Subpart A - Private Activity Bonds

26 USC 141 - Private activity bond; qualified bond

(a) Private activity bond 
For purposes of this title, the term private activity bond means any bond issued as part of an issue
(1) which meets
(A) the private business use test of paragraph (1) of subsection (b), and
(B) the private security or payment test of paragraph (2) of subsection (b), or

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(2) which meets the private loan financing test of subsection (c).
(b) Private business tests 

(1) Private business use test 
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, an issue meets the test of this paragraph if more than 10 percent of the proceeds of the issue are to be used for any private business use.
(2) Private security or payment test 
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, an issue meets the test of this paragraph if the payment of the principal of, or the interest on, more than 10 percent of the proceeds of such issue is (under the terms of such issue or any underlying arrangement) directly or indirectly
(A) secured by any interest in
(i) property used or to be used for a private business use, or
(ii) payments in respect of such property, or
(B) to be derived from payments (whether or not to the issuer) in respect of property, or borrowed money, used or to be used for a private business use.
(3) 5 percent test for private business use not related or disproportionate to government use financed by the issue 

(A) In general 
An issue shall be treated as meeting the tests of paragraphs (1) and (2) if such tests would be met if such paragraphs were applied

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(i) by substituting 5 percent for 10 percent each place it appears, and
(ii) by taking into account only
(I) the proceeds of the issue which are to be used for any private business use which is not related to any government use of such proceeds,
(II) the disproportionate related business use proceeds of the issue, and
(III) payments, property, and borrowed money with respect to any use of proceeds described in subclause (I) or (II).
(B) Disproportionate related business use proceeds 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the disproportionate related business use proceeds of an issue is an amount equal to the aggregate of the excesses (determined under the following sentence) for each private business use of the proceeds of an issue which is related to a government use of such proceeds. The excess determined under this sentence is the excess of
(i) the proceeds of the issue which are to be used for the private business use, over
(ii) the proceeds of the issue which are to be used for the government use to which such private business use relates.
(4) Lower limitation for certain output facilities 
An issue 5 percent or more of the proceeds of which are to be used with respect to any output facility (other than a facility for the furnishing of water) shall be treated as meeting the tests of paragraphs (1) and (2) if the nonqualified amount with respect to such issue exceeds the excess of
(A) $15,000,000, over
(B) the aggregate nonqualified amounts with respect to all prior tax-exempt issues 5 percent or more of the proceeds of which are or will be used with respect to such facility (or any other facility which is part of the same project).

There shall not be taken into account under subparagraph (B) any bond which is not outstanding at the time of the later issue or which is to be redeemed (other than in an advance refunding) from the net proceeds of the later issue.

(5) Coordination with volume cap where nonqualified amount exceeds $15,000,000 
If the nonqualified amount with respect to an issue
(A) exceeds $15,000,000, but
(B) does not exceed the amount which would cause a bond which is part of such issue to be treated as a private activity bond without regard to this paragraph,

such bond shall nonetheless be treated as a private activity bond unless the issuer allocates a portion of its volume cap under section 146 to such issue in an amount equal to the excess of such nonqualified amount over $15,000,000.

(6) Private business use defined 

(A) In general 
For purposes of this subsection, the term private business use means use (directly or indirectly) in a trade or business carried on by any person other than a governmental unit. For purposes of the preceding sentence, use as a member of the general public shall not be taken into account.
(B) Clarification of trade or business 
For purposes of the 1st sentence of subparagraph (A), any activity carried on by a person other than a natural person shall be treated as a trade or business.
(7) Government use 
The term government use means any use other than a private business use.
(8) Nonqualified amount 
For purposes of this subsection, the term nonqualified amount means, with respect to an issue, the lesser of
(A) the proceeds of such issue which are to be used for any private business use, or
(B) the proceeds of such issue with respect to which there are payments (or property or borrowed money) described in paragraph (2).
(9) Exception for qualified 501(c)(3) bonds 
There shall not be taken into account under this subsection or subsection (c) the portion of the proceeds of an issue which (if issued as a separate issue) would be treated as a qualified 501(c)(3) bond if the issuer elects to treat such portion as a qualified 501(c)(3) bond.
(c) Private loan financing test 

(1) In general 
An issue meets the test of this subsection if the amount of the proceeds of the issue which are to be used (directly or indirectly) to make or finance loans (other than loans described in paragraph (2)) to persons other than governmental units exceeds the lesser of
(A) 5 percent of such proceeds, or
(B) $5,000,000.
(2) Exception for tax assessment, etc., loans 
For purposes of paragraph (1), a loan is described in this paragraph if such loan
(A) enables the borrower to finance any governmental tax or assessment of general application for a specific essential governmental function,
(B) is a nonpurpose investment (within the meaning of section 148 (f)(6)(A)), or
(C) is a qualified natural gas supply contract (as defined in section 148 (b)(4)).
(d) Certain issues used to acquire nongovernmental output property treated as private activity bonds 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this title, the term private activity bond includes any bond issued as part of an issue if the amount of the proceeds of the issue which are to be used (directly or indirectly) for the acquisition by a governmental unit of nongovernmental output property exceeds the lesser of
(A) 5 percent of such proceeds, or
(B) $5,000,000.
(2) Nongovernmental output property 
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, for purposes of paragraph (1), the term nongovernmental output property means any property (or interest therein) which before such acquisition was used (or held for use) by a person other than a governmental unit in connection with an output facility (within the meaning of subsection (b)(4)) (other than a facility for the furnishing of water). For purposes of the preceding sentence, use (or the holding for use) before October 14, 1987, shall not be taken into account.
(3) Exception for property acquired to provide output to certain areas 
For purposes of paragraph (1)
(A) In general 
The term nongovernmental output property shall not include any property which is to be used in connection with an output facility 95 percent or more of the output of which will be consumed in
(i) a qualified service area of the governmental unit acquiring the property, or
(ii) a qualified annexed area of such unit.
(B) Definitions 
For purposes of subparagraph (A)
(i) Qualified service area The term qualified service area means, with respect to the governmental unit acquiring the property, any area throughout which such unit provided (at all times during the 10-year period ending on the date such property is acquired by such unit) output of the same type as the output to be provided by such property. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the period before October 14, 1987, shall not be taken into account.
(ii) Qualified annexed area The term qualified annexed area means, with respect to the governmental unit acquiring the property, any area if
(I) such area is contiguous to, and annexed for general governmental purposes into, a qualified service area of such unit,
(II) output from such property is made available to all members of the general public in the annexed area, and
(III) the annexed area is not greater than 10 percent of such qualified service area.
(C) Limitation on size of annexed area not to apply where output capacity does not increase by more than 10 percent 
Subclause (III) of subparagraph (B)(ii) shall not apply to an annexation of an area by a governmental unit if the output capacity of the property acquired in connection with the annexation, when added to the output capacity of all other property which is not treated as nongovernmental output property by reason of subparagraph (A)(ii) with respect to such annexed area, does not exceed 10 percent of the output capacity of the property providing output of the same type to the qualified service area into which it is annexed.
(D) Rules for determining relative size, etc. 
For purposes of subparagraphs (B)(ii) and (C)
(i) The size of any qualified service area and the output capacity of property serving such area shall be determined as the close of the calendar year preceding the calendar year in which the acquisition of nongovernmental output property or the annexation occurs.
(ii) A qualified annexed area shall be treated as part of the qualified service area into which it is annexed for purposes of determining whether any other area annexed in a later year is a qualified annexed area.
(4) Exception for property converted to nonoutput use 
For purposes of paragraph (1)
(A) In general 
The term nongovernmental output property shall not include any property which is to be converted to a use not in connection with an output facility.
(B) Exception 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any property which is part of the output function of a nuclear power facility.
(5) Special rules 
In the case of a bond which is a private activity bond solely by reason of this subsection
(A) subsections (c) and (d) of section 147 (relating to limitations on acquisition of land and existing property) shall not apply, and
(B) paragraph (8) of section 142 (a) shall be applied as if it did not contain local.
(6) Treatment of joint action agencies 
With respect to nongovernmental output property acquired by a joint action agency the members of which are governmental units, this subsection shall be applied at the member level by treating each member as acquiring its proportionate share of such property.
(7) Exception for qualified electric and natural gas supply contracts 
The term nongovernmental output property shall not include any contract for the prepayment of electricity or natural gas which is not investment property under section 148 (b)(2).
(e) Qualified bond 
For purposes of this part, the term qualified bond means any private activity bond if
(1) In general 
Such bond is
(A) an exempt facility bond,
(B) a qualified mortgage bond,
(C) a qualified veterans mortgage bond,
(D) a qualified small issue bond,
(E) a qualified student loan bond,
(F) a qualified redevelopment bond, or
(G) a qualified 501(c)(3) bond.
(2) Volume cap 
Such bond is issued as part of an issue which meets the applicable requirements of section 146, and[1]
(3) Other requirements 
Such bond meets the applicable requirements of each subsection of section 147.
[1] So in original. Probably should end with a period after “146”.

26 USC 142 - Exempt facility bond

(a) General rule 
For purposes of this part, the term exempt facility bond means any bond issued as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used to provide
(1) airports,
(2) docks and wharves,
(3) mass commuting facilities,
(4) facilities for the furnishing of water,
(5) sewage facilities,
(6) solid waste disposal facilities,
(7) qualified residential rental projects,
(8) facilities for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas,
(9) local district heating or cooling facilities,
(10) qualified hazardous waste facilities,
(11) high-speed intercity rail facilities,
(12) environmental enhancements of hydroelectric generating facilities,
(13) qualified public educational facilities,
(14) qualified green building and sustainable design projects, or
(15) qualified highway or surface freight transfer facilities.
(b) Special exempt facility bond rules 
For purposes of subsection (a)
(1) Certain facilities must be governmentally owned 

(A) In general 
A facility shall be treated as described in paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (12) of subsection (a) only if all of the property to be financed by the net proceeds of the issue is to be owned by a governmental unit.
(B) Safe harbor for leases and management contracts 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), property leased by a governmental unit shall be treated as owned by such governmental unit if
(i) the lessee makes an irrevocable election (binding on the lessee and all successors in interest under the lease) not to claim depreciation or an investment credit with respect to such property,
(ii) the lease term (as defined in section 168 (i)(3)) is not more than 80 percent of the reasonably expected economic life of the property (as determined under section 147 (b)), and
(iii) the lessee has no option to purchase the property other than at fair market value (as of the time such option is exercised).

Rules similar to the rules of the preceding sentence shall apply to management contracts and similar types of operating agreements.

(2) Limitation on office space 
An office shall not be treated as described in a paragraph of subsection (a) unless
(A) the office is located on the premises of a facility described in such a paragraph, and
(B) not more than a de minimis amount of the functions to be performed at such office is not directly related to the day-to-day operations at such facility.
(c) Airports, docks and wharves, mass commuting facilities and high-speed intercity rail facilities 
For purposes of subsection (a)
(1) Storage and training facilities 
Storage or training facilities directly related to a facility described in paragraph (1), (2), (3) or (11) of subsection (a) shall be treated as described in the paragraph in which such facility is described.
(2) Exception for certain private facilities 
Property shall not be treated as described in paragraph (1), (2), (3) or (11) of subsection (a) if such property is described in any of the following subparagraphs and is to be used for any private business use (as defined in section 141 (b)(6)).
(A) Any lodging facility.
(B) Any retail facility (including food and beverage facilities) in excess of a size necessary to serve passengers and employees at the exempt facility.
(C) Any retail facility (other than parking) for passengers or the general public located outside the exempt facility terminal.
(D) Any office building for individuals who are not employees of a governmental unit or of the operating authority for the exempt facility.
(E) Any industrial park or manufacturing facility.
(d) Qualified residential rental project 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The term qualified residential rental project means any project for residential rental property if, at all times during the qualified project period, such project meets the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B), whichever is elected by the issuer at the time of the issuance of the issue with respect to such project:
(A) 20–50 test 
The project meets the requirements of this subparagraph if 20 percent or more of the residential units in such project are occupied by individuals whose income is 50 percent or less of area median gross income.
(B) 40–60 test 
The project meets the requirements of this subparagraph if 40 percent or more of the residential units in such project are occupied by individuals whose income is 60 percent or less of area median gross income.

For purposes of this paragraph, any property shall not be treated as failing to be residential rental property merely because part of the building in which such property is located is used for purposes other than residential rental purposes.

