TITLE 26 - US CODE - PART III - CORPORATE ORGANIZATIONS AND REORGANIZATIONS

Subpart A - Corporate Organizations

26 USC 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

(a) General rule 
No gain or loss shall be recognized if property is transferred to a corporation by one or more persons solely in exchange for stock in such corporation and immediately after the exchange such person or persons are in control (as defined in section 368(c)) of the corporation.
(b) Receipt of property 
If subsection (a) would apply to an exchange but for the fact that there is received, in addition to the stock permitted to be received under subsection (a), other property or money, then
(1) gain (if any) to such recipient shall be recognized, but not in excess of
(A) the amount of money received, plus
(B) the fair market value of such other property received; and
(2) no loss to such recipient shall be recognized.
(c) Special rules where distribution to shareholders 

(1) In general 
In determining control for purposes of this section, the fact that any corporate transferor distributes part or all of the stock in the corporation which it receives in the exchange to its shareholders shall not be taken into account.
(2) Special rule for section 355 
If the requirements of section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) are met with respect to a distribution described in paragraph (1), then, solely for purposes of determining the tax treatment of the transfers of property to the controlled corporation by the distributing corporation, the fact that the shareholders of the distributing corporation dispose of part or all of the distributed stock, or the fact that the corporation whose stock was distributed issues additional stock, shall not be taken into account in determining control for purposes of this section.
(d) Services, certain indebtedness, and accrued interest not treated as property 
For purposes of this section, stock issued for
(1) services,
(2) indebtedness of the transferee corporation which is not evidenced by a security, or
(3) interest on indebtedness of the transferee corporation which accrued on or after the beginning of the transferors holding period for the debt,

shall not be considered as issued in return for property.

(e) Exceptions 
This section shall not apply to
(1) Transfer of property to an investment company 
A transfer of property to an investment company. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the determination of whether a company is an investment company shall be made
(A) by taking into account all stock and securities held by the company, and
(B) by treating as stock and securities
(i) money,
(ii) stocks and other equity interests in a corporation, evidences of indebtedness, options, forward or futures contracts, notional principal contracts and derivatives,
(iii) any foreign currency,
(iv) any interest in a real estate investment trust, a common trust fund, a regulated investment company, a publicly-traded partnership (as defined in section 7704 (b)) or any other equity interest (other than in a corporation) which pursuant to its terms or any other arrangement is readily convertible into, or exchangeable for, any asset described in any preceding clause, this clause or clause (v) or (viii),
(v) except to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any interest in a precious metal, unless such metal is used or held in the active conduct of a trade or business after the contribution,
(vi) except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, interests in any entity if substantially all of the assets of such entity consist (directly or indirectly) of any assets described in any preceding clause or clause (viii),
(vii) to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any interest in any entity not described in clause (vi), but only to the extent of the value of such interest that is attributable to assets listed in clauses (i) through (v) or clause (viii), or
(viii) any other asset specified in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

The Secretary may prescribe regulations that, under appropriate circumstances, treat any asset described in clauses (i) through (v) as not so listed.

(2) Title 11 or similar case 
A transfer of property of a debtor pursuant to a plan while the debtor is under the jurisdiction of a court in a title 11 or similar case (within the meaning of section 368 (a)(3)(A)), to the extent that the stock received in the exchange is used to satisfy the indebtedness of such debtor.
(f) Treatment of controlled corporation 
If
(1) property is transferred to a corporation (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the controlled corporation) in an exchange with respect to which gain or loss is not recognized (in whole or in part) to the transferor under this section, and
(2) such exchange is not in pursuance of a plan of reorganization,

section 311 shall apply to any transfer in such exchange by the controlled corporation in the same manner as if such transfer were a distribution to which subpart A of part I applies.

(g) Nonqualified preferred stock not treated as stock 

(1) In general 
In the case of a person who transfers property to a corporation and receives nonqualified preferred stock
(A) subsection (a) shall not apply to such transferor, and
(B) if (and only if) the transferor receives stock other than nonqualified preferred stock
(i) subsection (b) shall apply to such transferor; and
(ii) such nonqualified preferred stock shall be treated as other property for purposes of applying subsection (b).
(2) Nonqualified preferred stock 
For purposes of paragraph (1)
(A) In general 
The term nonqualified preferred stock means preferred stock if
(i) the holder of such stock has the right to require the issuer or a related person to redeem or purchase the stock,
(ii) the issuer or a related person is required to redeem or purchase such stock,
(iii) the issuer or a related person has the right to redeem or purchase the stock and, as of the issue date, it is more likely than not that such right will be exercised, or
(iv) the dividend rate on such stock varies in whole or in part (directly or indirectly) with reference to interest rates, commodity prices, or other similar indices.
(B) Limitations 
Clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall apply only if the right or obligation referred to therein may be exercised within the 20-year period beginning on the issue date of such stock and such right or obligation is not subject to a contingency which, as of the issue date, makes remote the likelihood of the redemption or purchase.
(C) Exceptions for certain rights or obligations 

(i) In general A right or obligation shall not be treated as described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) if
(I) it may be exercised only upon the death, disability, or mental incompetency of the holder, or
(II) in the case of a right or obligation to redeem or purchase stock transferred in connection with the performance of services for the issuer or a related person (and which represents reasonable compensation), it may be exercised only upon the holders separation from service from the issuer or a related person.
(ii) Exception Clause (i)(I) shall not apply if the stock relinquished in the exchange, or the stock acquired in the exchange is in
(I) a corporation if any class of stock in such corporation or a related party is readily tradable on an established securities market or otherwise, or
(II) any other corporation if such exchange is part of a transaction or series of transactions in which such corporation is to become a corporation described in subclause (I).
(3) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Preferred stock 
The term preferred stock means stock which is limited and preferred as to dividends and does not participate in corporate growth to any significant extent. Stock shall not be treated as participating in corporate growth to any significant extent unless there is a real and meaningful likelihood of the shareholder actually participating in the earnings and growth of the corporation. If there is not a real and meaningful likelihood that dividends beyond any limitation or preference will actually be paid, the possibility of such payments will be disregarded in determining whether stock is limited and preferred as to dividends.
(B) Related person 
A person shall be treated as related to another person if they bear a relationship to such other person described in section 267 (b) or 707 (b).
(4) Regulations 
The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection and sections 354 (a)(2)(C), 355 (a)(3)(D), and 356 (e). The Secretary may also prescribe regulations, consistent with the treatment under this subsection and such sections, for the treatment of nonqualified preferred stock under other provisions of this title.
(h) Cross references 

(1) For special rule where another party to the exchange assumes a liability, see section 357.
(2) For the basis of stock or property received in an exchange to which this section applies, see sections 358 and 362.
(3) For special rule in the case of an exchange described in this section but which results in a gift, see section 2501 and following.
(4) For special rule in the case of an exchange described in this section but which has the effect of the payment of compensation by the corporation or by a transferor, see section 61 (a)(1).
(5) For coordination of this section with section 304, see section 304 (b)(3).

