41 USC 109 - Advance or partial payments to subcontractors; excessive payments, interest, liability of war contractor

(a) Any contracting agency may make advance or partial payments to any war contractor on account of any termination claim or claims, and may authorize, approve, or ratify any such advance or partial payments by any war contractor to his subcontractors, upon such conditions as it deems necessary to insure compliance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section. Each contracting agency shall make final payments from time to time on partial settlements or on settlements fixing a minimum amount due before complete settlement, or as tentative payments before any settlement of the claim or claims.
(b) Where any such advance or partial payment is made to any war contractor by any contracting agency or by another war contractor under this section, except a final payment on a partial settlement, any amount in excess of the amount finally determined to be due on the termination claim shall be treated as a loan from the Government to the war contractor receiving it, and shall be payable upon demand together with a penalty computed at the rate of 6 per centum per annum, for the period from the date such excess advance or partial payment is received to the date on which such excess is repaid or extinguished. Where the advance or partial payment was made by a war contractor and authorized, approved, or ratified by any contracting agency, the war contractor making it shall not be liable for any such excess payment in the absence of fraud on his part and shall receive payment or credit from the Government for the amount of such excess payment.