Subtitle C - Employment Taxes

TITLE 26 - US CODE - CHAPTER 21 - FEDERAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTIONS ACT

Subchapter A - Tax on Employees

26 USC 3101 - Rate of tax

(a) Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance 
In addition to other taxes, there is hereby imposed on the income of every individual a tax equal to the following percentages of the wages (as defined in section 3121 (a)) received by him with respect to employment (as defined in section 3121 (b))
(b) Hospital insurance 
In addition to the tax imposed by the preceding subsection, there is hereby imposed on the income of every individual a tax equal to the following percentages of the wages (as defined in section 3121 (a)) received by him with respect to employment (as defined in section 3121 (b))
(1) with respect to wages received during the calendar years 1974 through 1977, the rate shall be 0.90 percent;
(2) with respect to wages received during the calendar year 1978, the rate shall be 1.00 percent;

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(3) with respect to wages received during the calendar years 1979 and 1980, the rate shall be 1.05 percent;
(4) with respect to wages received during the calendar years 1981 through 1984, the rate shall be 1.30 percent;
(5) with respect to wages received during the calendar year 1985, the rate shall be 1.35 percent; and
(6) with respect to wages received after December 31, 1985, the rate shall be 1.45 percent.
(c) Relief from taxes in cases covered by certain international agreements 
During any period in which there is in effect an agreement entered into pursuant to section 233 of the Social Security Act with any foreign country, wages received by or paid to an individual shall be exempt from the taxes imposed by this section to the extent that such wages are subject under such agreement exclusively to the laws applicable to the social security system of such foreign country.

26 USC 3102 - Deduction of tax from wages

(a) Requirement 
The tax imposed by section 3101 shall be collected by the employer of the taxpayer, by deducting the amount of the tax from the wages as and when paid. An employer who in any calendar year pays to an employee cash remuneration to which paragraph (7)(B) of section 3121 (a) is applicable may deduct an amount equivalent to such tax from any such payment of remuneration, even though at the time of payment the total amount of such remuneration paid to the employee by the employer in the calendar year is less than the applicable dollar threshold (as defined in section 3121 (x)) for such year; and an employer who in any calendar year pays to an employee cash remuneration to which paragraph (7)(C) or (10) of section 3121 (a) is applicable may deduct an amount equivalent to such tax from any such payment of remuneration, even though at the time of payment the total amount of such remuneration paid to the employee by the employer in the calendar year is less than $100; and an employer who in any calendar year pays to an employee cash remuneration to which paragraph (8)(B) of section 3121 (a) is applicable may deduct an amount equivalent to such tax from any such payment of remuneration, even though at the time of payment the total amount of such remuneration paid to the employee by the employer in the calendar year is less than $150; and an employer who is furnished by an employee a written statement of tips (received in a calendar month) pursuant to section 6053 (a) to which paragraph (12)(B) of section 3121 (a) is applicable may deduct an amount equivalent to such tax with respect to such tips from any wages of the employee (exclusive of tips) under his control, even though at the time such statement is furnished the total amount of the tips included in statements furnished to the employer as having been received by the employee in such calendar month in the course of his employment by such employer is less than $20.
(b) Indemnification of employer 
Every employer required so to deduct the tax shall be liable for the payment of such tax, and shall be indemnified against the claims and demands of any person for the amount of any such payment made by such employer.
(c) Special rule for tips 

(1) In the case of tips which constitute wages, subsection (a) shall be applicable only to such tips as are included in a written statement furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a), and only to the extent that collection can be made by the employer, at or after the time such statement is so furnished and before the close of the 10th day following the calendar month (or, if paragraph (3) applies, the 30th day following the year) in which the tips were deemed paid, by deducting the amount of the tax from such wages of the employee (excluding tips, but including funds turned over by the employee to the employer pursuant to paragraph (2)) as are under control of the employer.
(2) If the tax imposed by section 3101, with respect to tips which are included in written statements furnished in any month to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a), exceeds the wages of the employee (excluding tips) from which the employer is required to collect the tax under paragraph (1), the employee may furnish to the employer on or before the 10th day of the following month (or, if paragraph (3) applies, on or before the 30th day of the following year) an amount of money equal to the amount of the excess.
(3) The Secretary may, under regulations prescribed by him, authorize employers
(A) to estimate the amount of tips that will be reported by the employee pursuant to section 6053 (a) in any calendar year,
(B) to determine the amount to be deducted upon each payment of wages (exclusive of tips) during such year as if the tips so estimated constituted the actual tips so reported, and
(C) to deduct upon any payment of wages (other than tips, but including funds turned over by the employee to the employer pursuant to paragraph (2)) to such employee during such year (and within 30 days thereafter) such amount as may be necessary to adjust the amount actually deducted upon such wages of the employee during the year to the amount required to be deducted in respect of tips included in written statements furnished to the employer during the year.
(4) If the tax imposed by section 3101 with respect to tips which constitute wages exceeds the portion of such tax which can be collected by the employer from the wages of the employee pursuant to paragraph (1) or paragraph (3), such excess shall be paid by the employee.
(d) Special rule for certain taxable group-term life insurance benefits 

(1) In general 
In the case of any payment for group-term life insurance to which this subsection applies
(A) subsection (a) shall not apply,
(B) the employer shall separately include on the statement required under section 6051
(i) the portion of the wages which consists of payments for group-term life insurance to which this subsection applies, and
(ii) the amount of the tax imposed by section 3101 on such payments, and
(C) the tax imposed by section 3101 on such payments shall be paid by the employee.
(2) Benefits to which subsection applies 
This subsection shall apply to any payment for group-term life insurance to the extent
(A) such payment constitutes wages, and
(B) such payment is for coverage for periods during which an employment relationship no longer exists between the employee and the employer.
(e) Special rule for certain transferred Federal employees 
In the case of any payments of wages for service performed in the employ of an international organization pursuant to a transfer to which the provisions of section 3121 (y) are applicable
(1) subsection (a) shall not apply,
(2) the head of the Federal agency from which the transfer was made shall separately include on the statement required under section 6051
(A) the amount determined to be the amount of the wages for such service, and
(B) the amount of the tax imposed by section 3101 on such payments, and
(3) the tax imposed by section 3101 on such payments shall be paid by the employee.

Subchapter B - Tax on Employers

26 USC 3111 - Rate of tax

(a) Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance 
In addition to other taxes, there is hereby imposed on every employer an excise tax, with respect to having individuals in his employ, equal to the following percentages of the wages (as defined in section 3121 (a)) paid by him with respect to employment (as defined in section 3121 (b))
(b) Hospital insurance 
In addition to the tax imposed by the preceding subsection, there is hereby imposed on every employer an excise tax, with respect to having individuals in his employ, equal to the following percentages of the wages (as defined in section 3121 (a)) paid by him with respect to employment (as defined in section 3121 (b))
(1) with respect to wages paid during the calendar years 1974 through 1977, the rate shall be 0.90 percent;
(2) with respect to wages paid during the calendar year 1978, the rate shall be 1.00 percent;
(3) with respect to wages paid during the calendar years 1979 and 1980, the rate shall be 1.05 percent;
(4) with respect to wages paid during the calendar years 1981 through 1984, the rate shall be 1.30 percent;
(5) with respect to wages paid during the calendar year 1985, the rate shall be 1.35 percent; and
(6) with respect to wages paid after December 31, 1985, the rate shall be 1.45 percent.
(c) Relief from taxes in cases covered by certain international agreements 
During any period in which there is in effect an agreement entered into pursuant to section 233 of the Social Security Act with any foreign country, wages received by or paid to an individual shall be exempt from the taxes imposed by this section to the extent that such wages are subject under such agreement exclusively to the laws applicable to the social security system of such foreign country.

26 USC 3112 - Instrumentalities of the United States

Notwithstanding any other provision of law (whether enacted before or after the enactment of this section) which grants to any instrumentality of the United States an exemption from taxation, such instrumentality shall not be exempt from the tax imposed by section 3111 unless such other provision of law grants a specific exemption, by reference to section 3111 (or the corresponding section of prior law), from the tax imposed by such section.

26 USC 3113 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94455, title XIX, 1903(a)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1806]

Section, added Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title II, 201(a)(1), 70 Stat. 839, related to a restriction on exemptions from taxation for District of Columbia credit unions with respect to the tax imposed by section 3111 of this title.

Subchapter C - General Provisions

26 USC 3121 - Definitions

(a) Wages 
For purposes of this chapter, the term wages means all remuneration for employment, including the cash value of all remuneration (including benefits) paid in any medium other than cash; except that such term shall not include
(1) in the case of the taxes imposed by sections 3101 (a) and 3111 (a) that part of the remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) equal to the contribution and benefit base (as determined under section 230 of the Social Security Act) with respect to employment has been paid to an individual by an employer during the calendar year with respect to which such contribution and benefit base is effective, is paid to such individual by such employer during such calendar year. If an employer (hereinafter referred to as successor employer) during any calendar year acquires substantially all the property used in a trade or business of another employer (hereinafter referred to as a predecessor), or used in a separate unit of a trade or business of a predecessor, and immediately after the acquisition employs in his trade or business an individual who immediately prior to the acquisition was employed in the trade or business of such predecessor, then, for the purpose of determining whether the successor employer has paid remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) with respect to employment equal to the contribution and benefit base (as determined under section 230 of the Social Security Act) to such individual during such calendar year, any remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) with respect to employment paid (or considered under this paragraph as having been paid) to such individual by such predecessor during such calendar year and prior to such acquisition shall be considered as having been paid by such successor employer;
(2) the amount of any payment (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents under a plan or system established by an employer which makes provision for his employees generally (or for his employees generally and their dependents) or for a class or classes of his employees (or for a class or classes of his employees and their dependents), on account of
(A) sickness or accident disability (but, in the case of payments made to an employee or any of his dependents, this subparagraph shall exclude from the term wages only payments which are received under a workmans compensation law), or
(B) medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, or
(C) death, except that this paragraph does not apply to a payment for group-term life insurance to the extent that such payment is includible in the gross income of the employee;
[(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 324(a)(3)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 123]
(4) any payment on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, made by an employer to, or on behalf of, an employee after the expiration of 6 calendar months following the last calendar month in which the employee worked for such employer;
(5) any payment made to, or on behalf of, an employee or his beneficiary
(A) from or to a trust described in section 401 (a) which is exempt from tax under section 501 (a) at the time of such payment unless such payment is made to an employee of the trust as remuneration for services rendered as such employee and not as a beneficiary of the trust,
(B) under or to an annuity plan which, at the time of such payment, is a plan described in section 403 (a),
(C) under a simplified employee pension (as defined in section 408 (k)(1)), other than any contributions described in section 408 (k)(6),
(D) under or to an annuity contract described in section 403 (b), other than a payment for the purchase of such contract which is made by reason of a salary reduction agreement (whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise),
(E) under or to an exempt governmental deferred compensation plan (as defined in subsection (v)(3)),
(F) to supplement pension benefits under a plan or trust described in any of the foregoing provisions of this paragraph to take into account some portion or all of the increase in the cost of living (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) since retirement but only if such supplemental payments are under a plan which is treated as a welfare plan under section 3(2)(B)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974,
(G) under a cafeteria plan (within the meaning of section 125) if such payment would not be treated as wages without regard to such plan and it is reasonable to believe that (if section 125 applied for purposes of this section) section 125 would not treat any wages as constructively received,
(H) under an arrangement to which section 408 (p) applies, other than any elective contributions under paragraph (2)(A)(i) thereof, or
(I) under a plan described in section 457 (e)(11)(A)(ii) and maintained by an eligible employer (as defined in section 457 (e)(1));
(6) the payment by an employer (without deduction from the remuneration of the employee)
(A) of the tax imposed upon an employee under section 3101, or
(B) of any payment required from an employee under a State unemployment compensation law,

with respect to remuneration paid to an employee for domestic service in a private home of the employer or for agricultural labor;

(7) 
(A) remuneration paid in any medium other than cash to an employee for service not in the course of the employers trade or business or for domestic service in a private home of the employer;
(B) cash remuneration paid by an employer in any calendar year to an employee for domestic service in a private home of the employer (including domestic service on a farm operated for profit), if the cash remuneration paid in such year by the employer to the employee for such service is less than the applicable dollar threshold (as defined in subsection (x)) for such year;
(C) cash remuneration paid by an employer in any calendar year to an employee for service not in the course of the employers trade or business, if the cash remuneration paid in such year by the employer to the employee for such service is less than $100. As used in this subparagraph, the term service not in the course of the employers trade or business does not include domestic service in a private home of the employer and does not include service described in subsection (g)(5);
(8) 
(A) remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for agricultural labor;
(B) cash remuneration paid by an employer in any calendar year to an employee for agricultural labor unless
(i) the cash remuneration paid in such year by the employer to the employee for such labor is $150 or more, or
(ii) the employers expenditures for agricultural labor in such year equal or exceed $2,500,

except that clause (ii) shall not apply in determining whether remuneration paid to an employee constitutes wages under this section if such employee (I) is employed as a hand harvest laborer and is paid on a piece rate basis in an operation which has been, and is customarily and generally recognized as having been, paid on a piece rate basis in the region of employment, (II) commutes daily from his permanent residence to the farm on which he is so employed, and (III) has been employed in agriculture less than 13 weeks during the preceding calendar year;

[(9) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 324(a)(3)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 123]
(10) remuneration paid by an employer in any calendar year to an employee for service described in subsection (d)(3)(C) (relating to home workers), if the cash remuneration paid in such year by the employer to the employee for such service is less than $100;
(11) remuneration paid to or on behalf of an employee if (and to the extent that) at the time of the payment of such remuneration it is reasonable to believe that a corresponding deduction is allowable under section 217 (determined without regard to section 274 (n));
(12) 
(A) tips paid in any medium other than cash;
(B) cash tips received by an employee in any calendar month in the course of his employment by an employer unless the amount of such cash tips is $20 or more;
(13) any payment or series of payments by an employer to an employee or any of his dependents which is paid
(A) upon or after the termination of an employees employment relationship because of
(i)  death, or
(ii)  retirement for disability, and
(B) under a plan established by the employer which makes provision for his employees generally or a class or classes of his employees (or for such employees or class or classes of employees and their dependents),

other than any such payment or series of payments which would have been paid if the employees employment relationship had not been so terminated;

(14) any payment made by an employer to a survivor or the estate of a former employee after the calendar year in which such employee died;
(15) any payment made by an employer to an employee, if at the time such payment is made such employee is entitled to disability insurance benefits under section 223(a) of the Social Security Act and such entitlement commenced prior to the calendar year in which such payment is made, and if such employee did not perform any services for such employer during the period for which such payment is made;
(16) remuneration paid by an organization exempt from income tax under section 501 (a) (other than an organization described in section 401 (a)) or under section 521 in any calendar year to an employee for service rendered in the employ of such organization, if the remuneration paid in such year by the organization to the employee for such service is less than $100;
(17) any contribution, payment, or service provided by an employer which may be excluded from the gross income of an employee, his spouse, or his dependents, under the provisions of section 120 (relating to amounts received under qualified group legal services plans);
(18) any payment made, or benefit furnished, to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment or such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment or benefit from income under section 127, 129, 134 (b)(4), or 134 (b)(5);
(19) the value of any meals or lodging furnished by or on behalf of the employer if at the time of such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such items from income under section 119;
(20) any benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee if at the time such benefit is provided it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such benefit from income under section 74 (c), 108 (f)(4), 117, or 132;
(21) in the case of a member of an Indian tribe, any remuneration on which no tax is imposed by this chapter by reason of section 7873 (relating to income derived by Indians from exercise of fishing rights); or
(22) remuneration on account of
(A) a transfer of a share of stock to any individual pursuant to an exercise of an incentive stock option (as defined in section 422 (b)) or under an employee stock purchase plan (as defined in section 423 (b)), or
(B) any disposition by the individual of such stock.

Nothing in the regulations prescribed for purposes of chapter 24 (relating to income tax withholding) which provides an exclusion from wages as used in such chapter shall be construed to require a similar exclusion from wages in the regulations prescribed for purposes of this chapter. Except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any third party which makes a payment included in wages solely by reason of the parenthetical matter contained in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) shall be treated for purposes of this chapter and chapter 22 as the employer with respect to such wages.