Subpart B - Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders

26 USC 354 - Exchanges of stock and securities in certain reorganizations

(a) General rule 

(1) In general 
No gain or loss shall be recognized if stock or securities in a corporation a party to a reorganization are, in pursuance of the plan of reorganization, exchanged solely for stock or securities in such corporation or in another corporation a party to the reorganization.
(2) Limitation 

(A) Excess principal amount 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply if
(i) the principal amount of any such securities received exceeds the principal amount of any such securities surrendered, or
(ii) any such securities are received and no such securities are surrendered.
(B) Property attributable to accrued interest 
Neither paragraph (1) nor so much of section 356 as relates to paragraph (1) shall apply to the extent that any stock (including nonqualified preferred stock, as defined in section 351 (g)(2)), securities, or other property received is attributable to interest which has accrued on securities on or after the beginning of the holders holding period.
(C) Nonqualified preferred stock 

(i) In general Nonqualified preferred stock (as defined in section 351 (g)(2)) received in exchange for stock other than nonqualified preferred stock (as so defined) shall not be treated as stock or securities.
(ii) Recapitalizations of family-owned corporations
(I) In general Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of a recapitalization under section 368(a)(1)(E) of a family-owned corporation.
(II) Family-owned corporation For purposes of this clause, except as provided in regulations, the term family-owned corporation means any corporation which is described in clause (i) of section 447 (d)(2)(C) throughout the 8-year period beginning on the date which is 5 years before the date of the recapitalization. For purposes of the preceding sentence, stock shall not be treated as owned by a family member during any period described in section 355 (d)(6)(B).
(III) Extension of statute of limitations The statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to a corporation failing to be a family-owned corporation shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years after the date the Secretary is notified by the corporation (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) of such failure, and such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.
(3) Cross references 

(A) For treatment of the exchange if any property is received which is not permitted to be received under this subsection (including nonqualified preferred stock and an excess principal amount of securities received over securities surrendered, but not including property to which paragraph (2)(B) applies), see section 356.
(B) For treatment of accrued interest in the case of an exchange described in paragraph (2)(B), see section 61.
(b) Exception 

(1) In general 
Subsection (a) shall not apply to an exchange in pursuance of a plan of reorganization within the meaning of subparagraph (D) or (G) of section 368 (a)(1), unless
(A) the corporation to which the assets are transferred acquires substantially all of the assets of the transferor of such assets; and
(B) the stock, securities, and other properties received by such transferor, as well as the other properties of such transferor, are distributed in pursuance of the plan of reorganization.
(2) Cross reference 
For special rules for certain exchanges in pursuance of plans of reorganization within the meaning of subparagraph (D) or (G) of section 368 (a)(1), see section 355.
(c) Certain railroad reorganizations 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, subsection (a)(1) (and so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall apply with respect to a plan of reorganization (whether or not a reorganization within the meaning of section 368 (a)) for a railroad confirmed under section 1173 of title 11 of the United States Code, as being in the public interest.

26 USC 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

(a) Effect on distributees 

(1) General rule 
If
(A) a corporation (referred to in this section as the distributing corporation)
(i) distributes to a shareholder, with respect to its stock, or
(ii) distributes to a security holder, in exchange for its securities,

solely stock or securities of a corporation (referred to in this section as controlled corporation) which it controls immediately before the distribution,

(B) the transaction was not used principally as a device for the distribution of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation or the controlled corporation or both (but the mere fact that subsequent to the distribution stock or securities in one or more of such corporations are sold or exchanged by all or some of the distributees (other than pursuant to an arrangement negotiated or agreed upon prior to such distribution) shall not be construed to mean that the transaction was used principally as such a device),
(C) the requirements of subsection (b) (relating to active businesses) are satisfied, and
(D) as part of the distribution, the distributing corporation distributes
(i) all of the stock and securities in the controlled corporation held by it immediately before the distribution, or
(ii) an amount of stock in the controlled corporation constituting control within the meaning of section 368 (c), and it is established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the retention by the distributing corporation of stock (or stock and securities) in the controlled corporation was not in pursuance of a plan having as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax,

then no gain or loss shall be recognized to (and no amount shall be includible in the income of) such shareholder or security holder on the receipt of such stock or securities.

(2) Non pro rata distributions, etc. 
Paragraph (1) shall be applied without regard to the following:
(A) whether or not the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the distributing corporation,
(B) whether or not the shareholder surrenders stock in the distributing corporation, and
(C) whether or not the distribution is in pursuance of a plan of reorganization (within the meaning of section 368 (a)(1)(D)).
(3) Limitations 

(A) Excess principal amount 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply if
(i) the principal amount of the securities in the controlled corporation which are received exceeds the principal amount of the securities which are surrendered in connection with such distribution, or
(ii) securities in the controlled corporation are received and no securities are surrendered in connection with such distribution.
(B) Stock acquired in taxable transactions within 5 years treated as boot 
For purposes of this section (other than paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection) and so much of section 356 as relates to this section, stock of a controlled corporation acquired by the distributing corporation by reason of any transaction
(i) which occurs within 5 years of the distribution of such stock, and
(ii) in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part,

shall not be treated as stock of such controlled corporation, but as other property.

(C) Property attributable to accrued interest 
Neither paragraph (1) nor so much of section 356 as relates to paragraph (1) shall apply to the extent that any stock (including nonqualified preferred stock, as defined in section 351 (g)(2)), securities, or other property received is attributable to interest which has accrued on securities on or after the beginning of the holders holding period.
(D) Nonqualified preferred stock 
Nonqualified preferred stock (as defined in section 351 (g)(2)) received in a distribution with respect to stock other than nonqualified preferred stock (as so defined) shall not be treated as stock or securities.
(4) Cross references 

(A) For treatment of the exchange if any property is received which is not permitted to be received under this subsection (including nonqualified preferred stock and an excess principal amount of securities received over securities surrendered, but not including property to which paragraph (3)(C) applies), see section 356.
(B) For treatment of accrued interest in the case of an exchange described in paragraph (3)(C), see section 61.
(b) Requirements as to active business 

(1) In general 
Subsection (a) shall apply only if either
(A) the distributing corporation, and the controlled corporation (or, if stock of more than one controlled corporation is distributed, each of such corporations), is engaged immediately after the distribution in the active conduct of a trade or business, or
(B) immediately before the distribution, the distributing corporation had no assets other than stock or securities in the controlled corporations and each of the controlled corporations is engaged immediately after the distribution in the active conduct of a trade or business.
(2) Definition 
For purposes of paragraph (1), a corporation shall be treated as engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business if and only if
(A) it is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business,
(B) such trade or business has been actively conducted throughout the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution,
(C) such trade or business was not acquired within the period described in subparagraph (B) in a transaction in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part, and
(D) control of a corporation which (at the time of acquisition of control) was conducting such trade or business
(i) was not acquired by any distributee corporation directly (or through 1 or more corporations, whether through the distributing corporation or otherwise) within the period described in subparagraph (B) and was not acquired by the distributing corporation directly (or through 1 or more corporations) within such period, or
(ii) was so acquired by any such corporation within such period, but, in each case in which such control was so acquired, it was so acquired, only by reason of transactions in which gain or loss was not recognized in whole or in part, or only by reason of such transactions combined with acquisitions before the beginning of such period.

For purposes of subparagraph (D), all distributee corporations which are members of the same affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 (a) without regard to section 1504 (b)) shall be treated as 1 distributee corporation.

(3) Special rules for determining active conduct in the case of affiliated groups 

(A) In general 
For purposes of determining whether a corporation meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(A), all members of such corporations separate affiliated group shall be treated as one corporation.
(B) Separate affiliated group 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term separate affiliated group means, with respect to any corporation, the affiliated group which would be determined under section 1504 (a) if such corporation were the common parent and section 1504 (b) did not apply.
(C) Treatment of trade or business conducted by acquired member 
If a corporation became a member of a separate affiliated group as a result of one or more transactions in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part, any trade or business conducted by such corporation (at the time that such corporation became such a member) shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as acquired in a transaction in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part.
(D) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations which provide for the proper application of subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (2), and modify the application of subsection (a)(3)(B), in connection with the application of this paragraph.
(c) Taxability of corporation on distribution 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), no gain or loss shall be recognized to a corporation on any distribution to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies and which is not in pursuance of a plan of reorganization.
(2) Distribution of appreciated property 

(A) In general 
If
(i) in a distribution referred to in paragraph (1), the corporation distributes property other than qualified property, and
(ii) the fair market value of such property exceeds its adjusted basis (in the hands of the distributing corporation),

then gain shall be recognized to the distributing corporation as if such property were sold to the distributee at its fair market value.