(2) Definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Qualified project period 
The term qualified project period means the period beginning on the 1st day on which 10 percent of the residential units in the project are occupied and ending on the latest of
(i) the date which is 15 years after the date on which 50 percent of the residential units in the project are occupied,
(ii) the 1st day on which no tax-exempt private activity bond issued with respect to the project is outstanding, or
(iii) the date on which any assistance provided with respect to the project under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 terminates.
(B) Income of individuals; area median gross income 
The income of individuals and area median gross income shall be determined by the Secretary in a manner consistent with determinations of lower income families and area median gross income under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (or, if such program is terminated, under such program as in effect immediately before such termination). Determinations under the preceding sentence shall include adjustments for family size. Subsections (g) and (h) of section 7872 shall not apply in determining the income of individuals under this subparagraph.
(3) Current income determinations 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The determination of whether the income of a resident of a unit in a project exceeds the applicable income limit shall be made at least annually on the basis of the current income of the resident.
(B) Continuing resident’s income may increase above the applicable limit 
If the income of a resident of a unit in a project did not exceed the applicable income limit upon commencement of such residents occupancy of such unit (or as of any prior determination under subparagraph (A)), the income of such resident shall be treated as continuing to not exceed the applicable income limit. The preceding sentence shall cease to apply to any resident whose income as of the most recent determination under subparagraph (A) exceeds 140 percent of the applicable income limit if after such determination, but before the next determination, any residential unit of comparable or smaller size in the same project is occupied by a new resident whose income exceeds the applicable income limit.
(4) Special rule in case of deep rent skewing 

(A) In general 
In the case of any project described in subparagraph (B), the 2d sentence of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) shall be applied by substituting
(i) 170 percent for 140 percent, and
(ii) any low-income unit in the same project is occupied by a new resident whose income exceeds 40 percent of area median gross income for any residential unit of comparable or smaller size in the same project is occupied by a new resident whose income exceeds the applicable income limit.
(B) Deep rent skewed project 
A project is described in this subparagraph if the owner of the project elects to have this paragraph apply and, at all times during the qualified project period, such project meets the requirements of clauses (i), (ii), and (iii):
(i) The project meets the requirements of this clause if 15 percent or more of the low-income units in the project are occupied by individuals whose income is 40 percent or less of area median gross income.
(ii) The project meets the requirements of this clause if the gross rent with respect to each low-income unit in the project does not exceed 30 percent of the applicable income limit which applies to individuals occupying the unit.
(iii) The project meets the requirements of this clause if the gross rent with respect to each low-income unit in the project does not exceed 1/2 of the average gross rent with respect to units of comparable size which are not occupied by individuals who meet the applicable income limit.
(C) Definitions applicable to subparagraph (B) 
For purposes of subparagraph (B)
(i) Low-income unit The term low-income unit means any unit which is required to be occupied by individuals who meet the applicable income limit.
(ii) Gross rent The term gross rent includes
(I) any payment under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, and
(II) any utility allowance determined by the Secretary after taking into account such determinations under such section 8.
(5) Applicable income limit 
For purposes of paragraphs (3) and (4), the term applicable income limit means
(A) the limitation under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) which applies to the project, or
(B) in the case of a unit to which paragraph (4)(B)(i) applies, the limitation which applies to such unit.
(6) Special rule for certain high cost housing area 
In the case of a project located in a city having 5 boroughs and a population in excess of 5,000,000, subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting 25 percent for 40 percent.
(7) Certification to Secretary 
The operator of any project with respect to which an election was made under this subsection shall submit to the Secretary (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe) an annual certification as to whether such project continues to meet the requirements of this subsection. Any failure to comply with the provisions of the preceding sentence shall not affect the tax-exempt status of any bond but shall subject the operator to penalty, as provided in section 6652 (j).
(e) Facilities for the furnishing of water 
For purposes of subsection (a)(4), the term facilities for the furnishing of water means any facility for the furnishing of water if
(1) the water is or will be made available to members of the general public (including electric utility, industrial, agricultural, or commercial users), and
(2) either the facility is operated by a governmental unit or the rates for the furnishing or sale of the water have been established or approved by a State or political subdivision thereof, by an agency or instrumentality of the United States, or by a public service or public utility commission or other similar body of any State or political subdivision thereof.
(f) Local furnishing of electric energy or gas 
For purposes of subsection (a)(8)
(1) In general 
The local furnishing of electric energy or gas from a facility shall only include furnishing solely within the area consisting of
(A) a city and 1 contiguous county, or
(B) 2 contiguous counties.
(2) Treatment of certain electric energy transmitted outside local area 

(A) In general 
A facility shall not be treated as failing to meet the local furnishing requirement of subsection (a)(8) by reason of electricity transmitted pursuant to an order of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission under section 211 or 213 of the Federal Power Act (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph) if the portion of the cost of the facility financed with tax-exempt bonds is not greater than the portion of the cost of the facility which is allocable to the local furnishing of electric energy (determined without regard to this paragraph).
(B) Special rule for existing facilities 
In the case of a facility financed with bonds issued before the date of an order referred to in subparagraph (A) which would (but for this subparagraph) cease to be tax-exempt by reason of subparagraph (A), such bonds shall not cease to be tax-exempt bonds (and section 150 (b)(4) shall not apply) if, to the extent necessary to comply with subparagraph (A)
(i) an escrow to pay principal of, premium (if any), and interest on the bonds is established within a reasonable period after the date such order becomes final, and
(ii) bonds are redeemed not later than the earliest date on which such bonds may be redeemed.
(3) Termination of future financing 
For purposes of this section, no bond may be issued as part of an issue described in subsection (a)(8) with respect to a facility for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas on or after the date of the enactment of this paragraph unless
(A) the facility will
(i) be used by a person who is engaged in the local furnishing of that energy source on January 1, 1997, and
(ii) be used to provide service within the area served by such person on January 1, 1997 (or within a county or city any portion of which is within such area), or
(B) the facility will be used by a successor in interest to such person for the same use and within the same service area as described in subparagraph (A).
(4) Election to terminate tax-exempt bond financing by certain furnishers 

(A) In general 
In the case of a facility financed with bonds issued before the date of the enactment of this paragraph which would cease to be tax-exempt by reason of the failure to meet the local furnishing requirement of subsection (a)(8) as a result of a service area expansion, such bonds shall not cease to be tax-exempt bonds (and section 150 (b)(4) shall not apply) if the person engaged in such local furnishing by such facility makes an election described in subparagraph (B).
(B) Election 
An election is described in this subparagraph if it is an election made in such manner as the Secretary prescribes, and such person (or its predecessor in interest) agrees that
(i) such election is made with respect to all facilities for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas, or both, by such person,
(ii) no bond exempt from tax under section 103 and described in subsection (a)(8) may be issued on or after the date of the enactment of this paragraph with respect to all such facilities of such person,
(iii) any expansion of the service area
(I) is not financed with the proceeds of any exempt facility bond described in subsection (a)(8), and
(II) is not treated as a nonqualifying use under the rules of paragraph (2), and
(iv) all outstanding bonds used to finance the facilities for such person are redeemed not later than 6 months after the later of
(I) the earliest date on which such bonds may be redeemed, or
(II) the date of the election.
(C) Related persons 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term person includes a group of related persons (within the meaning of section 144 (a)(3)) which includes such person.
(g) Local district heating or cooling facility 

(1) In general 
For purposes of subsection (a)(9), the term local district heating or cooling facility means property used as an integral part of a local district heating or cooling system.
(2) Local district heating or cooling system 

(A) In general 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term local district heating or cooling system means any local system consisting of a pipeline or network (which may be connected to a heating or cooling source) providing hot water, chilled water, or steam to 2 or more users for
(i) residential, commercial, or industrial heating or cooling, or
(ii) process steam.
(B) Local system 
For purposes of this paragraph, a local system includes facilities furnishing heating and cooling to an area consisting of a city and 1 contiguous county.
(h) Qualified hazardous waste facilities 
For purposes of subsection (a)(10), the term qualified hazardous waste facility means any facility for the disposal of hazardous waste by incineration or entombment but only if
(1) the facility is subject to final permit requirements under subtitle C of title II of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (as in effect on the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986), and
(2) the portion of such facility which is to be provided by the issue does not exceed the portion of the facility which is to be used by persons other than
(A) the owner or operator of such facility, and
(B) any related person (within the meaning of section 144 (a)(3)) to such owner or operator.
(i) High-speed intercity rail facilities 

(1) In general 
For purposes of subsection (a)(11), the term high-speed intercity rail facilities means any facility (not including rolling stock) for the fixed guideway rail transportation of passengers and their baggage between metropolitan statistical areas (within the meaning of section 143 (k)(2)(B)) using vehicles that are reasonably expected to operate at speeds in excess of 150 miles per hour between scheduled stops, but only if such facility will be made available to members of the general public as passengers.
(2) Election by nongovernmental owners 
A facility shall be treated as described in subsection (a)(11) only if any owner of such facility which is not a governmental unit irrevocably elects not to claim
(A) any deduction under section 167 or 168, and
(B) any credit under this subtitle,

with respect to the property to be financed by the net proceeds of the issue.

(3) Use of proceeds 
A bond issued as part of an issue described in subsection (a)(11) shall not be considered an exempt facility bond unless any proceeds not used within a 3-year period of the date of the issuance of such bond are used (not later than 6 months after the close of such period) to redeem bonds which are part of such issue.
(j) Environmental enhancements of hydroelectric generating facilities 

(1) In general 
For purposes of subsection (a)(12), the term environmental enhancements of hydroelectric generating facilities means property
(A) the use of which is related to a federally licensed hydroelectric generating facility owned and operated by a governmental unit, and
(B) which
(i) protects or promotes fisheries or other wildlife resources, including any fish by-pass facility, fish hatchery, or fisheries enhancement facility, or
(ii) is a recreational facility or other improvement required by the terms and conditions of any Federal licensing permit for the operation of such generating facility.
(2) Use of proceeds 
A bond issued as part of an issue described in subsection (a)(12) shall not be considered an exempt facility bond unless at least 80 percent of the net proceeds of the issue of which it is a part are used to finance property described in paragraph (1)(B)(i).
(k) Qualified public educational facilities 

(1) In general 
For purposes of subsection (a)(13), the term qualified public educational facility means any school facility which is
(A) part of a public elementary school or a public secondary school, and
(B) owned by a private, for-profit corporation pursuant to a public-private partnership agreement with a State or local educational agency described in paragraph (2).
(2) Public-private partnership agreement described 
A public-private partnership agreement is described in this paragraph if it is an agreement
(A) under which the corporation agrees
(i) to do 1 or more of the following: construct, rehabilitate, refurbish, or equip a school facility, and
(ii) at the end of the term of the agreement, to transfer the school facility to such agency for no additional consideration, and
(B) the term of which does not exceed the term of the issue to be used to provide the school facility.
(3) School facility 
For purposes of this subsection, the term school facility means
(A) any school building,
(B) any functionally related and subordinate facility and land with respect to such building, including any stadium or other facility primarily used for school events, and
(C) any property, to which section 168 applies (or would apply but for section 179), for use in a facility described in subparagraph (A) or (B).
(4) Public schools 
For purposes of this subsection, the terms elementary school and secondary school have the meanings given such terms by section 14101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8801), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this subsection.
(5) Annual aggregate face amount of tax-exempt financing 

(A) In general 
An issue shall not be treated as an issue described in subsection (a)(13) if the aggregate face amount of bonds issued by the State pursuant thereto (when added to the aggregate face amount of bonds previously so issued during the calendar year) exceeds an amount equal to the greater of
(i) $10 multiplied by the State population, or
(ii) $5,000,000.
(B) Allocation rules 

(i) In general Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the State may allocate the amount described in subparagraph (A) for any calendar year in such manner as the State determines appropriate.
(ii) Rules for carryforward of unused limitation A State may elect to carry forward an unused limitation for any calendar year for 3 calendar years following the calendar year in which the unused limitation arose under rules similar to the rules of section 146 (f), except that the only purpose for which the carryforward may be elected is the issuance of exempt facility bonds described in subsection (a)(13).
(l) Qualified green building and sustainable design projects 

(1) In general 
For purposes of subsection (a)(14), the term qualified green building and sustainable design project means any project which is designated by the Secretary, after consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, as a qualified green building and sustainable design project and which meets the requirements of clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of paragraph (4)(A).
(2) Designations 

(A) In general 
Within 60 days after the end of the application period described in paragraph (3)(A), the Secretary, after consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall designate qualified green building and sustainable design projects. At least one of the projects designated shall be located in, or within a 10-mile radius of, an empowerment zone as designated pursuant to section 1391, and at least one of the projects designated shall be located in a rural State. No more than one project shall be designated in a State. A project shall not be designated if such project includes a stadium or arena for professional sports exhibitions or games.
(B) Minimum conservation and technology innovation objectives 
The Secretary, after consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall ensure that, in the aggregate, the projects designated shall
(i) reduce electric consumption by more than 150 megawatts annually as compared to conventional generation,
(ii) reduce daily sulfur dioxide emissions by at least 10 tons compared to coal generation power,
(iii) expand by 75 percent the domestic solar photovoltaic market in the United States (measured in megawatts) as compared to the expansion of that market from 2001 to 2002, and
(iv) use at least 25 megawatts of fuel cell energy generation.
(3) Limited designations 
A project may not be designated under this subsection unless
(A) the project is nominated by a State or local government within 180 days of the enactment of this subsection, and
(B) such State or local government provides written assurances that the project will satisfy the eligibility criteria described in paragraph (4).
(4) Application 

(A) In general 
A project may not be designated under this subsection unless the application for such designation includes a project proposal which describes the energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable design features of the project and demonstrates that the project satisfies the following eligibility criteria:
(i) Green building and sustainable design At least 75 percent of the square footage of commercial buildings which are part of the project is registered for United States Green Building Councils LEED certification and is reasonably expected (at the time of the designation) to receive such certification. For purposes of determining LEED certification as required under this clause, points shall be credited by using the following:
(I) For wood products, certification under the Sustainable Forestry Initiative Program and the American Tree Farm System.
(II) For renewable wood products, as credited for recycled content otherwise provided under LEED certification.
(III) For composite wood products, certification under standards established by the American National Standards Institute, or such other voluntary standards as published in the Federal Register by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
(ii) Brownfield redevelopment The project includes a brownfield site as defined by section 101(39) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9601), including a site described in subparagraph (D)(ii)(II)(aa) thereof.
(iii) State and local support The project receives specific State or local government resources which will support the project in an amount equal to at least $5,000,000. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term resources includes tax abatement benefits and contributions in kind.
(iv) Size The project includes at least one of the following:
(I) At least 1,000,000 square feet of building.
(II) At least 20 acres.
(v) Use of tax benefit The project proposal includes a description of the net benefit of the tax-exempt financing provided under this subsection which will be allocated for financing of one or more of the following:
(I) The purchase, construction, integration, or other use of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable design features of the project.
(II) Compliance with certification standards cited under clause (i).
(III) The purchase, remediation, and foundation construction and preparation of the brownfields site.
(vi) Prohibited facilities An issue shall not be treated as an issue described in subsection (a)(14) if any proceeds of such issue are used to provide any facility the principal business of which is the sale of food or alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises.
(vii) Employment The project is projected to provide permanent employment of at least 1,500 full time equivalents (150 full time equivalents in rural States) when completed and construction employment of at least 1,000 full time equivalents (100 full time equivalents in rural States).

The application shall include an independent analysis which describes the projects economic impact, including the amount of projected employment.