(b) Employment 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employment means any service, of whatever nature, performed
(A)  by an employee for the person employing him, irrespective of the citizenship or residence of either,
(i)  within the United States, or
(ii)  on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft under a contract of service which is entered into within the United States or during the performance of which and while the employee is employed on the vessel or aircraft it touches at a port in the United States, if the employee is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States, or
(B)  outside the United States by a citizen or resident of the United States as an employee for an American employer (as defined in subsection (h)), or (C) if it is service, regardless of where or by whom performed, which is designated as employment or recognized as equivalent to employment under an agreement entered into under section 233 of the Social Security Act; except that such term shall not include
(1) service performed by foreign agricultural workers lawfully admitted to the United States from the Bahamas, Jamaica, and the other British West Indies, or from any other foreign country or possession thereof, on a temporary basis to perform agricultural labor;
(2) domestic service performed in a local college club, or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority, by a student who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes at a school, college, or university;
(3) 
(A) service performed by a child under the age of 18 in the employ of his father or mother;
(B) service not in the course of the employers trade or business, or domestic service in a private home of the employer, performed by an individual under the age of 21 in the employ of his father or mother, or performed by an individual in the employ of his spouse or son or daughter; except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to such domestic service performed by an individual in the employ of his son or daughter if
(i) the employer is a surviving spouse or a divorced individual and has not remarried, or has a spouse living in the home who has a mental or physical condition which results in such spouses being incapable of caring for a son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter (referred to in clause (ii)) for at least 4 continuous weeks in the calendar quarter in which the service is rendered, and
(ii) a son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter of such employer is living in the home, and
(iii) the son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter (referred to in clause (ii)) has not attained age 18 or has a mental or physical condition which requires the personal care and supervision of an adult for at least 4 continuous weeks in the calendar quarter in which the service is rendered;
(4) service performed by an individual on or in connection with a vessel not an American vessel, or on or in connection with an aircraft not an American aircraft, if
(A)  the individual is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft, when outside the United States and
(B) 
(i)  such individual is not a citizen of the United States or
(ii)  the employer is not an American employer;
(5) service performed in the employ of the United States or any instrumentality of the United States, if such service
(A) would be excluded from the term employment for purposes of this title if the provisions of paragraphs (5) and (6) of this subsection as in effect in January 1983 had remained in effect, and
(B) is performed by an individual who
(i) has been continuously performing service described in subparagraph (A) since December 31, 1983, and for purposes of this clause
(I) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after being separated therefrom for a period of less than 366 consecutive days, regardless of whether the period began before, on, or after December 31, 1983, then such service shall be considered continuous,
(II) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after being detailed or transferred to an international organization as described under section 3343 of subchapter III of chapter 33 of title 5, United States Code, or under section 3581 of chapter 35 of such title, then the service performed for that organization shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A),
(III) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) is reemployed or reinstated after being separated from such service for the purpose of accepting employment with the American Institute in Taiwan as provided under section 3310 of chapter 48 of title 22, United States Code, then the service performed for that Institute shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A),
(IV) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after performing service as a member of a uniformed service (including, for purposes of this clause, service in the National Guard and temporary service in the Coast Guard Reserve) and after exercising restoration or reemployment rights as provided under chapter 43 of title 38, United States Code, then the service so performed as a member of a uniformed service shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A), and
(V) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after employment (by a tribal organization) to which section 105(e)(2)1 of the Indian Self-Determination Act applies, then the service performed for that tribal organization shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A); or
(ii) is receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, or benefits (for service as an employee) under another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed service);

except that this paragraph shall not apply with respect to any such service performed on or after any date on which such individual performs

(C) service performed as the President or Vice President of the United States,
(D) service performed
(i) in a position placed in the Executive Schedule under sections 5312 through 5317 of title 5, United States Code,
(ii) as a noncareer appointee in the Senior Executive Service or a noncareer member of the Senior Foreign Service, or
(iii) in a position to which the individual is appointed by the President (or his designee) or the Vice President under section 105 (a)(1), 106 (a)(1), or 107 (a)(1) or (b)(1) of title 3, United States Code, if the maximum rate of basic pay for such position is at or above the rate for level V of the Executive Schedule,
(E) service performed as the Chief Justice of the United States, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a judge of a United States court of appeals, a judge of a United States district court (including the district court of a territory), a judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims, a judge of the United States Court of International Trade, a judge or special trial judge of the United States Tax Court, a United States magistrate judge, or a referee in bankruptcy or United States bankruptcy judge,
(F) service performed as a Member, Delegate, or Resident Commissioner of or to the Congress,
(G) any other service in the legislative branch of the Federal Government if such service
(i) is performed by an individual who was not subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code, or to another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services), on December 31, 1983, or
(ii) is performed by an individual who has, at any time after December 31, 1983, received a lump-sum payment under section 8342 (a) of title 5, United States Code, or under the corresponding provision of the law establishing the other retirement system described in clause (i), or
(iii) is performed by an individual after such individual has otherwise ceased to be subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code (without having an application pending for coverage under such subchapter), while performing service in the legislative branch (determined without regard to the provisions of subparagraph (B) relating to continuity of employment), for any period of time after December 31, 1983,

and for purposes of this subparagraph (G) an individual is subject to such subchapter III or to any such other retirement system at any time only if

(a)  such individuals pay is subject to deductions, contributions, or similar payments (concurrent with the service being performed at that time) under section 8334(a) of such title 5 or the corresponding provision of the law establishing such other system, or (in a case to which section 8332(k)(1) of such title applies) such individual is making payments of amounts equivalent to such deductions, contributions, or similar payments while on leave without pay, or
(b)  such individual is receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, or is receiving benefits (for service as an employee) under another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services), or
(H) service performed by an individual
(i) on or after the effective date of an election by such individual, under section 301 of the Federal Employees Retirement System Act of 1986, section 307 of the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act (50 U.S.C. 2157), or the Federal Employees Retirement System Open Enrollment Act of 1997[2] to become subject to the Federal Employees Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, or
(ii) on or after the effective date of an election by such individual, under regulations issued under section 860 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980, to become subject to the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of such Act;
(6) service performed in the employ of the United States or any instrumentality of the United States if such service is performed
(A) in a penal institution of the United States by an inmate thereof;
(B) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351 (2) of title 5, United States Code (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the Federal Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or a medical or dental resident in training; or
(C) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency;
(7) service performed in the employ of a State, or any political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, except that this paragraph shall not apply in the case of
(A) service which, under subsection (j), constitutes covered transportation service,
(B) service in the employ of the Government of Guam or the Government of American Samoa or any political subdivision thereof, or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, performed by an officer or employee thereof (including a member of the legislature of any such Government or political subdivision), and, for purposes of this title with respect to the taxes imposed by this chapter
(i) any person whose service as such an officer or employee is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of the United States shall not, with respect to such service, be regarded as an employee of the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof, and
(ii) the remuneration for service described in clause (i) (including fees paid to a public official) shall be deemed to have been paid by the Government of Guam or the Government of American Samoa or by a political subdivision thereof or an instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, whichever is appropriate,
(C) service performed in the employ of the District of Columbia or any instrumentality which is wholly owned thereby, if such service is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of the United States (other than the Federal Employees Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code); except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to service performed
(i) in a hospital or penal institution by a patient or inmate thereof;
(ii) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351 (2) of title 5, United States Code (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the District of Columbia Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or as a medical or dental resident in training;
(iii) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood or other similar emergency; or
(iv) by a member of a board, committee, or council of the District of Columbia, paid on a per diem, meeting, or other fee basis,
(D) service performed in the employ of the Government of Guam (or any instrumentality which is wholly owned by such Government) by an employee properly classified as a temporary or intermittent employee, if such service is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of Guam; except that
(i)  the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to services performed by an elected official or a member of the legislature or in a hospital or penal institution by a patient or inmate thereof, and
(ii)  for purposes of this subparagraph, clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (B) shall apply,
(E) service included under an agreement entered into pursuant to section 218 of the Social Security Act, or
(F) service in the employ of a State (other than the District of Columbia, Guam, or American Samoa), of any political subdivision thereof, or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, by an individual who is not a member of a retirement system of such State, political subdivision, or instrumentality, except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to service performed
(i) by an individual who is employed to relieve such individual from unemployment;
(ii) in a hospital, home, or other institution by a patient or inmate thereof;
(iii) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency;
(iv) by an election official or election worker if the remuneration paid in a calendar year for such service is less than $1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under section 218(c)(8)(B) of the Social Security Act for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year; or
(v) by an employee in a position compensated solely on a fee basis which is treated pursuant to section 1402 (c)(2)(E) as a trade or business for purposes of inclusion of such fees in net earnings from self-employment; for purposes of this subparagraph, except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the term retirement system has the meaning given such term by section 218(b)(4) of the Social Security Act;
(8) 
(A) service performed by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to service performed by a member of such an order in the exercise of such duties, if an election of coverage under subsection (r) is in effect with respect to such order, or with respect to the autonomous subdivision thereof to which such member belongs;
(B) service performed in the employ of a church or qualified church-controlled organization if such church or organization has in effect an election under subsection (w), other than service in an unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513 (a));
(9) service performed by an individual as an employee or employee representative as defined in section 3231;
(10) service performed in the employ of
(A) a school, college, or university, or
(B) an organization described in section 509 (a)(3) if the organization is organized, and at all times thereafter is operated, exclusively for the benefit of, to perform the functions of, or to carry out the purposes of a school, college, or university and is operated, supervised, or controlled by or in connection with such school, college, or university, unless it is a school, college, or university of a State or a political subdivision thereof and the services performed in its employ by a student referred to in section 218(c)(5) of the Social Security Act are covered under the agreement between the Commissioner of Social Security and such State entered into pursuant to section 218 of such Act;

if such service is performed by a student who is enrolled and regularly attending classes at such school, college, or university;

(11) service performed in the employ of a foreign government (including service as a consular or other officer or employee or a nondiplomatic representative);
(12) service performed in the employ of an instrumentality wholly owned by a foreign government
(A) if the service is of a character similar to that performed in foreign countries by employees of the United States Government or of an instrumentality thereof; and
(B) if the Secretary of State shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury that the foreign government, with respect to whose instrumentality and employees thereof exemption is claimed, grants an equivalent exemption with respect to similar service performed in the foreign country by employees of the United States Government and of instrumentalities thereof;
(13) service performed as a student nurse in the employ of a hospital or a nurses training school by an individual who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes in a nurses training school chartered or approved pursuant to State law;
(14) 
(A) service performed by an individual under the age of 18 in the delivery or distribution of newspapers or shopping news, not including delivery or distribution to any point for subsequent delivery or distribution;
(B) service performed by an individual in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers, under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such service, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back;
(15) service performed in the employ of an international organization, except service which constitutes employment under subsection (y);
(16) service performed by an individual under an arrangement with the owner or tenant of land pursuant to which
(A) such individual undertakes to produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land,
(B) the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced by such individual, or the proceeds therefrom, are to be divided between such individual and such owner or tenant, and
(C) the amount of such individuals share depends on the amount of the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced;
(17) service in the employ of any organization which is performed
(A)  in any year during any part of which such organization is registered, or there is in effect a final order of the Subversive Activities Control Board requiring such organization to register, under the Internal Security Act of 1950, as amended, as a Communist-action organization, a Communist-front organization, or a Communist-infiltrated organization, and
(B)  after June 30, 1956;
(18) service performed in Guam by a resident of the Republic of the Philippines while in Guam on a temporary basis as a nonimmigrant alien admitted to Guam pursuant to section 101(a)(15)(H)(ii) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(15)(H)(ii));
(19) Service which is performed by a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended, and which is performed to carry out the purpose specified in subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q), as the case may be;
(20) service (other than service described in paragraph (3)(A)) performed by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life under an arrangement with the owner or operator of such boat pursuant to which
(A) such individual does not receive any cash remuneration other than as provided in subparagraph (B) and other than cash remuneration
(i) which does not exceed $100 per trip;
(ii) which is contingent on a minimum catch; and
(iii) which is paid solely for additional duties (such as mate, engineer, or cook) for which additional cash remuneration is traditional in the industry,
(B) such individual receives a share of the boats (or the boats in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) catch of fish or other forms of aquatic animal life or a share of the proceeds from the sale of such catch, and
(C) the amount of such individuals share depends on the amount of the boats (or the boats in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) catch of fish or other forms of aquatic animal life,

but only if the operating crew of such boat (or each boat from which the individual receives a share in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) is normally made up of fewer than 10 individuals; or

(21) domestic service in a private home of the employer which
(A) is performed in any year by an individual under the age of 18 during any portion of such year; and
(B) is not the principal occupation of such employee.

For purposes of paragraph (20), the operating crew of a boat shall be treated as normally made up of fewer than 10 individuals if the average size of the operating crew on trips made during the preceding 4 calendar quarters consisted of fewer than 10 individuals.

(c) Included and excluded service 
For purposes of this chapter, if the services performed during one-half or more of any pay period by an employee for the person employing him constitute employment, all the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment; but if the services performed during more than one-half of any such pay period by an employee for the person employing him do not constitute employment, then none of the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment. As used in this subsection, the term pay period means a period (of not more than 31 consecutive days) for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by the person employing him. This subsection shall not be applicable with respect to services performed in a pay period by an employee for the person employing him, where any of such service is excepted by subsection (b)(9).
(d) Employee 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employee means
(1) any officer of a corporation; or
(2) any individual who, under the usual common law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee; or
(3) any individual (other than an individual who is an employee under paragraph (1) or (2)) who performs services for remuneration for any person
(A) as an agent-driver or commission-driver engaged in distributing meat products, vegetable products, fruit products, bakery products, beverages (other than milk), or laundry or dry-cleaning services, for his principal;
(B) as a full-time life insurance salesman;
(C) as a home worker performing work, according to specifications furnished by the person for whom the services are performed, on materials or goods furnished by such person which are required to be returned to such person or a person designated by him; or
(D) as a traveling or city salesman, other than as an agent-driver or commission-driver, engaged upon a full-time basis in the solicitation on behalf of, and the transmission to, his principal (except for side-line sales activities on behalf of some other person) of orders from wholesalers, retailers, contractors, or operators of hotels, restaurants, or other similar establishments for merchandise for resale or supplies for use in their business operations;

if the contract of service contemplates that substantially all of such services are to be performed personally by such individual; except that an individual shall not be included in the term employee under the provisions of this paragraph if such individual has a substantial investment in facilities used in connection with the performance of such services (other than in facilities for transportation), or if the services are in the nature of a single transaction not part of a continuing relationship with the person for whom the services are performed; or

(4) any individual who performs services that are included under an agreement entered into pursuant to section 218 of the Social Security Act.
(e) State, United States, and citizen 
For purposes of this chapter
(1) State 
The term State includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa.
(2) United States 
The term United States when used in a geographical sense includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa.

An individual who is a citizen of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (but not otherwise a citizen of the United States) shall be considered, for purposes of this section, as a citizen of the United States.

(f) American vessel and aircraft 
For purposes of this chapter, the term American vessel means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States; and includes any vessel which is neither documented or numbered under the laws of the United States nor documented under the laws of any foreign country, if its crew is employed solely by one or more citizens or residents of the United States or corporations organized under the laws of the United States or of any State; and the term American aircraft means an aircraft registered under the laws of the United States.
(g) Agricultural labor 
For purposes of this chapter, the term agricultural labor includes all service performed
(1) on a farm, in the employ of any person, in connection with cultivating the soil, or in connection with raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife;
(2) in the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of a farm, in connection with the operation, management, conservation, improvement, or maintenance of such farm and its tools and equipment, or in salvaging timber or clearing land of brush and other debris left by a hurricane, if the major part of such service is performed on a farm;
(3) in connection with the production or harvesting of any commodity defined as an agricultural commodity in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1141j), or in connection with the ginning of cotton, or in connection with the operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways, not owned or operated for profit, used exclusively for supplying and storing water for farming purposes;
(4) 
(A) in the employ of the operator of a farm in handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, in its unmanufactured state, any agricultural or horticultural commodity; but only if such operator produced more than one-half of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed;
(B) in the employ of a group of operators of farms (other than a cooperative organization) in the performance of service described in subparagraph (A), but only if such operators produced all of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed. For purposes of this subparagraph, any unincorporated group of operators shall be deemed a cooperative organization if the number of operators comprising such group is more than 20 at any time during the calendar year in which such service is performed;
(C) the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not be deemed to be applicable with respect to service performed in connection with commercial canning or commercial freezing or in connection with any agricultural or horticultural commodity after its delivery to a terminal market for distribution for consumption; or
(5) on a farm operated for profit if such service is not in the course of the employers trade or business.

As used in this subsection, the term farm includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges, greenhouses or other similar structures used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities, and orchards.