(B) Qualified property 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term qualified property means any stock or securities in the controlled corporation.
(C) Treatment of liabilities 
If any property distributed in the distribution referred to in paragraph (1) is subject to a liability or the shareholder assumes a liability of the distributing corporation in connection with the distribution, then, for purposes of subparagraph (A), the fair market value of such property shall be treated as not less than the amount of such liability.
(3) Coordination with sections 311 and 336 (a) 
Sections 311 and 336 (a) shall not apply to any distribution referred to in paragraph (1).
(d) Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation 

(1) In general 
In the case of a disqualified distribution, any stock or securities in the controlled corporation shall not be treated as qualified property for purposes of subsection (c)(2) of this section or section 361 (c)(2).
(2) Disqualified distribution 
For purposes of this subsection, the term disqualified distribution means any distribution to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies if, immediately after the distribution
(A) any person holds disqualified stock in the distributing corporation which constitutes a 50-percent or greater interest in such corporation, or
(B) any person holds disqualified stock in the controlled corporation (or, if stock of more than 1 controlled corporation is distributed, in any controlled corporation) which constitutes a 50-percent or greater interest in such corporation.
(3) Disqualified stock 
For purposes of this subsection, the term disqualified stock means
(A) any stock in the distributing corporation acquired by purchase after October 9, 1990, and during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution, and
(B) any stock in any controlled corporation
(i) acquired by purchase after October 9, 1990, and during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution, or
(ii) received in the distribution to the extent attributable to distributions on
(I) stock described in subparagraph (A), or
(II) any securities in the distributing corporation acquired by purchase after October 9, 1990, and during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution.
(4) 50-percent or greater interest 
For purposes of this subsection, the term 50-percent or greater interest means stock possessing at least 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or at least 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock.
(5) Purchase 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the term purchase means any acquisition but only if
(i) the basis of the property acquired in the hands of the acquirer is not determined
(I)  in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of the person from whom acquired, or
(II)  under section 1014 (a), and
(ii) the property is not acquired in an exchange to which section 351, 354, 355, or 356 applies.
(B) Certain section 351 exchanges treated as purchases 
The term purchase includes any acquisition of property in an exchange to which section 351 applies to the extent such property is acquired in exchange for
(i) any cash or cash item,
(ii) any marketable stock or security, or
(iii) any debt of the transferor.
(C) Carryover basis transactions 
If
(i) any person acquires property from another person who acquired such property by purchase (as determined under this paragraph with regard to this subparagraph), and
(ii) the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of such acquirer is determined in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of such other person,

such acquirer shall be treated as having acquired such property by purchase on the date it was so acquired by such other person.

(6) Special rule where substantial diminution of risk 

(A) In general 
If this paragraph applies to any stock or securities for any period, the running of any 5-year period set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (3) (whichever applies) shall be suspended during such period.
(B) Property to which suspension applies 
This paragraph applies to any stock or securities for any period during which the holders risk of loss with respect to such stock or securities, or with respect to any portion of the activities of the corporation, is (directly or indirectly) substantially diminished by
(i) an option,
(ii) a short sale,
(iii) any special class of stock, or
(iv) any other device or transaction.
(7) Aggregation rules 

(A) In general 
For purposes of this subsection, a person and all persons related to such person (within the meaning of section 267 (b) or 707 (b)(1)) shall be treated as one person.
(B) Persons acting pursuant to plans or arrangements 
If two or more persons act pursuant to a plan or arrangement with respect to acquisitions of stock or securities in the distributing corporation or controlled corporation, such persons shall be treated as one person for purposes of this subsection.
(8) Attribution from entities 

(A) In general 
Paragraph (2) of section 318 (a) shall apply in determining whether a person holds stock or securities in any corporation (determined by substituting 10 percent for 50 percent in subparagraph (C) of such paragraph (2) and by treating any reference to stock as including a reference to securities).
(B) Deemed purchase rule 
If
(i) any person acquires by purchase an interest in any entity, and
(ii) such person is treated under subparagraph (A) as holding any stock or securities by reason of holding such interest,

such stock or securities shall be treated as acquired by purchase by such person on the later of the date of the purchase of the interest in such entity or the date such stock or securities are acquired by purchase by such entity.

(9) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including
(A) regulations to prevent the avoidance of the purposes of this subsection through the use of related persons, intermediaries, pass-thru entities, options, or other arrangements, and
(B) regulations modifying the definition of the term purchase.
(e) Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with acquisitions 

(1) General rule 
If there is a distribution to which this subsection applies, any stock or securities in the controlled corporation shall not be treated as qualified property for purposes of subsection (c)(2) of this section or section 361 (c)(2).
(2) Distributions to which subsection applies 

(A) In general 
This subsection shall apply to any distribution
(i) to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies, and
(ii) which is part of a plan (or series of related transactions) pursuant to which 1 or more persons acquire directly or indirectly stock representing a 50-percent or greater interest in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation.
(B) Plan presumed to exist in certain cases 
If 1 or more persons acquire directly or indirectly stock representing a 50-percent or greater interest in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation during the 4-year period beginning on the date which is 2 years before the date of the distribution, such acquisition shall be treated as pursuant to a plan described in subparagraph (A)(ii) unless it is established that the distribution and the acquisition are not pursuant to a plan or series of related transactions.
(C) Certain plans disregarded 
A plan (or series of related transactions) shall not be treated as described in subparagraph (A)(ii) if, immediately after the completion of such plan or transactions, the distributing corporation and all controlled corporations are members of a single affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 without regard to subsection (b) thereof).
(D) Coordination with subsection (d) 
This subsection shall not apply to any distribution to which subsection (d) applies.
(3) Special rules relating to acquisitions 

(A) Certain acquisitions not taken into account 
Except as provided in regulations, the following acquisitions shall not be taken into account in applying paragraph (2)(A)(ii):
(i) The acquisition of stock in any controlled corporation by the distributing corporation.
(ii) The acquisition by a person of stock in any controlled corporation by reason of holding stock or securities in the distributing corporation.
(iii) The acquisition by a person of stock in any successor corporation of the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation by reason of holding stock or securities in such distributing or controlled corporation.
(iv) The acquisition of stock in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation to the extent that the percentage of stock owned directly or indirectly in such corporation by each person owning stock in such corporation immediately before the acquisition does not decrease.

This subparagraph shall not apply to any acquisition if the stock held before the acquisition was acquired pursuant to a plan (or series of related transactions) described in paragraph (2)(A)(ii).

(B) Asset acquisitions 
Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of this subsection, if the assets of the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation are acquired by a successor corporation in a transaction described in subparagraph (A), (C), or (D) of section 368 (a)(1) or any other transaction specified in regulations by the Secretary, the shareholders (immediately before the acquisition) of the corporation acquiring such assets shall be treated as acquiring stock in the corporation from which the assets were acquired.
(4) Definition and special rules 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) 50-percent or greater interest 
The term 50-percent or greater interest has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(4).
(B) Distributions in title 11 or similar case 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution made in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368 (a)(3)).
(C) Aggregation and attribution rules 

(i) Aggregation The rules of paragraph (7)(A) of subsection (d) shall apply.
(ii) Attribution Section 318 (a)(2) shall apply in determining whether a person holds stock or securities in any corporation. Except as provided in regulations, section 318 (a)(2)(C) shall be applied without regard to the phrase 50 percent or more in value for purposes of the preceding sentence.
(D) Successors and predecessors 
For purposes of this subsection, any reference to a controlled corporation or a distributing corporation shall include a reference to any predecessor or successor of such corporation.
(E) Statute of limitations 
If there is a distribution to which paragraph (1) applies
(i) the statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to any part of the gain recognized under this subsection by reason of such distribution shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified by the taxpayer (in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe) that such distribution occurred, and
(ii) such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.
(5) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations
(A) providing for the application of this subsection where there is more than 1 controlled corporation,
(B) treating 2 or more distributions as 1 distribution where necessary to prevent the avoidance of such purposes, and
(C) providing for the application of rules similar to the rules of subsection (d)(6) where appropriate for purposes of paragraph (2)(B).
(f) Section not to apply to certain intragroup distributions 
Except as provided in regulations, this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall not apply to the distribution of stock from 1 member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 (a)) to another member of such group if such distribution is part of a plan (or series of related transactions) described in subsection (e)(2)(A)(ii) (determined after the application of subsection (e)).
(g) Section not to apply to distributions involving disqualified investment corporations 

