, or
(3) assisted or participated or is about to assist or participate in any manner in such a proceeding or in any other action to carry out the purposes of this chapter.
(b) Complaint charging unlawful discharge or discrimination; investigation; order 

(1) Any employee who believes that he has been discharged or otherwise discriminated against by any person in violation of subsection (a) of this section may, within thirty days after such violation occurs, file (or have any person file on his behalf) a complaint with the Secretary of Labor (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the Secretary) alleging such discharge or discrimination. Upon receipt of such a complaint, the Secretary shall notify the person named in the complaint of the filing of the complaint.
(2) 
(A) Upon receipt of a complaint filed under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall conduct an investigation of the violation alleged in the complaint. Within thirty days of the receipt of such complaint, the Secretary shall complete such investigation and shall notify in writing the complainant (and any person acting in his behalf) and the person alleged to have committed such violation of the results of the investigation conducted pursuant to this subparagraph. Within ninety days of the receipt of such complaint the Secretary shall, unless the proceeding on the complaint is terminated by the Secretary on the basis of a settlement entered into by the Secretary and the person alleged to have committed such violation, issue an order either providing the relief prescribed by subparagraph (B) or denying the complaint. An order of the Secretary shall be made on the record after notice and opportunity for public hearing. The Secretary may not enter into a settlement terminating a proceeding on a complaint without the participation and consent of the complainant.
(B) If, in response to a complaint filed under paragraph (1), the Secretary determines that a violation of subsection (a) of this section has occurred, the Secretary shall order the person who committed such violation to
(i)  take affirmative action to abate the violation, and
(ii)  reinstate the complainant to his former position together with the compensation (including back pay), terms, conditions, and privileges of his employment, and the Secretary may order such person to provide compensatory damages to the complainant. If an order is issued under this paragraph, the Secretary, at the request of the complainant, shall assess against the person against whom the order is issued a sum equal to the aggregate amount of all costs and expenses (including attorneys and expert witness fees) reasonably incurred, as determined by the Secretary, by the complainant for, or in connection with, the bringing of the complaint upon which the order was issued.
(c) Review 

(1) Any person adversely affected or aggrieved by an order issued under subsection (b) of this section may obtain review of the order in the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the violation, with respect to which the order was issued, allegedly occurred. The petition for review must be filed within sixty days from the issuance of the Secretarys order. Review shall conform to chapter 7 of title 5. The commencement of proceedings under this subparagraph[1] shall not, unless ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the Secretarys order.
(2) An order of the Secretary with respect to which review could have been obtained under paragraph (1) shall not be subject to judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceeding.
(d) Enforcement of order by Secretary 
Whenever a person has failed to comply with an order issued under subsection (b)(2) of this section, the Secretary may file a civil action in the United States district court for the district in which the violation was found to occur to enforce such order. In actions brought under this subsection, the district courts shall have jurisdiction to grant all appropriate relief including, but not limited to, injunctive relief, compensatory, and exemplary damages.
(e) Enforcement of order by person on whose behalf order was issued 

(1) Any person on whose behalf an order was issued under paragraph (2) of subsection (b) of this section may commence a civil action against the person to whom such order was issued to require compliance with such order. The appropriate United States district court shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce such order.
(2) The court, in issuing any final order under this subsection, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party whenever the court determines such award is appropriate.
(f) Mandamus 
Any nondiscretionary duty imposed by this section shall be enforceable in a mandamus proceeding brought under section 1361 of title 28.
(g) Deliberate violation by employee 
Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply with respect to any employee who, acting without direction from his employer (or the employers agent), deliberately causes a violation of any requirement of this chapter.
[1] So in original.

42 USC 7623 - Repealed. Pub. L. 96300, 1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831

Section, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, 323, as added Aug. 7, 1977, Pub. L. 95–95, title III, § 313, 91 Stat. 785; amended Nov. 16, 1977, Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(81), 91 Stat. 1404; S. Res. 4, Feb. 4, 1977; H. Res. 549, Mar. 25, 1980; July 2, 1980, Pub. L. 96–300, § 1(a), 94 Stat. 831, established a National Commission on Air Quality, prescribed numerous subjects for study and report to Congress, enumerated specific questions for study and investigation, required specific identification of loss or irretrievable commitment of resources, and provided for appointment and confirmation of its membership, cooperation of Federal executive agencies, submission of a National Academy of Sciences study to Congress, compensation and travel expenses, termination of Commission, appointment and compensation of staff, and public participation.