(B) Project description 
Each application described in subparagraph (A) shall contain for each project a description of
(i) the amount of electric consumption reduced as compared to conventional construction,
(ii) the amount of sulfur dioxide daily emissions reduced compared to coal generation,
(iii) the amount of the gross installed capacity of the projects solar photovoltaic capacity measured in megawatts, and
(iv) the amount, in megawatts, of the projects fuel cell energy generation.
(5) Certification of use of tax benefit 
No later than 30 days after the completion of the project, each project must certify to the Secretary that the net benefit of the tax-exempt financing was used for the purposes described in paragraph (4).
(6) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Rural State 
The term rural State means any State which has
(i) a population of less than 4,500,000 according to the 2000 census,
(ii) a population density of less than 150 people per square mile according to the 2000 census, and
(iii) increased in population by less than half the rate of the national increase between the 1990 and 2000 censuses.
(B) Local government 
The term local government has the meaning given such term by section 1393 (a)(5).
(C) Net benefit of tax-exempt financing 
The term net benefit of tax-exempt financing means the present value of the interest savings (determined by a calculation established by the Secretary) which result from the tax-exempt status of the bonds.
(7) Aggregate face amount of tax-exempt financing 

(A) In general 
An issue shall not be treated as an issue described in subsection (a)(14) if the aggregate face amount of bonds issued by the State or local government pursuant thereto for a project (when added to the aggregate face amount of bonds previously so issued for such project) exceeds an amount designated by the Secretary as part of the designation.
(B) Limitation on amount of bonds 
The Secretary may not allocate authority to issue qualified green building and sustainable design project bonds in an aggregate face amount exceeding $2,000,000,000.
(8) Termination 
Subsection (a)(14) shall not apply with respect to any bond issued after September 30, 2009.
(9) Treatment of current refunding bonds 
Paragraphs (7)(B) and (8) shall not apply to any bond (or series of bonds) issued to refund a bond issued under subsection (a)(14) before October 1, 2009, if
(A) the average maturity date of the issue of which the refunding bond is a part is not later than the average maturity date of the bonds to be refunded by such issue,
(B) the amount of the refunding bond does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded bond, and
(C) the net proceeds of the refunding bond are used to redeem the refunded bond not later than 90 days after the date of the issuance of the refunding bond.

For purposes of subparagraph (A), average maturity shall be determined in accordance with section 147 (b)(2)(A).

(m) Qualified highway or surface freight transfer facilities 

(1) In general 
For purposes of subsection (a)(15), the term qualified highway or surface freight transfer facilities means
(A) any surface transportation project which receives Federal assistance under title 23, United States Code (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this subsection),
(B) any project for an international bridge or tunnel for which an international entity authorized under Federal or State law is responsible and which receives Federal assistance under title 23, United States Code (as so in effect), or
(C) any facility for the transfer of freight from truck to rail or rail to truck (including any temporary storage facilities directly related to such transfers) which receives Federal assistance under either title 23 or title 49, United States Code (as so in effect).
(2) National limitation on amount of tax-exempt financing for facilities 

(A) National limitation 
The aggregate amount allocated by the Secretary of Transportation under subparagraph (C) shall not exceed $15,000,000,000.
(B) Enforcement of national limitation 
An issue shall not be treated as an issue described in subsection (a)(15) if the aggregate face amount of bonds issued pursuant to such issue for any qualified highway or surface freight transfer facility (when added to the aggregate face amount of bonds previously so issued for such facility) exceeds the amount allocated to such facility under subparagraph (C).
(C) Allocation by Secretary of Transportation 
The Secretary of Transportation shall allocate the amount described in subparagraph (A) among qualified highway or surface freight transfer facilities in such manner as the Secretary determines appropriate.
(3) Expenditure of proceeds 
An issue shall not be treated as an issue described in subsection (a)(15) unless at least 95 percent of the net proceeds of the issue is expended for qualified highway or surface freight transfer facilities within the 5-year period beginning on the date of issuance. If at least 95 percent of such net proceeds is not expended within such 5-year period, an issue shall be treated as continuing to meet the requirements of this paragraph if the issuer uses all unspent proceeds of the issue to redeem bonds of the issue within 90 days after the end of such 5-year period. The Secretary, at the request of the issuer, may extend such 5-year period if the issuer establishes that any failure to meet such period is due to circumstances beyond the control of the issuer.
(4) Exception for current refunding bonds 
Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any bond (or series of bonds) issued to refund a bond issued under subsection (a)(15) if
(A) the average maturity date of the issue of which the refunding bond is a part is not later than the average maturity date of the bonds to be refunded by such issue,
(B) the amount of the refunding bond does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded bond, and
(C) the refunded bond is redeemed not later than 90 days after the date of the issuance of the refunding bond.

For purposes of subparagraph (A), average maturity shall be determined in accordance with section 147 (b)(2)(A).

26 USC 143 - Mortgage revenue bonds: qualified mortgage bond and qualified veterans mortgage bond

(a) Qualified mortgage bond 

(1) Qualified mortgage bond defined 
For purposes of this title, the term qualified mortgage bond means a bond which is issued as part of a qualified mortgage issue.
(2) Qualified mortgage issue defined 

(A) Definition 
For purposes of this title, the term qualified mortgage issue means an issue by a State or political subdivision thereof of 1 or more bonds, but only if
(i) all proceeds of such issue (exclusive of issuance costs and a reasonably required reserve) are to be used to finance owner-occupied residences,
(ii) such issue meets the requirements of subsections (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), and (m)(7),
(iii) such issue does not meet the private business tests of paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 141 (b), and
(iv) except as provided in subparagraph (D)(ii), repayments of principal on financing provided by the issue are used not later than the close of the 1st semiannual period beginning after the date the prepayment (or complete repayment) is received to redeem bonds which are part of such issue.

Clause (iv) shall not apply to amounts received within 10 years after the date of issuance of the issue (or, in the case of refunding bond, the date of issuance of the original bond).

(B) Good faith effort to comply with mortgage eligibility requirements 
An issue which fails to meet 1 or more of the requirements of subsections (c), (d), (e), (f), and (i) shall be treated as meeting such requirements if
(i) the issuer in good faith attempted to meet all such requirements before the mortgages were executed,
(ii) 95 percent or more of the proceeds devoted to owner-financing was devoted to residences with respect to which (at the time the mortgages were executed) all such requirements were met, and
(iii) any failure to meet the requirements of such subsections is corrected within a reasonable period after such failure is first discovered.
(C) Good faith effort to comply with other requirements 
An issue which fails to meet 1 or more of the requirements of subsections (g), (h), and (m)(7) shall be treated as meeting such requirements if
(i) the issuer in good faith attempted to meet all such requirements, and
(ii) any failure to meet such requirements is due to inadvertent error after taking reasonable steps to comply with such requirements.
(D) Proceeds must be used within 42 months of date of issuance 

(i) In general Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, an issue shall not meet the requirement of subparagraph (A)(i) unless
(I) all proceeds of the issue required to be used to finance owner-occupied residences are so used within the 42-month period beginning on the date of issuance of the issue (or, in the case of a refunding bond, within the 42-month period beginning on the date of issuance of the original bond) or, to the extent not so used within such period, are used within such period to redeem bonds which are part of such issue, and
(II) no portion of the proceeds of the issue are used to make or finance any loan (other than a loan which is a nonpurpose investment within the meaning of section 148 (f)(6)(A)) after the close of such period.
(ii) Exception Clause (i) (and clause (iv) of subparagraph (A)) shall not be construed to require amounts of less than $250,000 to be used to redeem bonds. The Secretary may by regulation treat related issues as 1 issue for purposes of the preceding sentence.
(b) Qualified veterans’ mortgage bond defined 
For purposes of this part, the term qualified veterans mortgage bond means any bond
(1) which is issued as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used to provide residences for veterans,
(2) the payment of the principal and interest on which is secured by the general obligation of a State,
(3) which is part of an issue which meets the requirements of subsections (c), (g), (i)(1), and (l), and
(4) which is part of an issue which does not meet the private business tests of paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 141 (b).

Rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subsection (a)(2) shall apply to the requirements specified in paragraph (3) of this subsection.

(c) Residence requirements 

(1) For a residence 
A residence meets the requirements of this subsection only if
(A) it is a single-family residence which can reasonably be expected to become the principal residence of the mortgagor within a reasonable time after the financing is provided, and
(B) it is located within the jurisdiction of the authority issuing the bond.
(2) For an issue 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if all of the residences for which owner-financing is provided under the issue meet the requirements of paragraph (1).
(d) 3-year requirement 

(1) In general 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of such issue are used to finance the residences of mortgagors who had no present ownership interest in their principal residences at any time during the 3-year period ending on the date their mortgage is executed.
(2) Exceptions 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the proceeds of an issue which are used to provide
(A) financing with respect to targeted area residences,
(B) qualified home improvement loans and qualified rehabilitation loans,
(C) financing with respect to land described in subsection (i)(1)(C) and the construction of any residence thereon, and
(D) in the case of bonds issued after the date of the enactment of this subparagraph and before January 1, 2008, financing of any residence for a veteran (as defined in section 101 of title 38, United States Code), if such veteran has not previously qualified for and received such financing by reason of this subparagraph,

shall be treated as used as described in paragraph (1).

(3) Mortgagor’s interest in residence being financed 
For purposes of paragraph (1), a mortgagors interest in the residence with respect to which the financing is being provided shall not be taken into account.
(e) Purchase price requirement 

(1) In general 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if the acquisition cost of each residence the owner-financing of which is provided under the issue does not exceed 90 percent of the average area purchase price applicable to such residence.
(2) Average area purchase price 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term average area purchase price means, with respect to any residence, the average purchase price of single family residences (in the statistical area in which the residence is located) which were purchased during the most recent 12-month period for which sufficient statistical information is available. The determination under the preceding sentence shall be made as of the date on which the commitment to provide the financing is made (or, if earlier, the date of the purchase of the residence).
(3) Separate application to new residences and old residences 
For purposes of this subsection, the determination of average area purchase price shall be made separately with respect to
(A) residences which have not been previously occupied, and
(B) residences which have been previously occupied.
(4) Special rule for 2 to 4 family residences 
For purposes of this subsection, to the extent provided in regulations, the determination of average area purchase price shall be made separately with respect to 1 family, 2 family, 3 family, and 4 family residences.
(5) Special rule for targeted area residences 
In the case of a targeted area residence, paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting 110 percent for 90 percent.
(6) Exception for qualified home improvement loans 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to any qualified home improvement loan.
(f) Income requirements 

(1) In general 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if all owner-financing provided under the issue is provided for mortgagors whose family income is 115 percent or less of the applicable median family income.
(2) Determination of family income 
For purposes of this subsection, the family income of mortgagors, and area median gross income, shall be determined by the Secretary after taking into account the regulations prescribed under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (or, if such program is terminated, under such program as in effect immediately before such termination).
(3) Special rule for applying paragraph (1) in the case of targeted area residences 
In the case of any financing provided under any issue for targeted area residences
(A) 1/3 of the amount of such financing may be provided without regard to paragraph (1), and
(B) paragraph (1) shall be treated as satisfied with respect to the remainder of the owner financing if the family income of the mortgagor is 140 percent or less of the applicable median family income.
(4) Applicable median family income 
For purposes of this subsection, the term applicable median family income means, with respect to a residence, whichever of the following is the greater:
(A) the area median gross income for the area in which such residence is located, or
(B) the statewide median gross income for the State in which such residence is located.
(5) Adjustment of income requirement based on relation of high housing costs to income 

(A) In general 
If the residence (for which financing is provided under the issue) is located in a high housing cost area and the limitation determined under this paragraph is greater than the limitation otherwise applicable under paragraph (1), there shall be substituted for the income limitation in paragraph (1), a limitation equal to the percentage determined under subparagraph (B) of the area median gross income for such area.
(B) Income requirements for residences in high housing cost area 
The percentage determined under this subparagraph for a residence located in a high housing cost area is the percentage (not greater than 140 percent) equal to the product of
(I) 115 percent, and
(II) the amount by which the housing cost/income ratio for such area exceeds 0.2.
(C) High housing cost areas 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term high housing cost area means any statistical area for which the housing cost/income ratio is greater than 1.2.
(D) Housing cost/income ratio 
For purposes of this paragraph
(i) In general The term housing cost/income ratio means, with respect to any statistical area, the number determined by dividing
(I) the applicable housing price ratio for such area, by
(II) the ratio which the area median gross income for such area bears to the median gross income for the United States.
(ii) Applicable housing price ratio For purposes of clause (i), the applicable housing price ratio for any area is the new housing price ratio or the existing housing price ratio, whichever results in the housing cost/income ratio being closer to 1.
(iii) New housing price ratio The new housing price ratio for any area is the ratio which
(I) the average area purchase price (as defined in subsection (e)(2)) for residences described in subsection (e)(3)(A) which are located in such area bears to
(II) the average purchase price (determined in accordance with the principles of subsection (e)(2)) for residences so described which are located in the United States.
(iv) Existing housing price ratio The existing housing price ratio for any area is the ratio determined in accordance with clause (iii) but with respect to residences described in subsection (e)(3)(B).
(6) Adjustment to income requirements based on family size 
In the case of a mortgagor having a family of fewer than 3 individuals, the preceding provisions of this subsection shall be applied by substituting
(A) 100 percent for 115 percent each place it appears, and
(B) 120 percent for 140 percent each place it appears.
(g) Requirements related to arbitrage 

(1) In general 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if such issue meets the requirements of paragraph (2) of this subsection and, in the case of an issue described in subsection (b)(1), such issue also meets the requirements of paragraph (3) of this subsection. Such requirements shall be in addition to the requirements of section 148.
(2) Effective rate of mortgage interest cannot exceed bond yield by more than 1.125 percentage points 

(A) In general 
An issue shall be treated as meeting the requirements of this paragraph only if the excess of
(i) the effective rate of interest on the mortgages provided under the issue, over
(ii) the yield on the issue,

is not greater than 1.125 percentage points.