(h) American employer 
For purposes of this chapter, the term American employer means an employer which is
(1) the United States or any instrumentality thereof,
(2) an individual who is a resident of the United States,
(3) a partnership, if two-thirds or more of the partners are residents of the United States,
(4) a trust, if all of the trustees are residents of the United States, or
(5) a corporation organized under the laws of the United States or of any State.
(i) Computation of wages in certain cases 

(1) Domestic service 
For purposes of this chapter, in the case of domestic service described in subsection (a)(7)(B), any payment of cash remuneration for such service which is more or less than a whole-dollar amount shall, under such conditions and to such extent as may be prescribed by regulations made under this chapter, be computed to the nearest dollar. For the purpose of the computation to the nearest dollar, the payment of a fractional part of a dollar shall be disregarded unless it amounts to one-half dollar or more, in which case it shall be increased to $1. The amount of any payment of cash remuneration so computed to the nearest dollar shall, in lieu of the amount actually paid, be deemed to constitute the amount of cash remuneration for purposes of subsection (a)(7)(B).
(2) Service in the uniformed services 
For purposes of this chapter, in the case of an individual performing service, as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of subsection (m)(1) are applicable, the term wages shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (a)(1) of this section, include as such individuals remuneration for such service only
(A)  his basic pay as described in chapter 3 and section 1009 of title 37, United States Code, in the case of an individual performing service to which subparagraph (A) of such subsection (m)(1) applies, or
(B)  his compensation for such service as determined under section 206 (a) of title 37, United States Code, in the case of an individual performing service to which subparagraph (B) of such subsection (m)(1) applies.
(3) Peace Corps volunteer service 
For purposes of this chapter, in the case of an individual performing service, as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act, to which the provisions of section 3121 (p) are applicable, the term wages shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (a)(1) of this section, include as such individuals remuneration for such service only amounts paid pursuant to section 5(c) or 6(1) of the Peace Corps Act.
(4) Service performed by certain members of religious orders 
For purposes of this chapter, in any case where an individual is a member of a religious order (as defined in subsection (r)(2)) performing service in the exercise of duties required by such order, and an election of coverage under subsection (r) is in effect with respect to such order or with respect to the autonomous subdivision thereof to which such member belongs, the term wages shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (a)(1), include as such individuals remuneration for such service the fair market value of any board, lodging, clothing, and other perquisites furnished to such member by such order or subdivision thereof or by any other person or organization pursuant to an agreement with such order or subdivision, except that the amount included as such individuals remuneration under this paragraph shall not be less than $100 a month.
(5) Service performed by certain retired justices and judges 
For purposes of this chapter, in the case of an individual performing service under the provisions of section 294 of title 28, United States Code (relating to assignment of retired justices and judges to active duty), the term wages shall not include any payment under section 371(b) of such title 28 which is received during the period of such service.
(j) Covered transportation service 
For purposes of this chapter
(1) Existing transportation systems—General rule 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), all service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision in connection with its operation of a public transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service if any part of the transportation system was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951.
(2) Existing transportation systems—Cases in which no transportation employees, or only certain employees, are covered 
Service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision in connection with the operation of its public transportation system shall not constitute covered transportation service if
(A) any part of the transportation system was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951, and substantially all service in connection with the operation of the transportation system was, on December 31, 1950, covered under a general retirement system providing benefits which, by reason of a provision of the State constitution dealing specifically with retirement systems of the State or political subdivisions thereof, cannot be diminished or impaired; or
(B) no part of the transportation system operated by the State or political subdivision on December 31, 1950, was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951; except that if such State or political subdivision makes an acquisition after 1950 from private ownership of any part of its transportation system, then, in the case of any employee who
(C) became an employee of such State or political subdivision in connection with and at the time of its acquisition after 1950 of such part, and
(D) prior to such acquisition rendered service in employment (including as employment service covered by an agreement under section 218 of the Social Security Act) in connection with the operation of such part of the transportation system acquired by the State or political subdivision, the service of such employee in connection with the operation of the transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service, commencing with the first day of the third calendar quarter following the calendar quarter in which the acquisition of such part took place, unless on such first day such service of such employee is covered by a general retirement system which does not, with respect to such employee, contain special provisions applicable only to employees described in subparagraph (C).
(3) Transportation systems acquired after 1950 
All service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision thereof in connection with its operation of a public transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service if the transportation system was not operated by the State or political subdivision prior to 1951 and, at the time of its first acquisition (after 1950) from private ownership of any part of its transportation system, the State or political subdivision did not have a general retirement system covering substantially all service performed in connection with the operation of the transportation system.
(4) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) The term general retirement system means any pension, annuity, retirement, or similar fund or system established by a State or by a political subdivision thereof for employees of the State, political subdivision, or both; but such term shall not include such a fund or system which covers only service performed in positions connected with the operation of its public transportation system.
(B) A transportation system or a part thereof shall be considered to have been acquired by a State or political subdivision from private ownership if prior to the acquisition service performed by employees in connection with the operation of the system or part thereof acquired constituted employment under this chapter or subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 or was covered by an agreement made pursuant to section 218 of the Social Security Act and some of such employees became employees of the State or political subdivision in connection with and at the time of such acquisition.
(C) The term political subdivision includes an instrumentality of
(i) a State,
(ii) one or more political subdivisions of a State, or
(iii) a State and one or more of its political subdivisions.
[(k) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title I, § 102(b)(2), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 71] 
(l) Agreements entered into by American employers with respect to foreign affiliates 

(1) Agreement with respect to certain employees of foreign affiliate 
The Secretary shall, at the American employers request, enter into an agreement (in such manner and form as may be prescribed by the Secretary) with any American employer (as defined in subsection (h)) who desires to have the insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to service performed outside the United States in the employ of any 1 or more of such employers foreign affiliates (as defined in paragraph (6)) by all employees who are citizens or residents of the United States, except that the agreement shall not apply to any service performed by, or remuneration paid to, an employee if such service or remuneration would be excluded from the term employment or wages, as defined in this section, had the service been performed in the United States. Such agreement may be amended at any time so as to be made applicable, in the same manner and under the same conditions, with respect to any other foreign affiliate of such American employer. Such agreement shall be applicable with respect to citizens or residents of the United States who, on or after the effective date of the agreement, are employees of and perform services outside the United States for any foreign affiliate specified in the agreement. Such agreement shall provide
(A) that the American employer shall pay to the Secretary, at such time or times as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe, amounts equivalent to the sum of the taxes which would be imposed by sections 3101 and 3111 (including amounts equivalent to the interest, additions to the taxes, additional amounts, and penalties which would be applicable) with respect to the remuneration which would be wages if the services covered by the agreement constituted employment as defined in this section; and
(B) that the American employer will comply with such regulations relating to payments and reports as the Secretary may prescribe to carry out the purposes of this subsection.
(2) Effective period of agreement 
An agreement entered into pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be in effect for the period beginning with the first day of the calendar quarter in which such agreement is entered into or the first day of the succeeding calendar quarter, as may be specified in the agreement; except that in case such agreement is amended to include the services performed for any other affiliate and such amendment is executed after the first month following the first calendar quarter for which the agreement is in effect, the agreement shall be in effect with respect to service performed for such other affiliate only after the calendar quarter in which such amendment is executed. Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the period for which any such agreement is effective with respect to any foreign entity shall terminate at the end of any calendar quarter in which the foreign entity, at any time in such quarter, ceases to be a foreign affiliate as defined in paragraph (6).
(3) No termination of agreement 
No agreement under this subsection may be terminated, either in its entirety or with respect to any foreign affiliate, on or after June 15, 1989.
(4) Deposits in trust funds 
For purposes of section 201 of the Social Security Act, relating to appropriations to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, such remuneration
(A) paid for services covered by an agreement entered into pursuant to paragraph (1) as would be wages if the services constituted employment, and
(B) as is reported to the Secretary pursuant to the provisions of such agreement or of the regulations issued under this subsection,

shall be considered wages subject to the taxes imposed by this chapter.

(5) Overpayments and underpayments 

(A) If more or less than the correct amount due under an agreement entered into pursuant to this subsection is paid with respect to any payment of remuneration, proper adjustments with respect to the amounts due under such agreement shall be made, without interest, in such manner and at such times as may be required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(B) If an overpayment cannot be adjusted under subparagraph (A), the amount thereof shall be paid by the Secretary, through the Fiscal Service of the Treasury Department, but only if a claim for such overpayment is filed with the Secretary within two years from the time such overpayment was made.
(6) Foreign affiliate defined 
For purposes of this subsection and section 210(a) of the Social Security Act
(A) In general 
A foreign affiliate of an American employer is any foreign entity in which such American employer has not less than a 10-percent interest.
(B) Determination of 10-percent interest 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), an American employer has a 10-percent interest in any entity if such employer has such an interest directly (or through one or more entities)
(i) in the case of a corporation, in the voting stock thereof, and
(ii) in the case of any other entity, in the profits thereof.
(7) American employer as separate entity 
Each American employer which enters into an agreement pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection shall, for purposes of this subsection and section 6413 (c)(2)(C), relating to special refunds in the case of employees of certain foreign entities, be considered an employer in its capacity as a party to such agreement separate and distinct from its identity as a person employing individuals on its own account.
(8) Regulations 
Regulations of the Secretary to carry out the purposes of this subsection shall be designed to make the requirements imposed on American employers with respect to services covered by an agreement entered into pursuant to this subsection the same, so far as practicable, as those imposed upon employers pursuant to this title with respect to the taxes imposed by this chapter.
(m) Service in the uniformed services 
For purposes of this chapter
(1) Inclusion of service 
The term employment shall, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, include
(A) service performed by an individual as a member of a uniformed service on active duty, but such term shall not include any such service which is performed while on leave without pay, and
(B) service performed by an individual as a member of a uniformed service on inactive duty training.
(2) Active duty 
The term active duty means active duty as described in paragraph (21) of section 101 of title 38, United States Code, except that it shall also include active duty for training as described in paragraph (22) of such section.
(3) Inactive duty training 
The term inactive duty training means inactive duty training as described in paragraph (23) of such section 101.
(n) Member of a uniformed service 
For purposes of this chapter, the term member of a uniformed service means any person appointed, enlisted, or inducted in a component of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard (including a reserve component as defined in section 101 (27) of title 38, United States Code), or in one of those services without specification of component, or as a commissioned officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Corps, or the Regular or Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service, and any person serving in the Army or Air Force under call or conscription. The term includes
(1) a retired member of any of those services;
(2) a member of the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve;
(3) a cadet at the United States Military Academy, a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, and a cadet at the United States Coast Guard Academy or United States Air Force Academy;
(4) a member of the Reserve Officers Training Corps, the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps, or the Air Force Reserve Officers Training Corps, when ordered to annual training duty for fourteen days or more, and while performing authorized travel to and from that duty; and
(5) any person while en route to or from, or at, a place for final acceptance or for entry upon active duty in the military, naval, or air service
(A) who has been provisionally accepted for such duty; or
(B) who, under the Military Selective Service Act, has been selected for active military, naval, or air service; and has been ordered or directed to proceed to such place.

The term does not include a temporary member of the Coast Guard Reserve.

(o) Crew leader 
For purposes of this chapter, the term crew leader means an individual who furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor for another person, if such individual pays (either on his own behalf or on behalf of such person) the individuals so furnished by him for the agricultural labor performed by them and if such individual has not entered into a written agreement with such person whereby such individual has been designated as an employee of such person; and such individuals furnished by the crew leader to perform agricultural labor for another person shall be deemed to be the employees of such crew leader. For purposes of this chapter and chapter 2, a crew leader shall, with respect to service performed in furnishing individuals to perform agricultural labor for another person and service performed as a member of the crew, be deemed not to be an employee of such other person.
(p) Peace Corps volunteer service 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employment shall, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, include service performed by an individual as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act.
(q) Tips included for both employee and employer taxes 
For purposes of this chapter, tips received by an employee in the course of his employment shall be considered remuneration for such employment (and deemed to have been paid by the employer for purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of section 3111). Such remuneration shall be deemed to be paid at the time a written statement including such tips is furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a) or (if no statement including such tips is so furnished) at the time received; except that, in determining the employers liability in connection with the taxes imposed by section 3111 with respect to such tips in any case where no statement including such tips was so furnished (or to the extent that the statement so furnished was inaccurate or incomplete), such remuneration shall be deemed for purposes of subtitle F to be paid on the date on which notice and demand for such taxes is made to the employer by the Secretary.
(r) Election of coverage by religious orders 

(1) Certificate of election by order 
A religious order whose members are required to take a vow of poverty, or any autonomous subdivision of such order, may file a certificate (in such form and manner, and with such official, as may be prescribed by regulations under this chapter) electing to have the insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to services performed by its members in the exercise of duties required by such order or such subdivision thereof. Such certificate of election shall provide that
(A) such election of coverage by such order or subdivision shall be irrevocable;
(B) such election shall apply to all current and future members of such order, or in the case of a subdivision thereof to all current and future members of such order who belong to such subdivision;
(C) all services performed by a member of such an order or subdivision in the exercise of duties required by such order or subdivision shall be deemed to have been performed by such member as an employee of such order or subdivision; and
(D) the wages of each member, upon which such order or subdivision shall pay the taxes imposed by sections 3101 and 3111, will be determined as provided in subsection (i)(4).
(2) Definition of member 
For purposes of this subsection, a member of a religious order means any individual who is subject to a vow of poverty as a member of such order and who performs tasks usually required (and to the extent usually required) of an active member of such order and who is not considered retired because of old age or total disability.
(3) Effective date for election 

(A) A certificate of election of coverage shall be in effect, for purposes of subsection (b)(8) and for purposes of section 210(a)(8) of the Social Security Act, for the period beginning with whichever of the following may be designated by the order or subdivision thereof:
(i) the first day of the calendar quarter in which the certificate is filed,
(ii) the first day of the calendar quarter succeeding such quarter, or
(iii) the first day of any calendar quarter preceding the calendar quarter in which the certificate is filed, except that such date may not be earlier than the first day of the twentieth calendar quarter preceding the quarter in which such certificate is filed.

Whenever a date is designated under clause (iii), the election shall apply to services performed before the quarter in which the certificate is filed only if the member performing such services was a member at the time such services were performed and is living on the first day of the quarter in which such certificate is filed.

(B) If a certificate of election filed pursuant to this subsection is effective for one or more calendar quarters prior to the quarter in which such certificate is filed, then
(i) for purposes of computing interest and for purposes of section 6651 (relating to addition to tax for failure to file tax return), the due date for the return and payment of the tax for such prior calendar quarters resulting from the filing of such certificate shall be the last day of the calendar month following the calendar quarter in which the certificate is filed; and
(ii) the statutory period for the assessment of such tax shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from such due date.
[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title I, § 102(b)(3)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 71] 
(s) Concurrent employment by two or more employers 
For purposes of sections 3102, 3111, and 3121 (a)(1), if two or more related corporations concurrently employ the same individual and compensate such individual through a common paymaster which is one of such corporations, each such corporation shall be considered to have paid as remuneration to such individual only the amounts actually disbursed by it to such individual and shall not be considered to have paid as remuneration to such individual amounts actually disbursed to such individual by another of such corporations.
[(t) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, § 9006(b)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–289] 
(u) Application of hospital insurance tax to Federal, State, and local employment 

(1) Federal employment 
For purposes of the taxes imposed by sections 3101 (b) and 3111 (b), subsection (b) shall be applied without regard to paragraph (5) thereof.
(2) State and local employment 
For purposes of the taxes imposed by sections 3101 (b) and 3111 (b)
(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), subsection (b) shall be applied without regard to paragraph (7) thereof.
(B) Exception for certain services 
Service shall not be treated as employment by reason of subparagraph (A) if
(i) the service is included under an agreement under section 218 of the Social Security Act, or
(ii) the service is performed
(I) by an individual who is employed by a State or political subdivision thereof to relieve him from unemployment,
(II) in a hospital, home, or other institution by a patient or inmate thereof as an employee of a State or political subdivision thereof or of the District of Columbia,
(III) by an individual, as an employee of a State or political subdivision thereof or of the District of Columbia, serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood or other similar emergency,
(IV) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351 (2) of title 5, United States Code (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the District of Columbia Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or a medical or dental resident in training,
(V) by an election official or election worker if the remuneration paid in a calendar year for such service is less than $1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under section 218(c)(8)(B) of the Social Security Act for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year, or
(VI) by an individual in a position described in section 1402 (c)(2)(E).

As used in this subparagraph, the terms State and political subdivision have the meanings given those terms in section 218(b) of the Social Security Act.

(C) Exception for current employment which continues 
Service performed for an employer shall not be treated as employment by reason of subparagraph (A) if
(i) such service would be excluded from the term employment for purposes of this chapter if subparagraph (A) did not apply;
(ii) such service is performed by an individual
(I) who was performing substantial and regular service for remuneration for that employer before April 1, 1986,
(II) who is a bona fide employee of that employer on March 31, 1986, and
(III) whose employment relationship with that employer was not entered into for purposes of meeting the requirements of this subparagraph; and
(iii) the employment relationship with that employer has not been terminated after March 31, 1986.
(D) Treatment of agencies and instrumentalities 
For purposes of subparagraph (C), under regulations
(i) All agencies and instrumentalities of a State (as defined in section 218(b) of the Social Security Act) or of the District of Columbia shall be treated as a single employer.
(ii) All agencies and instrumentalities of a political subdivision of a State (as so defined) shall be treated as a single employer and shall not be treated as described in clause (i).
(3) Medicare qualified government employment 
For purposes of this chapter, the term medicare qualified government employment means service which
(A) is employment (as defined in subsection (b)) with the application of paragraphs (1) and (2), but
(B) would not be employment (as so defined) without the application of such paragraphs.
(v) Treatment of certain deferred compensation and salary reduction arrangements 

(1) Certain employer contributions treated as wages 
Nothing in any paragraph of subsection (a) (other than paragraph (1)) shall exclude from the term wages
(A) any employer contribution under a qualified cash or deferred arrangement (as defined in section 401 (k)) to the extent not included in gross income by reason of section 402 (e)(3) or consisting of designated Roth contributions (as defined in section 402A (c)), or
(B) any amount treated as an employer contribution under section 414 (h)(2) where the pickup referred to in such section is pursuant to a salary reduction agreement (whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise).
(2) Treatment of certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans 

(A) In general 
Any amount deferred under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan shall be taken into account for purposes of this chapter as of the later of
(i) when the services are performed, or
(ii) when there is no substantial risk of forfeiture of the rights to such amount.