42 USC 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

(a) Costs to be borne by owner of retail outlet 
The regulations under this chapter applicable to vapor recovery with respect to mobile source fuels at retail outlets of such fuels shall provide that the cost of procurement and installation of such vapor recovery shall be borne by the owner of such outlet (as determined under such regulations). Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, such regulations shall provide that no lease of a retail outlet by the owner thereof which is entered into or renewed after August 7, 1977, may provide for a payment by the lessee of the cost of procurement and installation of vapor recovery equipment. Such regulations shall also provide that the cost of procurement and installation of vapor recovery equipment may be recovered by the owner of such outlet by means of price increases in the cost of any product sold by such owner, notwithstanding any provision of law.
(b) Payment by lessee 
The regulations of the Administrator referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall permit a lease of a retail outlet to provide for payment by the lessee of the cost of procurement and installation of vapor recovery equipment over a reasonable period (as determined in accordance with such regulations), if the owner of such outlet does not sell, trade in, or otherwise dispense any product at wholesale or retail at such outlet.

42 USC 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

(a) Marketers of gasoline 
The regulations under this chapter applicable to vapor recovery from fueling of motor vehicles at retail outlets of gasoline shall not apply to any outlet owned by an independent small business marketer of gasoline having monthly sales of less than 50,000 gallons. In the case of any other outlet owned by an independent small business marketer, such regulations shall provide, with respect to independent small business marketers of gasoline, for a three-year phase-in period for the installation of such vapor recovery equipment at such outlets under which such marketers shall have
(1) 33 percent of such outlets in compliance at the end of the first year during which such regulations apply to such marketers,
(2) 66 percent at the end of such second year, and
(3) 100 percent at the end of the third year.
(b) State requirements 
Nothing in subsection (a) of this section shall be construed to prohibit any State from adopting or enforcing, with respect to independent small business marketers of gasoline having monthly sales of less than 50,000 gallons, any vapor recovery requirements for mobile source fuels at retail outlets. Any vapor recovery requirement which is adopted by a State and submitted to the Administrator as part of its implementation plan may be approved and enforced by the Administrator as part of the applicable implementation plan for that State.
(c) Refiners 
For purposes of this section, an independent small business marketer of gasoline is a person engaged in the marketing of gasoline who would be required to pay for procurement and installation of vapor recovery equipment under section 76241 of this title or under regulations of the Administrator, unless such person
(1) 
(A) is a refiner, or[2]
(B) controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, a refiner,
(C) is otherwise directly or indirectly affiliated (as determined under the regulations of the Administrator) with a refiner or with a person who controls, is controlled by, or is under a common control with a refiner (unless the sole affiliation referred to herein is by means of a supply contract or an agreement or contract to use a trademark, trade name, service mark, or other identifying symbol or name owned by such refiner or any such person), or
(2) receives less than 50 percent of his annual income from refining or marketing of gasoline.

For the purpose of this section, the term refiner shall not include any refiner whose total refinery capacity (including the refinery capacity of any person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such refiner) does not exceed 65,000 barrels per day. For purposes of this section, control of a corporation means ownership of more than 50 percent of its stock.

[1] See References in Text note below.
[2] So in original. The word “or” probably should appear at the end of subpar. (B).

42 USC 76251 - Exemptions for certain territories

(a) 
(1) Upon petition by the governor[1] of Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Administrator is authorized to exempt any person or source or class of persons or sources in such territory from any requirement under this chapter other than section 7412 of this title or any requirement under section 7410 of this title or part D of subchapter I of this chapter necessary to attain or maintain a national primary ambient air quality standard. Such exemption may be granted if the Administrator finds that compliance with such requirement is not feasible or is unreasonable due to unique geographical, meteorological, or economic factors of such territory, or such other local factors as the Administrator deems significant. Any such petition shall be considered in accordance with section 7607 (d) of this title and any exemption under this subsection shall be considered final action by the Administrator for the purposes of section 7607 (b) of this title.
(2) The Administrator shall promptly notify the Committees on Energy and Commerce and on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Environment and Public Works and on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate upon receipt of any petition under this subsection and of the approval or rejection of such petition and the basis for such action.
(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any fossil fuel fired steam electric power plant operating within Guam as of December 8, 1983, is hereby exempted from:
(1) any requirement of the new source performance standards relating to sulfur dioxide promulgated under section 7411 of this title as of December 8, 1983; and
(2) any regulation relating to sulfur dioxide standards or limitations contained in a State implementation plan approved under section 7410 of this title as of December 8, 1983: Provided, That such exemption shall expire eighteen months after December 8, 1983, unless the Administrator determines that such plant is making all emissions reductions practicable to prevent exceedances of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide.
[1] So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