(1) In general 
This section (and so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall not apply to any distribution which is part of a transaction if
(A) either the distributing corporation or controlled corporation is, immediately after the transaction, a disqualified investment corporation, and
(B) any person holds, immediately after the transaction, a 50-percent or greater interest in any disqualified investment corporation, but only if such person did not hold such an interest in such corporation immediately before the transaction.
(2) Disqualified investment corporation 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The term disqualified investment corporation means any distributing or controlled corporation if the fair market value of the investment assets of the corporation is
(i) in the case of distributions after the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this subsection, 2/3 or more of the fair market value of all assets of the corporation, and
(ii) in the case of distributions during such 1-year period, 3/4 or more of the fair market value of all assets of the corporation.
(B) Investment assets 

(i) In general Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the term investment assets means
(I) cash,
(II) any stock or securities in a corporation,
(III) any interest in a partnership,
(IV) any debt instrument or other evidence of indebtedness,
(V) any option, forward or futures contract, notional principal contract, or derivative,
(VI) foreign currency, or
(VII) any similar asset.
(ii) Exception for assets used in active conduct of certain financial trades or businesses Such term shall not include any asset which is held for use in the active and regular conduct of
(I) a lending or finance business (within the meaning of section 954 (h)(4)),
(II) a banking business through a bank (as defined in section 581), a domestic building and loan association (within the meaning of section 7701 (a)(19)), or any similar institution specified by the Secretary, or
(III) an insurance business if the conduct of the business is licensed, authorized, or regulated by an applicable insurance regulatory body.

This clause shall only apply with respect to any business if substantially all of the income of the business is derived from persons who are not related (within the meaning of section 267 (b) or 707 (b)(1)) to the person conducting the business.

(iii) Exception for securities marked to market Such term shall not include any security (as defined in section 475 (c)(2)) which is held by a dealer in securities and to which section 475 (a) applies.
(iv) Stock or securities in a 20-percent controlled entity
(I) In general Such term shall not include any stock and securities in, or any asset described in subclause (IV) or (V) of clause (i) issued by, a corporation which is a 20-percent controlled entity with respect to the distributing or controlled corporation.
(II) Look-thru rule The distributing or controlled corporation shall, for purposes of applying this subsection, be treated as owning its ratable share of the assets of any 20-percent controlled entity.
(III) 20-percent controlled entity For purposes of this clause, the term 20-percent controlled entity means, with respect to any distributing or controlled corporation, any corporation with respect to which the distributing or controlled corporation owns directly or indirectly stock meeting the requirements of section 1504 (a)(2), except that such section shall be applied by substituting 20 percent for 80 percent and without regard to stock described in section 1504 (a)(4).
(v) Interests in certain partnerships
(I) In general Such term shall not include any interest in a partnership, or any debt instrument or other evidence of indebtedness, issued by the partnership, if 1 or more of the trades or businesses of the partnership are (or, without regard to the 5-year requirement under subsection (b)(2)(B), would be) taken into account by the distributing or controlled corporation, as the case may be, in determining whether the requirements of subsection (b) are met with respect to the distribution.
(II) Look-thru rule The distributing or controlled corporation shall, for purposes of applying this subsection, be treated as owning its ratable share of the assets of any partnership described in subclause (I).
(3) 50-percent or greater interest 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The term 50-percent or greater interest has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(4).
(B) Attribution rules 
The rules of section 318 shall apply for purposes of determining ownership of stock for purposes of this paragraph.
(4) Transaction 
For purposes of this subsection, the term transaction includes a series of transactions.
(5) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out, or prevent the avoidance of, the purposes of this subsection, including regulations
(A) to carry out, or prevent the avoidance of, the purposes of this subsection in cases involving
(i) the use of related persons, intermediaries, pass-thru entities, options, or other arrangements, and
(ii) the treatment of assets unrelated to the trade or business of a corporation as investment assets if, prior to the distribution, investment assets were used to acquire such unrelated assets,
(B) which in appropriate cases exclude from the application of this subsection a distribution which does not have the character of a redemption which would be treated as a sale or exchange under section 302, and
(C) which modify the application of the attribution rules applied for purposes of this subsection.

26 USC 356 - Receipt of additional consideration

(a) Gain on exchanges 

(1) Recognition of gain 
If
(A) section 354 or 355 would apply to an exchange but for the fact that
(B) the property received in the exchange consists not only of property permitted by section 354 or 355 to be received without the recognition of gain but also of other property or money,

then the gain, if any, to the recipient shall be recognized, but in an amount not in excess of the sum of such money and the fair market value of such other property.

(2) Treatment as dividend 
If an exchange is described in paragraph (1) but has the effect of the distribution of a dividend (determined with the application of section 318 (a)), then there shall be treated as a dividend to each distributee such an amount of the gain recognized under paragraph (1) as is not in excess of his ratable share of the undistributed earnings and profits of the corporation accumulated after February 28, 1913. The remainder, if any, of the gain recognized under paragraph (1) shall be treated as gain from the exchange of property.
(b) Additional consideration received in certain distributions 
If
(1) section 355 would apply to a distribution but for the fact that
(2) the property received in the distribution consists not only of property permitted by section 355 to be received without the recognition of gain, but also of other property or money,

then an amount equal to the sum of such money and the fair market value of such other property shall be treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies.

(c) Loss 
If
(1) section 354 would apply to an exchange or section 355 would apply to an exchange or distribution, but for the fact that
(2) the property received in the exchange or distribution consists not only of property permitted by section 354 or 355 to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, but also of other property or money,

then no loss from the exchange or distribution shall be recognized.

(d) Securities as other property 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term other property includes securities.
(2) Exceptions 

(A) Securities with respect to which nonrecognition of gain would be permitted 
The term other property does not include securities to the extent that, under section 354 or 355, such securities would be permitted to be received without the recognition of gain.
(B) Greater principal amount in section 354 exchange 
If
(i) in an exchange described in section 354 (other than subsection (c) thereof), securities of a corporation a party to the reorganization are surrendered and securities of any corporation a party to the reorganization are received, and
(ii) the principal amount of such securities received exceeds the principal amount of such securities surrendered,

then, with respect to such securities received, the term other property means only the fair market value of such excess. For purposes of this subparagraph and subparagraph (C) if no securities are surrendered, the excess shall be the entire principal amount of the securities received.

(C) Greater principal amount in section 355 transaction 
If, in an exchange or distribution described in section 355, the principal amount of the securities in the controlled corporation which are received exceeds the principal amount of the securities in the distributing corporation which are surrendered, then, with respect to such securities received, the term other property means only the fair market value of such excess.
(e) Nonqualified preferred stock treated as other property 
For purposes of this section
(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term other property includes nonqualified preferred stock (as defined in section 351 (g)(2)).
(2) Exception 
The term other property does not include nonqualified preferred stock (as so defined) to the extent that, under section 354 or 355, such preferred stock would be permitted to be received without the recognition of gain.
(f) Exchanges for section 306 stock 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, to the extent that any of the other property (or money) is received in exchange for section 306 stock, an amount equal to the fair market value of such other property (or the amount of such money) shall be treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies.
(g) Transactions involving gift or compensation 
For special rules for a transaction described in section 354, 355, or this section, but which
(1) results in a gift, see section 2501 and following, or
(2) has the effect of the payment of compensation, see section 61 (a)(1).

26 USC 357 - Assumption of liability

(a) General rule 
Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), if
(1) the taxpayer receives property which would be permitted to be received under section 351 or 361 without the recognition of gain if it were the sole consideration, and
(2) as part of the consideration, another party to the exchange assumes a liability of the taxpayer,

then such assumption shall not be treated as money or other property, and shall not prevent the exchange from being within the provisions of section 351 or 361, as the case may be.