The preceding sentence shall not apply to any excess parachute payment (as defined in section 280G (b)) or to any specified stock compensation (as defined in section 4985) on which tax is imposed by section 4985.

(B) Taxed only once 
Any amount taken into account as wages by reason of subparagraph (A) (and the income attributable thereto) shall not thereafter be treated as wages for purposes of this chapter.
(C) Nonqualified deferred compensation plan 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term nonqualified deferred compensation plan means any plan or other arrangement for deferral of compensation other than a plan described in subsection (a)(5).
(3) Exempt governmental deferred compensation plan 
For purposes of subsection (a)(5), the term exempt governmental deferred compensation plan means any plan providing for deferral of compensation established and maintained for its employees by the United States, by a State or political subdivision thereof, or by an agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing. Such term shall not include
(A) any plan to which section 83, 402 (b), 403 (c), 457 (a), or 457 (f)(1) applies,
(B) any annuity contract described in section 403 (b), and
(C) the Thrift Savings Fund (within the meaning of subchapter III of chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code).
(w) Exemption of churches and qualified church-controlled organizations 

(1) General rule 
Any church or qualified church-controlled organization (as defined in paragraph (3)) may make an election within the time period described in paragraph (2), in accordance with such procedures as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, that services performed in the employ of such church or organization shall be excluded from employment for purposes of title II of the Social Security Act and this chapter. An election may be made under this subsection only if the church or qualified church-controlled organization states that such church or organization is opposed for religious reasons to the payment of the tax imposed under section 3111.
(2) Timing and duration of election 
An election under this subsection must be made prior to the first date, more than 90 days after July 18, 1984, on which a quarterly employment tax return for the tax imposed under section 3111 is due, or would be due but for the election, from such church or organization. An election under this subsection shall apply to current and future employees, and shall apply to service performed after December 31, 1983. The election may be revoked by the church or organization under regulations prescribed by the Secretary. The election shall be revoked by the Secretary if such church or organization fails to furnish the information required under section 6051 to the Secretary for a period of 2 years or more with respect to remuneration paid for such services by such church or organization, and, upon request by the Secretary, fails to furnish all such previously unfurnished information for the period covered by the election. Any revocation under the preceding sentence shall apply retroactively to the beginning of the 2-year period for which the information was not furnished.
(3) Definitions 

(A) For purposes of this subsection, the term church means a church, a convention or association of churches, or an elementary or secondary school which is controlled, operated, or principally supported by a church or by a convention or association of churches.
(B) For purposes of this subsection, the term qualified church-controlled organization means any church-controlled tax-exempt organization described in section 501 (c)(3), other than an organization which
(i) offers goods, services, or facilities for sale, other than on an incidental basis, to the general public, other than goods, services, or facilities which are sold at a nominal charge which is substantially less than the cost of providing such goods, services, or facilities; and
(ii) normally receives more than 25 percent of its support from either
(I)  governmental sources, or
(II)  receipts from admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities, in activities which are not unrelated trades or businesses, or both.
(x) Applicable dollar threshold 
For purposes of subsection (a)(7)(B), the term applicable dollar threshold means $1,000. In the case of calendar years after 1995, the Commissioner of Social Security shall adjust such $1,000 amount at the same time and in the same manner as under section 215(a)(1)(B)(ii) of the Social Security Act with respect to the amounts referred to in section 215(a)(1)(B)(i) of such Act, except that, for purposes of this paragraph, 1993 shall be substituted for the calendar year referred to in section 215(a)(1)(B)(ii)(II) of such Act. If any amount as adjusted under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of $100, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $100.
(y) Service in the employ of international organizations by certain transferred Federal employees 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this chapter, service performed in the employ of an international organization by an individual pursuant to a transfer of such individual to such international organization pursuant to section 3582 of title 5, United States Code, shall constitute employment if
(A) immediately before such transfer, such individual performed service with a Federal agency which constituted employment under subsection (b) for purposes of the taxes imposed by sections 3101 (a) and 3111 (a), and
(B) such individual would be entitled, upon separation from such international organization and proper application, to reemployment with such Federal agency under such section 3582.
(2) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Federal agency 
The term Federal agency means an agency, as defined in section 3581 (1) of title 5, United States Code.
(B) International organization 
The term international organization has the meaning provided such term by section 3581 (3) of title 5, United States Code.
[1] See References in Text note below.
[2] So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

26 USC 3122 - Federal service

In the case of the taxes imposed by this chapter with respect to service performed in the employ of the United States or in the employ of any instrumentality which is wholly owned by the United States, including such service which is medicare qualified government employment (as defined in section 3121 (u)(3)), including service, performed as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of section 3121 (m)(1) are applicable, and including service, performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act, to which the provisions of section 3121 (p) are applicable, the determination of the amount of remuneration for such service, and the return and payment of the taxes imposed by this chapter, shall be made by the head of the Federal agency or instrumentality having the control of such service, or by such agents as such head may designate. In the case of the taxes imposed by this chapter with respect to service performed in the employ of an international organization pursuant to a transfer to which the provisions of section 3121 (y) are applicable, the determination of the amount of remuneration for such service, and the return and payment of the taxes imposed by this chapter, shall be made by the head of the Federal agency from which the transfer was made. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to affect the Secretarys authority to determine under subsections (a) and (b) of section 3121 whether any such service constitutes employment, the periods of such employment, and whether remuneration paid for any such service constitutes wages. The person making such return may, for convenience of administration, make payments of the tax imposed under section 3111 with respect to such service without regard to the contribution and benefit base limitation in section 3121 (a)(1), and he shall not be required to obtain a refund of the tax paid under section 3111 on that part of the remuneration not included in wages by reason of section 3121 (a)(1). Payments of the tax imposed under section 3111 with respect to service, performed by an individual as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of section 3121 (m)(1) are applicable, shall be made from appropriations available for the pay of members of such uniformed service. The provisions of this section shall be applicable in the case of service performed by a civilian employee, not compensated from funds appropriated by the Congress, in the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Army and Air Force Motion Picture Service, Navy Exchanges, Marine Corps Exchanges, or other activities, conducted by an instrumentality of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense, at installations of the Department of Defense for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of such Department; and for purposes of this section the Secretary of Defense shall be deemed to be the head of such instrumentality. The provisions of this section shall be applicable also in the case of service performed by a civilian employee, not compensated from funds appropriated by the Congress, in the Coast Guard Exchanges or other activities, conducted by an instrumentality of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating, at installations of the Coast Guard for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of the Coast Guard; and for purposes of this section the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall be deemed to be the head of such instrumentality.

26 USC 3123 - Deductions as constructive payments

Whenever under this chapter or any act of Congress, or under the law of any State, an employer is required or permitted to deduct any amount from the remuneration of an employee and to pay the amount deducted to the United States, a State, or any political subdivision thereof, then for purposes of this chapter the amount so deducted shall be considered to have been paid to the employee at the time of such deduction.

26 USC 3124 - Estimate of revenue reduction

The Secretary at intervals of not longer than 3 years shall estimate the reduction in the amount of taxes collected under this chapter by reason of the operation of section 3121 (b)(9) and shall include such estimate in his annual report.

26 USC 3125 - Returns in the case of governmental employees in States, Guam, American Samoa, and the District of Columbia

(a) States 
Except as otherwise provided in this section, in the case of the taxes imposed by sections 3101 (b) and 3111 (b) with respect to service performed in the employ of a State or any political subdivision thereof (or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby), the return and payment of such taxes may be made by the head of the agency or instrumentality having the control of such service, or by such agents as such head may designate. The person making such return may, for convenience of administration, make payments of the tax imposed under section 3111 with respect to the service of such individuals without regard to the contribution and benefit base limitation in section 3121 (a)(1).
(b) Guam 
The return and payment of the taxes imposed by this chapter on the income of individuals who are officers or employees of the Government of Guam or any political subdivision thereof or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, and those imposed on such Government or political subdivision or instrumentality with respect to having such individuals in its employ, may be made by the Governor of Guam or by such agents as he may designate. The person making such return may, for convenience of administration, make payments of the tax imposed under section 3111 with respect to the service of such individuals without regard to the contribution and benefit base limitation in section 3121 (a)(1).
(c) American Samoa 
The return and payment of the taxes imposed by this chapter on the income of individuals who are officers or employees of the Government of American Samoa or any political subdivision thereof or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, and those imposed on such Government or political subdivision or instrumentality with respect to having such individuals in its employ, may be made by the Governor of American Samoa or by such agents as he may designate. The person making such return may, for convenience of administration, make payments of the tax imposed under section 3111 with respect to the service of such individuals without regard to the contribution and benefit base limitation in section 3121 (a)(1).
(d) District of Columbia 
In the case of the taxes imposed by this chapter with respect to service performed in the employ of the District of Columbia or in the employ of any instrumentality which is wholly owned thereby, the return and payment of the taxes may be made by the Mayor of the District of Columbia or such agents as he may designate. The person making such return may, for convenience of administration, make payments of the tax imposed by section 3111 with respect to such service without regard to the contribution and benefit base limitation in section 3121 (a)(1).

26 USC 3126 - Return and payment by governmental employer

If the employer is a State or political subdivision thereof, or an agency or instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing, the return of the amount deducted and withheld upon any wages under section 3101 and the amount of the tax imposed by section 3111 may be made by any officer or employee of such State or political subdivision or such agency or instrumentality, as the case may be, having control of the payment of such wages, or appropriately designated for that purpose.

26 USC 3127 - Exemption for employers and their employees where both are members of religious faiths opposed to participation in Social Security Act programs

(a) In general 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter (and under regulations prescribed to carry out this section), in any case where
(1) an employer (or, if the employer is a partnership, each partner therein) is a member of a recognized religious sect or division thereof described in section 1402 (g)(1) and an adherent of established tenets or teachings of such sect or division as described in such section, and has filed and had approved under subsection (b) an application (in such form and manner, and with such official, as may be prescribed by such regulations) for an exemption from the taxes imposed by section 3111, and
(2) an employee of such employer who is also a member of such a religious sect or division and an adherent of its established tenets or teachings has filed and had approved under subsection (b) an identical application for exemption from the taxes imposed by section 3101,

such employer shall be exempt from the taxes imposed by section 3111 with respect to wages paid to each of the employees thereof who meets the requirements of paragraph (2) and each such employee shall be exempt from the taxes imposed by section 3101 with respect to such wages paid to him by such employer.

(b) Approval of application 
An application for exemption filed by an employer (or a partner) under subsection (a)(1) or by an employee under subsection (a)(2) shall be approved only if
(1) such application contains or is accompanied by the evidence described in section 1402 (g)(1)(A) and a waiver described in section 1402 (g)(1)(B),
(2) the Commissioner of Social Security makes the findings (with respect to such sect or division) described in section 1402 (g)(1)(C), (D), and (E), and
(3) no benefit or other payment referred to in section 1402 (g)(1)(B) became payable (or, but for section 203 or 222(b)1 of the Social Security Act, would have become payable) to the individual filing the application at or before the time of such filing.
(c) Effective period of exemption 
An exemption granted under this section to any employer with respect to wages paid to any of the employees thereof, or granted to any such employee, shall apply with respect to wages paid by such employer during the period
(1) commencing with the first day of the first calendar quarter, after the quarter in which such application is filed, throughout which such employer (or, if the employer is a partnership, each partner therein) or employee meets the applicable requirements specified in subsections (a) and (b), and
(2) ending with the last day of the calendar quarter preceding the first calendar quarter thereafter in which (A) such employer (or, if the employer is a partnership, any partner therein) or the employee involved does not meet the applicable requirements of subsection (a), or (B) the sect or division thereof of which such employer (or, if the employer is a partnership, any partner therein) or employee is a member is found by the Commissioner of Social Security to have ceased to meet the requirements of subsection (b)(2).
[1] See References in Text note below.

26 USC 3128 - Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Federal Insurance Contributions Act.

TITLE 26 - US CODE - CHAPTER 22 - RAILROAD RETIREMENT TAX ACT

Subchapter A - Tax on Employees

26 USC 3201 - Rate of tax

(a) Tier 1 tax 
In addition to other taxes, there is hereby imposed on the income of each employee a tax equal to the applicable percentage of the compensation received during any calendar year by such employee for services rendered by such employee. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term applicable percentage means the percentage equal to the sum of the rates of tax in effect under subsections (a) and (b) of section 3101 for the calendar year.
(b) Tier 2 tax 

(1) In general 
In addition to other taxes, there is hereby imposed on the income of each employee a tax equal to the applicable percentage of the compensation received during any calendar year by such employee for services rendered by such employee.
(2) Applicable percentage 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term applicable percentage means
(A) 4.90 percent in the case of compensation received during 2002 or 2003, and
(B) in the case of compensation received during any calendar year after 2003, the percentage determined under section 3241 for such calendar year.
(c) Cross reference 
For application of different contribution bases with respect to the taxes imposed by subsections (a) and (b), see section 3231 (e)(2).

26 USC 3202 - Deduction of tax from compensation

(a) Requirement 
The taxes imposed by section 3201 shall be collected by the employer of the taxpayer by deducting the amount of the taxes from the compensation of the employee as and when paid. An employer who is furnished by an employee a written statement of tips (received in a calendar month) pursuant to section 6053 (a) to which paragraph (3) of section 3231 (e) is applicable may deduct an amount equivalent to such taxes with respect to such tips from any compensation of the employee (exclusive of tips) under his control, even though at the time such statement is furnished the total amount of the tips included in statements furnished to the employer as having been received by the employee in such calendar month in the course of his employment by such employer is less than $20.
(b) Indemnification of employer 
Every employer required under subsection (a) to deduct the tax shall be liable for the payment of such tax and shall not be liable to any person for the amount of any such payment.
(c) Special rule for tips 

(1) In the case of tips which constitute compensation, subsection (a) shall be applicable only to such tips as are included in a written statement furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a), and only to the extent that collection can be made by the employer, at or after the time such statement is so furnished and before the close of the 10th day following the calendar month (or, if paragraph (3) applies, the 30th day following the quarter) in which the tips were deemed paid, by deducting the amount of the tax from such compensation of the employee (excluding tips, but including funds turned over by the employee to the employer pursuant to paragraph (2)) as are under control of the employer.
(2) If the taxes imposed by section 3201, with respect to tips which are included in written statements furnished in any month to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a), exceed the compensation of the employee (excluding tips) from which the employer is required to collect the taxes under paragraph (1), the employee may furnish to the employer on or before the 10th day of the following month (or, if paragraph (3) applies, on or before the 30th day of the following quarter) an amount of money equal to the amount of the excess.
(3) The Secretary may, under regulations prescribed by him, authorize employers
(A) to estimate the amount of tips that will be reported by the employee pursuant to section 6053 (a) in any quarter of the calendar year,
(B) to determine the amount to be deducted upon each payment of compensation (exclusive of tips) during such quarter as if the tips so estimated constituted actual tips so reported, and
(C) to deduct upon any payment of compensation (other than tips, but including funds turned over by the employee to the employer pursuant to paragraph (2)) to such employee during such quarter (and within 30 days thereafter) such amount as may be necessary to adjust the amount actually deducted upon such compensation of the employee during the quarter to the amount required to be deducted in respect of tips included in written statements furnished to the employer during the quarter.
(4) If the taxes imposed by section 3201 with respect to tips which constitute compensation exceed the portion of such taxes which can be collected by the employer from the compensation of the employee pursuant to paragraph (1) or paragraph (3), such excess shall be paid by the employee.
(d) Special rule for certain taxable group-term life insurance benefits 

(1) In general 
In the case of any payment for group-term life insurance to which this subsection applies
(A) subsection (a) shall not apply,
(B) the employer shall separately include on the statement required under section 6051
(i) the portion of the compensation which consists of payments for group-term life insurance to which this subsection applies, and
(ii) the amount of the tax imposed by section 3201 on such payments, and
(C) the tax imposed by section 3201 on such payments shall be paid by the employee.
(2) Benefits to which subsection applies 
This subsection shall apply to any payment for group-term life insurance to the extent
(A) such payment constitutes compensation, and
(B) such payment is for coverage for periods during which an employment relationship no longer exists between the employee and the employer.

