TITLE 26 - US CODE - CHAPTER 23 - FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT

26 USC 3301 - Rate of tax

There is hereby imposed on every employer (as defined in section 3306 (a)) for each calendar year an excise tax, with respect to having individuals in his employ, equal to
(1) 6.2 percent in the case of calendar years 1988 through 2008; or
(2) 6.0 percent in the case of calendar year 2009 and each calendar year thereafter;

of the total wages (as defined in section 3306 (b)) paid by him during the calendar year with respect to employment (as defined in section 3306 (c)).

26 USC 3302 - Credits against tax

(a) Contributions to State unemployment funds 

(1) The taxpayer may, to the extent provided in this subsection and subsection (c), credit against the tax imposed by section 3301 the amount of contributions paid by him into an unemployment fund maintained during the taxable year under the unemployment compensation law of a State which is certified as provided in section 3304 for the 12-month period ending on October 31 of such year.
(2) The credit shall be permitted against the tax for the taxable year only for the amount of contributions paid with respect to such taxable year.
(3) The credit against the tax for any taxable year shall be permitted only for contributions paid on or before the last day upon which the taxpayer is required under section 6071 to file a return for such year; except that credit shall be permitted for contributions paid after such last day, but such credit shall not exceed 90 percent of the amount which would have been allowable as credit on account of such contributions had they been paid on or before such last day.
(4) Upon the payment of contributions into the unemployment fund of a State which are required under the unemployment compensation law of that State with respect to remuneration on the basis of which, prior to such payment into the proper fund, the taxpayer erroneously paid an amount as contributions under another unemployment compensation law, the payment into the proper fund shall, for purposes of credit against the tax, be deemed to have been made at the time of the erroneous payment. If, by reason of such other law, the taxpayer was entitled to cease paying contributions with respect to services subject to such other law, the payment into the proper fund shall, for purposes of credit against the tax, be deemed to have been made on the date the return for the taxable year was filed under section 6071.
(5) In the case of wages paid by the trustee of an estate under title 11 of the United States Code, if the failure to pay contributions on time was without fault by the trustee, paragraph (3) shall be applied by substituting 100 percent for 90 percent.
(b) Additional credit 
In addition to the credit allowed under subsection (a), a taxpayer may credit against the tax imposed by section 3301 for any taxable year an amount, with respect to the unemployment compensation law of each State certified as provided in section 3303 for the 12-month period ending on October 31 of such year, or with respect to any provisions thereof so certified, equal to the amount, if any, by which the contributions required to be paid by him with respect to the taxable year were less than the contributions such taxpayer would have been required to pay if throughout the taxable year he had been subject under such State law to the highest rate applied thereunder in such 12-month period to any person having individuals in his employ, or to a rate of 5.4 percent, whichever rate is lower.
(c) Limit on total credits 

(1) The total credits allowed to a taxpayer under this section shall not exceed 90 percent of the tax against which such credits are allowable.
(2) If an advance or advances have been made to the unemployment account of a State under title XII of the Social Security Act, then the total credits (after applying subsections (a) and (b) and paragraph (1) of this subsection) otherwise allowable under this section for the taxable year in the case of a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of such State shall be reduced
(A) 
(i) in the case of a taxable year beginning with the second consecutive January 1 as of the beginning of which there is a balance of such advances, by 5 percent of the tax imposed by section 3301 with respect to the wages paid by such taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State; and
(ii) in the case of any succeeding taxable year beginning with a consecutive January 1 as of the beginning of which there is a balance of such advances, by an additional 5 percent, for each such succeeding taxable year, of the tax imposed by section 3301 with respect to the wages paid by such taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State;
(B) in the case of a taxable year beginning with the third or fourth consecutive January 1 as of the beginning of which there is a balance of such advances, by the amount determined by multiplying the wages paid by such taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State by the percentage (if any), multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the States average annual wage in covered employment for the calendar year in which the determination is made and the denominator of which is the wage base under this chapter, by which
(i) 2.7 percent multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the wage base under this chapter and the denominator of which is the estimated United States average annual wage in covered employment for the calendar year in which the determination is to be made, exceeds
(ii) the average employer contribution rate for such State for the calendar year preceding such taxable year; and
(C) in the case of a taxable year beginning with the fifth or any succeeding consecutive January 1 as of the beginning of which there is a balance of such advances, by the amount determined by multiplying the wages paid by such taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State by the percentage (if any) by which
(i) the 5-year benefit cost rate applicable to such State for such taxable year or (if higher) 2.7 percent, exceeds
(ii) the average employer contribution rate for such State for the calendar year preceding such taxable year.

The provisions of the preceding sentence shall not be applicable with respect to the taxable year beginning January 1, 1975, or any succeeding taxable year which begins before January 1, 1980; and, for purposes of such sentence, January 1, 1980, shall be deemed to be the first January 1 occurring after January 1, 1974, and consecutive taxable years in the period commencing January 1, 1980, shall be determined as if the taxable year which begins on January 1, 1980, were the taxable year immediately succeeding the taxable year which began on January 1, 1974. Subparagraph (C) shall not apply with respect to any taxable year to which it would otherwise apply (but subparagraph (B) shall apply to such taxable year) if the Secretary of Labor determines (on or before November 10 of such taxable year) that the State meets the requirements of subsection (f)(2)(B) for such taxable year.

(3) If the Secretary of Labor determines that a State, or State agency, has not
(A) entered into the agreement described in section 239 of the Trade Act of 1974, with the Secretary of Labor before July 15, 1975, or
(B) fulfilled its commitments under an agreement with the Secretary of Labor as described in section 239 of the Trade Act of 1974,

then, in the case of a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of such State, the total credits (after applying subsections (a) and (b) and paragraphs (1) and (2) of this section) otherwise allowable under this section for a year during which such State or agency does not enter into or fulfill such an agreement shall be reduced by 71/2 percent of the tax imposed with respect to wages paid by such taxpayer during such year which are attributable to such State.

(d) Definitions and special rules relating to subsection (c) 

(1) Rate of tax deemed to be 6 percent 
In applying subsection (c), the tax imposed by section 3301 shall be computed at the rate of 6 percent in lieu of the rate provided by such section.
(2) Wages attributable to a particular State 
For purposes of subsection (c), wages shall be attributable to a particular State if they are subject to the unemployment compensation law of the State, or (if not subject to the unemployment compensation law of any State) if they are determined (under rules or regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to be attributable to such State.
(3) Additional taxes inapplicable where advances are repaid before November 10 of taxable year 
Paragraph (2) of subsection (c) shall not apply with respect to any State for the taxable year if (as of the beginning of November 10 of such year) there is no balance of advances referred to in such paragraph.
(4) Average employer contribution rate 
For purposes of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subsection (c)(2), the average employer contribution rate for any State for any calendar year is that percentage obtained by dividing
(A) the total of the contributions paid into the State unemployment fund with respect to such calendar year, by
(B) 
(i) for purposes of subparagraph (B) of subsection (c)(2), the total of the wages (as determined without any limitation on amount) attributable to such State subject to contributions under this chapter with respect to such calendar year, and
(ii) for purposes of subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(2), the total of the remuneration subject to contributions under the State unemployment compensation law with respect to such calendar year.

For purposes of subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(2), if the average employer contribution rate for any State for any calendar year (determined without regard to this sentence) equals or exceeds 2.7 percent, such rate shall be determined by increasing the amount taken into account under subparagraph (A) of the preceding sentence by the aggregate amount of employee payments (if any) into the unemployment fund of such State with respect to such calendar year which are to be used solely in the payment of unemployment compensation.

(5) 5-year benefit cost rate 
For purposes of subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(2), the 5-year benefit cost rate applicable to any State for any taxable year is that percentage obtained by dividing
(A) one-fifth of the total of the compensation paid under the State unemployment compensation law during the 5-year period ending at the close of the second calendar year preceding such taxable year, by
(B) the total of the remuneration subject to contributions under the State unemployment compensation law with respect to the first calendar year preceding such taxable year.
(6) Rounding 
If any percentage referred to in either subparagraph (B) or (C) of subsection (c)(2) is not a multiple of .1 percent, it shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of .1 percent.
(7) Determination and certification of percentages 
The percentage referred to in subsection (c)(2)(B) or (C) for any taxable year for any State having a balance referred to therein shall be determined by the Secretary of Labor, and shall be certified by him to the Secretary of the Treasury before June 1 of such year, on the basis of a report furnished by such State to the Secretary of Labor before May 1 of such year. Any such State report shall be made as of the close of March 31 of the taxable year, and shall be made on such forms, and shall contain such information, as the Secretary of Labor deems necessary to the performance of his duties under this section.
(e) Successor employer 
Subject to the limits provided by subsection (c), if
(1) an employer acquires during any calendar year substantially all the property used in the trade or business of another person, or used in a separate unit of a trade or business of such other person, and immediately after the acquisition employs in his trade or business one or more individuals who immediately prior to the acquisition were employed in the trade or business of such other person, and
(2) such other person is not an employer for the calendar year in which the acquisition takes place,

then, for the calendar year in which the acquisition takes place, in addition to the credits allowed under subsections (a) and (b), such employer may credit against the tax imposed by section 3301 for such year an amount equal to the credits which (without regard to subsection (c)) would have been allowable to such other person under subsections (a) and (b) and this subsection for such year, if such other person had been an employer, with respect to remuneration subject to contributions under the unemployment compensation law of a State paid by such other person to the individual or individuals described in paragraph (1).