(b) Tax avoidance purpose 

(1) In general 
If, taking into consideration the nature of the liability and the circumstances in the light of which the arrangement for the assumption was made, it appears that the principal purpose of the taxpayer with respect to the assumption described in subsection (a)
(A) was a purpose to avoid Federal income tax on the exchange, or
(B) if not such purpose, was not a bona fide business purpose,

then such assumption (in the total amount of the liability assumed pursuant to such exchange) shall, for purposes of section 351 or 361 (as the case may be), be considered as money received by the taxpayer on the exchange.

(2) Burden of proof 
In any suit or proceeding where the burden is on the taxpayer to prove such assumption is not to be treated as money received by the taxpayer, such burden shall not be considered as sustained unless the taxpayer sustains such burden by the clear preponderance of the evidence.
(c) Liabilities in excess of basis 

(1) In general 
In the case of an exchange
(A) to which section 351 applies, or
(B) to which section 361 applies by reason of a plan of reorganization within the meaning of section 368 (a)(1)(D) with respect to which stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 355,

if the sum of the amount of the liabilities assumed exceeds the total of the adjusted basis of the property transferred pursuant to such exchange, then such excess shall be considered as a gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset or of property which is not a capital asset, as the case may be.

(2) Exceptions 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any exchange
(A) to which subsection (b)(1) of this section applies, or
(B) which is pursuant to a plan of reorganization within the meaning of section 368 (a)(1)(G) where no former shareholder of the transferor corporation receives any consideration for his stock.
(3) Certain liabilities excluded 

(A) In general 
If a taxpayer transfers, in an exchange to which section 351 applies, a liability the payment of which either
(i) would give rise to a deduction, or
(ii) would be described in section 736 (a),

then, for purposes of paragraph (1), the amount of such liability shall be excluded in determining the amount of liabilities assumed.

(B) Exception 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any liability to the extent that the incurrence of the liability resulted in the creation of, or an increase in, the basis of any property.
(d) Determination of amount of liability assumed 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this section, section 358 (d), section 358(h), section 361 (b)(3), section 362(d), section 368 (a)(1)(C), and section 368 (a)(2)(B), except as provided in regulations
(A) a recourse liability (or portion thereof) shall be treated as having been assumed if, as determined on the basis of all facts and circumstances, the transferee has agreed to, and is expected to, satisfy such liability (or portion), whether or not the transferor has been relieved of such liability; and
(B) except to the extent provided in paragraph (2), a nonrecourse liability shall be treated as having been assumed by the transferee of any asset subject to such liability.
(2) Exception for nonrecourse liability 
The amount of the nonrecourse liability treated as described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be reduced by the lesser of
(A) the amount of such liability which an owner of other assets not transferred to the transferee and also subject to such liability has agreed with the transferee to, and is expected to, satisfy; or
(B) the fair market value of such other assets (determined without regard to section 7701 (g)).
(3) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection and section 362 (d). The Secretary may also prescribe regulations which provide that the manner in which a liability is treated as assumed under this subsection is applied, where appropriate, elsewhere in this title.

26 USC 358 - Basis to distributees

(a) General rule 
In the case of an exchange to which section 351, 354, 355, 356, or 361 applies
(1) Nonrecognition property 
The basis of the property permitted to be received under such section without the recognition of gain or loss shall be the same as that of the property exchanged
(A) decreased by
(i) the fair market value of any other property (except money) received by the taxpayer,
(ii) the amount of any money received by the taxpayer, and
(iii) the amount of loss to the taxpayer which was recognized on such exchange, and
(B) increased by
(i) the amount which was treated as a dividend, and
(ii) the amount of gain to the taxpayer which was recognized on such exchange (not including any portion of such gain which was treated as a dividend).
(2) Other property 
The basis of any other property (except money) received by the taxpayer shall be its fair market value.
(b) Allocation of basis 

(1) In general 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the basis determined under subsection (a)(1) shall be allocated among the properties permitted to be received without the recognition of gain or loss.
(2) Special rule for section 355 
In the case of an exchange to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies, then in making the allocation under paragraph (1) of this subsection, there shall be taken into account not only the property so permitted to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, but also the stock or securities (if any) of the distributing corporation which are retained, and the allocation of basis shall be made among all such properties.
(c) Section 355 transactions which are not exchanges 
For purposes of this section, a distribution to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies shall be treated as an exchange, and for such purposes the stock and securities of the distributing corporation which are retained shall be treated as surrendered, and received back, in the exchange.
(d) Assumption of liability 

(1) In general 
Where, as part of the consideration to the taxpayer, another party to the exchange assumed a liability of the taxpayer, such assumption shall, for purposes of this section, be treated as money received by the taxpayer on the exchange.
(2) Exception 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the amount of any liability excluded under section 357 (c)(3).
(e) Exception 
This section shall not apply to property acquired by a corporation by the exchange of its stock or securities (or the stock or securities of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation) as consideration in whole or in part for the transfer of the property to it.
(f) Definition of nonrecognition property in case of section 361 exchange 
For purposes of this section, the property permitted to be received under section 361 without the recognition of gain or loss shall be treated as consisting only of stock or securities in another corporation a party to the reorganization.
(g) Adjustments in intragroup transactions involving section 355 
In the case of a distribution to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies and which involves the distribution of stock from 1 member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 (a) without regard to subsection (b) thereof) to another member of such group, the Secretary may, notwithstanding any other provision of this section, provide adjustments to the adjusted basis of any stock which
(1) is in a corporation which is a member of such group, and
(2) is held by another member of such group,

to appropriately reflect the proper treatment of such distribution.

(h) Special rules for assumption of liabilities to which subsection (d) does not apply 

(1) In general 
If, after application of the other provisions of this section to an exchange or series of exchanges, the basis of property to which subsection (a)(1) applies exceeds the fair market value of such property, then such basis shall be reduced (but not below such fair market value) by the amount (determined as of the date of the exchange) of any liability
(A) which is assumed by another person as part of the exchange, and
(B) with respect to which subsection (d)(1) does not apply to the assumption.
(2) Exceptions 
Except as provided by the Secretary, paragraph (1) shall not apply to any liability if
(A) the trade or business with which the liability is associated is transferred to the person assuming the liability as part of the exchange, or
(B) substantially all of the assets with which the liability is associated are transferred to the person assuming the liability as part of the exchange.
(3) Liability 
For purposes of this subsection, the term liability shall include any fixed or contingent obligation to make payment, without regard to whether the obligation is otherwise taken into account for purposes of this title.

Subpart C - Effects on Corporation

26 USC 361 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss to corporations; treatment of distributions

(a) General rule 
No gain or loss shall be recognized to a corporation if such corporation is a party to a reorganization and exchanges property, in pursuance of the plan of reorganization, solely for stock or securities in another corporation a party to the reorganization.
(b) Exchanges not solely in kind 

(1) Gain 
If subsection (a) would apply to an exchange but for the fact that the property received in exchange consists not only of stock or securities permitted by subsection (a) to be received without the recognition of gain, but also of other property or money, then
(A) Property distributed 
If the corporation receiving such other property or money distributes it in pursuance of the plan of reorganization, no gain to the corporation shall be recognized from the exchange, but
(B) Property not distributed 
If the corporation receiving such other property or money does not distribute it in pursuance of the plan of reorganization, the gain, if any, to the corporation shall be recognized.

The amount of gain recognized under subparagraph (B) shall not exceed the sum of the money and the fair market value of the other property so received which is not so distributed.