(B) Effective rate of mortgage interest 

(i) In general In determining the effective rate of interest on any mortgage for purposes of this paragraph, there shall be taken into account all fees, charges, and other amounts borne by the mortgagor which are attributable to the mortgage or to the bond issue.
(ii) Specification of some of the amounts to be treated as borne by the mortgagor For purposes of clause (i), the following items (among others) shall be treated as borne by the mortgagor:
(I) all points or similar charges paid by the seller of the property, and
(II) the excess of the amounts received from any person other than the mortgagor by any person in connection with the acquisition of the mortgagors interest in the property over the usual and reasonable acquisition costs of a person acquiring like property where owner-financing is not provided through the use of qualified mortgage bonds or qualified veterans mortgage bonds.
(iii) Specification of some of the amounts to be treated as not borne by the mortgagor For purposes of clause (i), the following items shall not be taken into account:
(I) any expected rebate of arbitrage profits, and
(II) any application fee, survey fee, credit report fee, insurance charge, or similar amount to the extent such amount does not exceed amounts charged in such area in cases where owner-financing is not provided through the use of qualified mortgage bonds or qualified veterans mortgage bonds.

Subclause (II) shall not apply to origination fees, points, or similar amounts.

(iv) Prepayment assumptions In determining the effective rate of interest
(I) it shall be assumed that the mortgage prepayment rate will be the rate set forth in the most recent applicable mortgage maturity experience table published by the Federal Housing Administration, and
(II) prepayments of principal shall be treated as received on the last day of the month in which the issuer reasonably expects to receive such prepayments.

The Secretary may by regulation adjust the mortgage prepayment rate otherwise used in determining the effective rate of interest to the extent the Secretary determines that such an adjustment is appropriate by reason of the impact of subsection (m).

(C) Yield on the issue 
For purposes of this subsection, the yield on an issue shall be determined on the basis of
(i) the issue price (within the meaning of sections 1273 and 1274), and
(ii) an expected maturity for the bonds which is consistent with the assumptions required under subparagraph (B)(iv).
(3) Arbitrage and investment gains to be used to reduce costs of owner-financing 

(A) In general 
An issue shall be treated as meeting the requirements of this paragraph only if an amount equal to the sum of
(i) the excess of
(I) the amount earned on all nonpurpose investments (other than investments attributable to an excess described in this clause), over
(II) the amount which would have been earned if such investments were invested at a rate equal to the yield on the issue, plus
(ii) any income attributable to the excess described in clause (i),

is paid or credited to the mortgagors as rapidly as may be practicable.

(B) Investment gains and losses 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), in determining the amount earned on all nonpurpose investments, any gain or loss on the disposition of such investments shall be taken into account.
(C) Reduction where issuer does not use full 1.125 percentage points under paragraph (2) 

(i) In general The amount required to be paid or credited to mortgagors under subparagraph (A) (determined under this paragraph without regard to this subparagraph) shall be reduced by the unused paragraph (2) amount.
(ii) Unused paragraph (2) amount For purposes of clause (i), the unused paragraph (2) amount is the amount which (if it were treated as an interest payment made by mortgagors) would result in the excess referred to in paragraph (2)(A) being equal to 1.125 percentage points. Such amount shall be fixed and determined as of the yield determination date.
(D) Election to pay United States 
Subparagraph (A) shall be satisfied with respect to any issue if the issuer elects before issuing the bonds to pay over to the United States
(i) not less frequently than once each 5 years after the date of issue, an amount equal to 90 percent of the aggregate amount which would be required to be paid or credited to mortgagors under subparagraph (A) (and not theretofore paid to the United States), and
(ii) not later than 60 days after the redemption of the last bond, 100 percent of such aggregate amount not theretofore paid to the United States.
(E) Simplified accounting 
The Secretary shall permit any simplified system of accounting for purposes of this paragraph which the issuer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary will assure that the purposes of this paragraph are carried out.
(F) Nonpurpose investment 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term nonpurpose investment has the meaning given such term by section 148 (f)(6)(A).
(h) Portion of loans required to be placed in targeted areas 

(1) In general 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if at least 20 percent of the proceeds of the issue which are devoted to providing owner-financing is made available (with reasonable diligence) for owner-financing of targeted area residences for at least 1 year after the date on which owner-financing is first made available with respect to targeted area residences.
(2) Limitation 
Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be treated as requiring the making available of an amount which exceeds 40 percent of the average annual aggregate principal amount of mortgages executed during the immediately preceding 3 calendar years for single-family, owner-occupied residences located in targeted areas within the jurisdiction of the issuing authority.
(i) Other requirements 

(1) Mortgages must be new mortgages 

(A) In general 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if no part of the proceeds of such issue is used to acquire or replace existing mortgages.
(B) Exceptions 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the replacement of
(i) construction period loans,
(ii) bridge loans or similar temporary initial financing, and
(iii) in the case of a qualified rehabilitation, an existing mortgage,

shall not be treated as the acquisition or replacement of an existing mortgage for purposes of subparagraph (A).

(C) Exception for certain contract for deed agreements 

(i) In general In the case of land possessed under a contract for deed by a mortgagor
(I) whose principal residence (within the meaning of section 121) is located on such land, and
(II) whose family income (as defined in subsection (f)(2)) is not more than 50 percent of applicable median family income (as defined in subsection (f)(4)),

the contract for deed shall not be treated as an existing mortgage for purposes of subparagraph (A).

(ii) Contract for deed defined For purposes of this subparagraph, the term contract for deed means a seller-financed contract for the conveyance of land under which
(I) legal title does not pass to the purchaser until the consideration under the contract is fully paid to the seller, and
(II) the sellers remedy for nonpayment is forfeiture rather than judicial or nonjudicial foreclosure.
(2) Certain requirements must be met where mortgage is assumed 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if each mortgage with respect to which owner-financing has been provided under such issue may be assumed only if the requirements of subsections (c), (d), and (e), and the requirements of paragraph (1) or (3)(B) of subsection (f) (whichever applies), are met with respect to such assumption.
(j) Targeted area residences 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this section, the term targeted area residence means a residence in an area which is either
(A) a qualified census tract, or
(B) an area of chronic economic distress.
(2) Qualified census tract 

(A) In general 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term qualified census tract means a census tract in which 70 percent or more of the families have income which is 80 percent or less of the statewide median family income.
(B) Data used 
The determination under subparagraph (A) shall be made on the basis of the most recent decennial census for which data are available.
(3) Area of chronic economic distress 

(A) In general 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term area of chronic economic distress means an area of chronic economic distress
(i) designated by the State as meeting the standards established by the State for purposes of this subsection, and
(ii) the designation of which has been approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
(B) Criteria to be used in approving State designations 
The criteria used by the Secretary and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in evaluating any proposed designation of an area for purposes of this subsection shall be
(i) the condition of the housing stock, including the age of the housing and the number of abandoned and substandard residential units,
(ii) the need of area residents for owner-financing under this section, as indicated by low per capita income, a high percentage of families in poverty, a high number of welfare recipients, and high unemployment rates,
(iii) the potential for use of owner-financing under this section to improve housing conditions in the area, and
(iv) the existence of a housing assistance plan which provides a displacement program and a public improvements and services program.
(k) Other definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this section
(1) Mortgage 
The term mortgage means any owner-financing.
(2) Statistical area 

(A) In general 
The term statistical area means
(i) a metropolitan statistical area, and
(ii) any county (or the portion thereof) which is not within a metropolitan statistical area.
(B) Metropolitan statistical area 
The term metropolitan statistical area includes the area defined as such by the Secretary of Commerce.
(C) Designation where adequate statistical information not available 
For purposes of this paragraph, if there is insufficient recent statistical information with respect to a county (or portion thereof) described in subparagraph (A)(ii), the Secretary may substitute for such county (or portion thereof) another area for which there is sufficient recent statistical information.
(D) Designation where no county 
In the case of any portion of a State which is not within a county, subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (C) shall be applied by substituting for county an area designated by the Secretary which is the equivalent of a county.
(3) Acquisition cost 

(A) In general 
The term acquisition cost means the cost of acquiring the residence as a completed residential unit.
(B) Exceptions 
The term acquisition cost does not include
(i) usual and reasonable settlement or financing costs,
(ii) the value of services performed by the mortgagor or members of his family in completing the residence, and
(iii) the cost of land (other than land described in subsection (i)(1)(C)(i)) which has been owned by the mortgagor for at least 2 years before the date on which construction of the residence begins.
(C) Special rule for qualified rehabilitation loans 
In the case of a qualified rehabilitation loan, for purposes of subsection (e), the term acquisition cost includes the cost of the rehabilitation.
(4) Qualified home improvement loan 
The term qualified home improvement loan means the financing (in an amount which does not exceed $15,000)
(A) of alterations, repairs, and improvements on or in connection with an existing residence by the owner thereof, but
(B) only of such items as substantially protect or improve the basic livability or energy efficiency of the property.
(5) Qualified rehabilitation loan 

(A) In general 
The term qualified rehabilitation loan means any owner-financing provided in connection with
(i) a qualified rehabilitation, or
(ii) the acquisition of a residence with respect to which there has been a qualified rehabilitation,

but only if the mortgagor to whom such financing is provided is the first resident of the residence after the completion of the rehabilitation.

(B) Qualified rehabilitation 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term qualified rehabilitation means any rehabilitation of a building if
(i) there is a period of at least 20 years between the date on which the building was first used and the date on which the physical work on such rehabilitation begins,
(ii) in the rehabilitation process
(I) 50 percent or more of the existing external walls of such building are retained in place as external walls,
(II) 75 percent or more of the existing external walls of such building are retained in place as internal or external walls, and
(III) 75 percent or more of the existing internal structural framework of such building is retained in place, and
(iii) the expenditures for such rehabilitation are 25 percent or more of the mortgagors adjusted basis in the residence.

For purposes of clause (iii), the mortgagors adjusted basis shall be determined as of the completion of the rehabilitation or, if later, the date on which the mortgagor acquires the residence.

(6) Determinations on actuarial basis 
All determinations of yield, effective interest rates, and amounts required to be paid or credited to mortgagors or paid to the United States under subsection (g) shall be made on an actuarial basis taking into account the present value of money.
(7) Single-family and owner-occupied residences include certain residences with 2 to 4 units 
Except for purposes of subsection (h)(2), the terms single-family and owner-occupied, when used with respect to residences, include 2, 3, or 4 family residences
(A) one unit of which is occupied by the owner of the units, and
(B) which were first occupied at least 5 years before the mortgage is executed.

Subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any 2-family residence if the residence is a targeted area residence and the family income of the mortgagor meets the requirement of subsection (f)(3)(B).

(8) Cooperative housing corporations 

(A) In general 
In the case of any cooperative housing corporation
(i) each dwelling unit shall be treated as if it were actually owned by the person entitled to occupy such dwelling unit by reason of his ownership of stock in the corporation, and
(ii) any indebtedness of the corporation allocable to the dwelling unit shall be treated as if it were indebtedness of the shareholder entitled to occupy the dwelling unit.
(B) Adjustment to targeted area requirement 
In the case of any issue to provide financing to a cooperative housing corporation with respect to cooperative housing not located in a targeted area, to the extent provided in regulations, such issue may be combined with 1 or more other issues for purposes of determining whether the requirements of subsection (h) are met.
(C) Cooperative housing corporation 
The term cooperative housing corporation has the meaning given to such term by section 216 (b)(1).
(9) Treatment of limited equity cooperative housing 

(A) Treatment as residential rental property 
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), for purposes of this part
(i) any limited equity cooperative housing shall be treated as residential rental property and not as owner-occupied housing, and
(ii) bonds issued to provide such housing shall be subject to the same requirements and limitations as bonds the proceeds of which are to be used to provide qualified residential rental projects (as defined in section 142 (d)).
(B) Bonds subject to qualified mortgage bond termination date 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any bond issued after the date specified in subsection (a)(1)(B).
(C) Limited equity cooperative housing 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term limited equity cooperative housing means any dwelling unit which a person is entitled to occupy by reason of his ownership of stock in a qualified cooperative housing corporation.
(D) Qualified cooperative housing corporation 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term qualified cooperative housing corporation means any cooperative housing corporation (as defined in section 216 (b)(1)) if
(i) the consideration paid for stock held by any stockholder entitled to occupy any house or apartment in a building owned or leased by the corporation may not exceed the sum of
(I) the consideration paid for such stock by the first such stockholder, as adjusted by a cost-of-living adjustment determined by the Secretary,
(II) payments made by any stockholder for improvements to such house or apartment, and
(III) payments (other than amounts taken into account under subclause (I) or (II)) attributable to any stockholder to amortize the principal of the corporations indebtedness arising from the acquisition or development of real property, including improvements thereof,
(ii) the value of the corporations assets (reduced by any corporate liabilities), to the extent such value exceeds the combined transfer values of the outstanding corporate stock, shall be used only for public benefit or charitable purposes, or directly to benefit the corporation itself, and shall not be used directly to benefit any stockholder, and
(iii) at the time of issuance of the issue, such corporation makes an election under this paragraph.
(E) Effect of election 
If a cooperative housing corporation makes an election under this paragraph, section 216 shall not apply with respect to such corporation (or any successor thereof) during the qualified project period (as defined in section 142 (d)(2)).
(F) Corporation must continue to be qualified cooperative 
Subparagraph (A)(i) shall not apply to limited equity cooperative housing unless the cooperative housing corporation continues to be a qualified cooperative housing corporation at all times during the qualified project period (as defined in section 142 (d)(2)).
(G) Election irrevocable 
Any election under this paragraph, once made, shall be irrevocable.
(10) Treatment of resale price control and subsidy lien programs 

(A) In general 
In the case of a residence which is located in a high housing cost area (as defined in section 143 (f)(5)), the interest of a governmental unit in such residence by reason of financing provided under any qualified program shall not be taken into account under this section (other than subsection (m)), and the acquisition cost of the residence which is taken into account under subsection (e) shall be such cost reduced by the amount of such financing.
(B) Qualified program 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term qualified program means any governmental program providing mortgage loans (other than 1st mortgage loans) or grants
(i) which restricts (throughout the 9-year period beginning on the date the financing is provided) the resale of the residence to a purchaser qualifying under this section and to a price determined by an index that reflects less than the full amount of any appreciation in the residences value, or
(ii) which provides for deferred or reduced interest payments on such financing and grants the governmental unit a share in the appreciation of the residence,

but only if such financing is not provided directly or indirectly through the use of any tax-exempt private activity bond.