(f) Limitation on credit reduction 

(1) Limitation 
In the case of any State which meets the requirements of paragraph (2) with respect to any taxable year the reduction under subsection (c)(2) in credits otherwise applicable to taxpayers subject to the unemployment compensation law of such State shall not exceed the greater of
(A) the reduction which was in effect with respect to such State under subsection (c)(2) for the preceding taxable year, or
(B) 0.6 percent of the wages paid by the taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State.
(2) Requirements 
The requirements of this paragraph are met by any State with respect to any taxable year if the Secretary of Labor determines (on or before November 10 of such taxable year) that
(A) no State action was taken during the 12-month period ending on September 30 of such taxable year (excluding any action required under State law as in effect prior to the date of the enactment of this subsection) which has resulted or will result in a reduction in such States unemployment tax effort (as defined by the Secretary of Labor in regulations),
(B) no State action was taken during the 12-month period ending on September 30 of such taxable year (excluding any action required under State law as in effect prior to the date of the enactment of this subsection) which has resulted or will result in a net decrease in the solvency of the State unemployment compensation system (as defined by the Secretary of Labor in regulations),
(C) the State unemployment tax rate for the taxable year equals or exceeds the average benefit cost ratio for calendar years in the 5-calendar year period ending with the last calendar year before the taxable year, and
(D) the outstanding balance for such State of advances under title XII of the Social Security Act on September 30 of such taxable year was not greater than the outstanding balance for such State of such advances on September 30 of the third preceding taxable year (or, for purposes of applying this subparagraph to taxable year 1983, September 30, 1981).

The requirements of subparagraphs (C) and (D) shall not apply to taxable years 1981 and 1982.

(3) Credit reductions for subsequent years 
If the credit reduction under subsection (c)(2) is limited by reason of paragraph (1) of this subsection for any taxable year, for purposes of applying subsection (c)(2) to subsequent taxable years (including years after 1987), the taxable year for which the credit reduction was so limited (and January 1 thereof) shall not be taken into account.
(4) State unemployment tax rate 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The State unemployment tax rate for any taxable year is the percentage obtained by dividing
(i) the total amount of contributions paid into the State unemployment fund with respect to such taxable year, by
(ii) the total amount of the remuneration subject to contributions under the State unemployment compensation law with respect to such taxable year (determined without regard to any limitation on the amount of wages subject to contribution under the State law).
(B) Treatment of additional tax under this chapter 

(i) Taxable year 1983 In the case of taxable year 1983, any additional tax imposed under this chapter with respect to any State by reason of subsection (c)(2) shall be treated as contributions paid into the State unemployment fund with respect to such taxable year.
(ii) Taxable year 1984 In the case of taxable year 1984, any additional tax imposed under this chapter with respect to any State by reason of subsection (c)(2) shall (to the extent such additional tax is attributable to a credit reduction in excess of 0.6 of wages attributable to such State) be treated as contributions paid into the State unemployment fund with respect to such taxable year.
(5) Benefit cost ratio 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The benefit cost ratio for any calendar year is the percentage determined by dividing
(i) the sum of the total of the compensation paid under the State unemployment compensation law during such calendar year and any interest paid during such calendar year on advances made to the State under title XII of the Social Security Act, by
(ii) the total amount of the remuneration subject to contributions under the State unemployment compensation law with respect to such calendar year (determined without regard to any limitation on the amount of remuneration subject to contribution under the State law).
(B) Reimbursable benefits not taken into account 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), compensation shall not be taken into account to the extent
(i) the State is entitled to reimbursement for such compensation under the provisions of any Federal law, or
(ii) such compensation is attributable to services performed for a reimbursing employer.
(C) Reimbursing employer 
The term reimbursing employer means any governmental entity or other organization (or group of governmental entities or any other organizations) which makes reimbursements in lieu of contributions to the State unemployment fund.
(D) Special rules for years before 1985 

(i) Taxable year 1983 For purposes of determining whether a State meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(C) for taxable year 1983, only regular compensation (as defined in section 205 of the Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 1970) shall be taken into account for purposes of determining the benefit ratio for any preceding calendar year before 1982.
(ii) Taxable year 1984 For purposes of determining whether a State meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(C) for taxable year 1984, only regular compensation (as so defined) shall be taken into account for purposes of determining the benefit ratio for any preceding calendar year before 1981.
(E) Rounding 
If any percentage determined under subparagraph (A) is not a multiple of .1 percent, such percentage shall be reduced to the nearest multiple of .1 percent.
(6) Reports 
The Secretary of Labor may, by regulations, require a State to furnish such information at such time and in such manner as may be necessary for purposes of this subsection.
(7) Definitions and special rules 
The definitions and special rules set forth in subsection (d) shall apply to this subsection in the same manner as they apply to subsection (c).
(8) Partial limitation 

(A) In the case of a State which would meet the requirements of this subsection for a taxable year prior to 1986 but for its failure to meet one of the requirements contained in subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (2), the reduction under subsection (c)(2) in credits otherwise applicable to taxpayers in such State for such taxable year and each subsequent year (in a period of consecutive years for each of which a credit reduction is in effect for taxpayers in such State) shall be reduced by 0.1 percentage point.
(B) In the case of a State which does not meet the requirements of paragraph (2) but meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2) and which also meets the requirements of section 1202(b)(8)(B) of the Social Security Act with respect to such taxable year, the reduction under subsection (c)(2) in credits otherwise applicable to taxpayers in such State for such taxable year and each subsequent year (in a period of consecutive years for each of which a credit reduction is in effect for taxpayers in such State) shall be further reduced by an additional 0.1 percentage point.
(C) In no case shall the application of subparagraphs (A) and (B) reduce the credit reduction otherwise applicable under subsection (c)(2) below the limitation under paragraph (1).
(g) Credit reduction not to apply when State makes certain repayments 

(1) In general 
In the case of any State which meets requirements of paragraph (2) with respect to any taxable year, subsection (c)(2) shall not apply to such taxable year; except that such taxable year (and January 1 of such taxable year) shall (except as provided in subsection (f)(3)) be taken into account for purposes of applying subsection (c)(2) to succeeding taxable years.
(2) Requirements 
The requirements of this paragraph are met by any State with respect to any taxable year if the Secretary of Labor determines that
(A) the repayments during the 1-year period ending on November 9 of such taxable year made by such State of advances under title XII of the Social Security Act are not less than the sum of
(i) the potential additional taxes for such taxable year, and
(ii) any advances made to such State during such 1-year period under such title XII,
(B) there will be sufficient amounts in the State unemployment fund to pay all compensation during the 3-month period beginning on November 1 of such taxable year without receiving any advance under title XII of the Social Security Act, and
(C) there is a net increase in the solvency of the State unemployment compensation system for the taxable year attributable to changes made in the State law after the date on which the first advance taken into account in determining the amount of the potential additional taxes was made (or, if later, after the date of the enactment of this subsection) and such net increase equals or exceeds the potential additional taxes for such taxable year.
(3) Definitions 
For purposes of paragraph (2)
(A) Potential additional taxes 
The term potential additional taxes means, with respect to any State for any taxable year, the aggregate amount of the additional tax which would be payable under this chapter for such taxable year by all taxpayers subject to the unemployment compensation law of such State for such taxable year if paragraph (2) of subsection (c) had applied to such taxable year and any preceding taxable year without regard to this subsection but with regard to subsection (f).
(B) Treatment of certain reductions 
Any reduction in the States balance under section 901(d)(1) of the Social Security Act shall not be treated as a repayment made by such State.
(4) Reports 
The Secretary of Labor may require a State to furnish such information at such time and in such manner as may be necessary for purposes of paragraph (2).

26 USC 3303 - Conditions of additional credit allowance

(a) State standards 
A taxpayer shall be allowed an additional credit under section 3302 (b) with respect to any reduced rate of contributions permitted by a State law, only if the Secretary of Labor finds that under such law
(1) no reduced rate of contributions to a pooled fund or to a partially pooled account is permitted to a person (or group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ except on the basis of his (or their) experience with respect to unemployment or other factors bearing a direct relation to unemployment risk during not less than the 3 consecutive years immediately preceding the computation date;
(2) no reduced rate of contributions to a guaranteed employment account is permitted to a person (or a group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ unless
(A) the guaranty of remuneration was fulfilled in the year preceding the computation date; and
(B) the balance of such account amounts to not less than 21/2 percent of that part of the payroll or payrolls for the 3 years preceding the computation date by which contributions to such account were measured; and
(C) such contributions were payable to such account with respect to 3 years preceding the computation date;
(3) no reduced rate of contributions to a reserve account is permitted to a person (or group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ unless
(A) compensation has been payable from such account throughout the year preceding the computation date, and
(B) the balance of such account amounts to not less than five times the largest amount of compensation paid from such account within any 1 of the 3 years preceding such date, and
(C) the balance of such account amounts to not less than 21/2 percent of that part of the payroll or payrolls for the 3 years preceding such date by which contributions to such account were measured, and
(D) such contributions were payable to such account with respect to the 3 years preceding the computation date.