(2) Loss 
If subsection (a) would apply to an exchange but for the fact that the property received in exchange consists not only of property permitted by subsection (a) to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, but also of other property or money, then no loss from the exchange shall be recognized.
(3) Treatment of transfers to creditors 
For purposes of paragraph (1), any transfer of the other property or money received in the exchange by the corporation to its creditors in connection with the reorganization shall be treated as a distribution in pursuance of the plan of reorganization. The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to prevent avoidance of tax through abuse of the preceding sentence or subsection (c)(3). In the case of a reorganization described in section 368 (a)(1)(D) with respect to which stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 355, this paragraph shall apply only to the extent that the sum of the money and the fair market value of other property transferred to such creditors does not exceed the adjusted bases of such assets transferred (reduced by the amount of the liabilities assumed (within the meaning of section 357 (c))).
(c) Treatment of distributions 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), no gain or loss shall be recognized to a corporation a party to a reorganization on the distribution to its shareholders of property in pursuance of the plan of reorganization.
(2) Distributions of appreciated property 

(A) In general 
If
(i) in a distribution referred to in paragraph (1), the corporation distributes property other than qualified property, and
(ii) the fair market value of such property exceeds its adjusted basis (in the hands of the distributing corporation),

then gain shall be recognized to the distributing corporation as if such property were sold to the distributee at its fair market value.

(B) Qualified property 
For purposes of this subsection, the term qualified property means
(i) any stock in (or right to acquire stock in) the distributing corporation or obligation of the distributing corporation, or
(ii) any stock in (or right to acquire stock in) another corporation which is a party to the reorganization or obligation of another corporation which is such a party if such stock (or right) or obligation is received by the distributing corporation in the exchange.
(C) Treatment of liabilities 
If any property distributed in the distribution referred to in paragraph (1) is subject to a liability or the shareholder assumes a liability of the distributing corporation in connection with the distribution, then, for purposes of subparagraph (A), the fair market value of such property shall be treated as not less than the amount of such liability.
(3) Treatment of certain transfers to creditors 
For purposes of this subsection, any transfer of qualified property by the corporation to its creditors in connection with the reorganization shall be treated as a distribution to its shareholders pursuant to the plan of reorganization.
(4) Coordination with other provisions 
Section 311 and subpart B of part II of this subchapter shall not apply to any distribution referred to in paragraph (1).
(5) Cross reference 
For provision providing for recognition of gain in certain distributions, see section 355 (d).

26 USC 362 - Basis to corporations

(a) Property acquired by issuance of stock or as paid-in surplus 
If property was acquired on or after June 22, 1954, by a corporation
(1) in connection with a transaction to which section 351 (relating to transfer of property to corporation controlled by transferor) applies, or
(2) as paid-in surplus or as a contribution to capital,

then the basis shall be the same as it would be in the hands of the transferor, increased in the amount of gain recognized to the transferor on such transfer.

(b) Transfers to corporations 
If property was acquired by a corporation in connection with a reorganization to which this part applies, then the basis shall be the same as it would be in the hands of the transferor, increased in the amount of gain recognized to the transferor on such transfer. This subsection shall not apply if the property acquired consists of stock or securities in a corporation a party to the reorganization, unless acquired by the exchange of stock or securities of the transferee (or of a corporation which is in control of the transferee) as the consideration in whole or in part for the transfer.
(c) Special rule for certain contributions to capital 

(1) Property other than money 
Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2), if property other than money
(A) is acquired by a corporation, on or after June 22, 1954, as a contribution to capital, and
(B) is not contributed by a shareholder as such,

then the basis of such property shall be zero.

(2) Money 
Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2), if money
(A) is received by a corporation, on or after June 22, 1954, as a contribution to capital, and
(B) is not contributed by a shareholder as such,

then the basis of any property acquired with such money during the 12-month period beginning on the day the contribution is received shall be reduced by the amount of such contribution. The excess (if any) of the amount of such contribution over the amount of the reduction under the preceding sentence shall be applied to the reduction (as of the last day of the period specified in the preceding sentence) of the basis of any other property held by the taxpayer. The particular properties to which the reductions required by this paragraph shall be allocated shall be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Limitation on basis increase attributable to assumption of liability 

(1) In general 
In no event shall the basis of any property be increased under subsection (a) or (b) above the fair market value of such property (determined without regard to section 7701 (g)) by reason of any gain recognized to the transferor as a result of the assumption of a liability.
(2) Treatment of gain not subject to tax 
Except as provided in regulations, if
(A) gain is recognized to the transferor as a result of an assumption of a nonrecourse liability by a transferee which is also secured by assets not transferred to such transferee; and
(B) no person is subject to tax under this title on such gain,

then, for purposes of determining basis under subsections (a) and (b), the amount of gain recognized by the transferor as a result of the assumption of the liability shall be determined as if the liability assumed by the transferee equaled such transferees ratable portion of such liability determined on the basis of the relative fair market values (determined without regard to section 7701(g)) of all of the assets subject to such liability.

(e) Limitations on built-in losses 

(1) Limitation on importation of built-in losses 

(A) In general 
If in any transaction described in subsection (a) or (b) there would (but for this subsection) be an importation of a net built-in loss, the basis of each property described in subparagraph (B) which is acquired in such transaction shall (notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b)) be its fair market value immediately after such transaction.
(B) Property described 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), property is described in this subparagraph if
(i) gain or loss with respect to such property is not subject to tax under this subtitle in the hands of the transferor immediately before the transfer, and
(ii) gain or loss with respect to such property is subject to such tax in the hands of the transferee immediately after such transfer.

In any case in which the transferor is a partnership, the preceding sentence shall be applied by treating each partner in such partnership as holding such partners proportionate share of the property of such partnership.

(C) Importation of net built-in loss 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), there is an importation of a net built-in loss in a transaction if the transferees aggregate adjusted bases of property described in subparagraph (B) which is transferred in such transaction would (but for this paragraph) exceed the fair market value of such property immediately after such transaction.
(2) Limitation on transfer of built-in losses in section 351 transactions 

(A) In general 
If
(i) property is transferred by a transferor in any transaction which is described in subsection (a) and which is not described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, and
(ii) the transferees aggregate adjusted bases of such property so transferred would (but for this paragraph) exceed the fair market value of such property immediately after such transaction,

then, notwithstanding subsection (a), the transferees aggregate adjusted bases of the property so transferred shall not exceed the fair market value of such property immediately after such transaction.

(B) Allocation of basis reduction 
The aggregate reduction in basis by reason of subparagraph (A) shall be allocated among the property so transferred in proportion to their respective built-in losses immediately before the transaction.
(C) Election to apply limitation to transferor’s stock basis 

(i) In general If the transferor and transferee of a transaction described in subparagraph (A) both elect the application of this subparagraph
(I) subparagraph (A) shall not apply, and
(II) the transferors basis in the stock received for property to which subparagraph (A) does not apply by reason of the election shall not exceed its fair market value immediately after the transfer.
(ii) Election Any election under clause (i) shall be made at such time and in such form and manner as the Secretary may prescribe, and, once made, shall be irrevocable.

26 USC 363 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94455, title XIX, 1901(a)(49), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1773]

Section, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 119, related to cross reference for rules relating to effect on earnings and profits of transactions to which this part applies.

Subpart D - Special Rule; Definitions

26 USC 367 - Foreign corporations

(a) Transfers of property from the United States 

(1) General rule 
If, in connection with any exchange described in section 332, 351, 354, 356, or 361, a United States person transfers property to a foreign corporation, such foreign corporation shall not, for purposes of determining the extent to which gain shall be recognized on such transfer, be considered to be a corporation.
(2) Exception for certain stock or securities 
Except to the extent provided in regulations, paragraph (1) shall not apply to the transfer of stock or securities of a foreign corporation which is a party to the exchange or a party to the reorganization.
(3) Exception for transfers of certain property used in the active conduct of a trade or business 

(A) In general 
Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, paragraph (1) shall not apply to any property transferred to a foreign corporation for use by such foreign corporation in the active conduct of a trade or business outside of the United States.
(B) Paragraph not to apply to certain property 
Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any
(i) property described in paragraph (1) or (3) of section 1221 (a) (relating to inventory and copyrights, etc.),
(ii) installment obligations, accounts receivable, or similar property,
(iii) foreign currency or other property denominated in foreign currency,
(iv) intangible property (within the meaning of section 936 (h)(3)(B)), or
(v) property with respect to which the transferor is a lessor at the time of the transfer, except that this clause shall not apply if the transferee was the lessee.
(C) Transfer of foreign branch with previously deducted losses 
Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, subparagraph (A) shall not apply to gain realized on the transfer of the assets of a foreign branch of a United States person to a foreign corporation in an exchange described in paragraph (1) to the extent that
(i) the sum of losses
(I) which were incurred by the foreign branch before the transfer, and
(II) with respect to which a deduction was allowed to the taxpayer, exceeds
(ii) the sum of
(I) any taxable income of such branch for a taxable year after the taxable year in which the loss was incurred and through the close of the taxable year of the transfer, and
(II) the amount which is recognized under section 904 (f)(3) on account of the transfer.