Subchapter B - Tax on Employee Representatives

26 USC 3211 - Rate of tax

(a) Tier 1 tax 
In addition to other taxes, there is hereby imposed on the income of each employee representative a tax equal to the applicable percentage of the compensation received during any calendar year by such employee representative for services rendered by such employee representative. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term applicable percentage means the percentage equal to the sum of the rates of tax in effect under subsections (a) and (b) of section 3101 and subsections (a) and (b) of section 3111 for the calendar year.
(b) Tier 2 tax 

(1) In general 
In addition to other taxes, there is hereby imposed on the income of each employee representative a tax equal to the applicable percentage of the compensation received during any calendar year by such employee representatives for services rendered by such employee representative.
(2) Applicable percentage 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term applicable percentage means
(A) 14.75 percent in the case of compensation received during 2002,
(B) 14.20 percent in the case of compensation received during 2003, and
(C) in the case of compensation received during any calendar year after 2003, the percentage determined under section 3241 for such calendar year.
(c) Cross reference 
For application of different contribution bases with respect to the taxes imposed by subsections (a) and (b), see section 3231 (e)(2).

26 USC 3212 - Determination of compensation

The compensation of an employee representative for the purpose of ascertaining the tax thereon shall be determined in the same manner and with the same effect as if the employee organization by which such employee representative is employed were an employer as defined in section 3231 (a).

Subchapter C - Tax on Employers

26 USC 3221 - Rate of tax

(a) Tier 1 tax 
In addition to other taxes, there is hereby imposed on every employer an excise tax, with respect to having individuals in his employ, equal to the applicable percentage of compensation paid during any calendar year by such employer for services rendered to such employer. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term applicable percentage means the percentage equal to the sum of the rates of tax in effect under subsections (a) and (b) of section 3111 for the calendar year.
(b) Tier 2 tax 

(1) In general 
In addition to other taxes, there is hereby imposed on every employer an excise tax, with respect to having individuals in his employ, equal to the applicable percentage of the compensation paid during any calendar year by such employer for services rendered to such employer.
(2) Applicable percentage 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term applicable percentage means
(A) 15.6 percent in the case of compensation paid during 2002,
(B) 14.2 percent in the case of compensation paid during 2003, and
(C) in the case of compensation paid during any calendar year after 2003, the percentage determined under section 3241 for such calendar year.
(c) Cross reference 
For application of different contribution bases with respect to the taxes imposed by subsections (a) and (b), see section 3231 (e)(2).

Subchapter D - General Provisions

26 USC 3231 - Definitions

(a) Employer 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employer means any carrier (as defined in subsection (g)), and any company which is directly or indirectly owned or controlled by one or more such carriers or under common control therewith, and which operates any equipment or facility or performs any service (except trucking service, casual service, and the casual operation of equipment or facilities) in connection with the transportation of passengers or property by railroad, or the receipt, delivery, elevation, transfer in transit, refrigeration or icing, storage, or handling of property transported by railroad, and any receiver, trustee, or other individual or body, judicial or otherwise, when in the possession of the property or operating all or any part of the business of any such employer; except that the term employer shall not include any street, interurban, or suburban electric railway, unless such railway is operating as a part of a general steam-railroad system of transportation, but shall not exclude any part of the general steam-railroad system of transportation now or hereafter operated by any other motive power. The Surface Transportation Board is hereby authorized and directed upon request of the Secretary, or upon complaint of any party interested, to determine after hearing whether any line operated by electric power falls within the terms of this exception. The term employer shall also include railroad associations, traffic associations, tariff bureaus, demurrage bureaus, weighing and inspection bureaus, collection agencies and other associations, bureaus, agencies, or organizations controlled and maintained wholly or principally by two or more employers as hereinbefore defined and engaged in the performance of services in connection with or incidental to railroad transportation; and railway labor organizations, national in scope, which have been or may be organized in accordance with the provisions of the Railway Labor Act, as amended (45 U.S.C., chapter 8), and their State and National legislative committees and their general committees and their insurance departments and their local lodges and divisions, established pursuant to the constitutions and bylaws of such organizations. The term employer shall not include any company by reason of its being engaged in the mining of coal, the supplying of coal to an employer where delivery is not beyond the mine tipple, and the operation of equipment or facilities therefor, or in any of such activities.
(b) Employee 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employee means any individual in the service of one or more employers for compensation; except that the term employee shall include an employee of a local lodge or division defined as an employer in subsection (a) only if he was in the service of or in the employment relation to a carrier on or after August 29, 1935. An individual shall be deemed to have been in the employment relation to a carrier on August 29, 1935, if
(1) he was on that date on leave of absence from his employment, expressly granted to him by the carrier by whom he was employed, or by a duly authorized representative of such carrier, and the grant of such leave of absence was established to the satisfaction of the Railroad Retirement Board before July 1947; or
(2) he was in the service of a carrier after August 29, 1935, and before January 1946 in each of 6 calendar months, whether or not consecutive; or
(3) before August 29, 1935, he did not retire and was not retired or discharged from the service of the last carrier by whom he was employed or its corporate or operating successor, but
(A) solely by reason of his physical or mental disability he ceased before August 29, 1935, to be in the service of such carrier and thereafter remained continuously disabled until he attained age 65 or until August 1945, or
(B) solely for such last stated reason a carrier by whom he was employed before August 29, 1935, or a carrier who is its successor did not on or after August 29, 1935, and before August 1945 call him to return to service, or
(C) if he was so called he was solely for such reason unable to render service in 6 calendar months as provided in paragraph (2); or
(4) he was on August 29, 1935, absent from the service of a carrier by reason of a discharge which, within 1 year after the effective date thereof, was protested, to an appropriate labor representative or to the carrier, as wrongful, and which was followed within 10 years of the effective date thereof by his reinstatement in good faith to his former service with all his seniority rights;

except that an individual shall not be deemed to have been on August 29, 1935, in the employment relation to a carrier if before that date he was granted a pension or gratuity on the basis of which a pension was awarded to him pursuant to section 6 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 (45 U.S.C. 228f), or if during the last payroll period before August 29, 1935, in which he rendered service to a carrier he was not in the service of an employer, in accordance with subsection (d), with respect to any service in such payroll period, or if he could have been in the employment relation to an employer only by reason of his having been, either before or after August 29, 1935, in the service of a local lodge or division defined as an employer in subsection (a). The term employee includes an officer of an employer. The term employee shall not include any individual while such individual is engaged in the physical operations consisting of the mining of coal, the preparation of coal, the handling (other than movement by rail with standard railroad locomotives) of coal not beyond the mine tipple, or the loading of coal at the tipple.

(c) Employee representative 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employee representative means any officer or official representative of a railway labor organization other than a labor organization included in the term employer as defined in subsection (a), who before or after June 29, 1937, was in the service of an employer as defined in subsection (a) and who is duly authorized and designated to represent employees in accordance with the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C., chapter 8), as amended, and any individual who is regularly assigned to or regularly employed by such officer or official representative in connection with the duties of his office.
(d) Service 
For purposes of this chapter, an individual is in the service of an employer whether his service is rendered within or without the United States, if
(1) he is subject to the continuing authority of the employer to supervise and direct the manner of rendition of his service, or he is rendering professional or technical services and is integrated into the staff of the employer, or he is rendering, on the property used in the employers operations, other personal services the rendition of which is integrated into the employers operations, and
(2) he renders such service for compensation; except that an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of an employer, other than a local lodge or division or a general committee of a railway-labor-organization employer, not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States, only when he is rendering service to it in the United States; and an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such a local lodge or division only if
(3) all, or substantially all, the individuals constituting its membership are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or
(4) the headquarters of such local lodge or division is located in the United States; and an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such a general committee only if
(5) he is representing a local lodge or division described in paragraph (3) or (4) immediately above; or
(6) all, or substantially all, the individuals represented by it are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or
(7) he acts in the capacity of a general chairman or an assistant general chairman of a general committee which represents individuals rendering service in the United States to an employer, but in such case if his office or headquarters is not located in the United States and the individuals represented by such general committee are employees of an employer not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States, only such proportion of the remuneration for such service shall be regarded as compensation as the proportion which the mileage in the United States under the jurisdiction of such general committee bears to the total mileage under its jurisdiction, unless such mileage formula is inapplicable, in which case such other formula as the Railroad Retirement Board may have prescribed pursuant to section 1(c) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 (45 U.S.C. 228a) shall be applicable, and if the application of such mileage formula, or such other formula as the Board may prescribe, would result in the compensation of the individual being less than 10 percent of his remuneration for such service, no part of such remuneration shall be regarded as compensation; Provided however, That an individual not a citizen or resident of the United States shall not be deemed to be in the service of an employer when rendering service outside the United States to an employer who is required under the laws applicable in the place where the service is rendered to employ therein, in whole or in part, citizens or residents thereof; and the laws applicable on August 29, 1935, in the place where the service is rendered shall be deemed to have been applicable there at all times prior to that date.
(e) Compensation 
For purposes of this chapter
(1) The term compensation means any form of money remuneration paid to an individual for services rendered as an employee to one or more employers. Such term does not include
(i)  the amount of any payment (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents under a plan or system established by an employer which makes provision for his employees generally (or for his employees generally and their dependents) or for a class or classes of his employees (or for a class or classes of his employees and their dependents), on account of sickness or accident disability or medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability or death, except that this clause does not apply to a payment for group-term life insurance to the extent that such payment is includible in the gross income of the employee,
(ii)  tips (except as is provided under paragraph (3)), (iii) an amount paid specificallyeither as an advance, as reimbursement or allowancefor traveling or other bona fide and necessary expenses incurred or reasonably expected to be incurred in the business of the employer provided any such payment is identified by the employer either by a separate payment or by specifically indicating the separate amounts where both wages and expense reimbursement or allowance are combined in a single payment, or
(iv)  any remuneration which would not (if chapter 21 applied to such remuneration) be treated as wages (as defined in section 3121 (a)) by reason of section 3121 (a)(5). Such term does not include remuneration for service which is performed by a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended, and which is performed to carry out the purpose specified in subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q), as the case may be. For the purpose of determining the amount of taxes under sections 3201 and 3221, compensation earned in the service of a local lodge or division of a railway-labor-organization employer shall be disregarded with respect to any calendar month if the amount thereof is less than $25. Compensation for service as a delegate to a national or international convention of a railway labor organization defined as an employer in subsection (a) of this section shall be disregarded for purposes of determining the amount of taxes due pursuant to this chapter if the individual rendering such service has not previously rendered service, other than as such a delegate, which may be included in his years of service for purposes of the Railroad Retirement Act. Nothing in the regulations prescribed for purposes of chapter 24 (relating to wage withholding) which provides an exclusion from wages as used in such chapter shall be construed to require a similar exclusion from compensation in regulations prescribed for purposes of this chapter.
(2) Application of contribution bases 

(A) Compensation in excess of applicable base excluded 

(i) In general The term compensation does not include that part of remuneration paid during any calendar year to an individual by an employer after remuneration equal to the applicable base has been paid during such calendar year to such individual by such employer for services rendered as an employee to such employer.
(ii) Remuneration not treated as compensation excluded There shall not be taken into account under clause (i) remuneration which (without regard to clause (i)) is not treated as compensation under this subsection.
(iii) Hospital insurance taxes Clause (i) shall not apply to
(I) so much of the rate applicable under section 3201 (a) or 3221 (a) as does not exceed the rate of tax in effect under section 3101 (b), and
(II) so much of the rate applicable under section 3211 (a) as does not exceed the rate of tax in effect under section 1401 (b).
(B) Applicable base 

(i) Tier 1 taxes Except as provided in clause (ii), the term applicable base means for any calendar year the contribution and benefit base determined under section 230 of the Social Security Act for such calendar year.
(ii) Tier 2 taxes, etc. For purposes of
(I) the taxes imposed by sections 3201 (b), 3211 (b), and 3221 (b), and
(II) computing average monthly compensation under section 3(j) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 (except with respect to annuity amounts determined under subsection (a) or (f)(3) of section 3 of such Act),

clause (2) of the first sentence, and the second sentence, of subsection (c) of section 230 of the Social Security Act shall be disregarded.

(C) Successor employers 
For purposes of this paragraph, the second sentence of section 3121 (a)(1) (relating to successor employers) shall apply, except that
(i) the term services shall be substituted for employment each place it appears,
(ii) the term compensation shall be substituted for remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) each place it appears, and
(iii) the terms employer, services, and compensation shall have the meanings given such terms by this section.
(3) Solely for purposes of the taxes imposed by section 3201 and other provisions of this chapter insofar as they relate to such taxes, the term compensation also includes cash tips received by an employee in any calendar month in the course of his employment by an employer unless the amount of such cash tips is less than $20.
(4) 
(A) For purposes of applying sections 3201 (a), 3211 (a), and 3221 (a), in the case of payments made to an employee or any of his dependents on account of sickness or accident disability, clause (i) of the second sentence of paragraph (1) shall exclude from the term compensation only
(i) payments which are received under a workmens compensation law, and
(ii) benefits received under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974.
(B) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of the sections specified in subparagraph (A), the term compensation shall include benefits paid under section 2(a) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act for days of sickness, except to the extent that such sickness (as determined in accordance with standards prescribed by the Railroad Retirement Board) is the result of on-the-job injury.
(C) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not apply to payments made after the expiration of a 6-month period comparable to the 6-month period described in section 3121 (a)(4).
(D) Except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any third party which makes a payment included in compensation solely by reason of subparagraph (A) or (B) shall be treated for purposes of this chapter as the employer with respect to such compensation.
(5) The term compensation shall not include any benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee if at the time such benefit is provided it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such benefit from income under section 74 (c), 108 (f)(4), 117, or 132.
(6) The term compensation shall not include any payment made, or benefit furnished, to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment or such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment or benefit from income under section 127.
(7) The term compensation shall not include any contribution, payment, or service provided by an employer which may be excluded from the gross income of an employee, his spouse, or his dependents, under the provisions of section 120 (relating to amounts received under qualified group legal services plans).
(8) Treatment of certain deferred compensation and salary reduction arrangements 

(A) Certain employer contributions treated as compensation 
Nothing in any paragraph of this subsection (other than paragraph (2)) shall exclude from the term compensation any amount described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 3121 (v)(1).
(B) Treatment of certain nonqualified deferred compensation 
The rules of section 3121 (v)(2) which apply for purposes of chapter 21 shall also apply for purposes of this chapter.
(9) Meals and lodging 
The term compensation shall not include the value of meals or lodging furnished by or on behalf of the employer if at the time of such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such items from income under section 119.
(10) Archer MSA contributions 
The term compensation shall not include any payment made to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment from income under section 106 (b).
(11) Health savings account contributions 
The term compensation shall not include any payment made to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment from income under section 106 (d).
(12) Qualified stock options 
The term compensation shall not include any remuneration on account of
(A) a transfer of a share of stock to any individual pursuant to an exercise of an incentive stock option (as defined in section 422 (b)) or under an employee stock purchase plan (as defined in section 423 (b)), or
(B) any disposition by the individual of such stock.
(f) Company 
For purposes of this chapter, the term company includes corporations, associations, and joint-stock companies.
(g) Carrier 
For purposes of this chapter, the term carrier means a rail carrier subject to part A of subtitle IV of title 49.
(h) Tips constituting compensation, time deemed paid 
For purposes of this chapter, tips which constitute compensation for purposes of the taxes imposed by section 3201 shall be deemed to be paid at the time a written statement including such tips is furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a) or (if no statement including such tips is so furnished) at the time received.
(i) Concurrent employment by 2 or more employers 
For purposes of this chapter, if 2 or more related corporations which are employers concurrently employ the same individual and compensate such individual through a common paymaster which is 1 of such corporations, each such corporation shall be considered to have paid as remuneration to such individual only the amounts actually disbursed by it to such individual and shall not be considered to have paid as remuneration to such individual amounts actually disbursed to such individual by another of such corporations.

26 USC 3232 - Court jurisdiction

The several district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to entertain an application by the Attorney General on behalf of the Secretary to compel an employee or other person residing within the jurisdiction of the court or an employer subject to service of process within its jurisdiction to comply with any obligations imposed on such employee, employer, or other person under the provisions of this chapter. The jurisdiction herein specifically conferred upon such Federal courts shall not be held exclusive of any jurisdiction otherwise possessed by such courts to entertain civil actions, whether legal or equitable in nature, in aid of the enforcement of rights or obligations arising under the provisions of this chapter.

26 USC 3233 - Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

Subchapter E - Tier 2 Tax Rate Determination

26 USC 3241 - Determination of tier 2 tax rate based on average account benefits ratio

(a) In general 
For purposes of sections 3201 (b), 3211 (b), and 3221 (b), the applicable percentage for any calendar year is the percentage determined in accordance with the table in subsection (b).
(b) Tax rate schedule 
(c) Definitions related to determination of rates of tax 

(1) Average account benefits ratio 
For purposes of this section, the term average account benefits ratio means, with respect to any calendar year, the average determined by the Secretary of the account benefits ratios for the 10 most recent fiscal years ending before such calendar year. If the amount determined under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of 0.1, such amount shall be increased to the next highest multiple of 0.1.
(2) Account benefits ratio 
For purposes of this section, the term account benefits ratio means, with respect to any fiscal year, the amount determined by the Railroad Retirement Board by dividing the fair market value of the assets in the Railroad Retirement Account and of the National Railroad Retirement Investment Trust (and for years before 2002, the Social Security Equivalent Benefits Account) as of the close of such fiscal year by the total benefits and administrative expenses paid from the Railroad Retirement Account and the National Railroad Retirement Investment Trust during such fiscal year.
(d) Notice 
No later than December 1 of each calendar year, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register of the rates of tax determined under this section which are applicable for the following calendar year.