For any person (or group of persons) who has (or have) not been subject to the State law for a period of time sufficient to compute the reduced rates permitted by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection on a 3year basis

(i)  the period of time required may be reduced to the amount of time the person (or group of persons) has (or have) had experience under or has (or have) been subject to the State law, whichever is appropriate, but in no case less than 1 year immediately preceding the computation date, or
(ii)  a reduced rate (not less than 1 percent) may be permitted by the State law on a reasonable basis other than as permitted by paragraph (1), (2), or (3).
(b) Certification by the Secretary of Labor with respect to additional credit allowance 

(1) On October 31 of each calendar year, the Secretary of Labor shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury the law of each State (certified by the Secretary of Labor as provided in section 3304 for the 12-month period ending on such October 31), with respect to which he finds that reduced rates of contributions were allowable with respect to such 12-month period only in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a).
(2) If the Secretary of Labor finds that under the law of a single State (certified by the Secretary of Labor as provided in section 3304) more than one type of fund or account is maintained, and reduced rates of contributions to more than one type of fund or account were allowable with respect to any 12-month period ending on October 31, and one or more of such reduced rates were allowable under conditions not fulfilling the requirements of subsection (a), the Secretary of Labor shall, on such October 31, certify to the Secretary of the Treasury only those provisions of the State law pursuant to which reduced rates of contributions were allowable with respect to such 12-month period under conditions fulfilling the requirements of subsection (a), and shall, in connection therewith, designate the kind of fund or account, as defined in subsection (c), established by the provisions so certified. If the Secretary of Labor finds that a part of any reduced rate of contributions payable under such law or under such provisions is required to be paid into one fund or account and a part into another fund or account, the Secretary of Labor shall make such certification pursuant to this paragraph as he finds will assure the allowance of additional credits only with respect to that part of the reduced rate of contributions which is allowed under provisions which do fulfill the requirements of subsection (a).
(3) The Secretary of Labor shall, within 30 days after any State law is submitted to him for such purpose, certify to the State agency his findings with respect to reduced rates of contributions to a type of fund or account, as defined in subsection (c), which are allowable under such State law only in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a). After making such findings, the Secretary of Labor shall not withhold his certification to the Secretary of the Treasury of such State law, or of the provisions thereof with respect to which such findings were made, for any 12-month period ending on October 31 pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) unless, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency, the Secretary of Labor finds the State law no longer contains the provisions specified in subsection (a) or the State has, with respect to such 12-month period, failed to comply substantially with any such provision.
(c) Definitions 
As used in this section
(1) Reserve account 
The term reserve account means a separate account in an unemployment fund, maintained with respect to a person (or group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ, from which account, unless such account is exhausted, is paid all and only compensation payable on the basis of services performed for such person (or for one or more of the persons comprising the group).
(2) Pooled fund 
The term pooled fund means an unemployment fund or any part thereof (other than a reserve account or a guaranteed employment account) into which the total contributions of persons contributing thereto are payable, in which all contributions are mingled and undivided, and from which compensation is payable to all individuals eligible for compensation from such fund.
(3) Partially pooled account 
The term partially pooled account means a part of an unemployment fund in which part of the fund all contributions thereto are mingled and undivided, and from which part of the fund compensation is payable only to individuals to whom compensation would be payable from a reserve account or from a guaranteed employment account but for the exhaustion or termination of such reserve account or of such guaranteed employment account. Payments from a reserve account or guaranteed employment account into a partially pooled account shall not be construed to be inconsistent with the provisions of paragraph (1) or (4).
(4) Guaranteed employment account 
The term guaranteed employment account means a separate account, in an unemployment fund, maintained with respect to a person (or group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ who, in accordance with the provisions of the State law or of a plan thereunder approved by the State agency,
(A) guarantees in advance at least 30 hours of work, for which remuneration will be paid at not less than stated rates, for each of 40 weeks (or if more, 1 weekly hour may be deducted for each added week guaranteed) in a year, to all the individuals who are in his (or their) employ in, and who continue to be available for suitable work in, one or more distinct establishments, except that any such individuals guaranty may commence after a probationary period (included within the 11 or less consecutive weeks immediately following the first week in which the individual renders services), and
(B) gives security or assurance, satisfactory to the State agency, for the fulfillment of such guaranties, from which account, unless such account is exhausted or terminated, is paid all and only compensation, payable on the basis of services performed for such person (or for one or more of the persons comprising the group), to any such individual whose guaranteed remuneration has not been paid (either pursuant to the guaranty or from the security or assurance provided for the fulfillment of the guaranty), or whose guaranty is not renewed and who is otherwise eligible for compensation under the State law.
(5) Year 
The term year means any 12 consecutive calendar months.
(6) Balance 
The term balance, with respect to a reserve account or a guaranteed employment account, means the amount standing to the credit of the account as of the computation date; except that, if subsequent to January 1, 1940, any moneys have been paid into or credited to such account other than payments thereto by persons having individuals in their employ, such term shall mean the amount in such account as of the computation date less the total of such other moneys paid into or credited to such account subsequent to January 1, 1940.
(7) Computation date 
The term computation date means the date, occurring at least once in each calendar year and within 27 weeks prior to the effective date of new rates of contributions, as of which such rates are computed.
(8) Reduced rate 
The term reduced rate means a rate of contributions lower than the standard rate applicable under the State law, and the term standard rate means the rate on the basis of which variations therefrom are computed.
(d) Voluntary contributions 
A State law may, without being deemed to violate the standards set forth in subsection (a), permit voluntary contributions to be used in the computation of reduced rates if such contributions are paid prior to the expiration of 120 days after the beginning of the year for which such rates are effective.
(e) Payments by certain nonprofit organizations 
A State may, without being deemed to violate the standards set forth in subsection (a), permit an organization (or a group of organizations) described in section 501 (c)(3) which is exempt from income tax under section 501 (a) to elect (in lieu of paying contributions) to pay into the State unemployment fund amounts equal to the amounts of compensation attributable under the State law to service performed in the employ of such organization (or group).
(f) Transition 
To facilitate the orderly transition to coverage of service to which section 3309 (a)(1)(A) applies, a State law may provide that an organization (or group of organizations) which elects before April 1, 1972, to make payments (in lieu of contributions) into the State unemployment fund as provided in section 3309 (a)(2), and which had paid contributions into such fund under the State law with respect to such service performed in its employ before January 1, 1969, is not required to make any such payment (in lieu of contributions) on account of compensation paid after its election as heretofore described which is attributable under the State law to service performed in its employ, until the total of such compensation equals the amount
(1) by which the contributions paid by such organization (or group) with respect to a period before the election provided by section 3309 (a)(2), exceed
(2) the unemployment compensation for the same period which was charged to the experience-rating account of such organization (or group) or paid under the State law on the basis of wages paid by it or service performed in its employ, whichever is appropriate.
(g) Transitional rule for Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1976 
To facilitate the orderly transition to coverage of service to which section 3309 (a)(1)(A) applies by reason of the enactment of the Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1976, a State law may provide that an organization (or group of organizations) which elects, when such election first becomes available under the State law with respect to such service, to make payments (in lieu of contributions) into the State unemployment fund as provided in section 3309 (a)(2), and which had paid contributions into such fund under the State law with respect to such service performed in its employ before the date of the enactment of this subsection, is not required to make any such payment (in lieu of contributions) on account of compensation paid after its election as heretofore described which is attributable under the State law to such service performed in its employ, until the total of such compensation equals the amount
(1) by which the contributions paid by such organization (or group) on the basis of wages for such service with respect to a period before the election provided by section 3309 (a)(2), exceed
(2) the unemployment compensation for the same period which was charged to the experience-rating account of such organization (or group) or paid under the State law on the basis of such service performed in its employ or wages paid for such service, whichever is appropriate.