Any gain recognized by reason of the preceding sentence shall be treated for purposes of this chapter as income from sources outside the United States having the same character as such losses had.

(4) Special rule for transfer of partnership interests 
Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a transfer by a United States person of an interest in a partnership to a foreign corporation in an exchange described in paragraph (1) shall, for purposes of this subsection, be treated as a transfer to such corporation of such persons pro rata share of the assets of the partnership.
(5) Paragraphs (2) and (3) not to apply to certain section 361 transactions 
Paragraphs (2) and (3) shall not apply in the case of an exchange described in subsection (a) or (b) of section 361. Subject to such basis adjustments and such other conditions as shall be provided in regulations, the preceding sentence shall not apply if the transferor corporation is controlled (within the meaning of section 368 (c)) by 5 or fewer domestic corporations. For purposes of the preceding sentence, all members of the same affiliated group (within the meaning of section 1504) shall be treated as 1 corporation.
(6) Secretary may exempt certain transactions from application of this subsection 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the transfer of any property which the Secretary, in order to carry out the purposes of this subsection, designates by regulation.
(b) Other transfers 

(1) Effect of section to be determined under regulations 
In the case of any exchange described in section 332, 351, 354, 355, 356, or 361 in connection with which there is no transfer of property described in subsection (a)(1), a foreign corporation shall be considered to be a corporation except to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary which are necessary or appropriate to prevent the avoidance of Federal income taxes.
(2) Regulations relating to sale or exchange of stock in foreign corporations 
The regulations prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include (but shall not be limited to) regulations dealing with the sale or exchange of stock or securities in a foreign corporation by a United States person, including regulations providing
(A) the circumstances under which
(i) gain shall be recognized currently, or amounts included in gross income currently as a dividend, or both, or
(ii) gain or other amounts may be deferred for inclusion in the gross income of a shareholder (or his successor in interest) at a later date, and
(B) the extent to which adjustments shall be made to earnings and profits, basis of stock or securities, and basis of assets.
(c) Transactions to be treated as exchanges 

(1) Section 355 distribution 
For purposes of this section, any distribution described in section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) shall be treated as an exchange whether or not it is an exchange.
(2) Contribution of capital to controlled corporations 
For purposes of this chapter, any transfer of property to a foreign corporation as a contribution to the capital of such corporation by one or more persons who, immediately after the transfer, own (within the meaning of section 318) stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote shall be treated as an exchange of such property for stock of the foreign corporation equal in value to the fair market value of the property transferred.
(d) Special rules relating to transfers of intangibles 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if a United States person transfers any intangible property (within the meaning of section 936 (h)(3)(B)) to a foreign corporation in an exchange described in section 351 or 361
(A) subsection (a) shall not apply to the transfer of such property, and
(B) the provisions of this subsection shall apply to such transfer.
(2) Transfer of intangibles treated as transfer pursuant to sale of contingent payments 

(A) In general 
If paragraph (1) applies to any transfer, the United States person transferring such property shall be treated as
(i) having sold such property in exchange for payments which are contingent upon the productivity, use, or disposition of such property, and
(ii) receiving amounts which reasonably reflect the amounts which would have been received
(I) annually in the form of such payments over the useful life of such property, or
(II) in the case of a disposition following such transfer (whether direct or indirect), at the time of the disposition.

The amounts taken into account under clause (ii) shall be commensurate with the income attributable to the intangible.

(B) Effect on earnings and profits 
For purposes of this chapter, the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation to which the intangible property was transferred shall be reduced by the amount required to be included in the income of the transferor of the intangible property under subparagraph (A)(ii).
(C) Amounts received treated as ordinary income 
For purposes of this chapter, any amount included in gross income by reason of this subsection shall be treated as ordinary income. For purposes of applying section 904 (d), any such amount shall be treated in the same manner as if such amount were a royalty.
(3) Regulations relating to transfers of intangibles to partnerships 
The Secretary may provide by regulations that the rules of paragraph (2) also apply to the transfer of intangible property by a United States person to a partnership in circumstances consistent with the purposes of this subsection.
(e) Treatment of distributions described in section 355 or liquidations under section 332 

(1) Distributions described in section 355 
In the case of any distribution described in section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) by a domestic corporation to a person who is not a United States person, to the extent provided in regulations, gain shall be recognized under principles similar to the principles of this section.
(2) Liquidations under section 332 
In the case of any liquidation to which section 332 applies, except as provided in regulations, subsections (a) and (b)(1) of section 337 shall not apply where the 80-percent distributee (as defined in section 337 (c)) is a foreign corporation.
(f) Other transfers 
To the extent provided in regulations, if a United States person transfers property to a foreign corporation as paid-in surplus or as a contribution to capital (in a transaction not otherwise described in this section), such transfer shall be treated as a sale or exchange for an amount equal to the fair market value of the property transferred, and the transferor shall recognize as gain the excess of
(1) the fair market value of the property so transferred, over
(2) the adjusted basis (for purposes of determining gain) of such property in the hands of the transferor.

26 USC 368 - Definitions relating to corporate reorganizations

(a) Reorganization 

(1) In general 
For purposes of parts I and II and this part, the term reorganization means
(A) a statutory merger or consolidation;
(B) the acquisition by one corporation, in exchange solely for all or a part of its voting stock (or in exchange solely for all or a part of the voting stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation), of stock of another corporation if, immediately after the acquisition, the acquiring corporation has control of such other corporation (whether or not such acquiring corporation had control immediately before the acquisition);
(C) the acquisition by one corporation, in exchange solely for all or a part of its voting stock (or in exchange solely for all or a part of the voting stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation), of substantially all of the properties of another corporation, but in determining whether the exchange is solely for stock the assumption by the acquiring corporation of a liability of the other shall be disregarded;
(D) a transfer by a corporation of all or a part of its assets to another corporation if immediately after the transfer the transferor, or one or more of its shareholders (including persons who were shareholders immediately before the transfer), or any combination thereof, is in control of the corporation to which the assets are transferred; but only if, in pursuance of the plan, stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 354, 355, or 356;
(E) a recapitalization;
(F) a mere change in identity, form, or place of organization of one corporation, however effected; or
(G) a transfer by a corporation of all or part of its assets to another corporation in a title 11 or similar case; but only if, in pursuance of the plan, stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 354, 355, or 356.
(2) Special rules relating to paragraph (1) 

(A) Reorganizations described in both paragraph (1)(C) and paragraph (1)(D) 
If a transaction is described in both paragraph (1)(C) and paragraph (1)(D), then, for purposes of this subchapter (other than for purposes of subparagraph (C)), such transaction shall be treated as described only in paragraph (1)(D).
(B) Additional consideration in certain paragraph (1)(C) cases 
If
(i) one corporation acquires substantially all of the properties of another corporation,
(ii) the acquisition would qualify under paragraph (1)(C) but for the fact that the acquiring corporation exchanges money or other property in addition to voting stock, and
(iii) the acquiring corporation acquires, solely for voting stock described in paragraph (1)(C), property of the other corporation having a fair market value which is at least 80 percent of the fair market value of all of the property of the other corporation,

then such acquisition shall (subject to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph) be treated as qualifying under paragraph (1)(C). Solely for the purpose of determining whether clause (iii) of the preceding sentence applies, the amount of any liability assumed by the acquiring corporation shall be treated as money paid for the property.