(11) Special rules for residences located in disaster areas 
In the case of a residence located in an area determined by the President to warrant assistance from the Federal Government under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (as in effect on the date of the enactment of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997), this section shall be applied with the following modifications to financing provided with respect to such residence within 2 years after the date of the disaster declaration:
(A) Subsection (d) (relating to 3-year requirement) shall not apply.
(B) Subsections (e) and (f) (relating to purchase price requirement and income requirement) shall be applied as if such residence were a targeted area residence.

The preceding sentence shall apply only with respect to bonds issued after December 31, 1996, and before January 1, 1999.

(l) Additional requirements for qualified veterans’ mortgage bonds 
An issue meets the requirements of this subsection only if it meets the requirements of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3).
(1) Veterans to whom financing may be provided 
An issue meets the requirements of this paragraph only if each mortgagor to whom financing is provided under the issue is a qualified veteran.
(2) Requirement that State program be in effect before June 22, 1984 
An issue meets the requirements of this paragraph only if it is a general obligation of a State which issued qualified veterans mortgage bonds before June 22, 1984.
(3) Volume limitation 

(A) In general 
An issue meets the requirements of this paragraph only if the aggregate amount of bonds issued pursuant thereto (when added to the aggregate amount of qualified veterans mortgage bonds previously issued by the State during the calendar year) does not exceed the State veterans limit for such calendar year.
(B) State veterans limit 

(i) In general In the case of any State to which clause (ii) does not apply, the State veterans limit for any calendar year is the amount equal to
(I) the aggregate amount of qualified veterans bonds issued by such State during the period beginning on January 1, 1979, and ending on June 22, 1984 (not including the amount of any qualified veterans bond issued by such State during the calendar year (or portion thereof) in such period for which the amount of such bonds so issued was the lowest), divided by
(II) the number (not to exceed 5) of calendar years after 1979 and before 1985 during which the State issued qualified veterans bonds (determined by only taking into account bonds issued on or before June 22, 1984).
(ii) Alaska, Oregon, and Wisconsin In the case of the following States, the State veterans limit for any calendar year is the amount equal to
(I) $25,000,000 for the State of Alaska,
(II) $25,000,000 for the State of Oregon, and
(III) $25,000,000 for the State of Wisconsin.
(iii) Phasein In the case of calendar years beginning before 2010, clause (ii) shall be applied by substituting for each of the dollar amounts therein an amount equal to the applicable percentage of such dollar amount. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the applicable percentage shall be determined in accordance with the following table:
(C) Treatment of refunding issues 

(i) In general For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term qualified veterans mortgage bond shall not include any bond issued to refund another bond but only if the maturity date of the refunding bond is not later than the later of
(I) the maturity date of the bond to be refunded, or
(II) the date 32 years after the date on which the refunded bond was issued (or in the case of a series of refundings, the date on which the original bond was issued).

The preceding sentence shall apply only to the extent that the amount of the refunding bond does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded bond.

(ii) Exception for advance refunding Clause (i) shall not apply to any bond issued to advance refund another bond.
(4) Qualified veteran 
For purposes of this subsection, the term qualified veteran means
(A) in the case of the States of Alaska, Oregon, and Wisconsin, any veteran
(i) who served on active duty, and
(ii) who applied for the financing before the date 25 years after the last date on which such veteran left active service, and
(B) in the case of any other State, any veteran
(i) who served on active duty at some time before January 1, 1977, and
(ii) who applied for the financing before the later of
(I) the date 30 years after the last date on which such veteran left active service, or
(II) January 31, 1985.
(5) Special rule for certain short-term bonds 
In the case of any bond
(A) which has a term of 1 year or less,
(B) which is authorized to be issued under O.R.S. 407.435 (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this subsection), to provide financing for property taxes, and
(C) which is redeemed at the end of such term,

the amount taken into account under this subsection with respect to such bond shall be 1/15 of its principal amount.

(m) Recapture of portion of Federal subsidy from use of qualified mortgage bonds and mortgage credit certificates 

(1) In general 
If, during the taxable year, any taxpayer disposes of an interest in a residence with respect to which there is or was any federally-subsidized indebtedness for the payment of which the taxpayer was liable in whole or part, then the taxpayers tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year shall be increased by the lesser of
(A) the recapture amount with respect to such indebtedness, or
(B) 50 percent of the gain (if any) on the disposition of such interest.
(2) Exceptions 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to
(A) any disposition by reason of death, and
(B) any disposition which is more than 9 years after the testing date.
(3) Federally-subsidized indebtedness 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The term federally-subsidized indebtedness means any indebtedness if
(i) financing for the indebtedness was provided in whole or part from the proceeds of any tax-exempt qualified mortgage bond, or
(ii) any credit was allowed under section 25 (relating to interest on certain home mortgages) to the taxpayer for interest paid or incurred on such indebtedness.
(B) Exception for home improvement loans 
Such term shall not include any indebtedness to the extent such indebtedness is federally-subsidized indebtedness solely by reason of being a qualified home improvement loan (as defined in subsection (k)(4)).
(4) Recapture amount 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The recapture amount with respect to any indebtedness is the amount equal to the product of
(i) the federally-subsidized amount with respect to the indebtedness,
(ii) the holding period percentage, and
(iii) the income percentage.
(B) Federally-subsidized amount 
The federally-subsidized amount with respect to any indebtedness is the amount equal to 6.25 percent of the highest principal amount of the indebtedness for which the taxpayer was liable.
(C) Holding period percentage 

(i) In general The term holding period percentage means the percentage determined in accordance with the following table: If the disposition occurs during a year after the The holding period testing date which is: percentage is: The 1st such year 20 The 2d such year 40 The 3d such year 60 The 4th such year 80 The 5th such year 100 The 6th such year 80 The 7th such year 60 The 8th such year 40 The 9th such year 20.
(ii) Retirements of indebtedness If the federally-subsidized indebtedness is completely repaid during any year of the 4-year period beginning on the testing date, the holding period percentage for succeeding years shall be determined by reducing ratably to zero over the succeeding 5 years the holding period percentage which would have been determined under this subparagraph had the taxpayer disposed of his interest in the residence on the date of the repayment.
(D) Testing date 
The term testing date means the earliest date on which all of the following requirements are met:
(i) The indebtedness is federally-subsidized indebtedness.
(ii) The taxpayer is liable in whole or part for payment of the indebtedness.
(E) Income percentage 
The term income percentage means the percentage (but not greater than 100 percent) which
(i) the excess of
(I) the modified adjusted gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year in which the disposition occurs, over
(II) the adjusted qualifying income for such taxable year, bears to
(ii) $5,000.

The percentage determined under the preceding sentence shall be rounded to the nearest whole percentage point (or, if it includes a half of a percentage point, shall be increased to the nearest whole percentage point).

(5) Adjusted qualifying income; modified adjusted gross income 

(A) Adjusted qualifying income 
For purposes of paragraph (4), the term adjusted qualifying income means the product of
(i) the highest family income which (as of the date the financing was provided) would have met the requirements of subsection (f) with respect to the residents, and
(ii) 1.05 to the nth power where n equals the number of full years during the period beginning on the date the financing was provided and ending on the date of the disposition.

For purposes of clause (i), highest family income shall be determined without regard to subsection (f)(3)(A) and on the basis of the number of members of the taxpayers family as of the date of the disposition.

(B) Modified adjusted gross income 
For purposes of paragraph (4), the term modified adjusted gross income means adjusted gross income
(i) increased by the amount of interest received or accrued by the taxpayer during the taxable year which is excluded from gross income under section 103, and
(ii) decreased by the amount of gain (if any) included in gross income of the taxpayer by reason of the disposition to which this subsection applies.
(6) Special rules relating to limitation on recapture amount based on gain realized 

(A) In general 
For purposes of paragraph (1), gain shall be taken into account whether or not recognized, and the adjusted basis of the taxpayers interest in the residence shall be determined without regard to sections 1033 (b) and 1034 (e) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997) for purposes of determining gain.
(B) Dispositions other than sales, exchanges, and involuntary conversions 
In the case of a disposition other than a sale, exchange, or involuntary conversion, gain shall be determined as if the interest had been sold for its fair market value.
(C) Involuntary conversions resulting from casualties 
In the case of property which (as a result of its destruction in whole or in part by fire, storm, or other casualty) is compulsorily or involuntarily converted, paragraph (1) shall not apply to such conversion if the taxpayer purchases (during the period specified in section 1033 (a)(2)(B)) property for use as his principal residence on the site of the converted property. For purposes of subparagraph (A), the adjusted basis of the taxpayer in the residence shall not be adjusted for any gain or loss on a conversion to which this subparagraph applies.
(7) Issuer to inform mortgagor of federally-subsidized amount and family income limits 
The issuer of the issue which provided the federally-subsidized indebtedness to the mortgagor shall
(A) at the time of settlement, provide a written statement informing the mortgagor of the potential recapture under this subsection, and
(B) not later than 90 days after the date such indebtedness is provided, provide a written statement to the mortgagor specifying
(i) the federally-subsidized amount with respect to such indebtedness, and
(ii) the adjusted qualifying income (as defined in paragraph (5)) for each category of family size for each year of the 9-year period beginning on the date the financing was provided.
(8) Special rules 

(A) No basis adjustment 
No adjustment shall be made to the basis of any property for the increase in tax under this subsection.
(B) Special rule where 2 or more persons hold interests in residence 
Except as provided in subparagraph (C) and in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if 2 or more persons hold interests in any residence and are jointly liable for the federally-subsidized indebtedness, the recapture amount shall be determined separately with respect to their respective interests in the residence.
(C) Transfers to spouses and former spouses 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any transfer on which no gain or loss is recognized under section 1041. In any such case, the transferee shall be treated under this subsection in the same manner as the transferor would have been treated had such transfer not occurred.
(D) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out this subsection, including regulations dealing with dispositions of partial interests in a residence.

26 USC 144 - Qualified small issue bond; qualified student loan bond; qualified redevelopment bond

(a) Qualified small issue bond 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this part, the term qualified small issue bond means any bond issued as part of an issue the aggregate authorized face amount of which is $1,000,000 or less and 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used
(A) for the acquisition, construction, reconstruction, or improvement of land or property of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation, or
(B) to redeem part or all of a prior issue which was issued for purposes described in subparagraph (A) or this subparagraph.
(2) Certain prior issues taken into account 
If
(A) the proceeds of 2 or more issues of bonds (whether or not the issuer of each such issue is the same) are or will be used primarily with respect to facilities located in the same incorporated municipality or located in the same county (but not in any incorporated municipality),
(B) the principal user of such facilities is or will be the same person or 2 or more related persons, and
(C) but for this paragraph, paragraph (1) (or the corresponding provision of prior law) would apply to each such issue,

then, for purposes of paragraph (1), in determining the aggregate face amount of any later issue there shall be taken into account the aggregate face amount of tax-exempt bonds issued under all prior such issues and outstanding at the time of such later issue (not including as outstanding any bond which is to be redeemed (other than in an advance refunding) from the net proceeds of the later issue).

(3) Related persons 
For purposes of this subsection, a person is a related person to another person if
(A) the relationship between such persons would result in a disallowance of losses under section 267 or 707 (b), or
(B) such persons are members of the same controlled group of corporations (as defined in section 1563 (a), except that more than 50 percent shall be substituted for at least 80 percent each place it appears therein).
(4) $10,000,000 limit in certain cases 

(A) In general 
At the election of the issuer with respect to any issue, this subsection shall be applied
(i) by substituting $10,000,000 for $1,000,000 in paragraph (1), and
(ii) in determining the aggregate face amount of such issue, by taking into account not only the amount described in paragraph (2), but also the aggregate amount of capital expenditures with respect to facilities described in subparagraph (B) paid or incurred during the 6-year period beginning 3 years before the date of such issue and ending 3 years after such date (and financed otherwise than out of the proceeds of outstanding tax-exempt issues to which paragraph (1) (or the corresponding provision of prior law) applied), as if the aggregate amount of such capital expenditures constituted the face amount of a prior outstanding issue described in paragraph (2).
(B) Facilities taken into account 
For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii), the facilities described in this subparagraph are facilities
(i) located in the same incorporated municipality or located in the same county (but not in any incorporated municipality), and
(ii) the principal user of which is or will be the same person or 2 or more related persons.

For purposes of clause (i), the determination of whether or not facilities are located in the same governmental unit shall be made as of the date of issue of the issue in question.

(C) Certain capital expenditures not taken into account 
For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii), any capital expenditure
(i) to replace property destroyed or damaged by fire, storm, or other casualty, to the extent of the fair market value of the property replaced,
(ii) required by a change made after the date of issue of the issue in question in a Federal or State law or local ordinance of general application or required by a change made after such date in rules and regulations of general application issued under such a law or ordinance,
(iii) required by circumstances which could not be reasonably foreseen on such date of issue or arising out of a mistake of law or fact (but the aggregate amount of expenditures not taken into account under this clause with respect to any issue shall not exceed $1,000,000), or
(iv) described in clause (i) or (ii) of section 41 (b)(2)(A) for which a deduction was allowed under section 174 (a),

shall not be taken into account.