42 USC 7625a - Statutory construction

The parenthetical cross references in any provision of this chapter to other provisions of the chapter, or other provisions of law, where the words relating to or pertaining to are used, are made only for convenience, and shall be given no legal effect.

42 USC 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general 
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this chapter such sums as may be necessary for the 7 fiscal years commencing after November 15, 1990.
(b) Grants for planning 
There are authorized to be appropriated
(1)  not more than $50,000,000 to carry out section 7505 of this title beginning in fiscal year 1991, to be available until expended, to develop plan revisions required by subpart 2, 3, or 4 of part D of subchapter I of this chapter, and
(2)  not more than $15,000,000 for each of the 7 fiscal years commencing after November 15, 1990, to make grants to the States to prepare implementation plans as required by subpart 2, 3, or 4 of part D of subchapter I of this chapter.

42 USC 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

(a) Applicable requirements for certain areas 

(1) In general 
Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, following consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Commandant of the United States Coast Guard, the Administrator, by rule, shall establish requirements to control air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf sources located offshore of the States along the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic Coasts, and along the United States Gulf Coast off the State of Florida eastward of longitude 87 degrees and 30 minutes (OCS sources) to attain and maintain Federal and State ambient air quality standards and to comply with the provisions of part C of subchapter I of this chapter. For such sources located within 25 miles of the seaward boundary of such States, such requirements shall be the same as would be applicable if the source were located in the corresponding onshore area, and shall include, but not be limited to, State and local requirements for emission controls, emission limitations, offsets, permitting, monitoring, testing, and reporting. New OCS sources shall comply with such requirements on the date of promulgation and existing OCS sources shall comply on the date 24 months thereafter. The Administrator shall update such requirements as necessary to maintain consistency with onshore regulations. The authority of this subsection shall supersede section 5(a)(8) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act [43 U.S.C. 1334 (a)(8)] but shall not repeal or modify any other Federal, State, or local authorities with respect to air quality. Each requirement established under this section shall be treated, for purposes of sections 7413, 7414, 7416, 7420, and 7604 of this title, as a standard under section 7411 of this title and a violation of any such requirement shall be considered a violation of section 7411 (e) of this title.
(2) Exemptions 
The Administrator may exempt an OCS source from a specific requirement in effect under regulations under this subsection if the Administrator finds that compliance with a pollution control technology requirement is technically infeasible or will cause an unreasonable threat to health and safety. The Administrator shall make written findings explaining the basis of any exemption issued pursuant to this subsection and shall impose another requirement equal to or as close in stringency to the original requirement as possible. The Administrator shall ensure that any increase in emissions due to the granting of an exemption is offset by reductions in actual emissions, not otherwise required by this chapter, from the same source or other sources in the area or in the corresponding onshore area. The Administrator shall establish procedures to provide for public notice and comment on exemptions proposed pursuant to this subsection.
(3) State procedures 
Each State adjacent to an OCS source included under this subsection may promulgate and submit to the Administrator regulations for implementing and enforcing the requirements of this subsection. If the Administrator finds that the State regulations are adequate, the Administrator shall delegate to that State any authority the Administrator has under this chapter to implement and enforce such requirements. Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit the Administrator from enforcing any requirement of this section.
(4) Definitions 
For purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of this section
(A) Outer Continental Shelf 
The term Outer Continental Shelf has the meaning provided by section 2 of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331).
(B) Corresponding onshore area 
The term corresponding onshore area means, with respect to any OCS source, the onshore attainment or nonattainment area that is closest to the source, unless the Administrator determines that another area with more stringent requirements with respect to the control and abatement of air pollution may reasonably be expected to be affected by such emissions. Such determination shall be based on the potential for air pollutants from the OCS source to reach the other onshore area and the potential of such air pollutants to affect the efforts of the other onshore area to attain or maintain any Federal or State ambient air quality standard or to comply with the provisions of part C of subchapter I of this chapter.
(C) Outer Continental Shelf source 
The terms Outer Continental Shelf source and OCS source include any equipment, activity, or facility which
(i) emits or has the potential to emit any air pollutant,
(ii) is regulated or authorized under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act [43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.], and
(iii) is located on the Outer Continental Shelf or in or on waters above the Outer Continental Shelf.