26 USC 3304 - Approval of State laws

(a) Requirements 
The Secretary of Labor shall approve any State law submitted to him, within 30 days of such submission, which he finds provides that
(1) all compensation is to be paid through public employment offices or such other agencies as the Secretary of Labor may approve;
(2) no compensation shall be payable with respect to any day of unemployment occurring within 2 years after the first day of the first period with respect to which contributions are required;
(3) all money received in the unemployment fund shall (except for refunds of sums erroneously paid into such fund and except for refunds paid in accordance with the provisions of section 3305 (b)) immediately upon such receipt be paid over to the Secretary of the Treasury to the credit of the Unemployment Trust Fund established by section 904 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1104);
(4) all money withdrawn from the unemployment fund of the State shall be used solely in the payment of unemployment compensation, exclusive of expenses of administration, and for refunds of sums erroneously paid into such fund and refunds paid in accordance with the provisions of section 3305 (b); except that
(A) an amount equal to the amount of employee payments into the unemployment fund of a State may be used in the payment of cash benefits to individuals with respect to their disability, exclusive of expenses of administration;
(B) the amounts specified by section 903 (c)(2) or 903(d)(4) of the Social Security Act may, subject to the conditions prescribed in such section, be used for expenses incurred by the State for administration of its unemployment compensation law and public employment offices;
(C) nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit deducting an amount from unemployment compensation otherwise payable to an individual and using the amount so deducted to pay for health insurance, or the withholding of Federal, State, or local individual income tax, if the individual elected to have such deduction made and such deduction was made under a program approved by the Secretary of Labor;
(D) amounts may be deducted from unemployment benefits and used to repay overpayments as provided in section 303(g) of the Social Security Act;
(E) amounts may be withdrawn for the payment of short-time compensation under a plan approved by the Secretary of Labor; and
(F) amounts may be withdrawn for the payment of allowances under a self-employment assistance program (as defined in section 3306 (t));
(5) compensation shall not be denied in such State to any otherwise eligible individual for refusing to accept new work under any of the following conditions:
(A) if the position offered is vacant due directly to a strike, lockout, or other labor dispute;
(B) if the wages, hours, or other conditions of the work offered are substantially less favorable to the individual than those prevailing for similar work in the locality;
(C) if as a condition of being employed the individual would be required to join a company union or to resign from or refrain from joining any bona fide labor organization;
(6) 
(A) compensation is payable on the basis of service to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies, in the same amount, on the same terms, and subject to the same conditions as compensation payable on the basis of other service subject to such law; except that
(i) with respect to services in an instructional, research, or principal administrative capacity for an educational institution to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies, compensation shall not be payable based on such services for any week commencing during the period between two successive academic years or terms (or, when an agreement provides instead for a similar period between two regular but not successive terms, during such period) to any individual if such individual performs such services in the first of such academic years (or terms) and if there is a contract or reasonable assurance that such individual will perform services in any such capacity for any educational institution in the second of such academic years or terms,
(ii) with respect to services in any other capacity for an educational institution to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies
(I) compensation payable on the basis of such services may be denied to any individual for any week which commences during a period between 2 successive academic years or terms if such individual performs such services in the first of such academic years or terms and there is a reasonable assurance that such individual will perform such services in the second of such academic years or terms, except that
(II) if compensation is denied to any individual for any week under subclause (I) and such individual was not offered an opportunity to perform such services for the educational institution for the second of such academic years or terms, such individual shall be entitled to a retroactive payment of the compensation for each week for which the individual filed a timely claim for compensation and for which compensation was denied solely by reason of subclause (I),
(iii) with respect to any services described in clause (i) or (ii), compensation payable on the basis of such services shall be denied to any individual for any week which commences during an established and customary vacation period or holiday recess if such individual performs such services in the period immediately before such vacation period or holiday recess, and there is a reasonable assurance that such individual will perform such services in the period immediately following such vacation period or holiday recess,
(iv) with respect to any services described in clause (i) or (ii), compensation payable on the basis of services in any such capacity shall be denied as specified in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) to any individual who performed such services in an educational institution while in the employ of an educational service agency, and for this purpose the term educational service agency means a governmental agency or governmental entity which is established and operated exclusively for the purpose of providing such services to one or more educational institutions,
(v) with respect to services to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies, if such services are provided to or on behalf of an educational institution, compensation may be denied under the same circumstances as described in clauses (i) through (iv), and
(vi) with respect to services described in clause (ii), clauses (iii) and (iv) shall be applied by substituting may be denied for shall be denied, and
(B) payments (in lieu of contributions) with respect to service to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies may be made into the State unemployment fund on the basis set forth in section 3309 (a)(2);
(7) an individual who has received compensation during his benefit year is required to have had work since the beginning of such year in order to qualify for compensation in his next benefit year;
(8) compensation shall not be denied to an individual for any week because he is in training with the approval of the State agency (or because of the application, to any such week in training, of State law provisions relating to availability for work, active search for work, or refusal to accept work);
(9) 
(A) compensation shall not be denied or reduced to an individual solely because he files a claim in another State (or a contiguous country with which the United States has an agreement with respect to unemployment compensation) or because he resides in another State (or such a contiguous country) at the time he files a claim for unemployment compensation;
(B) the State shall participate in any arrangements for the payment of compensation on the basis of combining an individuals wages and employment covered under the State law with his wages and employment covered under the unemployment compensation law of other States which are approved by the Secretary of Labor in consultation with the State unemployment compensation agencies as reasonably calculated to assure the prompt and full payment of compensation in such situations. Any such arrangement shall include provisions for
(i)  applying the base period of a single State law to a claim involving the combining of an individuals wages and employment covered under two or more State laws, and
(ii)  avoiding duplicate use of wages and employment by reason of such combining;
(10) compensation shall not be denied to any individual by reason of cancellation of wage credits or total reduction of his benefit rights for any cause other than discharge for misconduct connected with his work, fraud in connection with a claim for compensation, or receipt of disqualifying income;
(11) extended compensation shall be payable as provided by the Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 1970;
(12) no person shall be denied compensation under such State law solely on the basis of pregnancy or termination of pregnancy;
(13) compensation shall not be payable to any individual on the basis of any services, substantially all of which consist of participating in sports or athletic events or training or preparing to so participate, for any week which commences during the period between two successive sport seasons (or similar periods) if such individual performed such services in the first of such seasons (or similar periods) and there is a reasonable assurance that such individual will perform such services in the later of such seasons (or similar periods);
(14) 
(A) compensation shall not be payable on the basis of services performed by an alien unless such alien is an individual who was lawfully admitted for permanent residence at the time such services were performed, was lawfully present for purposes of performing such services, or was permanently residing in the United States under color of law at the time such services were performed (including an alien who was lawfully present in the United States as a result of the application of the provisions of section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act),
(B) any data or information required of individuals applying for compensation to determine whether compensation is not payable to them because of their alien status shall be uniformly required from all applicants for compensation, and
(C) in the case of an individual whose application for compensation would otherwise be approved, no determination by the State agency that compensation to such individual is not payable because of his alien status shall be made except upon a preponderance of the evidence;
(15) the amount of compensation payable to an individual for any week which begins after March 31, 1980, and which begins in a period with respect to which such individual is receiving a governmental or other pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or any other similar periodic payment which is based on the previous work of such individual shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to the amount of such pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or other payment, which is reasonably attributable to such week except that
(A) the requirements of this paragraph shall apply to any pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or other similar periodic payment only if
(i) such pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or similar payment is under a plan maintained (or contributed to) by a base period employer or chargeable employer (as determined under applicable law), and
(ii) in the case of such a payment not made under the Social Security Act or the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 (or the corresponding provisions of prior law), services performed for such employer by the individual after the beginning of the base period (or remuneration for such services) affect eligibility for, or increase the amount of, such pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or similar payment, and
(B) the State law may provide for limitations on the amount of any such a reduction to take into account contributions made by the individual for the pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or other similar periodic payment;
(16) 
(A) wage information contained in the records of the agency administering the State law which is necessary (as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in regulations) for purposes of determining an individuals eligibility for assistance, or the amount of such assistance, under a State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act, shall be made available to a State or political subdivision thereof when such information is specifically requested by such State or political subdivision for such purposes,
(B) wage and unemployment compensation information contained in the records of such agency shall be furnished to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (in accordance with regulations promulgated by such Secretary) as necessary for the purposes of the National Directory of New Hires established under section 453(i) of the Social Security Act, and
(C) such safeguards are established as are necessary (as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in regulations) to insure that information furnished under subparagraph (A) or (B) is used only for the purposes authorized under such subparagraph;
(17) any interest required to be paid on advances under title XII of the Social Security Act shall be paid in a timely manner and shall not be paid, directly or indirectly (by an equivalent reduction in State unemployment taxes or otherwise) by such State from amounts in such States unemployment fund;
(18) Federal individual income tax from unemployment compensation is to be deducted and withheld if an individual receiving such compensation voluntarily requests such deduction and withholding; and
(19) all the rights, privileges, or immunities conferred by such law or by acts done pursuant thereto shall exist subject to the power of the legislature to amend or repeal such law at any time.

Compensation shall not be reduced under paragraph (15) for any pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or similar payment which is not includible in gross income of the individual for the taxable year in which paid because it was part of a rollover distribution.

(b) Notification 
The Secretary of Labor shall, upon approving such law, notify the governor of the State of his approval.
(c) Certification 
On October 31 of each taxable year the Secretary of Labor shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury each State whose law he has previously approved, except that he shall not certify any State which, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency, the Secretary of Labor finds has amended its law so that it no longer contains the provisions specified in subsection (a) or has with respect to the 12-month period ending on such October 31 failed to comply substantially with any such provision in such subsection. No finding of a failure to comply substantially with any provision in paragraph (5) of subsection (a) shall be based on an application or interpretation of State law
(1)  until all administrative review provided for under the laws of the State has been exhausted, or
(2)  with respect to which the time for judicial review provided by the laws of the State has not expired, or
(3)  with respect to which any judicial review is pending. On October 31 of any taxable year, the Secretary of Labor shall not certify any State which, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency, the Secretary of Labor finds has failed to amend its law so that it contains each of the provisions required by law to be included therein (including provisions relating to the Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 1970 (or any amendments thereto) as required under subsection (a)(11)), or has, with respect to the twelve-month period ending on such October 31, failed to comply substantially with any such provision.
(d) Notice of noncertification 
If at any time the Secretary of Labor has reason to believe that a State whose law he has previously approved may not be certified under subsection (c), he shall promptly so notify the governor of such State.
(e) Change of law during 12-month period 
Whenever
(1) any provision of this section, section 3302, or section 3303 refers to a 12-month period ending on October 31 of a year, and
(2) the law applicable to one portion of such period differs from the law applicable to another portion of such period,

then such provision shall be applied by taking into account for each such portion the law applicable to such portion.