(D) Limitation on loss of tax exemption 
In applying subparagraph (A)(ii) with respect to capital expenditures made after the date of any issue, no bond issued as a part of such issue shall cease to be treated as a qualified small issue bond by reason of any such expenditure for any period before the date on which such expenditure is paid or incurred.
(E) Certain refinancing issues 
In the case of any issue described in paragraph (1)(B), an election may be made under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph only if all of the prior issues being redeemed are issues to which paragraph (1) (or the corresponding provision of prior law) applied. In applying subparagraph (A)(ii) with respect to such a refinancing issue, capital expenditures shall be taken into account only for purposes of determining whether the prior issues being redeemed qualified (and would have continued to qualify) under paragraph (1) (or the corresponding provision of prior law).
(F) Aggregate amount of capital expenditures where there is urban development action grant 
In the case of any issue 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used to provide facilities with respect to which an urban development action grant has been made under section 119 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, capital expenditures of not to exceed $10,000,000 shall not be taken into account for purposes of applying subparagraph (A)(ii). This subparagraph shall not apply to bonds issued after December 31, 2006.
(G) Additional capital expenditures not taken into account 
With respect to bonds issued after December 31, 2006, in addition to any capital expenditure described in subparagraph (C), capital expenditures of not to exceed $10,000,000 shall not be taken into account for purposes of applying subparagraph (A)(ii).
(5) Issues for residential purposes 
This subsection shall not apply to any bond issued as part of an issue 5 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used directly or indirectly to provide residential real property for family units.
(6) Limitations on treatment of bonds as part of the same issue 

(A) In general 
For purposes of this subsection, separate lots of bonds which (but for this subparagraph) would be treated as part of the same issue shall be treated as separate issues unless the proceeds of such lots are to be used with respect to 2 or more facilities
(i) which are located in more than 1 State, or
(ii) which have, or will have, as the same principal user the same person or related persons.
(B) Franchises 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), a person (other than a governmental unit) shall be considered a principal user of a facility if such person (or a group of related persons which includes such person)
(i) guarantees, arranges, participates in, or assists with the issuance (or pays any portion of the cost of issuance) of any bond the proceeds of which are to be used to finance or refinance such facility, and
(ii) provides any property, or any franchise, trademark, or trade name (within the meaning of section 1253), which is to be used in connection with such facility.
(7) Subsection not to apply if bonds issued with certain other tax-exempt bonds 
This subsection shall not apply to any bond issued as part of an issue (other than an issue to which paragraph (4) applies) if the interest on any other bond which is part of such issue is excluded from gross income under any provision of law other than this subsection.
(8) Restrictions on financing certain facilities 
This subsection shall not apply to an issue if
(A) more than 25 percent of the net proceeds of the issue are to be used to provide a facility the primary purpose of which is one of the following: retail food and beverage services, automobile sales or service, or the provision of recreation or entertainment; or
(B) any portion of the proceeds of the issue is to be used to provide the following: any private or commercial golf course, country club, massage parlor, tennis club, skating facility (including roller skating, skateboard, and ice skating), racquet sports facility (including any handball or racquetball court), hot tub facility, suntan facility, or racetrack.
(9) Aggregation of issues with respect to single project 
For purposes of this subsection, 2 or more issues part or all of the net proceeds of which are to be used with respect to a single building, an enclosed shopping mall, or a strip of offices, stores, or warehouses using substantial common facilities shall be treated as 1 issue (and any person who is a principal user with respect to any of such issues shall be treated as a principal user with respect to the aggregated issue).
(10) Aggregate limit per taxpayer 

(A) In general 
This subsection shall not apply to any issue if the aggregate authorized face amount of such issue allocated to any test-period beneficiary (when increased by the outstanding tax-exempt facility-related bonds of such beneficiary) exceeds $40,000,000.
(B) Outstanding tax-exempt facility-related bonds 

(i) In general For purposes of applying subparagraph (A) with respect to any issue, the outstanding tax-exempt facility-related bonds of any person who is a test-period beneficiary with respect to such issue is the aggregate amount of tax-exempt bonds referred to in clause (ii)
(I) which are allocated to such beneficiary, and
(II) which are outstanding at the time of such later issue (not including as outstanding any bond which is to be redeemed (other than in an advance refunding) from the net proceeds of the later issue).
(ii) Bonds taken into account For purposes of clause (i), the bonds referred to in this clause are
(I) exempt facility bonds, qualified small issue bonds, and qualified redevelopment bonds, and
(II) industrial development bonds (as defined in section 103 (b)(2), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) to which section 141 (a) does not apply.
(C) Allocation of face amount of issue 

(i) In general Except as otherwise provided in regulations, the portion of the face amount of an issue allocated to any test-period beneficiary of a facility financed by the proceeds of such issue (other than an owner of such facility) is an amount which bears the same relationship to the entire face amount of such issue as the portion of such facility used by such beneficiary bears to the entire facility.
(ii) Owners Except as otherwise provided in regulations, the portion of the face amount of an issue allocated to any test-period beneficiary who is an owner of a facility financed by the proceeds of such issue is an amount which bears the same relationship to the entire face amount of such issue as the portion of such facility owned by such beneficiary bears to the entire facility.
(D) Test-period beneficiary 
For purposes of this paragraph, except as provided in regulations, the term test-period beneficiary means any person who is an owner or a principal user of facilities being financed by the issue at any time during the 3-year period beginning on the later of
(i) the date such facilities were placed in service, or
(ii) the date of issue.
(E) Treatment of related persons 
For purposes of this paragraph, all persons who are related (within the meaning of paragraph (3)) to each other shall be treated as 1 person.
(11) Limitation on acquisition of depreciable farm property 

(A) In general 
This subsection shall not apply to any issue if more than $250,000 of the net proceeds of such issue are to be used to provide depreciable farm property with respect to which the principal user is or will be the same person or 2 or more related persons.
(B) Depreciable farm property 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term depreciable farm property means property of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation which is to be used in a trade or business of farming.
(C) Prior issues taken into account 
In determining the amount of proceeds of an issue to be used as described in subparagraph (A), there shall be taken into account the aggregate amount of each prior issue to which paragraph (1) (or the corresponding provisions of prior law) applied which were or will be so used.
(12) Termination dates 

(A) In general 
This subsection shall not apply to
(i) any bond (other than a bond described in clause (ii)) issued after December 31, 1986, or
(ii) any bond (or series of bonds) issued to refund a bond issued on or before such date unless
(I) the average maturity date of the issue of which the refunding bond is a part is not later than the average maturity date of the bonds to be refunded by such issue,
(II) the amount of the refunding bond does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded bond, and
(III) the net proceeds of the refunding bond are used to redeem the refunded bond not later than 90 days after the date of the issuance of the refunding bond.

For purposes of clause (ii)(I), average maturity shall be determined in accordance with section 147 (b)(2)(A).

(B) Bonds issued to finance manufacturing facilities and farm property 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any bond issued as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used to provide
(i) any manufacturing facility, or
(ii) any land or property in accordance with section 147 (c)(2).
(C) Manufacturing facility 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term manufacturing facility means any facility which is used in the manufacturing or production of tangible personal property (including the processing resulting in a change in the condition of such property). A rule similar to the rule of section 142 (b)(2) shall apply for purposes of the preceding sentence. For purposes of the 1st sentence of this subparagraph, the term manufacturing facility includes facilities which are directly related and ancillary to a manufacturing facility (determined without regard to this sentence) if
(i) such facilities are located on the same site as the manufacturing facility, and
(ii) not more than 25 percent of the net proceeds of the issue are used to provide such facilities.
(b) Qualified student loan bond 
For purposes of this part
(1) In general 
The term qualified student loan bond means any bond issued as part of an issue the applicable percentage or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used directly or indirectly to make or finance student loans under
(A) a program of general application to which the Higher Education Act of 1965 applies if
(i) limitations are imposed under the program on
(I) the maximum amount of loans outstanding to any student, and
(II) the maximum rate of interest payable on any loan,
(ii) the loans are directly or indirectly guaranteed by the Federal Government,
(iii) the financing of loans under the program is not limited by Federal law to the proceeds of tax-exempt bonds, and
(iv) special allowance payments under section 438 of the Higher Education Act of 1965
(I) are authorized to be paid with respect to loans made under the program, or
(II) would be authorized to be made with respect to loans under the program if such loans were not financed with the proceeds of tax-exempt bonds, or
(B) a program of general application approved by the State if no loan under such program exceeds the difference between the total cost of attendance and other forms of student assistance (not including loans pursuant to section 428B(a)(1) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (relating to parent loans) or subpart I[1] of part C of title VII of the Public Health Service Act (relating to student assistance)) for which the student borrower may be eligible. A program shall not be treated as described in this subparagraph if such program is described in subparagraph (A).

A bond shall not be treated as a qualified student loan bond if the issue of which such bond is a part meets the private business tests of paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 141 (b) (determined by treating 501(c)(3) organizations as governmental units with respect to their activities which do not constitute unrelated trades or businesses, determined by applying section 513 (a)).

(2) Applicable percentage 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term applicable percentage means
(A) 90 percent in the case of the program described in paragraph (1)(A), and
(B) 95 percent in the case of the program described in paragraph (1)(B).
(3) Student borrowers must be residents of issuing State, etc. 
A student loan shall be treated as being made or financed under a program described in paragraph (1) with respect to an issue only if the student is
(A) a resident of the State from which the volume cap under section 146 for such loan was derived, or
(B) enrolled at an educational institution located in such State.
(4) Discrimination on basis of school location not permitted 
A program shall not be treated as described in paragraph (1)(A) if such program discriminates on the basis of the location (in the United States) of the educational institution in which the student is enrolled.
(c) Qualified redevelopment bond 
For purposes of this part
(1) In general 
The term qualified redevelopment bond means any bond issued as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used for 1 or more redevelopment purposes in any designated blighted area.
(2) Additional requirements 
A bond shall not be treated as a qualified redevelopment bond unless
(A) the issue described in paragraph (1) is issued pursuant to
(i) a State law which authorizes the issuance of such bonds for redevelopment purposes in blighted areas, and
(ii) a redevelopment plan which is adopted before such issuance by the governing body described in paragraph (4)(A) with respect to the designated blighted area,
(B) 
(i) the payment of the principal and interest on such issue is primarily secured by taxes of general applicability imposed by a general purpose governmental unit, or
(ii) any increase in real property tax revenues (attributable to increases in assessed value) by reason of the carrying out of such purposes in such area is reserved exclusively for debt service on such issue (and similar issues) to the extent such increase does not exceed such debt service,
(C) each interest in real property located in such area
(i) which is acquired by a governmental unit with the proceeds of the issue, and
(ii) which is transferred to a person other than a governmental unit,

is transferred for fair market value,

(D) the financed area with respect to such issue meets the no additional charge requirements of paragraph (5), and
(E) the use of the proceeds of the issue meets the requirements of paragraph (6).
(3) Redevelopment purposes 
For purposes of paragraph (1)
(A) In general 
The term redevelopment purposes means, with respect to any designated blighted area
(i) the acquisition (by a governmental unit having the power to exercise eminent domain) of real property located in such area,
(ii) the clearing and preparation for redevelopment of land in such area which was acquired by such governmental unit,
(iii) the rehabilitation of real property located in such area which was acquired by such governmental unit, and
(iv) the relocation of occupants of such real property.
(B) New construction not permitted 
The term redevelopment purposes does not include the construction (other than the rehabilitation) of any property or the enlargement of an existing building.
(4) Designated blighted area 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The term designated blighted area means any blighted area designated by the governing body of a local general purpose governmental unit in the jurisdiction of which such area is located.
(B) Blighted area 
The term blighted area means any area which the governing body described in subparagraph (A) determines to be a blighted area on the basis of the substantial presence of factors such as excessive vacant land on which structures were previously located, abandoned or vacant buildings, substandard structures, vacancies, and delinquencies in payment of real property taxes.
(C) Designated areas may not exceed 20 percent of total assessed value of real property in government’s jurisdiction 

(i) In general An area may be designated by a governmental unit as a blighted area only if the designation percentage with respect to such area, when added to the designation percentages of all other designated blighted areas within the jurisdiction of such governmental unit, does not exceed 20 percent.
(ii) Designation percentage For purposes of this subparagraph, the term designation percentage means, with respect to any area, the percentage (determined at the time such area is designated) which the assessed value of real property located in such area is of the total assessed value of all real property located within the jurisdiction of the governmental unit which designated such area.
(iii) Exception where bonds not outstanding The designation percentage of a previously designated blighted area shall not be taken into account under clause (i) if no qualified redevelopment bond (or similar bond) is or will be outstanding with respect to such area.
(D) Minimum designated area 

(i) In general Except as provided in clause (ii), an area shall not be treated as a designated blighted area for purposes of this subsection unless such area is contiguous and compact and its area equals or exceeds 100 acres.
(ii) 10-acre minimum in certain cases Clause (i) shall be applied by substituting 10 acres for 100 acres if not more than 25 percent of the financed area is to be provided (pursuant to the issue and all other such issues) to 1 person. For purposes of the preceding sentence, all related persons (as defined in subsection (a)(3)) shall be treated as 1 person. For purposes of this clause, an area provided to a developer on a short-term interim basis shall not be treated as provided to such developer.
(5) No additional charge requirements 
The financed area with respect to any issue meets the requirements of this paragraph if, while any bond which is part of such issue is outstanding
(A) no owner or user of property located in the financed area is subject to a charge or fee which similarly situated owners or users of comparable property located outside such area are not subject, and
(B) the assessment method or rate of real property taxes with respect to property located in the financed area does not differ from the assessment method or rate of real property taxes with respect to comparable property located outside such area.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term comparable property means property which is of the same type as the property to which it is being compared and which is located within the jurisdiction of the designating governmental unit.

(6) Use of proceeds requirements 
The use of the proceeds of an issue meets the requirements of this paragraph if
(A) not more than 25 percent of the net proceeds of such issue are to be used to provide (including the provision of land for) facilities described in subsection (a)(8) or section 147 (e), and
(B) no portion of the proceeds of such issue is to be used to provide (including the provision of land for) any private or commercial golf course, country club, massage parlor, hot tub facility, suntan facility, racetrack or other facility used for gambling, or any store the principal business of which is the sale of alcoholic beverages for consumption off premises.
(7) Financed area 
For purposes of this subsection, the term financed area means, with respect to any issue, the portion of the designated blighted area with respect to which the proceeds of such issue are to be used.
(8) Restriction on acquisition of land not to apply 
Section 147 (c) (other than paragraphs (1)(B) and (2) thereof) shall not apply to any qualified redevelopment bond.
[1] See References in Text note below.