TITLE 26 - US CODE - CHAPTER 23 - FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT

26 USC 3301 - Rate of tax

There is hereby imposed on every employer (as defined in section 3306 (a)) for each calendar year an excise tax, with respect to having individuals in his employ, equal to
(1) 6.2 percent in the case of calendar years 1988 through 2008; or
(2) 6.0 percent in the case of calendar year 2009 and each calendar year thereafter;

of the total wages (as defined in section 3306 (b)) paid by him during the calendar year with respect to employment (as defined in section 3306 (c)).

26 USC 3302 - Credits against tax

(a) Contributions to State unemployment funds 

(1) The taxpayer may, to the extent provided in this subsection and subsection (c), credit against the tax imposed by section 3301 the amount of contributions paid by him into an unemployment fund maintained during the taxable year under the unemployment compensation law of a State which is certified as provided in section 3304 for the 12-month period ending on October 31 of such year.
(2) The credit shall be permitted against the tax for the taxable year only for the amount of contributions paid with respect to such taxable year.
(3) The credit against the tax for any taxable year shall be permitted only for contributions paid on or before the last day upon which the taxpayer is required under section 6071 to file a return for such year; except that credit shall be permitted for contributions paid after such last day, but such credit shall not exceed 90 percent of the amount which would have been allowable as credit on account of such contributions had they been paid on or before such last day.
(4) Upon the payment of contributions into the unemployment fund of a State which are required under the unemployment compensation law of that State with respect to remuneration on the basis of which, prior to such payment into the proper fund, the taxpayer erroneously paid an amount as contributions under another unemployment compensation law, the payment into the proper fund shall, for purposes of credit against the tax, be deemed to have been made at the time of the erroneous payment. If, by reason of such other law, the taxpayer was entitled to cease paying contributions with respect to services subject to such other law, the payment into the proper fund shall, for purposes of credit against the tax, be deemed to have been made on the date the return for the taxable year was filed under section 6071.
(5) In the case of wages paid by the trustee of an estate under title 11 of the United States Code, if the failure to pay contributions on time was without fault by the trustee, paragraph (3) shall be applied by substituting 100 percent for 90 percent.
(b) Additional credit 
In addition to the credit allowed under subsection (a), a taxpayer may credit against the tax imposed by section 3301 for any taxable year an amount, with respect to the unemployment compensation law of each State certified as provided in section 3303 for the 12-month period ending on October 31 of such year, or with respect to any provisions thereof so certified, equal to the amount, if any, by which the contributions required to be paid by him with respect to the taxable year were less than the contributions such taxpayer would have been required to pay if throughout the taxable year he had been subject under such State law to the highest rate applied thereunder in such 12-month period to any person having individuals in his employ, or to a rate of 5.4 percent, whichever rate is lower.
(c) Limit on total credits 

(1) The total credits allowed to a taxpayer under this section shall not exceed 90 percent of the tax against which such credits are allowable.
(2) If an advance or advances have been made to the unemployment account of a State under title XII of the Social Security Act, then the total credits (after applying subsections (a) and (b) and paragraph (1) of this subsection) otherwise allowable under this section for the taxable year in the case of a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of such State shall be reduced
(A) 
(i) in the case of a taxable year beginning with the second consecutive January 1 as of the beginning of which there is a balance of such advances, by 5 percent of the tax imposed by section 3301 with respect to the wages paid by such taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State; and
(ii) in the case of any succeeding taxable year beginning with a consecutive January 1 as of the beginning of which there is a balance of such advances, by an additional 5 percent, for each such succeeding taxable year, of the tax imposed by section 3301 with respect to the wages paid by such taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State;
(B) in the case of a taxable year beginning with the third or fourth consecutive January 1 as of the beginning of which there is a balance of such advances, by the amount determined by multiplying the wages paid by such taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State by the percentage (if any), multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the States average annual wage in covered employment for the calendar year in which the determination is made and the denominator of which is the wage base under this chapter, by which
(i) 2.7 percent multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the wage base under this chapter and the denominator of which is the estimated United States average annual wage in covered employment for the calendar year in which the determination is to be made, exceeds
(ii) the average employer contribution rate for such State for the calendar year preceding such taxable year; and
(C) in the case of a taxable year beginning with the fifth or any succeeding consecutive January 1 as of the beginning of which there is a balance of such advances, by the amount determined by multiplying the wages paid by such taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State by the percentage (if any) by which
(i) the 5-year benefit cost rate applicable to such State for such taxable year or (if higher) 2.7 percent, exceeds
(ii) the average employer contribution rate for such State for the calendar year preceding such taxable year.

The provisions of the preceding sentence shall not be applicable with respect to the taxable year beginning January 1, 1975, or any succeeding taxable year which begins before January 1, 1980; and, for purposes of such sentence, January 1, 1980, shall be deemed to be the first January 1 occurring after January 1, 1974, and consecutive taxable years in the period commencing January 1, 1980, shall be determined as if the taxable year which begins on January 1, 1980, were the taxable year immediately succeeding the taxable year which began on January 1, 1974. Subparagraph (C) shall not apply with respect to any taxable year to which it would otherwise apply (but subparagraph (B) shall apply to such taxable year) if the Secretary of Labor determines (on or before November 10 of such taxable year) that the State meets the requirements of subsection (f)(2)(B) for such taxable year.

(3) If the Secretary of Labor determines that a State, or State agency, has not
(A) entered into the agreement described in section 239 of the Trade Act of 1974, with the Secretary of Labor before July 15, 1975, or
(B) fulfilled its commitments under an agreement with the Secretary of Labor as described in section 239 of the Trade Act of 1974,

then, in the case of a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of such State, the total credits (after applying subsections (a) and (b) and paragraphs (1) and (2) of this section) otherwise allowable under this section for a year during which such State or agency does not enter into or fulfill such an agreement shall be reduced by 71/2 percent of the tax imposed with respect to wages paid by such taxpayer during such year which are attributable to such State.

(d) Definitions and special rules relating to subsection (c) 

(1) Rate of tax deemed to be 6 percent 
In applying subsection (c), the tax imposed by section 3301 shall be computed at the rate of 6 percent in lieu of the rate provided by such section.
(2) Wages attributable to a particular State 
For purposes of subsection (c), wages shall be attributable to a particular State if they are subject to the unemployment compensation law of the State, or (if not subject to the unemployment compensation law of any State) if they are determined (under rules or regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to be attributable to such State.
(3) Additional taxes inapplicable where advances are repaid before November 10 of taxable year 
Paragraph (2) of subsection (c) shall not apply with respect to any State for the taxable year if (as of the beginning of November 10 of such year) there is no balance of advances referred to in such paragraph.
(4) Average employer contribution rate 
For purposes of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subsection (c)(2), the average employer contribution rate for any State for any calendar year is that percentage obtained by dividing
(A) the total of the contributions paid into the State unemployment fund with respect to such calendar year, by
(B) 
(i) for purposes of subparagraph (B) of subsection (c)(2), the total of the wages (as determined without any limitation on amount) attributable to such State subject to contributions under this chapter with respect to such calendar year, and
(ii) for purposes of subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(2), the total of the remuneration subject to contributions under the State unemployment compensation law with respect to such calendar year.

For purposes of subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(2), if the average employer contribution rate for any State for any calendar year (determined without regard to this sentence) equals or exceeds 2.7 percent, such rate shall be determined by increasing the amount taken into account under subparagraph (A) of the preceding sentence by the aggregate amount of employee payments (if any) into the unemployment fund of such State with respect to such calendar year which are to be used solely in the payment of unemployment compensation.

(5) 5-year benefit cost rate 
For purposes of subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(2), the 5-year benefit cost rate applicable to any State for any taxable year is that percentage obtained by dividing
(A) one-fifth of the total of the compensation paid under the State unemployment compensation law during the 5-year period ending at the close of the second calendar year preceding such taxable year, by
(B) the total of the remuneration subject to contributions under the State unemployment compensation law with respect to the first calendar year preceding such taxable year.
(6) Rounding 
If any percentage referred to in either subparagraph (B) or (C) of subsection (c)(2) is not a multiple of .1 percent, it shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of .1 percent.
(7) Determination and certification of percentages 
The percentage referred to in subsection (c)(2)(B) or (C) for any taxable year for any State having a balance referred to therein shall be determined by the Secretary of Labor, and shall be certified by him to the Secretary of the Treasury before June 1 of such year, on the basis of a report furnished by such State to the Secretary of Labor before May 1 of such year. Any such State report shall be made as of the close of March 31 of the taxable year, and shall be made on such forms, and shall contain such information, as the Secretary of Labor deems necessary to the performance of his duties under this section.
(e) Successor employer 
Subject to the limits provided by subsection (c), if
(1) an employer acquires during any calendar year substantially all the property used in the trade or business of another person, or used in a separate unit of a trade or business of such other person, and immediately after the acquisition employs in his trade or business one or more individuals who immediately prior to the acquisition were employed in the trade or business of such other person, and
(2) such other person is not an employer for the calendar year in which the acquisition takes place,

then, for the calendar year in which the acquisition takes place, in addition to the credits allowed under subsections (a) and (b), such employer may credit against the tax imposed by section 3301 for such year an amount equal to the credits which (without regard to subsection (c)) would have been allowable to such other person under subsections (a) and (b) and this subsection for such year, if such other person had been an employer, with respect to remuneration subject to contributions under the unemployment compensation law of a State paid by such other person to the individual or individuals described in paragraph (1).

(f) Limitation on credit reduction 

(1) Limitation 
In the case of any State which meets the requirements of paragraph (2) with respect to any taxable year the reduction under subsection (c)(2) in credits otherwise applicable to taxpayers subject to the unemployment compensation law of such State shall not exceed the greater of
(A) the reduction which was in effect with respect to such State under subsection (c)(2) for the preceding taxable year, or
(B) 0.6 percent of the wages paid by the taxpayer during such taxable year which are attributable to such State.
(2) Requirements 
The requirements of this paragraph are met by any State with respect to any taxable year if the Secretary of Labor determines (on or before November 10 of such taxable year) that
(A) no State action was taken during the 12-month period ending on September 30 of such taxable year (excluding any action required under State law as in effect prior to the date of the enactment of this subsection) which has resulted or will result in a reduction in such States unemployment tax effort (as defined by the Secretary of Labor in regulations),
(B) no State action was taken during the 12-month period ending on September 30 of such taxable year (excluding any action required under State law as in effect prior to the date of the enactment of this subsection) which has resulted or will result in a net decrease in the solvency of the State unemployment compensation system (as defined by the Secretary of Labor in regulations),
(C) the State unemployment tax rate for the taxable year equals or exceeds the average benefit cost ratio for calendar years in the 5-calendar year period ending with the last calendar year before the taxable year, and
(D) the outstanding balance for such State of advances under title XII of the Social Security Act on September 30 of such taxable year was not greater than the outstanding balance for such State of such advances on September 30 of the third preceding taxable year (or, for purposes of applying this subparagraph to taxable year 1983, September 30, 1981).

The requirements of subparagraphs (C) and (D) shall not apply to taxable years 1981 and 1982.

(3) Credit reductions for subsequent years 
If the credit reduction under subsection (c)(2) is limited by reason of paragraph (1) of this subsection for any taxable year, for purposes of applying subsection (c)(2) to subsequent taxable years (including years after 1987), the taxable year for which the credit reduction was so limited (and January 1 thereof) shall not be taken into account.
(4) State unemployment tax rate 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The State unemployment tax rate for any taxable year is the percentage obtained by dividing
(i) the total amount of contributions paid into the State unemployment fund with respect to such taxable year, by
(ii) the total amount of the remuneration subject to contributions under the State unemployment compensation law with respect to such taxable year (determined without regard to any limitation on the amount of wages subject to contribution under the State law).
(B) Treatment of additional tax under this chapter 

(i) Taxable year 1983 In the case of taxable year 1983, any additional tax imposed under this chapter with respect to any State by reason of subsection (c)(2) shall be treated as contributions paid into the State unemployment fund with respect to such taxable year.
(ii) Taxable year 1984 In the case of taxable year 1984, any additional tax imposed under this chapter with respect to any State by reason of subsection (c)(2) shall (to the extent such additional tax is attributable to a credit reduction in excess of 0.6 of wages attributable to such State) be treated as contributions paid into the State unemployment fund with respect to such taxable year.
(5) Benefit cost ratio 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The benefit cost ratio for any calendar year is the percentage determined by dividing
(i) the sum of the total of the compensation paid under the State unemployment compensation law during such calendar year and any interest paid during such calendar year on advances made to the State under title XII of the Social Security Act, by
(ii) the total amount of the remuneration subject to contributions under the State unemployment compensation law with respect to such calendar year (determined without regard to any limitation on the amount of remuneration subject to contribution under the State law).
(B) Reimbursable benefits not taken into account 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), compensation shall not be taken into account to the extent
(i) the State is entitled to reimbursement for such compensation under the provisions of any Federal law, or
(ii) such compensation is attributable to services performed for a reimbursing employer.
(C) Reimbursing employer 
The term reimbursing employer means any governmental entity or other organization (or group of governmental entities or any other organizations) which makes reimbursements in lieu of contributions to the State unemployment fund.
(D) Special rules for years before 1985 

(i) Taxable year 1983 For purposes of determining whether a State meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(C) for taxable year 1983, only regular compensation (as defined in section 205 of the Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 1970) shall be taken into account for purposes of determining the benefit ratio for any preceding calendar year before 1982.
(ii) Taxable year 1984 For purposes of determining whether a State meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(C) for taxable year 1984, only regular compensation (as so defined) shall be taken into account for purposes of determining the benefit ratio for any preceding calendar year before 1981.
(E) Rounding 
If any percentage determined under subparagraph (A) is not a multiple of .1 percent, such percentage shall be reduced to the nearest multiple of .1 percent.
(6) Reports 
The Secretary of Labor may, by regulations, require a State to furnish such information at such time and in such manner as may be necessary for purposes of this subsection.
(7) Definitions and special rules 
The definitions and special rules set forth in subsection (d) shall apply to this subsection in the same manner as they apply to subsection (c).
(8) Partial limitation 

(A) In the case of a State which would meet the requirements of this subsection for a taxable year prior to 1986 but for its failure to meet one of the requirements contained in subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (2), the reduction under subsection (c)(2) in credits otherwise applicable to taxpayers in such State for such taxable year and each subsequent year (in a period of consecutive years for each of which a credit reduction is in effect for taxpayers in such State) shall be reduced by 0.1 percentage point.
(B) In the case of a State which does not meet the requirements of paragraph (2) but meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2) and which also meets the requirements of section 1202(b)(8)(B) of the Social Security Act with respect to such taxable year, the reduction under subsection (c)(2) in credits otherwise applicable to taxpayers in such State for such taxable year and each subsequent year (in a period of consecutive years for each of which a credit reduction is in effect for taxpayers in such State) shall be further reduced by an additional 0.1 percentage point.
(C) In no case shall the application of subparagraphs (A) and (B) reduce the credit reduction otherwise applicable under subsection (c)(2) below the limitation under paragraph (1).
(g) Credit reduction not to apply when State makes certain repayments 

(1) In general 
In the case of any State which meets requirements of paragraph (2) with respect to any taxable year, subsection (c)(2) shall not apply to such taxable year; except that such taxable year (and January 1 of such taxable year) shall (except as provided in subsection (f)(3)) be taken into account for purposes of applying subsection (c)(2) to succeeding taxable years.
(2) Requirements 
The requirements of this paragraph are met by any State with respect to any taxable year if the Secretary of Labor determines that
(A) the repayments during the 1-year period ending on November 9 of such taxable year made by such State of advances under title XII of the Social Security Act are not less than the sum of
(i) the potential additional taxes for such taxable year, and
(ii) any advances made to such State during such 1-year period under such title XII,
(B) there will be sufficient amounts in the State unemployment fund to pay all compensation during the 3-month period beginning on November 1 of such taxable year without receiving any advance under title XII of the Social Security Act, and
(C) there is a net increase in the solvency of the State unemployment compensation system for the taxable year attributable to changes made in the State law after the date on which the first advance taken into account in determining the amount of the potential additional taxes was made (or, if later, after the date of the enactment of this subsection) and such net increase equals or exceeds the potential additional taxes for such taxable year.
(3) Definitions 
For purposes of paragraph (2)
(A) Potential additional taxes 
The term potential additional taxes means, with respect to any State for any taxable year, the aggregate amount of the additional tax which would be payable under this chapter for such taxable year by all taxpayers subject to the unemployment compensation law of such State for such taxable year if paragraph (2) of subsection (c) had applied to such taxable year and any preceding taxable year without regard to this subsection but with regard to subsection (f).
(B) Treatment of certain reductions 
Any reduction in the States balance under section 901(d)(1) of the Social Security Act shall not be treated as a repayment made by such State.
(4) Reports 
The Secretary of Labor may require a State to furnish such information at such time and in such manner as may be necessary for purposes of paragraph (2).