(f) Definition of institution of higher education 
For purposes of subsection (a)(6), the term institution of higher education means an educational institution in any State which
(1) admits as regular students only individuals having a certificate of graduation from a high school, or the recognized equivalent of such a certificate;
(2) is legally authorized within such State to provide a program of education beyond high school;
(3) provides an educational program for it which awards a bachelors or higher degree, or provides a program which is acceptable for full credit toward such a degree, or offers a program of training to prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation; and
(4) is a public or other nonprofit institution.

26 USC 3305 - Applicability of State law

(a) Interstate and foreign commerce 
No person required under a State law to make payments to an unemployment fund shall be relieved from compliance therewith on the ground that he is engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, or that the State law does not distinguish between employees engaged in interstate or foreign commerce and those engaged in intrastate commerce.
(b) Federal instrumentalities in general 
The legislature of any State may require any instrumentality of the United States (other than an instrumentality to which section 3306 (c)(6) applies), and the individuals in its employ, to make contributions to an unemployment fund under a State unemployment compensation law approved by the Secretary of Labor under section 3304 and (except as provided in section 5240 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (12 U.S.C., sec. 484), and as modified by subsection (c)), to comply otherwise with such law. The permission granted in this subsection shall apply
(A)  only to the extent that no discrimination is made against such instrumentality, so that if the rate of contribution is uniform upon all other persons subject to such law on account of having individuals in their employ, and upon all employees of such persons, respectively, the contributions required of such instrumentality or the individuals in its employ shall not be at a greater rate than is required of such other persons and such employees, and if the rates are determined separately for different persons or classes of persons having individuals in their employ or for different classes of employees, the determination shall be based solely upon unemployment experience and other factors bearing a direct relation to unemployment risk;
(B)  only if such State law makes provision for the refund of any contributions required under such law from an instrumentality of the United States or its employees for any year in the event such State is not certified by the Secretary of Labor under section 3304 with respect to such year; and
(C)  only if such State law makes provision for the payment of unemployment compensation to any employee of any such instrumentality of the United States in the same amount, on the same terms, and subject to the same conditions as unemployment compensation is payable to employees of other employers under the State unemployment compensation law.
(c) National banks 
Nothing contained in section 5240 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (12 U.S.C. 484), shall prevent any State from requiring any national banking association to render returns and reports relative to the associations employees, their remuneration and services, to the same extent that other persons are required to render like returns and reports under a State law requiring contributions to an unemployment fund. The Comptroller of the Currency shall, upon receipt of a copy of any such return or report of a national banking association from, and upon request of, any duly authorized official, body, or commission of a State, cause an examination of the correctness of such return or report to be made at the time of the next succeeding examination of such association, and shall thereupon transmit to such official, body, or commission a complete statement of his findings respecting the accuracy of such returns or reports.
(d) Federal property 
No person shall be relieved from compliance with a State unemployment compensation law on the ground that services were performed on land or premises owned, held, or possessed by the United States, and any State shall have full jurisdiction and power to enforce the provisions of such law to the same extent and with the same effect as though such place were not owned, held, or possessed by the United States.
[(e) Repealed. Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1212, § 4(c), 68 Stat. 1135] 
(f) American vessels 
The legislature of any State in which a person maintains the operating office, from which the operations of an American vessel operating on navigable waters within or within and without the United States are ordinarily and regularly supervised, managed, directed and controlled, may require such person and the officers and members of the crew of such vessel to make contributions to its unemployment fund under its State unemployment compensation law approved by the Secretary of Labor under section 3304 and otherwise to comply with its unemployment compensation law with respect to the service performed by an officer or member of the crew on or in connection with such vessel to the same extent and with the same effect as though such service was performed entirely within such State. Such person and the officers and members of the crew of such vessel shall not be required to make contributions, with respect to such service, to the unemployment fund of any other State. The permission granted by this subsection is subject to the condition that such service shall be treated, for purposes of wage credits given employees, like other service subject to such State unemployment compensation law performed for such person in such State, and also subject to the same limitation, with respect to contributions required from such person and from the officers and members of the crew of such vessel, as is imposed by the second sentence (other than clause (B) thereof) of subsection (b) with respect to contributions required from instrumentalities of the United States and from individuals in their employ.
(g) Vessels operated by general agents of United States 
The permission granted by subsection (f) shall apply in the same manner and under the same conditions (including the obligation to comply with all requirements of State unemployment compensation laws) to general agents of the Secretary of Commerce with respect to service performed by officers and members of the crew on or in connection with American vessels
(1) owned by or bareboat chartered to the United States, and
(2) whose business is conducted by such general agents.

As to any such vessel, the State permitted to require contributions on account of such service shall be the State to which the general agent would make contributions if the vessel were operated for his own account. Such general agents are designated, for this purpose, instrumentalities of the United States neither wholly nor partially owned by it and shall not be exempt from the tax imposed by section 3301. The permission granted by this subsection is subject to the same conditions and limitations as are imposed in subsection (f), except that clause (B) of the second sentence of subsection (b) shall apply.

(h) Requirement by State of contributions 
Any State may, as to service performed on account of which contributions are made pursuant to subsection (g)
(1) require contributions from persons performing such service under its unemployment compensation law or temporary disability insurance law administered in connection therewith, and
(2) require general agents of the Secretary of Commerce to make contributions under such temporary disability insurance law and to make such deductions from wages or remuneration as are required by such unemployment compensation or temporary disability insurance law.
(i) General agent as legal entity 
Each general agent of the Secretary of Commerce making contributions pursuant to subsection (g) or (h) shall, for purposes of such subsections, be considered a legal entity in his capacity as an instrumentality of the United States, separate and distinct from his identity as a person employing individuals on his own account.
(j) Denial of credits in certain cases 
Any person required, pursuant to the permission granted by this section, to make contributions to an unemployment fund under a State unemployment compensation law approved by the Secretary of Labor under section 3304 shall not be entitled to the credits permitted, with respect to the unemployment compensation law of a State, by subsections (a) and (b) of section 3302 against the tax imposed by section 3301 for any taxable year if, on October 31 of such taxable year, the Secretary of Labor certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury his finding, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency, that the unemployment compensation law of such State is inconsistent with any one or more of the conditions on the basis of which such permission is granted or that, in the application of the State law with respect to the 12-month period ending on such October 31, there has been a substantial failure to comply with any one or more of such conditions. For purposes of section 3310, a finding of the Secretary of Labor under this subsection shall be treated as a finding under section 3304 (c).

26 USC 3306 - Definitions

(a) Employer 
For purposes of this chapter
(1) In general 
The term employer means, with respect to any calendar year, any person who
(A) during any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year paid wages of $1,500 or more, or
(B) on each of some 20 days during the calendar year or during the preceding calendar year, each day being in a different calendar week, employed at least one individual in employment for some portion of the day.

For purposes of this paragraph, there shall not be taken into account any wages paid to, or employment of, an employee performing domestic services referred to in paragraph (3).

(2) Agricultural labor 
In the case of agricultural labor, the term employer means, with respect to any calendar year, any person who
(A) during any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year paid wages of $20,000 or more for agricultural labor, or
(B) on each of some 20 days during the calendar year or during the preceding calendar year, each day being in a different calendar week, employed at least 10 individuals in employment in agricultural labor for some portion of the day.
(3) Domestic service 
In the case of domestic service in a private home, local college club, or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority, the term employer means, with respect to any calendar year, any person who during any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year paid wages in cash of $1,000 or more for such service.
(4) Special rule 
A person treated as an employer under paragraph (3) shall not be treated as an employer with respect to wages paid for any service other than domestic service referred to in paragraph (3) unless such person is treated as an employer under paragraph (1) or (2) with respect to such other service.
(b) Wages 
For purposes of this chapter, the term wages means all remuneration for employment, including the cash value of all remuneration (including benefits) paid in any medium other than cash; except that such term shall not include
(1) that part of the remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) equal to $7,000 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual by an employer during any calendar year, is paid to such individual by such employer during such calendar year. If an employer (hereinafter referred to as successor employer) during any calendar year acquires substantially all the property used in a trade or business of another employer (hereinafter referred to as a predecessor), or used in a separate unit of a trade or business of a predecessor, and immediately after the acquisition employs in his trade or business an individual who immediately prior to the acquisition was employed in the trade or business of such predecessor, then, for the purpose of determining whether the successor employer has paid remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) with respect to employment equal to $7,000 to such individual during such calendar year, any remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) with respect to employment paid (or considered under this paragraph as having been paid) to such individual by such predecessor during such calendar year and prior to such acquisition shall be considered as having been paid by such successor employer;
(2) the amount of any payment (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents under a plan or system established by an employer which makes provision for his employees generally (or for his employees generally and their dependents) or for a class or classes of his employees (or for a class or classes of his employees and their dependents), on account of
(A) sickness or accident disability (but, in the case of payments made to an employee or any of his dependents, this subparagraph shall exclude from the term wages only payments which are received under a workmens compensation law), or
(B) medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, or
(C) death;
[(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 324(b)(3)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 124]
(4) any payment on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, made by an employer to, or on behalf of, an employee after the expiration of 6 calendar months following the last calendar month in which the employee worked for such employer;
(5) any payment made to, or on behalf of, an employee or his beneficiary
(A) from or to a trust described in section 401 (a) which is exempt from tax under section 501 (a) at the time of such payment unless such payment is made to an employee of the trust as remuneration for services rendered as such employee and not as a beneficiary of the trust, or
(B) under or to an annuity plan which, at the time of such payment, is a plan described in section 403 (a),
(C) under a simplified employee pension (as defined in section 408 (k)(1)), other than any contributions described in section 408 (k)(6),
(D) under or to an annuity contract described in section 403 (b), other than a payment for the purchase of such contract which is made by reason of a salary reduction agreement (whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise),
(E) under or to an exempt governmental deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 3121 (v)(3)),
(F) to supplement pension benefits under a plan or trust described in any of the foregoing provisions of this paragraph to take into account some portion or all of the increase in the cost of living (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) since retirement but only if such supplemental payments are under a plan which is treated as a welfare plan under section 3(2)(B)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974;[1]
(G) under a cafeteria plan (within the meaning of section 125) if such payment would not be treated as wages without regard to such plan and it is reasonable to believe that (if section 125 applied for purposes of this section) section 125 would not treat any wages as constructively received, or
(H) under an arrangement to which section 408 (p) applies, other than any elective contributions under paragraph (2)(A)(i) thereof,[2]
(6) the payment by an employer (without deduction from the remuneration of the employee)
(A) of the tax imposed upon an employee under section 3101, or
(B) of any payment required from an employee under a State unemployment compensation law,