26 USC 145 - Qualified 501(c)(3) bond

(a) In general 
For purposes of this part, except as otherwise provided in this section, the term qualified 501(c)(3) bond means any private activity bond issued as part of an issue if
(1) all property which is to be provided by the net proceeds of the issue is to be owned by a 501(c)(3) organization or a governmental unit, and
(2) such bond would not be a private activity bond if
(A) 501(c)(3) organizations were treated as governmental units with respect to their activities which do not constitute unrelated trades or businesses, determined by applying section 513 (a), and
(B) paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 141 (b) were applied by substituting 5 percent for 10 percent each place it appears and by substituting net proceeds for proceeds each place it appears.
(b) $150,000,000 limitation on bonds other than hospital bonds 

(1) In general 
A bond (other than a qualified hospital bond) shall not be treated as a qualified 501(c)(3) bond if the aggregate authorized face amount of the issue (of which such bond is a part) allocated to any 501(c)(3) organization which is a test-period beneficiary (when increased by the outstanding tax-exempt nonhospital bonds of such organization) exceeds $150,000,000.
(2) Outstanding tax-exempt nonhospital bonds 

(A) In general 
For purposes of applying paragraph (1) with respect to any issue, the outstanding tax-exempt nonhospital bonds of any organization which is a test-period beneficiary with respect to such issue is the aggregate amount of tax-exempt bonds referred to in subparagraph (B)
(i) which are allocated to such organization, and
(ii) which are outstanding at the time of such later issue (not including as outstanding any bond which is to be redeemed (other than in an advance refunding) from the net proceeds of the later issue).
(B) Bonds taken into account 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the bonds referred to in this subparagraph are
(i) any qualified 501(c)(3) bond other than a qualified hospital bond, and
(ii) any bond to which section 141 (a) does not apply if
(I) such bond would have been an industrial development bond (as defined in section 103 (b)(2), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) if 501(c)(3) organizations were not exempt persons, and
(II) such bond was not described in paragraph (4), (5), or (6) of such section 103 (b) (as in effect on the date such bond was issued).
(C) Only nonhospital portion of bonds taken into account 

(i) In general A bond shall be taken into account under subparagraph (B) only to the extent that the proceeds of the issue of which such bond is a part are not used with respect to a hospital.
(ii) Special rule If 90 percent or more of the net proceeds of an issue are used with respect to a hospital, no bond which is part of such issue shall be taken into account under subparagraph (B)(ii).
(3) Aggregation rule 
For purposes of this subsection, 2 or more organizations under common management or control shall be treated as 1 organization.
(4) Allocation of face amount of issue; test-period beneficiary 
Rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (C), (D), and (E) of section 144 (a)(10) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.
(5) Termination of limitation 
This subsection shall not apply with respect to bonds issued after the date of the enactment of this paragraph as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used to finance capital expenditures incurred after such date.
(c) Qualified hospital bond 
For purposes of this section, the term qualified hospital bond means any bond issued as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used with respect to a hospital.
(d) Restrictions on bonds used to provide residential rental housing for family units 

(1) In general 
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a bond which is part of an issue shall not be a qualified 501(c)(3) bond if any portion of the net proceeds of the issue are to be used directly or indirectly to provide residential rental property for family units.
(2) Exception for bonds used to provide qualified residential rental projects 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any bond issued as part of an issue if the portion of such issue which is to be used as described in paragraph (1) is to be used to provide
(A) a residential rental property for family units if the first use of such property is pursuant to such issue,
(B) qualified residential rental projects (as defined in section 142 (d)), or
(C) property which is to be substantially rehabilitated in a rehabilitation beginning within the 2-year period ending 1 year after the date of the acquisition of such property.
(3) Certain property treated as new property 
Solely for purposes of determining under paragraph (2)(A) whether the 1st use of property is pursuant to tax-exempt financing
(A) In general 
If
(i) the 1st use of property is pursuant to taxable financing,
(ii) there was a reasonable expectation (at the time such taxable financing was provided) that such financing would be replaced by tax-exempt financing, and
(iii) the taxable financing is in fact so replaced within a reasonable period after the taxable financing was provided,

then the 1st use of such property shall be treated as being pursuant to the tax-exempt financing.

(B) Special rule where no operating State or local program for tax-exempt financing 
If, at the time of the 1st use of property, there was no operating State or local program for tax-exempt financing of the property, the 1st use of the property shall be treated as pursuant to the 1st tax-exempt financing of the property.
(C) Definitions 
For purposes of this paragraph
(i) Tax-exempt financing The term tax-exempt financing means financing provided by tax-exempt bonds.
(ii) Taxable financing The term taxable financing means financing which is not tax-exempt financing.
(4) Substantial rehabilitation 

(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), rules similar to the rules of section 47 (c)(1)(C) shall apply in determining for purposes of paragraph (2)(C) whether property is substantially rehabilitated.
(B) Exception 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), clause (ii) of section 47 (c)(1)(C) shall not apply, but the Secretary may extend the 24-month period in section 47 (c)(1)(C)(i) where appropriate due to circumstances not within the control of the owner.
(e) Election out 
This section shall not apply to an issue if
(1) the issuer elects not to have this section apply to such issue, and
(2) such issue is an issue of exempt facility bonds, or qualified redevelopment bonds, to which section 146 applies.

26 USC 146 - Volume cap

(a) General rule 
A private activity bond issued as part of an issue meets the requirements of this section if the aggregate face amount of the private activity bonds issued pursuant to such issue, when added to the aggregate face amount of tax-exempt private activity bonds previously issued by the issuing authority during the calendar year, does not exceed such authoritys volume cap for such calendar year.
(b) Volume cap for State agencies 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The volume cap for any agency of the State authorized to issue tax-exempt private activity bonds for any calendar year shall be 50 percent of the State ceiling for such calendar year.
(2) Special rule where State has more than 1 agency 
If more than 1 agency of the State is authorized to issue tax-exempt private activity bonds, all such agencies shall be treated as a single agency.
(c) Volume cap for other issuers 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The volume cap for any issuing authority (other than a State agency) for any calendar year shall be an amount which bears the same ratio to 50 percent of the State ceiling for such calendar year as
(A) the population of the jurisdiction of such issuing authority, bears to
(B) the population of the entire State.
(2) Overlapping jurisdictions 
For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), if an area is within the jurisdiction of 2 or more governmental units, such area shall be treated as only within the jurisdiction of the unit having jurisdiction over the smallest geographical area unless such unit agrees to surrender all or part of such jurisdiction for such calendar year to the unit with overlapping jurisdiction which has the next smallest geographical area.
(d) State ceiling 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
The State ceiling applicable to any State for any calendar year shall be the greater of
(A) an amount equal to $75 ($62.50 in the case of calendar year 2001) multiplied by the State population, or
(B) $225,000,000 ($187,500,000 in the case of calendar year 2001).
(2) Cost-of-living adjustment 
In the case of a calendar year after 2002, each of the dollar amounts contained in paragraph (1) shall be increased by an amount equal to
(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by
(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1 (f)(3) for such calendar year by substituting calendar year 2001 for calendar year 1992 in subparagraph (B) thereof.

If any increase determined under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of $5 ($5,000 in the case of the dollar amount in paragraph (1)(B)), such increase shall be rounded to the nearest multiple thereof.

(3) Special rule for States with constitutional home rule cities 
For purposes of this section
(A) In general 
The volume cap for any constitutional home rule city for any calendar year shall be determined under paragraph (1) of subsection (c) by substituting 100 percent for 50 percent.
(B) Coordination with other allocations 
In the case of any State which contains 1 or more constitutional home rule cities, for purposes of applying subsections (b) and (c) with respect to issuing authorities in such State other than constitutional home rule cities, the State ceiling for any calendar year shall be reduced by the aggregate volume caps determined for such year for all constitutional home rule cities in such State.
(C) Constitutional home rule city 
For purposes of this section, the term constitutional home rule city means, with respect to any calendar year, any political subdivision of a State which, under a State constitution which was adopted in 1970 and effective on July 1, 1971, had home rule powers on the 1st day of the calendar year.
(4) Special rule for possessions with populations of less than the population of the least populous State 

(A) In general 
If the population of any possession of the United States for any calendar year is less than the population of the least populous State (other than a possession) for such calendar year, the limitation under paragraph (1)(A) shall not be less than the amount determined under subparagraph (B) for such calendar year.
(B) Limitation 
The limitation determined under this subparagraph, with respect to a possession, for any calendar year is an amount equal to the product of
(i) the fraction
(I) the numerator of which is the amount applicable under paragraph (1)(B) for such calendar year, and
(II) the denominator of which is the State population of the least populous State (other than a possession) for such calendar year, and
(ii) the population of such possession for such calendar year.
(e) State may provide for different allocation 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (3), a State may, by law provide a different formula for allocating the State ceiling among the governmental units (or other authorities) in such State having authority to issue tax-exempt private activity bonds.
(2) Interim authority for Governor 

(A) In general 
Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (3), the Governor of any State may proclaim a different formula for allocating the State ceiling among the governmental units (or other authorities) in such State having authority to issue private activity bonds.
(B) Termination of authority 
The authority provided in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to bonds issued after the earlier of
(i) the last day of the 1st calendar year after 1986 during which the legislature of the State met in regular session, or
(ii) the effective date of any State legislation with respect to the allocation of the State ceiling.
(3) State may not alter allocation to constitutional home rule cities 
Except as otherwise provided in a State constitutional amendment (or law changing the home rule provision adopted in the manner provided by the State constitution), the authority provided in this subsection shall not apply to that portion of the State ceiling which is allocated to any constitutional home rule city in the State unless such city agrees to such different allocation.
(f) Elective carryforward of unused limitation for specified purpose 

(1) In general 
If
(A) an issuing authoritys volume cap for any calendar year after 1985, exceeds
(B) the aggregate amount of tax-exempt private activity bonds issued during such calendar year by such authority,

such authority may elect to treat all (or any portion) of such excess as a carryforward for 1 or more carryforward purposes.

(2) Election must identify purpose 
In any election under paragraph (1), the issuing authority shall
(A) identify the purpose for which the carryforward is elected, and
(B) specify the portion of the excess described in paragraph (1) which is to be a carryforward for each such purpose.
(3) Use of carryforward 

(A) In general 
If any issuing authority elects a carryforward under paragraph (1) with respect to any carryforward purpose, any private activity bonds issued by such authority with respect to such purpose during the 3 calendar years following the calendar year in which the carryforward arose shall not be taken into account under subsection (a) to the extent the amount of such bonds does not exceed the amount of the carryforward elected for such purpose.
(B) Order in which carryforward used 
Carryforwards elected with respect to any purpose shall be used in the order of the calendar years in which they arose.
(4) Election 
Any election under this paragraph (and any identification or specification contained therein), once made, shall be irrevocable.
(5) Carryforward purpose 
The term carryforward purpose means
(A) the purpose of issuing exempt facility bonds described in 1 of the paragraphs of section 142 (a),
(B) the purpose of issuing qualified mortgage bonds or mortgage credit certificates,
(C) the purpose of issuing qualified student loan bonds, and
(D) the purpose of issuing qualified redevelopment bonds.
(g) Exception for certain bonds 
Only for purposes of this section, the term private activity bond shall not include
(1) any qualified veterans mortgage bond,
(2) any qualified 501(c)(3) bond,
(3) any exempt facility bond issued as part of an issue described in paragraph (1), (2), (12), (13), (14), or (15) of section 142 (a), and
(4) 75 percent of any exempt facility bond issued as part of an issue described in paragraph (11) of section 142 (a) (relating to high-speed intercity rail facilities).

Paragraph (4) shall be applied without regard to 75 percent of if all of the property to be financed by the net proceeds of the issue is to be owned by a governmental unit (within the meaning of section 142 (b)(1)).

(h) Exception for government-owned solid waste disposal facilities 

(1) In general 
Only for purposes of this section, the term private activity bond shall not include any exempt facility bond described in section 142 (a)(6) which is issued as part of an issue if all of the property to be financed by the net proceeds of such issue is to be owned by a governmental unit.
(2) Safe harbor for determination of government ownership 
In determining ownership for purposes of paragraph (1), section 142 (b)(1)(B) shall apply, except that a lease term shall be treated as satisfying clause (ii) thereof if it is not more than 20 years.
(i) Treatment of refunding issues 
For purposes of the volume cap imposed by this section
(1) In general 
The term private activity bond shall not include any bond which is issued to refund another bond to the extent that the amount of such bond does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded bond.
(2) Special rules for student loan bonds 
In the case of any qualified student loan bond, paragraph (1) shall apply only if the maturity date of the refunding bond is not later than the later of
(A) the average maturity date of the qualified student loan bonds to be refunded by the issue of which the refunding bond is a part, or
(B) the date 17 years after the date on which the refunded bond was issued (or in the case of a series of refundings, the date on which the original bond was issued).
(3) Special rules for qualified mortgage bonds 
In the case of any qualified mortgage bond, paragraph (1) shall apply only if the maturity date of the refunding bond is not later than the later of
(A) the average maturity date of the qualified mortgage bonds to be refunded by the issue of which the refunding bond is a part, or
(B) the date 32 years after the date on which the refunded bond was issued (or in the case of a series of refundings, the date on which the original bond was issued).
(4) Average maturity 
For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3), average maturity shall be determined in accordance with section 147 (b)(2)(A).
(5) Exception for advance refunding 
This subsection shall not apply to any bond issued to advance refund another bond.
(j) Population 
For purposes of this section, determinations of the population of any State (or issuing authority) shall be made with respect to any calendar year on the basis of the most recent census estimate of the resident population of such State (or issuing authority) released by the Bureau of Census before the beginning of such calendar year.
(k) Facility must be located within State 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), no portion of the State ceiling applicable to any State for any calendar year may be used with respect to financing for a facility located outside such State.
(2) Exception for certain facilities where State will get proportionate share of benefits 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any exempt facility bond described in paragraph (4), (5), (6), or (10) of section 142 (a) if the issuer establishes that the States share of the use of the facility (or its output) will equal or exceed the States share of the private activity bonds issued to finance the facility.
(3) Treatment of governmental bonds to which volume cap allocated 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any bond to which volume cap is allocated under section 141 (b)(5)
(A) for an output facility, or
(B) for a facility of a type described in paragraph (4), (5), (6), or (10) of section 142 (a),

if the issuer establishes that the States share of the private business use (as defined by section 141(b)(6)) of the facility will equal or exceed the States share of the volume cap allocated with respect to bonds issued to finance the facility.