Such activities include, but are not limited to, platform and drill ship exploration, construction, development, production, processing, and transportation. For purposes of this subsection, emissions from any vessel servicing or associated with an OCS source, including emissions while at the OCS source or en route to or from the OCS source within 25 miles of the OCS source, shall be considered direct emissions from the OCS source.

(D) New and existing OCS sources 
The term new OCS source means an OCS source which is a new source within the meaning of section 7411 (a) of this title. The term existing OCS source means any OCS source other than a new OCS source.
(b) Requirements for other offshore areas 
For portions of the United States Gulf Coast Outer Continental Shelf that are adjacent to the States not covered by subsection (a) of this section which are Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator to assure coordination of air pollution control regulation for Outer Continental Shelf emissions and emissions in adjacent onshore areas. Concurrently with this obligation, the Secretary shall complete within 3 years of November 15, 1990, a research study examining the impacts of emissions from Outer Continental Shelf activities in such areas that fail to meet the national ambient air quality standards for either ozone or nitrogen dioxide. Based on the results of this study, the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator and determine if any additional actions are necessary. There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to provide funding for the study required under this section.
(c) Coastal waters 

(1) The study report of section 7412 (n)1 of this title shall apply to the coastal waters of the United States to the same extent and in the same manner as such requirements apply to the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and their tributary waters.
(2) The regulatory requirements of section 7412 (n)1 of this title shall apply to the coastal waters of the States which are subject to subsection (a) of this section, to the same extent and in the same manner as such requirements apply to the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and their tributary waters.
[1] So in original. Probably should be section “7412(m)”.

42 USC 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

(a) Grant program 

(1) In general 
The Administrator shall establish a demonstration program under which the Administrator shall provide competitive grants to assist local governments (such as municipalities and counties), with respect to local government buildings
(A) to deploy cost-effective technologies and practices; and
(B) to achieve operational cost savings, through the application of cost-effective technologies and practices, as verified by the Administrator.
(2) Cost sharing 

(A) In general 
The Federal share of the cost of an activity carried out using a grant provided under this section shall be 40 percent.
(B) Waiver of non-Federal share 
The Administrator may waive up to 100 percent of the local share of the cost of any grant under this section should the Administrator determine that the community is economically distressed, pursuant to objective economic criteria established by the Administrator in published guidelines.
(3) Maximum amount 
The amount of a grant provided under this subsection shall not exceed $1,000,000.
(b) Guidelines 

(1) In general 
Not later than 1 year after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall issue guidelines to implement the grant program established under subsection (a).
(2) Requirements 
The guidelines under paragraph (1) shall establish
(A) standards for monitoring and verification of operational cost savings through the application of cost-effective technologies and practices reported by grantees under this section;
(B) standards for grantees to implement training programs, and to provide technical assistance and education, relating to the retrofit of buildings using cost-effective technologies and practices; and
(C) a requirement that each local government that receives a grant under this section shall achieve facility-wide cost savings, through renovation of existing local government buildings using cost-effective technologies and practices, of at least 40 percent as compared to the baseline operational costs of the buildings before the renovation (as calculated assuming a 3-year, weather-normalized average).
(c) Compliance with State and local law 
Nothing in this section or any program carried out using a grant provided under this section supersedes or otherwise affects any State or local law, to the extent that the State or local law contains a requirement that is more stringent than the relevant requirement of this section.
(d) Authorization of appropriations 
There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2012.
(e) Reports 

(1) In general 
The Administrator shall provide annual reports to Congress on cost savings achieved and actions taken and recommendations made under this section, and any recommendations for further action.
(2) Final report 
The Administrator shall issue a final report at the conclusion of the program, including findings, a summary of total cost savings achieved, and recommendations for further action.
(f) Termination 
The program under this section shall terminate on September 30, 2012.
(g) Definitions 
In this section, the terms cost-effective technologies and practices and operating[1] cost savings shall have the meanings defined in section 17061 of this title.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “operational”.