with respect to remuneration paid to an employee for domestic service in a private home of the employer or for agricultural labor;

(7) remuneration paid in any medium other than cash to an employee for service not in the course of the employers trade or business;
[(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 324(b)(3)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 124]
(9) remuneration paid to or on behalf of an employee if (and to the extent that) at the time of the payment of such remuneration it is reasonable to believe that a corresponding deduction is allowable under section 217 (determined without regard to section 274 (n));
(10) any payment or series of payments by an employer to an employee or any of his dependents which is paid
(A) upon or after the termination of an employees employment relationship because of
(i)  death, or
(ii)  retirement for disability, and
(B) under a plan established by the employer which makes provision for his employees generally or a class or classes of his employees (or for such employees or class or classes of employees and their dependents),

other than any such payment or series of payments which would have been paid if the employees employment relationship had not been so terminated;

(11) remuneration for agricultural labor paid in any medium other than cash;
(12) any contribution, payment, or service, provided by an employer which may be excluded from the gross income of an employee, his spouse, or his dependents, under the provisions of section 120 (relating to amounts received under qualified group legal services plans);
(13) any payment made, or benefit furnished, to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment or such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment or benefit from income under section 127, 129, 134 (b)(4), or 134 (b)(5);
(14) the value of any meals or lodging furnished by or on behalf of the employer if at the time of such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such items from income under section 119;
(15) any payment made by an employer to a survivor or the estate of a former employee after the calendar year in which such employee died;
(16) any benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee if at the time such benefit is provided it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such benefit from income under section 74 (c), 108 (f)(4), 117, or 132;
(17) any payment made to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment from income under section 106 (b);
(18) any payment made to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment from income under section 106 (d); or
(19) remuneration on account of
(A) a transfer of a share of stock to any individual pursuant to an exercise of an incentive stock option (as defined in section 422 (b)) or under an employee stock purchase plan (as defined in section 423 (b)), or
(B) any disposition by the individual of such stock.

Except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any third party which makes a payment included in wages solely by reason of the parenthetical matter contained in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) shall be treated for purposes of this chapter and chapter 22 as the employer with respect to such wages. Nothing in the regulations prescribed for purposes of chapter 24 (relating to income tax withholding) which provides an exclusion from wages as used in such chapter shall be construed to require a similar exclusion from wages in the regulations prescribed for purposes of this chapter.

(c) Employment 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employment means any service performed prior to 1955, which was employment for purposes of subchapter C of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 under the law applicable to the period in which such service was performed, and
(A)  any service, of whatever nature, performed after 1954 by an employee for the person employing him, irrespective of the citizenship or residence of either,
(i)  within the United States, or
(ii)  on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft under a contract of service which is entered into within the United States or during the performance of which and while the employee is employed on the vessel or aircraft it touches at a port in the United States, if the employee is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States, and
(B)  any service, of whatever nature, performed after 1971 outside the United States (except in a contiguous country with which the United States has an agreement relating to unemployment compensation) by a citizen of the United States as an employee of an American employer (as defined in subsection (j)(3)), except
(1) agricultural labor (as defined in subsection (k)) unless
(A) such labor is performed for a person who
(i) during any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year paid remuneration in cash of $20,000 or more to individuals employed in agricultural labor (including labor performed by an alien referred to in subparagraph (B)), or
(ii) on each of some 20 days during the calendar year or the preceding calendar year, each day being in a different calendar week, employed in agricultural labor (including labor performed by an alien referred to in subparagraph (B)) for some portion of the day (whether or not at the same moment of time) 10 or more individuals; and
(B) such labor is not agricultural labor performed by an individual who is an alien admitted to the United States to perform agricultural labor pursuant to sections 214(c) and 101(a)(15)(H) of the Immigration and Nationality Act;
(2) domestic service in a private home, local college club, or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority unless performed for a person who paid cash remuneration of $1,000 or more to individuals employed in such domestic service in any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year;
(3) service not in the course of the employers trade or business performed in any calendar quarter by an employee, unless the cash remuneration paid for such service is $50 or more and such service is performed by an individual who is regularly employed by such employer to perform such service. For purposes of this paragraph, an individual shall be deemed to be regularly employed by an employer during a calendar quarter only if
(A) on each of some 24 days during such quarter such individual performs for such employer for some portion of the day service not in the course of the employers trade or business, or
(B) such individual was regularly employed (as determined under subparagraph (A)) by such employer in the performance of such service during the preceding calendar quarter;
(4) service performed on or in connection with a vessel or aircraft not an American vessel or American aircraft, if the employee is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States;
(5) service performed by an individual in the employ of his son, daughter, or spouse, and service performed by a child under the age of 21 in the employ of his father or mother;
(6) service performed in the employ of the United States Government or of an instrumentality of the United States which is
(A) wholly or partially owned by the United States, or
(B) exempt from the tax imposed by section 3301 by virtue of any provision of law which specifically refers to such section (or the corresponding section of prior law) in granting such exemption;
(7) service performed in the employ of a State, or any political subdivision thereof, or in the employ of an Indian tribe, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned by one or more States or political subdivisions or Indian tribes; and any service performed in the employ of any instrumentality of one or more States or political subdivisions to the extent that the instrumentality is, with respect to such service, immune under the Constitution of the United States from the tax imposed by section 3301;
(8) service performed in the employ of a religious, charitable, educational, or other organization described in section 501 (c)(3) which is exempt from income tax under section 501 (a);
(9) service performed by an individual as an employee or employee representative as defined in section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act (45 U.S.C. 351);
(10) 
(A) service performed in any calendar quarter in the employ of any organization exempt from income tax under section 501 (a) (other than an organization described in section 401 (a)) or under section 521, if the remuneration for such service is less than $50, or
(B) service performed in the employ of a school, college, or university, if such service is performed
(i)  by a student who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes at such school, college, or university, or
(ii)  by the spouse of such a student, if such spouse is advised, at the time such spouse commences to perform such service, that
(I)  the employment of such spouse to perform such service is provided under a program to provide financial assistance to such student by such school, college, or university, and
(II)  such employment will not be covered by any program of unemployment insurance, or
(C) service performed by an individual who is enrolled at a nonprofit or public educational institution which normally maintains a regular faculty and curriculum and normally has a regularly organized body of students in attendance at the place where its educational activities are carried on as a student in a full-time program, taken for credit at such institution, which combines academic instruction with work experience, if such service is an integral part of such program, and such institution has so certified to the employer, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to service performed in a program established for or on behalf of an employer or group of employers, or
(D) service performed in the employ of a hospital, if such service is performed by a patient of such hospital;
(11) service performed in the employ of a foreign government (including service as a consular or other officer or employee or a nondiplomatic representative);
(12) service performed in the employ of an instrumentality wholly owned by a foreign government
(A) if the service is of a character similar to that performed in foreign countries by employees of the United States Government or of an instrumentality thereof; and
(B) if the Secretary of State shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury that the foreign government, with respect to whose instrumentality exemption is claimed, grants an equivalent exemption with respect to similar service performed in the foreign country by employees of the United States Government and of instrumentalities thereof;
(13) service performed as a student nurse in the employ of a hospital or a nurses training school by an individual who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes in a nurses training school chartered or approved pursuant to State law; and service performed as an intern in the employ of a hospital by an individual who has completed a 4 years course in a medical school chartered or approved pursuant to State law;
(14) service performed by an individual for a person as an insurance agent or as an insurance solicitor, if all such service performed by such individual for such person is performed for remuneration solely by way of commission;
(15) 
(A) service performed by an individual under the age of 18 in the delivery or distribution of newspapers or shopping news, not including delivery or distribution to any point for subsequent delivery or distribution;
(B) service performed by an individual in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers, under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such service, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back;
(16) service performed in the employ of an international organization;
(17) service performed by an individual in (or as an officer or member of the crew of a vessel while it is engaged in) the catching, taking, harvesting, cultivating, or farming of any kind of fish, shellfish, crustacea, sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life (including service performed by any such individual as an ordinary incident to any such activity), except
(A) service performed in connection with the catching or taking of salmon or halibut, for commercial purposes, and
(B) service performed on or in connection with a vessel of more than 10 net tons (determined in the manner provided for determining the register tonnage of merchant vessels under the laws of the United States);
(18) service described in section 3121 (b)(20);
(19) Service[3] which is performed by a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(15)(F), (J), (M), or (Q)), and which is performed to carry out the purpose specified in subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q), as the case may be;
(20) service performed by a full time student (as defined in subsection (q)) in the employ of an organized camp
(A) if such camp
(i) did not operate for more than 7 months in the calendar year and did not operate for more than 7 months in the preceding calendar year, or
(ii) had average gross receipts for any 6 months in the preceding calendar year which were not more than 331/3 percent of its average gross receipts for the other 6 months in the preceding calendar year; and
(B) if such full time student performed services in the employ of such camp for less than 13 calendar weeks in such calendar year; or
(21) service performed by a person committed to a penal institution.
(d) Included and excluded service 
For purposes of this chapter, if the services performed during one-half or more of any pay period by an employee for the person employing him constitute employment, all the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment; but if the services performed during more than one-half of any such pay period by an employee for the person employing him do not constitute employment, then none of the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment. As used in this subsection, the term pay period means a period (of not more than 31 consecutive days) for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by the person employing him. This subsection shall not be applicable with respect to services performed in a pay period by an employee for the person employing him, where any of such service is excepted by subsection (c)(9).
(e) State agency 
For purposes of this chapter, the term State agency means any State officer, board, or other authority, designated under a State law to administer the unemployment fund in such State.
(f) Unemployment fund 
For purposes of this chapter, the term unemployment fund means a special fund, established under a State law and administered by a State agency, for the payment of compensation. Any sums standing to the account of the State agency in the Unemployment Trust Fund established by section 904 of the Social Security Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1104), shall be deemed to be a part of the unemployment fund of the State, and no sums paid out of the Unemployment Trust Fund to such State agency shall cease to be a part of the unemployment fund of the State until expended by such State agency. An unemployment fund shall be deemed to be maintained during a taxable year only if throughout such year, or such portion of the year as the unemployment fund was in existence, no part of the moneys of such fund was expended for any purpose other than the payment of compensation (exclusive of expenses of administration) and for refunds of sums erroneously paid into such fund and refunds paid in accordance with the provisions of section 3305 (b); except that
(1) an amount equal to the amount of employee payments into the unemployment fund of a State may be used in the payment of cash benefits to individuals with respect to their disability, exclusive of expenses of administration;
(2) the amounts specified by section 903(c)(2) or 903(d)(4) of the Social Security Act may, subject to the conditions prescribed in such section, be used for expenses incurred by the State for administration of its unemployment compensation law and public employment offices,[4]
(3) nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit deducting any amount from unemployment compensation otherwise payable to an individual and using the amount so deducted to pay for health insurance, or the withholding of Federal, State, or local individual income tax, if the individual elected to have such deduction made and such deduction was made under a program approved by the Secretary of Labor;
(4) amounts may be deducted from unemployment benefits and used to repay overpayments as provided in section 303(g) of the Social Security Act;
(5) [5] amounts may be withdrawn for the payment of short-time compensation under a plan approved by the Secretary of Labor; and
(5) [5] amounts may be withdrawn for the payment of allowances under a self-employment assistance program (as defined in subsection (t)).
(g) Contributions 
For purposes of this chapter, the term contributions means payments required by a State law to be made into an unemployment fund by any person on account of having individuals in his employ, to the extent that such payments are made by him without being deducted or deductible from the remuneration of individuals in his employ.
(h) Compensation 
For purposes of this chapter, the term compensation means cash benefits payable to individuals with respect to their unemployment.
(i) Employee 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employee has the meaning assigned to such term by section 3121 (d), except that paragraph (4) and subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3) shall not apply.
(j) State, United States, and American employer 
For purposes of this chapter
(1) State 
The term State includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
(2) United States 
The term United States when used in a geographical sense includes the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
(3) American employer 
The term American employer means a person who is
(A) an individual who is a resident of the United States,
(B) a partnership, if two-thirds or more of the partners are residents of the United States,
(C) a trust, if all of the trustees are residents of the United States, or
(D) a corporation organized under the laws of the United States or of any State.