26 USC 3303 - Conditions of additional credit allowance

(a) State standards 
A taxpayer shall be allowed an additional credit under section 3302 (b) with respect to any reduced rate of contributions permitted by a State law, only if the Secretary of Labor finds that under such law
(1) no reduced rate of contributions to a pooled fund or to a partially pooled account is permitted to a person (or group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ except on the basis of his (or their) experience with respect to unemployment or other factors bearing a direct relation to unemployment risk during not less than the 3 consecutive years immediately preceding the computation date;
(2) no reduced rate of contributions to a guaranteed employment account is permitted to a person (or a group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ unless
(A) the guaranty of remuneration was fulfilled in the year preceding the computation date; and
(B) the balance of such account amounts to not less than 21/2 percent of that part of the payroll or payrolls for the 3 years preceding the computation date by which contributions to such account were measured; and
(C) such contributions were payable to such account with respect to 3 years preceding the computation date;
(3) no reduced rate of contributions to a reserve account is permitted to a person (or group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ unless
(A) compensation has been payable from such account throughout the year preceding the computation date, and
(B) the balance of such account amounts to not less than five times the largest amount of compensation paid from such account within any 1 of the 3 years preceding such date, and
(C) the balance of such account amounts to not less than 21/2 percent of that part of the payroll or payrolls for the 3 years preceding such date by which contributions to such account were measured, and
(D) such contributions were payable to such account with respect to the 3 years preceding the computation date.

For any person (or group of persons) who has (or have) not been subject to the State law for a period of time sufficient to compute the reduced rates permitted by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection on a 3year basis

(i)  the period of time required may be reduced to the amount of time the person (or group of persons) has (or have) had experience under or has (or have) been subject to the State law, whichever is appropriate, but in no case less than 1 year immediately preceding the computation date, or
(ii)  a reduced rate (not less than 1 percent) may be permitted by the State law on a reasonable basis other than as permitted by paragraph (1), (2), or (3).
(b) Certification by the Secretary of Labor with respect to additional credit allowance 

(1) On October 31 of each calendar year, the Secretary of Labor shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury the law of each State (certified by the Secretary of Labor as provided in section 3304 for the 12-month period ending on such October 31), with respect to which he finds that reduced rates of contributions were allowable with respect to such 12-month period only in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a).
(2) If the Secretary of Labor finds that under the law of a single State (certified by the Secretary of Labor as provided in section 3304) more than one type of fund or account is maintained, and reduced rates of contributions to more than one type of fund or account were allowable with respect to any 12-month period ending on October 31, and one or more of such reduced rates were allowable under conditions not fulfilling the requirements of subsection (a), the Secretary of Labor shall, on such October 31, certify to the Secretary of the Treasury only those provisions of the State law pursuant to which reduced rates of contributions were allowable with respect to such 12-month period under conditions fulfilling the requirements of subsection (a), and shall, in connection therewith, designate the kind of fund or account, as defined in subsection (c), established by the provisions so certified. If the Secretary of Labor finds that a part of any reduced rate of contributions payable under such law or under such provisions is required to be paid into one fund or account and a part into another fund or account, the Secretary of Labor shall make such certification pursuant to this paragraph as he finds will assure the allowance of additional credits only with respect to that part of the reduced rate of contributions which is allowed under provisions which do fulfill the requirements of subsection (a).
(3) The Secretary of Labor shall, within 30 days after any State law is submitted to him for such purpose, certify to the State agency his findings with respect to reduced rates of contributions to a type of fund or account, as defined in subsection (c), which are allowable under such State law only in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a). After making such findings, the Secretary of Labor shall not withhold his certification to the Secretary of the Treasury of such State law, or of the provisions thereof with respect to which such findings were made, for any 12-month period ending on October 31 pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) unless, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency, the Secretary of Labor finds the State law no longer contains the provisions specified in subsection (a) or the State has, with respect to such 12-month period, failed to comply substantially with any such provision.
(c) Definitions 
As used in this section
(1) Reserve account 
The term reserve account means a separate account in an unemployment fund, maintained with respect to a person (or group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ, from which account, unless such account is exhausted, is paid all and only compensation payable on the basis of services performed for such person (or for one or more of the persons comprising the group).
(2) Pooled fund 
The term pooled fund means an unemployment fund or any part thereof (other than a reserve account or a guaranteed employment account) into which the total contributions of persons contributing thereto are payable, in which all contributions are mingled and undivided, and from which compensation is payable to all individuals eligible for compensation from such fund.
(3) Partially pooled account 
The term partially pooled account means a part of an unemployment fund in which part of the fund all contributions thereto are mingled and undivided, and from which part of the fund compensation is payable only to individuals to whom compensation would be payable from a reserve account or from a guaranteed employment account but for the exhaustion or termination of such reserve account or of such guaranteed employment account. Payments from a reserve account or guaranteed employment account into a partially pooled account shall not be construed to be inconsistent with the provisions of paragraph (1) or (4).
(4) Guaranteed employment account 
The term guaranteed employment account means a separate account, in an unemployment fund, maintained with respect to a person (or group of persons) having individuals in his (or their) employ who, in accordance with the provisions of the State law or of a plan thereunder approved by the State agency,
(A) guarantees in advance at least 30 hours of work, for which remuneration will be paid at not less than stated rates, for each of 40 weeks (or if more, 1 weekly hour may be deducted for each added week guaranteed) in a year, to all the individuals who are in his (or their) employ in, and who continue to be available for suitable work in, one or more distinct establishments, except that any such individuals guaranty may commence after a probationary period (included within the 11 or less consecutive weeks immediately following the first week in which the individual renders services), and
(B) gives security or assurance, satisfactory to the State agency, for the fulfillment of such guaranties, from which account, unless such account is exhausted or terminated, is paid all and only compensation, payable on the basis of services performed for such person (or for one or more of the persons comprising the group), to any such individual whose guaranteed remuneration has not been paid (either pursuant to the guaranty or from the security or assurance provided for the fulfillment of the guaranty), or whose guaranty is not renewed and who is otherwise eligible for compensation under the State law.
(5) Year 
The term year means any 12 consecutive calendar months.
(6) Balance 
The term balance, with respect to a reserve account or a guaranteed employment account, means the amount standing to the credit of the account as of the computation date; except that, if subsequent to January 1, 1940, any moneys have been paid into or credited to such account other than payments thereto by persons having individuals in their employ, such term shall mean the amount in such account as of the computation date less the total of such other moneys paid into or credited to such account subsequent to January 1, 1940.
(7) Computation date 
The term computation date means the date, occurring at least once in each calendar year and within 27 weeks prior to the effective date of new rates of contributions, as of which such rates are computed.
(8) Reduced rate 
The term reduced rate means a rate of contributions lower than the standard rate applicable under the State law, and the term standard rate means the rate on the basis of which variations therefrom are computed.
(d) Voluntary contributions 
A State law may, without being deemed to violate the standards set forth in subsection (a), permit voluntary contributions to be used in the computation of reduced rates if such contributions are paid prior to the expiration of 120 days after the beginning of the year for which such rates are effective.
(e) Payments by certain nonprofit organizations 
A State may, without being deemed to violate the standards set forth in subsection (a), permit an organization (or a group of organizations) described in section 501 (c)(3) which is exempt from income tax under section 501 (a) to elect (in lieu of paying contributions) to pay into the State unemployment fund amounts equal to the amounts of compensation attributable under the State law to service performed in the employ of such organization (or group).
(f) Transition 
To facilitate the orderly transition to coverage of service to which section 3309 (a)(1)(A) applies, a State law may provide that an organization (or group of organizations) which elects before April 1, 1972, to make payments (in lieu of contributions) into the State unemployment fund as provided in section 3309 (a)(2), and which had paid contributions into such fund under the State law with respect to such service performed in its employ before January 1, 1969, is not required to make any such payment (in lieu of contributions) on account of compensation paid after its election as heretofore described which is attributable under the State law to service performed in its employ, until the total of such compensation equals the amount
(1) by which the contributions paid by such organization (or group) with respect to a period before the election provided by section 3309 (a)(2), exceed
(2) the unemployment compensation for the same period which was charged to the experience-rating account of such organization (or group) or paid under the State law on the basis of wages paid by it or service performed in its employ, whichever is appropriate.
(g) Transitional rule for Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1976 
To facilitate the orderly transition to coverage of service to which section 3309 (a)(1)(A) applies by reason of the enactment of the Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1976, a State law may provide that an organization (or group of organizations) which elects, when such election first becomes available under the State law with respect to such service, to make payments (in lieu of contributions) into the State unemployment fund as provided in section 3309 (a)(2), and which had paid contributions into such fund under the State law with respect to such service performed in its employ before the date of the enactment of this subsection, is not required to make any such payment (in lieu of contributions) on account of compensation paid after its election as heretofore described which is attributable under the State law to such service performed in its employ, until the total of such compensation equals the amount
(1) by which the contributions paid by such organization (or group) on the basis of wages for such service with respect to a period before the election provided by section 3309 (a)(2), exceed
(2) the unemployment compensation for the same period which was charged to the experience-rating account of such organization (or group) or paid under the State law on the basis of such service performed in its employ or wages paid for such service, whichever is appropriate.

26 USC 3304 - Approval of State laws

(a) Requirements 
The Secretary of Labor shall approve any State law submitted to him, within 30 days of such submission, which he finds provides that
(1) all compensation is to be paid through public employment offices or such other agencies as the Secretary of Labor may approve;
(2) no compensation shall be payable with respect to any day of unemployment occurring within 2 years after the first day of the first period with respect to which contributions are required;
(3) all money received in the unemployment fund shall (except for refunds of sums erroneously paid into such fund and except for refunds paid in accordance with the provisions of section 3305 (b)) immediately upon such receipt be paid over to the Secretary of the Treasury to the credit of the Unemployment Trust Fund established by section 904 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1104);
(4) all money withdrawn from the unemployment fund of the State shall be used solely in the payment of unemployment compensation, exclusive of expenses of administration, and for refunds of sums erroneously paid into such fund and refunds paid in accordance with the provisions of section 3305 (b); except that
(A) an amount equal to the amount of employee payments into the unemployment fund of a State may be used in the payment of cash benefits to individuals with respect to their disability, exclusive of expenses of administration;
(B) the amounts specified by section 903 (c)(2) or 903(d)(4) of the Social Security Act may, subject to the conditions prescribed in such section, be used for expenses incurred by the State for administration of its unemployment compensation law and public employment offices;
(C) nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit deducting an amount from unemployment compensation otherwise payable to an individual and using the amount so deducted to pay for health insurance, or the withholding of Federal, State, or local individual income tax, if the individual elected to have such deduction made and such deduction was made under a program approved by the Secretary of Labor;
(D) amounts may be deducted from unemployment benefits and used to repay overpayments as provided in section 303(g) of the Social Security Act;
(E) amounts may be withdrawn for the payment of short-time compensation under a plan approved by the Secretary of Labor; and
(F) amounts may be withdrawn for the payment of allowances under a self-employment assistance program (as defined in section 3306 (t));
(5) compensation shall not be denied in such State to any otherwise eligible individual for refusing to accept new work under any of the following conditions:
(A) if the position offered is vacant due directly to a strike, lockout, or other labor dispute;
(B) if the wages, hours, or other conditions of the work offered are substantially less favorable to the individual than those prevailing for similar work in the locality;
(C) if as a condition of being employed the individual would be required to join a company union or to resign from or refrain from joining any bona fide labor organization;
(6) 
(A) compensation is payable on the basis of service to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies, in the same amount, on the same terms, and subject to the same conditions as compensation payable on the basis of other service subject to such law; except that
(i) with respect to services in an instructional, research, or principal administrative capacity for an educational institution to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies, compensation shall not be payable based on such services for any week commencing during the period between two successive academic years or terms (or, when an agreement provides instead for a similar period between two regular but not successive terms, during such period) to any individual if such individual performs such services in the first of such academic years (or terms) and if there is a contract or reasonable assurance that such individual will perform services in any such capacity for any educational institution in the second of such academic years or terms,
(ii) with respect to services in any other capacity for an educational institution to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies
(I) compensation payable on the basis of such services may be denied to any individual for any week which commences during a period between 2 successive academic years or terms if such individual performs such services in the first of such academic years or terms and there is a reasonable assurance that such individual will perform such services in the second of such academic years or terms, except that
(II) if compensation is denied to any individual for any week under subclause (I) and such individual was not offered an opportunity to perform such services for the educational institution for the second of such academic years or terms, such individual shall be entitled to a retroactive payment of the compensation for each week for which the individual filed a timely claim for compensation and for which compensation was denied solely by reason of subclause (I),
(iii) with respect to any services described in clause (i) or (ii), compensation payable on the basis of such services shall be denied to any individual for any week which commences during an established and customary vacation period or holiday recess if such individual performs such services in the period immediately before such vacation period or holiday recess, and there is a reasonable assurance that such individual will perform such services in the period immediately following such vacation period or holiday recess,
(iv) with respect to any services described in clause (i) or (ii), compensation payable on the basis of services in any such capacity shall be denied as specified in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) to any individual who performed such services in an educational institution while in the employ of an educational service agency, and for this purpose the term educational service agency means a governmental agency or governmental entity which is established and operated exclusively for the purpose of providing such services to one or more educational institutions,
(v) with respect to services to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies, if such services are provided to or on behalf of an educational institution, compensation may be denied under the same circumstances as described in clauses (i) through (iv), and
(vi) with respect to services described in clause (ii), clauses (iii) and (iv) shall be applied by substituting may be denied for shall be denied, and
(B) payments (in lieu of contributions) with respect to service to which section 3309 (a)(1) applies may be made into the State unemployment fund on the basis set forth in section 3309 (a)(2);
(7) an individual who has received compensation during his benefit year is required to have had work since the beginning of such year in order to qualify for compensation in his next benefit year;
(8) compensation shall not be denied to an individual for any week because he is in training with the approval of the State agency (or because of the application, to any such week in training, of State law provisions relating to availability for work, active search for work, or refusal to accept work);
(9) 
(A) compensation shall not be denied or reduced to an individual solely because he files a claim in another State (or a contiguous country with which the United States has an agreement with respect to unemployment compensation) or because he resides in another State (or such a contiguous country) at the time he files a claim for unemployment compensation;
(B) the State shall participate in any arrangements for the payment of compensation on the basis of combining an individuals wages and employment covered under the State law with his wages and employment covered under the unemployment compensation law of other States which are approved by the Secretary of Labor in consultation with the State unemployment compensation agencies as reasonably calculated to assure the prompt and full payment of compensation in such situations. Any such arrangement shall include provisions for
(i)  applying the base period of a single State law to a claim involving the combining of an individuals wages and employment covered under two or more State laws, and
(ii)  avoiding duplicate use of wages and employment by reason of such combining;
(10) compensation shall not be denied to any individual by reason of cancellation of wage credits or total reduction of his benefit rights for any cause other than discharge for misconduct connected with his work, fraud in connection with a claim for compensation, or receipt of disqualifying income;
(11) extended compensation shall be payable as provided by the Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 1970;
(12) no person shall be denied compensation under such State law solely on the basis of pregnancy or termination of pregnancy;
(13) compensation shall not be payable to any individual on the basis of any services, substantially all of which consist of participating in sports or athletic events or training or preparing to so participate, for any week which commences during the period between two successive sport seasons (or similar periods) if such individual performed such services in the first of such seasons (or similar periods) and there is a reasonable assurance that such individual will perform such services in the later of such seasons (or similar periods);
(14) 
(A) compensation shall not be payable on the basis of services performed by an alien unless such alien is an individual who was lawfully admitted for permanent residence at the time such services were performed, was lawfully present for purposes of performing such services, or was permanently residing in the United States under color of law at the time such services were performed (including an alien who was lawfully present in the United States as a result of the application of the provisions of section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act),
(B) any data or information required of individuals applying for compensation to determine whether compensation is not payable to them because of their alien status shall be uniformly required from all applicants for compensation, and
(C) in the case of an individual whose application for compensation would otherwise be approved, no determination by the State agency that compensation to such individual is not payable because of his alien status shall be made except upon a preponderance of the evidence;
(15) the amount of compensation payable to an individual for any week which begins after March 31, 1980, and which begins in a period with respect to which such individual is receiving a governmental or other pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or any other similar periodic payment which is based on the previous work of such individual shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to the amount of such pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or other payment, which is reasonably attributable to such week except that
(A) the requirements of this paragraph shall apply to any pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or other similar periodic payment only if
(i) such pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or similar payment is under a plan maintained (or contributed to) by a base period employer or chargeable employer (as determined under applicable law), and
(ii) in the case of such a payment not made under the Social Security Act or the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 (or the corresponding provisions of prior law), services performed for such employer by the individual after the beginning of the base period (or remuneration for such services) affect eligibility for, or increase the amount of, such pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or similar payment, and
(B) the State law may provide for limitations on the amount of any such a reduction to take into account contributions made by the individual for the pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or other similar periodic payment;
(16) 
(A) wage information contained in the records of the agency administering the State law which is necessary (as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in regulations) for purposes of determining an individuals eligibility for assistance, or the amount of such assistance, under a State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act, shall be made available to a State or political subdivision thereof when such information is specifically requested by such State or political subdivision for such purposes,
(B) wage and unemployment compensation information contained in the records of such agency shall be furnished to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (in accordance with regulations promulgated by such Secretary) as necessary for the purposes of the National Directory of New Hires established under section 453(i) of the Social Security Act, and
(C) such safeguards are established as are necessary (as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in regulations) to insure that information furnished under subparagraph (A) or (B) is used only for the purposes authorized under such subparagraph;
(17) any interest required to be paid on advances under title XII of the Social Security Act shall be paid in a timely manner and shall not be paid, directly or indirectly (by an equivalent reduction in State unemployment taxes or otherwise) by such State from amounts in such States unemployment fund;
(18) Federal individual income tax from unemployment compensation is to be deducted and withheld if an individual receiving such compensation voluntarily requests such deduction and withholding; and
(19) all the rights, privileges, or immunities conferred by such law or by acts done pursuant thereto shall exist subject to the power of the legislature to amend or repeal such law at any time.