(l) Issuer of qualified scholarship funding bonds 
In the case of a qualified scholarship funding bond, such bond shall be treated for purposes of this section as issued by a State or local issuing authority (whichever is appropriate).
(m) Treatment of amounts allocated to private activity portion of government use bonds 

(1) In general 
The volume cap of an issuer shall be reduced by the amount allocated by the issuer to an issue under section 141 (b)(5).
(2) Advance refundings 
Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, any advance refunding of any part of an issue to which an amount was allocated under section 141 (b)(5) (or would have been allocated if such section applied to such issue) shall be taken into account under this section to the extent of the amount of the volume cap which was (or would have been) so allocated.
(n) Reduction for mortgage credit certificates, etc. 
The volume cap of any issuing authority for any calendar year shall be reduced by the sum of
(1) the amount of qualified mortgage bonds which such authority elects not to issue under section 25 (c)(2)(A)(ii) during such year, plus
(2) the amount of any reduction in such ceiling under section 25 (f) applicable to such authority for such year.

26 USC 147 - Other requirements applicable to certain private activity bonds

(a) Substantial user requirement 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in subsection (h), a private activity bond shall not be a qualified bond for any period during which it is held by a person who is a substantial user of the facilities or by a related person of such a substantial user.
(2) Related person 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the following shall be treated as related persons
(A) 2 or more persons if the relationship between such persons would result in a disallowance of losses under section 267 or 707 (b),
(B) 2 or more persons which are members of the same controlled group of corporations (as defined in section 1563 (a), except that more than 50 percent shall be substituted for at least 80 percent each place it appears therein),
(C) a partnership and each of its partners (and their spouses and minor children), and
(D) an S corporation and each of its shareholders (and their spouses and minor children).
(b) Maturity may not exceed 120 percent of economic life 

(1) General rule 
Except as provided in subsection (h), a private activity bond shall not be a qualified bond if it is issued as part of an issue and
(A) the average maturity of the bonds issued as part of such issue, exceeds
(B) 120 percent of the average reasonably expected economic life of the facilities being financed with the net proceeds of such issue.
(2) Determination of averages 
For purposes of paragraph (1)
(A) the average maturity of any issue shall be determined by taking into account the respective issue prices of the bonds issued as part of such issue, and
(B) the average reasonably expected economic life of the facilities being financed with any issue shall be determined by taking into account the respective cost of such facilities.
(3) Special rules 

(A) Determination of economic life 
For purposes of this subsection, the reasonably expected economic life of any facility shall be determined as of the later of
(i) the date on which the bonds are issued, or
(ii) the date on which the facility is placed in service (or expected to be placed in service).
(B) Treatment of land 

(i) Land not taken into account Except as provided in clause (ii), land shall not be taken into account under paragraph (1)(B).
(ii) Issues where 25 percent or more of proceeds used to finance land If 25 percent or more of the net proceeds of any issue is to be used to finance land, such land shall be taken into account under paragraph (1)(B) and shall be treated as having an economic life of 30 years.
(4) Special rule for pooled financing of 501(c)(3) organization 

(A) In general 
At the election of the issuer, a qualified 501(c)(3) bond shall be treated as meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) if such bond meets the requirements of subparagraph (B).
(B) Requirements 
A qualified 501(c)(3) bond meets the requirements of this subparagraph if
(i) 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of the issue of which such bond is a part are to be used to make or finance loans to 2 or more 501(c)(3) organizations or governmental units for acquisition of property to be used by such organizations,
(ii) each loan described in clause (i) satisfies the requirements of paragraph (1) (determined by treating each loan as a separate issue),
(iii) before such bond is issued, a demand survey was conducted which shows a demand for financing greater than an amount equal to 120 percent of the lendable proceeds of such issue, and
(iv) 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of such issue are to be loaned to 501(c)(3) organizations or governmental units within 1 year of issuance and, to the extent there are any unspent proceeds after such 1-year period, bonds issued as part of such issue are to be redeemed as soon as possible thereafter (and in no event later than 18 months after issuance).

A bond shall not meet the requirements of this subparagraph if the maturity date of any bond issued as part of such issue is more than 30 years after the date on which the bond was issued (or, in the case of a refunding or series of refundings, the date on which the original bond was issued).

(5) Special rule for certain FHA insured loans 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any bond issued as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the net proceeds of which are to be used to finance mortgage loans insured under FHA 242 or under a similar Federal Housing Administration program (as in effect on the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) where the loan term approved by such Administration plus the maximum maturity of debentures which could be issued by such Administration in satisfaction of its obligations exceeds the term permitted under paragraph (1).
(c) Limitation on use for land acquisition 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in subsection (h), a private activity bond shall not be a qualified bond if
(A) it is issued as part of an issue and 25 percent or more of the net proceeds of such issue are to be used (directly or indirectly) for the acquisition of land (or an interest therein), or
(B) any portion of the proceeds of such issue is to be used (directly or indirectly) for the acquisition of land (or an interest therein) to be used for farming purposes.
(2) Exception for first-time farmers 

(A) In general 
If the requirements of subparagraph (B) are met with respect to any land, paragraph (1) shall not apply to such land, and subsection (d) shall not apply to property to be used thereon for farming purposes, but only to the extent of expenditures (financed with the proceeds of the issue) not in excess of $250,000.
(B) Acquisition by first-time farmers 
The requirements of this subparagraph are met with respect to any land if
(i) such land is to be used for farming purposes, and
(ii) such land is to be acquired by an individual who is a first-time farmer, who will be the principal user of such land, and who will materially and substantially participate on the farm of which such land is a part in the operation of such farm.
(C) First-time farmer 
For purposes of this paragraph
(i) In general The term first-time farmer means any individual if such individual
(I) has not at any time had any direct or indirect ownership interest in substantial farmland in the operation of which such individual materially participated, and
(II) has not received financing under this paragraph in an amount which, when added to the financing to be provided under this paragraph, exceeds $250,000.
(ii) Aggregation rules Any ownership or material participation, or financing received, by an individuals spouse or minor child shall be treated as ownership and material participation, or financing received, by the individual.
(iii) Insolvent farmer For purposes of clause (i), farmland which was previously owned by the individual and was disposed of while such individual was insolvent shall be disregarded if section 108 applied to indebtedness with respect to such farmland.
(D) Farm 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term farm has the meaning given such term by section 6420 (c)(2).
(E) Substantial farmland 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term substantial farmland means any parcel of land unless
(i) such parcel is smaller than 30 percent of the median size of a farm in the county in which such parcel is located, and
(ii) the fair market value of the land does not at any time while held by the individual exceed $125,000.
(F) Used equipment limitation 
For purposes of this paragraph, in no event may the amount of financing provided by reason of this paragraph to a first-time farmer for personal property
(i) of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation,
(ii) the original use of which does not begin with such farmer, and
(iii) which is to be used for farming purposes,

exceed $62,500. A rule similar to the rule of subparagraph (C)(ii) shall apply for purposes of the preceding sentence.

(G) Acquisition from related person 
For purposes of this paragraph and section 144 (a), the acquisition by a first-time farmer of land or personal property from a related person (within the meaning of section 144 (a)(3)) shall not be treated as an acquisition from a related person, if
(i) the acquisition price is for the fair market value of such land or property, and
(ii) subsequent to such acquisition, the related person does not have a financial interest in the farming operation with respect to which the bond proceeds are to be used.
(3) Exception for certain land acquired for environmental purposes, etc. 
Any land acquired by a governmental unit (or issuing authority) in connection with an airport, mass commuting facility, high-speed intercity rail facility, dock, or wharf shall not be taken into account under paragraph (1) if
(A) such land is acquired for noise abatement or wetland preservation, or for future use as an airport, mass commuting facility, high-speed intercity rail facility, dock, or wharf, and
(B) there is not other significant use of such land.
(d) Acquisition of existing property not permitted 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in subsection (h), a private activity bond shall not be a qualified bond if issued as part of an issue and any portion of the net proceeds of such issue is to be used for the acquisition of any property (or an interest therein) unless the 1st use of such property is pursuant to such acquisition.
(2) Exception for certain rehabilitations 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to any building (and the equipment therefor) if
(A) the rehabilitation expenditures with respect to such building, equal or exceed
(B) 15 percent of the portion of the cost of acquiring such building (and equipment) financed with the net proceeds of the issue.

A rule similar to the rule of the preceding sentence shall apply in the case of structures other than a building except that subparagraph (B) shall be applied by substituting 100 percent for 15 percent.

(3) Rehabilitation expenditures 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
Except as provided in this paragraph, the term rehabilitation expenditures means any amount properly chargeable to capital account which is incurred by the person acquiring the building for property (or additions or improvements to property) in connection with the rehabilitation of a building. In the case of an integrated operation contained in a building before its acquisition, such term includes rehabilitating existing equipment in such building or replacing it with equipment having substantially the same function. For purposes of this subparagraph, any amount incurred by a successor to the person acquiring the building or by the seller under a sales contract with such person shall be treated as incurred by such person.
(B) Certain expenditures not included 
The term rehabilitation expenditures does not include any expenditure described in section 47 (c)(2)(B).
(C) Period during which expenditures must be incurred 
The term rehabilitation expenditures shall not include any amount which is incurred after the date 2 years after the later of
(i) the date on which the building was acquired, or
(ii) the date on which the bond was issued.
(4) Special rule for certain projects 
In the case of a project involving 2 or more buildings, this subsection shall be applied on a project basis.
(e) No portion of bonds may be issued for skyboxes, airplanes, gambling establishments, etc. 
A private activity bond shall not be a qualified bond if issued as part of an issue and any portion of the proceeds of such issue is to be used to provide any airplane, skybox or other private luxury box, health club facility, facility primarily used for gambling, or store the principal business of which is the sale of alcoholic beverages for consumption off premises.
(f) Public approval required for private activity bonds 

(1) In general 
A private activity bond shall not be a qualified bond unless such bond satisfies the requirements of paragraph (2).
(2) Public approval requirement 

(A) In general 
A bond shall satisfy the requirements of this paragraph if such bond is issued as a part of an issue which has been approved by
(i) the governmental unit
(I) which issued such bond, or
(II) on behalf of which such bond was issued, and
(ii) each governmental unit having jurisdiction over the area in which any facility, with respect to which financing is to be provided from the net proceeds of such issue, is located (except that if more than 1 governmental unit within a State has jurisdiction over the entire area within such State in which such facility is located, only 1 such unit need approve such issue).
(B) Approval by a governmental unit 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), an issue shall be treated as having been approved by any governmental unit if such issue is approved
(i) by the applicable elected representative of such governmental unit after a public hearing following reasonable public notice, or
(ii) by voter referendum of such governmental unit.
(C) Special rules for approval of facility 
If there has been public approval under subparagraph (A) of the plan for financing a facility, such approval shall constitute approval under subparagraph (A) for any issue
(i) which is issued pursuant to such plan within 3 years after the date of the 1st issue pursuant to the approval, and
(ii) all or substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to finance such facility or to refund previous financing under such plan.
(D) Refunding bonds 
No approval under subparagraph (A) shall be necessary with respect to any bond which is issued to refund (other than to advance refund) a bond approved under subparagraph (A) (or treated as approved under subparagraph (C)) unless the average maturity date of the issue of which the refunding bond is a part is later than the average maturity date of the bonds to be refunded by such issue. For purposes of the preceding sentence, average maturity shall be determined in accordance with subsection (b)(2)(A).
(E) Applicable elected representative 
For purposes of this paragraph
(i) In general The term applicable elected representative means with respect to any governmental unit
(I) an elected legislative body of such unit, or
(II) the chief elected executive officer, the chief elected State legal officer of the executive branch, or any other elected official of such unit designated for purposes of this paragraph by such chief elected executive officer or by State law.

If the office of any elected official described in subclause (II) is vacated and an individual is appointed by the chief elected executive officer of the governmental unit and confirmed by the elected legislative body of such unit (if any) to serve the remaining term of the elected official, the individual so appointed shall be treated as the elected official for such remaining term.

(ii) No applicable elected representative If (but for this clause) a governmental unit has no applicable elected representative, the applicable elected representative for purposes of clause (i) shall be the applicable elected representative of the governmental unit
(I) which is the next higher governmental unit with such a representative, and
(II) from which the authority of the governmental unit with no such representative is derived.
(3) Special rule for approval of airports or high-speed intercity rail facilities 
If
(A) the proceeds of an issue are to be used to finance a facility or facilities located at an airport or high-speed intercity rail facilities, and
(B) the governmental unit issuing such bonds is the owner or operator of such airport or high-speed intercity rail facilities,

such governmental unit shall be deemed to be the only governmental unit having jurisdiction over such airport or high-speed intercity rail facilities for purposes of this subsection.

(4) Special rules for scholarship funding bond issues and volunteer fire department bond issues 

(A) Scholarship funding bonds 
In the case of a qualified scholarship funding bond, any governmental unit which made a request described in section 150 (d)(2)(B) with respect to the issuer of such bond shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) of this subsection as the governmental unit on behalf of which such bond was issued. Where more than one governmental unit within a State has made a request described in section 150 (d)(2)(B), the State may also be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) of this subsection as the governmental unit on behalf of which such bond was issued.
(B) Volunteer fire department bonds 
In the case of a bond of a volunteer fire department which meets the requirements of section 150 (e), the political subdivision described in section 150 (e)(2)(B) with respect to such department shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) of this subsection as the governmental unit on behalf of which such bond was issued.
(g) Restriction on issuance costs financed by issue 

(1) In general 
A private activity bond shall not be a qualified bond if the issuance costs financed by the issue (of which such bond is a part) exceed 2 percent of the proceeds of the issue.
(2) Special rule for small mortgage revenue bond issues 
In the case of an issue of qualified mortgage bonds or qualified veterans mortgage bonds, paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting 3.5 percent for 2 percent if the proceeds of the issue do not exceed $20,000,000.
(h) Certain rules not to apply to certain bonds 

(1) Mortgage revenue bonds and qualified student loan bonds 
Subsections (a), (b), (c), and (d) shall not apply to any qualified mortgage bond, qualified veterans mortgage bond, or qualified student loan bond.
(2) Qualified 501(c)(3) bonds 
Subsections (a), (c), and (d) shall not apply to any qualified 501(c)(3) bond and subsection (e) shall be applied as if it did not contain health club facility with respect to such a bond.
(3) Exempt facility bonds for qualified public-private schools 
Subsection (c) shall not apply to any exempt facility bond issued as part of an issue described in section 142 (a)(13) (relating to qualified public educational facilities).