An individual who is a citizen of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands (but not otherwise a citizen of the United States) shall be considered, for purposes of this section, as a citizen of the United States.

(k) Agricultural labor 
For purposes of this chapter, the term agricultural labor has the meaning assigned to such term by subsection (g) of section 3121, except that for purposes of this chapter subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4) of such subsection (g) shall be treated as reading: (B) in the employ of a group of operators of farms (or a cooperative organization of which such operators are members) in the performance of service described in subparagraph (A), but only if such operators produced more than one-half of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed;.
[(l) Repealed. Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1212, § 4(c), 68 Stat. 1135] 
(m) American vessel and aircraft 
For purposes of this chapter, the term American vessel means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States; and includes any vessel which is neither documented or numbered under the laws of the United States nor documented under the laws of any foreign country, if its crew is employed solely by one or more citizens or residents of the United States or corporations organized under the laws of the United States or of any State; and the term American aircraft means an aircraft registered under the laws of the United States.
(n) Vessels operated by general agents of United States 
Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (c)(6), service performed by officers and members of the crew of a vessel which would otherwise be included as employment under subsection (c) shall not be excluded by reason of the fact that it is performed on or in connection with an American vessel
(1) owned by or bareboat chartered to the United States and
(2) whose business is conducted by a general agent of the Secretary of Commerce.

For purposes of this chapter, each such general agent shall be considered a legal entity in his capacity as such general agent, separate and distinct from his identity as a person employing individuals on his own account, and the officers and members of the crew of such an American vessel whose business is conducted by a general agent of the Secretary of Commerce shall be deemed to be performing services for such general agent rather than the United States. Each such general agent who in his capacity as such is an employer within the meaning of subsection (a) shall be subject to all the requirements imposed upon an employer under this chapter with respect to service which constitutes employment by reason of this subsection.

(o) Special rule in case of certain agricultural workers 

(1) Crew leaders who are registered or provide specialized agricultural labor 
For purposes of this chapter, any individual who is a member of a crew furnished by a crew leader to perform agricultural labor for any other person shall be treated as an employee of such crew leader
(A) if
(i) such crew leader holds a valid certificate of registration under the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act; or
(ii) substantially all the members of such crew operate or maintain tractors, mechanized harvesting or crop-dusting equipment, or any other mechanized equipment, which is provided by such crew leader; and
(B) if such individual is not an employee of such other person within the meaning of subsection (i).
(2) Other crew leaders 
For purposes of this chapter, in the case of any individual who is furnished by a crew leader to perform agricultural labor for any other person and who is not treated as an employee of such crew leader under paragraph (1)
(A) such other person and not the crew leader shall be treated as the employer of such individual; and
(B) such other person shall be treated as having paid cash remuneration to such individual in an amount equal to the amount of cash remuneration paid to such individual by the crew leader (either on his behalf or on behalf of such other person) for the agricultural labor performed for such other person.
(3) Crew leader 
For purposes of this subsection, the term crew leader means an individual who
(A) furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor for any other person,
(B) pays (either on his behalf or on behalf of such other person) the individuals so furnished by him for the agricultural labor performed by them, and
(C) has not entered into a written agreement with such other person under which such individual is designated as an employee of such other person.
(p) Concurrent employment by two or more em­ployers 
For purposes of sections 3301, 3302, and 3306 (b)(1), if two or more related corporations concurrently employ the same individual and compensate such individual through a common paymaster which is one of such corporations, each such corporation shall be considered to have paid as remuneration to such individual only the amounts actually disbursed by it to such individual and shall not be considered to have paid as remuneration to such individual amounts actually disbursed to such individual by another of such corporations.
(q) Full time student 
For purposes of subsection (c)(20), an individual shall be treated as a full time student for any period
(1) during which the individual is enrolled as a full time student at an educational institution, or
(2) which is between academic years or terms if
(A) the individual was enrolled as a full time student at an educational institution for the immediately preceding academic year or term, and
(B) there is a reasonable assurance that the individual will be so enrolled for the immediately succeeding academic year or term after the period described in subparagraph (A).
(r) Treatment of certain deferred compensation and salary reduction arrangements 

(1) Certain employer contributions treated as wages 
Nothing in any paragraph of subsection (b) (other than paragraph (1)) shall exclude from the term wages
(A) any employer contribution under a qualified cash or deferred arrangement (as defined in section 401 (k)) to the extent not included in gross income by reason of section 402 (e)(3), or
(B) any amount treated as an employer contribution under section 414 (h)(2) where the pickup referred to in such section is pursuant to a salary reduction agreement (whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise).
(2) Treatment of certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans 