(C) Transfers of assets or stock to subsidiaries in certain paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), and (1)(G) cases 
A transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), or (1)(C) shall not be disqualified by reason of the fact that part or all of the assets or stock which were acquired in the transaction are transferred to a corporation controlled by the corporation acquiring such assets or stock. A similar rule shall apply to a transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(G) where the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 354 (b)(1) are met with respect to the acquisition of the assets.
(D) Use of stock of controlling corporation in paragraph (1)(A) and (1)(G) cases 
The acquisition by one corporation, in exchange for stock of a corporation (referred to in this subparagraph as controlling corporation) which is in control of the acquiring corporation, of substantially all of the properties of another corporation shall not disqualify a transaction under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(G) if
(i) no stock of the acquiring corporation is used in the transaction, and
(ii) in the case of a transaction under paragraph (1)(A), such transaction would have qualified under paragraph (1)(A) had the merger been into the controlling corporation.
(E) Statutory merger using voting stock of corporation controlling merged corporation 
A transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(A) shall not be disqualified by reason of the fact that stock of a corporation (referred to in this subparagraph as the controlling corporation) which before the merger was in control of the merged corporation is used in the transaction, if
(i) after the transaction, the corporation surviving the merger holds substantially all of its properties and of the properties of the merged corporation (other than stock of the controlling corporation distributed in the transaction); and
(ii) in the transaction, former shareholders of the surviving corporation exchanged, for an amount of voting stock of the controlling corporation, an amount of stock in the surviving corporation which constitutes control of such corporation.
(F) Certain transactions involving 2 or more investment companies 

(i) If immediately before a transaction described in paragraph (1) (other than subparagraph (E) thereof), 2 or more parties to the transaction were investment companies, then the transaction shall not be considered to be a reorganization with respect to any such investment company (and its shareholders and security holders) unless it was a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or a corporation which meets the requirements of clause (ii).
(ii) A corporation meets the requirements of this clause if not more than 25 percent of the value of its total assets is invested in the stock and securities of any one issuer, and not more than 50 percent of the value of its total assets is invested in the stock and securities of 5 or fewer issuers. For purposes of this clause, all members of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1563 (a)) shall be treated as one issuer. For purposes of this clause, a person holding stock in a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or an investment company which meets the requirements of this clause shall, except as provided in regulations, be treated as holding its proportionate share of the assets held by such company or trust.
(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph the term investment company means a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or a corporation 50 percent or more of the value of whose total assets are stock and securities and 80 percent or more of the value of whose total assets are assets held for investment. In making the 50-percent and 80-percent determinations under the preceding sentence, stock and securities in any subsidiary corporation shall be disregarded and the parent corporation shall be deemed to own its ratable share of the subsidiarys assets, and a corporation shall be considered a subsidiary if the parent owns 50 percent or more of the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock outstanding.
(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, in determining total assets there shall be excluded cash and cash items (including receivables). Government securities, and, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, assets acquired (through incurring indebtedness or otherwise) for purposes of meeting the requirements of clause (ii) or ceasing to be an investment company.
(v) This subparagraph shall not apply if the stock of each investment company is owned substantially by the same persons in the same proportions.
(vi) If an investment company which does not meet the requirements of clause (ii) acquires assets of another corporation, clause (i) shall be applied to such investment company and its shareholders and security holders as though its assets had been acquired by such other corporation. If such investment company acquires stock of another corporation in a reorganization described in section 368 (a)(1)(B), clause (i) shall be applied to the shareholders of such investment company as though they had exchanged with such other corporation all of their stock in such company for stock having a fair market value equal to the fair market value of their stock of such investment company immediately after the exchange. For purposes of section 1001, the deemed acquisition or exchange referred to in the two preceding sentences shall be treated as a sale or exchange of property by the corporation and by the shareholders and security holders to which clause (i) is applied.
(vii) For purposes of clauses (ii) and (iii), the term securities includes obligations of State and local governments, commodity futures contracts, shares of regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts, and other investments constituting a security within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a–2 (36)).[1]
[(viii) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, 174(b)(5)(D), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 707]
(G) Distribution requirement for paragraph (1)(C) 

(i) In general A transaction shall fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(C) unless the acquired corporation distributes the stock, securities, and other properties it receives, as well as its other properties, in pursuance of the plan of reorganization. For purposes of the preceding sentence, if the acquired corporation is liquidated pursuant to the plan of reorganization, any distribution to its creditors in connection with such liquidation shall be treated as pursuant to the plan of reorganization.
(ii) Exception The Secretary may waive the application of clause (i) to any transaction subject to any conditions the Secretary may prescribe.
(H) Special rules for determining whether certain transactions are qualified under paragraph (1)(D) 
For purposes of determining whether a transaction qualifies under paragraph (1)(D)
(i) in the case of a transaction with respect to which the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 354 (b)(1) are met, the term control has the meaning given such term by section 304 (c), and
(ii) in the case of a transaction with respect to which the requirements of section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) are met, the fact that the shareholders of the distributing corporation dispose of part or all of the distributed stock, or the fact that the corporation whose stock was distributed issues additional stock, shall not be taken into account.
(3) Additional rules relating to title 11 and similar cases 

(A) Title 11 or similar case defined 
For purposes of this part, the term title 11 or similar case means
(i) a case under title 11 of the United States Code, or
(ii) a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding in a Federal or State court.
(B) Transfer of assets in a title 11 or similar case 
In applying paragraph (1)(G), a transfer of the assets of a corporation shall be treated as made in a title 11 or similar case if and only if
(i) any party to the reorganization is under the jurisdiction of the court in such case, and
(ii) the transfer is pursuant to a plan of reorganization approved by the court.
(C) Reorganizations qualifying under paragraph (1)(G) and another provision 
If a transaction would (but for this subparagraph) qualify both
(i) under subparagraph (G) of paragraph (1), and
(ii) under any other subparagraph of paragraph (1) or under section 332 or 351,

then, for purposes of this subchapter (other than section 357 (c)(1)), such transaction shall be treated as qualifying only under subparagraph (G) of paragraph (1).

(D) Agency receivership proceedings which involve financial institutions 
For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), in the case of a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding before a Federal or State agency involving a financial institution referred to in section 581 or 591, the agency shall be treated as a court.
(E) Application of paragraph (2)(E)(ii) 
In the case of a title 11 or similar case, the requirement of clause (ii) of paragraph (2)(E) shall be treated as met if
(i) no former shareholder of the surviving corporation received any consideration for his stock, and
(ii) the former creditors of the surviving corporation exchanged, for an amount of voting stock of the controlling corporation, debt of the surviving corporation which had a fair market value equal to 80 percent or more of the total fair market value of the debt of the surviving corporation.
(b) Party to a reorganization 
For purposes of this part, the term a party to a reorganization includes
(1) a corporation resulting from a reorganization, and
(2) both corporations, in the case of a reorganization resulting from the acquisition by one corporation of stock or properties of another.

In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(B) or (1)(C) of subsection (a), if the stock exchanged for the stock or properties is stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation, the term a party to a reorganization includes the corporation so controlling the acquiring corporation. In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), or (1)(C), or (1)(G) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(C) of subsection (a), the term a party to a reorganization includes the corporation controlling the corporation to which the acquired assets or stock are transferred. In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(G) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(D) of that subsection, the term a party to a reorganization includes the controlling corporation referred to in such paragraph (2)(D). In the case of a reorganization qualifying under subsection (a)(1)(A) by reason of subsection (a)(2)(E), the term party to a reorganization includes the controlling corporation referred to in subsection (a)(2)(E).

(c) Control defined 
For purposes of part I (other than section 304), part II, this part, and part V, the term control means the ownership of stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and at least 80 percent of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock of the corporation.
[1] So in original. A reference to 15 U.S.C. 80a–2 (a)(36) was probably intended.