(A) In general 
Any amount deferred under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan shall be taken into account for purposes of this chapter as of the later of
(i) when the services are performed, or
(ii) when there is no substantial risk of forfeiture of the rights to such amount.
(B) Taxed only once 
Any amount taken into account as wages by reason of subparagraph (A) (and the income attributable thereto) shall not thereafter be treated as wages for purposes of this chapter.
(C) Nonqualified deferred compensation plan 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term nonqualified deferred compensation plan means any plan or other arrangement for deferral of compensation other than a plan described in subsection (b)(5).
(s) Tips treated as wages 
For purposes of this chapter, the term wages includes tips which are
(1) received while performing services which constitute employment, and
(2) included in a written statement furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a).
(t) Self-employment assistance program 
For the purposes of this chapter, the term self-employment assistance program means a program under which
(1) individuals who meet the requirements described in paragraph (3) are eligible to receive an allowance in lieu of regular unemployment compensation under the State law for the purpose of assisting such individuals in establishing a business and becoming self-employed;
(2) the allowance payable to individuals pursuant to paragraph (1) is payable in the same amount, at the same interval, on the same terms, and subject to the same conditions, as regular unemployment compensation under the State law, except that
(A) State requirements relating to availability for work, active search for work, and refusal to accept work are not applicable to such individuals;
(B) State requirements relating to disqualifying income are not applicable to income earned from self-employment by such individuals; and
(C) such individuals are considered to be unemployed for the purposes of Federal and State laws applicable to unemployment compensation,

as long as such individuals meet the requirements applicable under this subsection;

(3) individuals may receive the allowance described in paragraph (1) if such individuals
(A) are eligible to receive regular unemployment compensation under the State law, or would be eligible to receive such compensation except for the requirements described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2);
(B) are identified pursuant to a State worker profiling system as individuals likely to exhaust regular unemployment compensation; and
(C) are participating in self-employment assistance activities which
(i) include entrepreneurial training, business counseling, and technical assistance; and
(ii) are approved by the State agency; and
(D) are actively engaged on a full-time basis in activities (which may include training) relating to the establishment of a business and becoming self-employed;
(4) the aggregate number of individuals receiving the allowance under the program does not at any time exceed 5 percent of the number of individuals receiving regular unemployment compensation under the State law at such time;
(5) the program does not result in any cost to the Unemployment Trust Fund (established by section 904(a) of the Social Security Act) in excess of the cost that would be incurred by such State and charged to such Fund if the State had not participated in such program; and
(6) the program meets such other requirements as the Secretary of Labor determines to be appropriate.
(u) Indian tribe 
For purposes of this chapter, the term Indian tribe has the meaning given to such term by section 4(e) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b (e)), and includes any subdivision, subsidiary, or business enterprise wholly owned by such an Indian tribe.
[1] So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
[2] So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.
[3] So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.
[4] So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.
[5] So in original. Two pars. (5) have been enacted.

26 USC 3307 - Deductions as constructive payments

Whenever under this chapter or any act of Congress, or under the law of any State, an employer is required or permitted to deduct any amount from the remuneration of an employee and to pay the amount deducted to the United States, a State, or any political subdivision thereof, then for purposes of this chapter the amount so deducted shall be considered to have been paid to the employee at the time of such deduction.

26 USC 3308 - Instrumentalities of the United States

Notwithstanding any other provision of law (whether enacted before or after the enactment of this section) which grants to any instrumentality of the United States an exemption from taxation, such instrumentality shall not be exempt from the tax imposed by section 3301 unless such other provision of law grants a specific exemption, by reference to section 3301 (or the corresponding section of prior law), from the tax imposed by such section.

26 USC 3309 - State law coverage of services performed for nonprofit organizations or governmental entities

(a) State law requirements 
For purposes of section 3304 (a)(6)
(1) except as otherwise provided in subsections (b) and (c), the services to which this paragraph applies are
(A) service excluded from the term employment solely by reason of paragraph (8) of section 3306 (c), and
(B) service excluded from the term employment solely by reason of paragraph (7) of section 3306 (c); and
(2) the State law shall provide that a governmental entity, including an Indian tribe, or any other organization (or group of governmental entities or other organizations) which, but for the requirements of this paragraph, would be liable for contributions with respect to service to which paragraph (1) applies may elect, for such minimum period and at such time as may be provided by State law, to pay (in lieu of such contributions) into the State unemployment fund amounts equal to the amounts of compensation attributable under the State law to such service. The State law may provide safeguards to ensure that governmental entities or other organizations so electing will make the payments required under such elections.
(b) Section not to apply to certain service 
This section shall not apply to service performed
(1) in the employ of
(A)  a church or convention or association of churches,
(B)  an organization which is operated primarily for religious purposes and which is operated, supervised, controlled, or principally supported by a church or convention or association of churches, or
(C)  an elementary or secondary school which is operated primarily for religious purposes, which is described in section 501 (c)(3), and which is exempt from tax under section 501 (a);
(2) by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order;
(3) in the employ of a governmental entity referred to in paragraph (7) of section 3306 (c), if such service is performed by an individual in the exercise of his duties
(A) as an elected official;
(B) as a member of a legislative body, or a member of the judiciary, of a State or political subdivision thereof, or of an Indian tribe;
(C) as a member of the State National Guard or Air National Guard;
(D) as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood, or similar emergency;
(E) in a position which, under or pursuant to the State or tribal law, is designated as
(i)  a major nontenured policymaking or advisory position, or
(ii)  a policymaking or advisory position the performance of the duties of which ordinarily does not require more than 8 hours per week; or
(F) as an election official or election worker if the amount of remuneration received by the individual during the calendar year for services as an election official or election worker is less than $1,000;
(4) in a facility conducted for the purpose of carrying out a program of
(A) rehabilitation for individuals whose earning capacity is impaired by age or physical or mental deficiency or injury, or
(B) providing remunerative work for individuals who because of their impaired physical or mental capacity cannot be readily absorbed in the competitive labor market,

by an individual receiving such rehabilitation or remunerative work;

(5) as part of an unemployment work-relief or work-training program assisted or financed in whole or in part by any Federal agency or an agency of a State or political subdivision thereof or of an Indian tribe, by an individual receiving such work relief or work training; and
(6) by an inmate of a custodial or penal institution.
(c) Nonprofit organizations must employ 4 or more 
This section shall not apply to service performed during any calendar year in the employ of any organization unless on each of some 20 days during such calendar year or the preceding calendar year, each day being in a different calendar week, the total number of individuals who were employed by such organization in employment (determined without regard to section 3306 (c)(8) and by excluding service to which this section does not apply by reason of subsection (b)) for some portion of the day (whether or not at the same moment of time) was 4 or more.
(d) Election by Indian tribe 
The State law shall provide that an Indian tribe may make contributions for employment as if the employment is within the meaning of section 3306 or make payments in lieu of contributions under this section, and shall provide that an Indian tribe may make separate elections for itself and each subdivision, subsidiary, or business enterprise wholly owned by such Indian tribe. State law may require a tribe to post a payment bond or take other reasonable measures to assure the making of payments in lieu of contributions under this section. Notwithstanding the requirements of section 3306 (a)(6), if, within 90 days of having received a notice of delinquency, a tribe fails to make contributions, payments in lieu of contributions, or payment of penalties or interest (at amounts or rates comparable to those applied to all other employers covered under the State law) assessed with respect to such failure, or if the tribe fails to post a required payment bond, then service for the tribe shall not be excepted from employment under section 3306 (c)(7) until any such failure is corrected. This subsection shall apply to an Indian tribe within the meaning of section 4(e) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b (e)).

26 USC 3310 - Judicial review

(a) In general 
Whenever under section 3303 (b) or section 3304 (c) the Secretary of Labor makes a finding pursuant to which he is required to withhold a certification with respect to a State under such section, such State may, within 60 days after the Governor of the State has been notified of such action, file with the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which such State is located or with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, a petition for review of such action. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary of Labor. The Secretary of Labor thereupon shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which he based his action as provided in section 2112 of title 28 of the United States Code.
(b) Findings of fact 
The findings of fact by the Secretary of Labor, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive; but the court, for good cause shown, may remand the case to the Secretary of Labor to take further evidence, and the Secretary of Labor may thereupon make new or modified findings of fact and may modify his previous action, and shall certify to the court the record of the further proceedings. Such new or modified findings of fact shall likewise be conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.
(c) Jurisdiction of court; review 
The court shall have jurisdiction to affirm the action of the Secretary of Labor or to set it aside, in whole or in part. The judgment of the court shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28 of the United States Code.
(d) Stay of Secretary of Labor’s action 

(1) The Secretary of Labor shall not withhold any certification under section 3303 (b) or section 3304 (c) until the expiration of 60 days after the Governor of the State has been notified of the action referred to in subsection (a) or until the State has filed a petition for review of such action, whichever is earlier.
(2) The commencement of judicial proceedings under this section shall stay the Secretary of Labors action for a period of 30 days, and the court may thereafter grant interim relief if warranted, including a further stay of the Secretary of Labors action and including such other relief as may be necessary to preserve status or rights.

26 USC 3311 - Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Federal Unemployment Tax Act.