Compensation shall not be reduced under paragraph (15) for any pension, retirement or retired pay, annuity, or similar payment which is not includible in gross income of the individual for the taxable year in which paid because it was part of a rollover distribution.

(b) Notification 
The Secretary of Labor shall, upon approving such law, notify the governor of the State of his approval.
(c) Certification 
On October 31 of each taxable year the Secretary of Labor shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury each State whose law he has previously approved, except that he shall not certify any State which, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency, the Secretary of Labor finds has amended its law so that it no longer contains the provisions specified in subsection (a) or has with respect to the 12-month period ending on such October 31 failed to comply substantially with any such provision in such subsection. No finding of a failure to comply substantially with any provision in paragraph (5) of subsection (a) shall be based on an application or interpretation of State law
(1)  until all administrative review provided for under the laws of the State has been exhausted, or
(2)  with respect to which the time for judicial review provided by the laws of the State has not expired, or
(3)  with respect to which any judicial review is pending. On October 31 of any taxable year, the Secretary of Labor shall not certify any State which, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency, the Secretary of Labor finds has failed to amend its law so that it contains each of the provisions required by law to be included therein (including provisions relating to the Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 1970 (or any amendments thereto) as required under subsection (a)(11)), or has, with respect to the twelve-month period ending on such October 31, failed to comply substantially with any such provision.
(d) Notice of noncertification 
If at any time the Secretary of Labor has reason to believe that a State whose law he has previously approved may not be certified under subsection (c), he shall promptly so notify the governor of such State.
(e) Change of law during 12-month period 
Whenever
(1) any provision of this section, section 3302, or section 3303 refers to a 12-month period ending on October 31 of a year, and
(2) the law applicable to one portion of such period differs from the law applicable to another portion of such period,

then such provision shall be applied by taking into account for each such portion the law applicable to such portion.

(f) Definition of institution of higher education 
For purposes of subsection (a)(6), the term institution of higher education means an educational institution in any State which
(1) admits as regular students only individuals having a certificate of graduation from a high school, or the recognized equivalent of such a certificate;
(2) is legally authorized within such State to provide a program of education beyond high school;
(3) provides an educational program for it which awards a bachelors or higher degree, or provides a program which is acceptable for full credit toward such a degree, or offers a program of training to prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation; and
(4) is a public or other nonprofit institution.

26 USC 3305 - Applicability of State law

(a) Interstate and foreign commerce 
No person required under a State law to make payments to an unemployment fund shall be relieved from compliance therewith on the ground that he is engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, or that the State law does not distinguish between employees engaged in interstate or foreign commerce and those engaged in intrastate commerce.
(b) Federal instrumentalities in general 
The legislature of any State may require any instrumentality of the United States (other than an instrumentality to which section 3306 (c)(6) applies), and the individuals in its employ, to make contributions to an unemployment fund under a State unemployment compensation law approved by the Secretary of Labor under section 3304 and (except as provided in section 5240 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (12 U.S.C., sec. 484), and as modified by subsection (c)), to comply otherwise with such law. The permission granted in this subsection shall apply
(A)  only to the extent that no discrimination is made against such instrumentality, so that if the rate of contribution is uniform upon all other persons subject to such law on account of having individuals in their employ, and upon all employees of such persons, respectively, the contributions required of such instrumentality or the individuals in its employ shall not be at a greater rate than is required of such other persons and such employees, and if the rates are determined separately for different persons or classes of persons having individuals in their employ or for different classes of employees, the determination shall be based solely upon unemployment experience and other factors bearing a direct relation to unemployment risk;
(B)  only if such State law makes provision for the refund of any contributions required under such law from an instrumentality of the United States or its employees for any year in the event such State is not certified by the Secretary of Labor under section 3304 with respect to such year; and
(C)  only if such State law makes provision for the payment of unemployment compensation to any employee of any such instrumentality of the United States in the same amount, on the same terms, and subject to the same conditions as unemployment compensation is payable to employees of other employers under the State unemployment compensation law.
(c) National banks 
Nothing contained in section 5240 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (12 U.S.C. 484), shall prevent any State from requiring any national banking association to render returns and reports relative to the associations employees, their remuneration and services, to the same extent that other persons are required to render like returns and reports under a State law requiring contributions to an unemployment fund. The Comptroller of the Currency shall, upon receipt of a copy of any such return or report of a national banking association from, and upon request of, any duly authorized official, body, or commission of a State, cause an examination of the correctness of such return or report to be made at the time of the next succeeding examination of such association, and shall thereupon transmit to such official, body, or commission a complete statement of his findings respecting the accuracy of such returns or reports.
(d) Federal property 
No person shall be relieved from compliance with a State unemployment compensation law on the ground that services were performed on land or premises owned, held, or possessed by the United States, and any State shall have full jurisdiction and power to enforce the provisions of such law to the same extent and with the same effect as though such place were not owned, held, or possessed by the United States.
[(e) Repealed. Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1212, § 4(c), 68 Stat. 1135] 
(f) American vessels 
The legislature of any State in which a person maintains the operating office, from which the operations of an American vessel operating on navigable waters within or within and without the United States are ordinarily and regularly supervised, managed, directed and controlled, may require such person and the officers and members of the crew of such vessel to make contributions to its unemployment fund under its State unemployment compensation law approved by the Secretary of Labor under section 3304 and otherwise to comply with its unemployment compensation law with respect to the service performed by an officer or member of the crew on or in connection with such vessel to the same extent and with the same effect as though such service was performed entirely within such State. Such person and the officers and members of the crew of such vessel shall not be required to make contributions, with respect to such service, to the unemployment fund of any other State. The permission granted by this subsection is subject to the condition that such service shall be treated, for purposes of wage credits given employees, like other service subject to such State unemployment compensation law performed for such person in such State, and also subject to the same limitation, with respect to contributions required from such person and from the officers and members of the crew of such vessel, as is imposed by the second sentence (other than clause (B) thereof) of subsection (b) with respect to contributions required from instrumentalities of the United States and from individuals in their employ.
(g) Vessels operated by general agents of United States 
The permission granted by subsection (f) shall apply in the same manner and under the same conditions (including the obligation to comply with all requirements of State unemployment compensation laws) to general agents of the Secretary of Commerce with respect to service performed by officers and members of the crew on or in connection with American vessels
(1) owned by or bareboat chartered to the United States, and
(2) whose business is conducted by such general agents.

As to any such vessel, the State permitted to require contributions on account of such service shall be the State to which the general agent would make contributions if the vessel were operated for his own account. Such general agents are designated, for this purpose, instrumentalities of the United States neither wholly nor partially owned by it and shall not be exempt from the tax imposed by section 3301. The permission granted by this subsection is subject to the same conditions and limitations as are imposed in subsection (f), except that clause (B) of the second sentence of subsection (b) shall apply.

(h) Requirement by State of contributions 
Any State may, as to service performed on account of which contributions are made pursuant to subsection (g)
(1) require contributions from persons performing such service under its unemployment compensation law or temporary disability insurance law administered in connection therewith, and
(2) require general agents of the Secretary of Commerce to make contributions under such temporary disability insurance law and to make such deductions from wages or remuneration as are required by such unemployment compensation or temporary disability insurance law.
(i) General agent as legal entity 
Each general agent of the Secretary of Commerce making contributions pursuant to subsection (g) or (h) shall, for purposes of such subsections, be considered a legal entity in his capacity as an instrumentality of the United States, separate and distinct from his identity as a person employing individuals on his own account.
(j) Denial of credits in certain cases 
Any person required, pursuant to the permission granted by this section, to make contributions to an unemployment fund under a State unemployment compensation law approved by the Secretary of Labor under section 3304 shall not be entitled to the credits permitted, with respect to the unemployment compensation law of a State, by subsections (a) and (b) of section 3302 against the tax imposed by section 3301 for any taxable year if, on October 31 of such taxable year, the Secretary of Labor certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury his finding, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency, that the unemployment compensation law of such State is inconsistent with any one or more of the conditions on the basis of which such permission is granted or that, in the application of the State law with respect to the 12-month period ending on such October 31, there has been a substantial failure to comply with any one or more of such conditions. For purposes of section 3310, a finding of the Secretary of Labor under this subsection shall be treated as a finding under section 3304 (c).

26 USC 3306 - Definitions

(a) Employer 
For purposes of this chapter
(1) In general 
The term employer means, with respect to any calendar year, any person who
(A) during any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year paid wages of $1,500 or more, or
(B) on each of some 20 days during the calendar year or during the preceding calendar year, each day being in a different calendar week, employed at least one individual in employment for some portion of the day.

For purposes of this paragraph, there shall not be taken into account any wages paid to, or employment of, an employee performing domestic services referred to in paragraph (3).

(2) Agricultural labor 
In the case of agricultural labor, the term employer means, with respect to any calendar year, any person who
(A) during any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year paid wages of $20,000 or more for agricultural labor, or
(B) on each of some 20 days during the calendar year or during the preceding calendar year, each day being in a different calendar week, employed at least 10 individuals in employment in agricultural labor for some portion of the day.
(3) Domestic service 
In the case of domestic service in a private home, local college club, or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority, the term employer means, with respect to any calendar year, any person who during any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year paid wages in cash of $1,000 or more for such service.
(4) Special rule 
A person treated as an employer under paragraph (3) shall not be treated as an employer with respect to wages paid for any service other than domestic service referred to in paragraph (3) unless such person is treated as an employer under paragraph (1) or (2) with respect to such other service.
(b) Wages 
For purposes of this chapter, the term wages means all remuneration for employment, including the cash value of all remuneration (including benefits) paid in any medium other than cash; except that such term shall not include
(1) that part of the remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) equal to $7,000 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual by an employer during any calendar year, is paid to such individual by such employer during such calendar year. If an employer (hereinafter referred to as successor employer) during any calendar year acquires substantially all the property used in a trade or business of another employer (hereinafter referred to as a predecessor), or used in a separate unit of a trade or business of a predecessor, and immediately after the acquisition employs in his trade or business an individual who immediately prior to the acquisition was employed in the trade or business of such predecessor, then, for the purpose of determining whether the successor employer has paid remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) with respect to employment equal to $7,000 to such individual during such calendar year, any remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) with respect to employment paid (or considered under this paragraph as having been paid) to such individual by such predecessor during such calendar year and prior to such acquisition shall be considered as having been paid by such successor employer;
(2) the amount of any payment (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents under a plan or system established by an employer which makes provision for his employees generally (or for his employees generally and their dependents) or for a class or classes of his employees (or for a class or classes of his employees and their dependents), on account of
(A) sickness or accident disability (but, in the case of payments made to an employee or any of his dependents, this subparagraph shall exclude from the term wages only payments which are received under a workmens compensation law), or
(B) medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, or
(C) death;
[(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 324(b)(3)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 124]
(4) any payment on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, made by an employer to, or on behalf of, an employee after the expiration of 6 calendar months following the last calendar month in which the employee worked for such employer;
(5) any payment made to, or on behalf of, an employee or his beneficiary
(A) from or to a trust described in section 401 (a) which is exempt from tax under section 501 (a) at the time of such payment unless such payment is made to an employee of the trust as remuneration for services rendered as such employee and not as a beneficiary of the trust, or
(B) under or to an annuity plan which, at the time of such payment, is a plan described in section 403 (a),
(C) under a simplified employee pension (as defined in section 408 (k)(1)), other than any contributions described in section 408 (k)(6),
(D) under or to an annuity contract described in section 403 (b), other than a payment for the purchase of such contract which is made by reason of a salary reduction agreement (whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise),
(E) under or to an exempt governmental deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 3121 (v)(3)),
(F) to supplement pension benefits under a plan or trust described in any of the foregoing provisions of this paragraph to take into account some portion or all of the increase in the cost of living (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) since retirement but only if such supplemental payments are under a plan which is treated as a welfare plan under section 3(2)(B)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974;[1]
(G) under a cafeteria plan (within the meaning of section 125) if such payment would not be treated as wages without regard to such plan and it is reasonable to believe that (if section 125 applied for purposes of this section) section 125 would not treat any wages as constructively received, or
(H) under an arrangement to which section 408 (p) applies, other than any elective contributions under paragraph (2)(A)(i) thereof,[2]
(6) the payment by an employer (without deduction from the remuneration of the employee)
(A) of the tax imposed upon an employee under section 3101, or
(B) of any payment required from an employee under a State unemployment compensation law,

with respect to remuneration paid to an employee for domestic service in a private home of the employer or for agricultural labor;

(7) remuneration paid in any medium other than cash to an employee for service not in the course of the employers trade or business;
[(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 324(b)(3)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 124]
(9) remuneration paid to or on behalf of an employee if (and to the extent that) at the time of the payment of such remuneration it is reasonable to believe that a corresponding deduction is allowable under section 217 (determined without regard to section 274 (n));
(10) any payment or series of payments by an employer to an employee or any of his dependents which is paid
(A) upon or after the termination of an employees employment relationship because of
(i)  death, or
(ii)  retirement for disability, and
(B) under a plan established by the employer which makes provision for his employees generally or a class or classes of his employees (or for such employees or class or classes of employees and their dependents),

other than any such payment or series of payments which would have been paid if the employees employment relationship had not been so terminated;

(11) remuneration for agricultural labor paid in any medium other than cash;
(12) any contribution, payment, or service, provided by an employer which may be excluded from the gross income of an employee, his spouse, or his dependents, under the provisions of section 120 (relating to amounts received under qualified group legal services plans);
(13) any payment made, or benefit furnished, to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment or such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment or benefit from income under section 127, 129, 134 (b)(4), or 134 (b)(5);
(14) the value of any meals or lodging furnished by or on behalf of the employer if at the time of such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such items from income under section 119;
(15) any payment made by an employer to a survivor or the estate of a former employee after the calendar year in which such employee died;
(16) any benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee if at the time such benefit is provided it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such benefit from income under section 74 (c), 108 (f)(4), 117, or 132;
(17) any payment made to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment from income under section 106 (b);
(18) any payment made to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment from income under section 106 (d); or
(19) remuneration on account of
(A) a transfer of a share of stock to any individual pursuant to an exercise of an incentive stock option (as defined in section 422 (b)) or under an employee stock purchase plan (as defined in section 423 (b)), or
(B) any disposition by the individual of such stock.

Except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any third party which makes a payment included in wages solely by reason of the parenthetical matter contained in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) shall be treated for purposes of this chapter and chapter 22 as the employer with respect to such wages. Nothing in the regulations prescribed for purposes of chapter 24 (relating to income tax withholding) which provides an exclusion from wages as used in such chapter shall be construed to require a similar exclusion from wages in the regulations prescribed for purposes of this chapter.

(c) Employment 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employment means any service performed prior to 1955, which was employment for purposes of subchapter C of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 under the law applicable to the period in which such service was performed, and
(A)  any service, of whatever nature, performed after 1954 by an employee for the person employing him, irrespective of the citizenship or residence of either,
(i)  within the United States, or
(ii)  on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft under a contract of service which is entered into within the United States or during the performance of which and while the employee is employed on the vessel or aircraft it touches at a port in the United States, if the employee is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States, and
(B)  any service, of whatever nature, performed after 1971 outside the United States (except in a contiguous country with which the United States has an agreement relating to unemployment compensation) by a citizen of the United States as an employee of an American employer (as defined in subsection (j)(3)), except
(1) agricultural labor (as defined in subsection (k)) unless
(A) such labor is performed for a person who
(i) during any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year paid remuneration in cash of $20,000 or more to individuals employed in agricultural labor (including labor performed by an alien referred to in subparagraph (B)), or
(ii) on each of some 20 days during the calendar year or the preceding calendar year, each day being in a different calendar week, employed in agricultural labor (including labor performed by an alien referred to in subparagraph (B)) for some portion of the day (whether or not at the same moment of time) 10 or more individuals; and
(B) such labor is not agricultural labor performed by an individual who is an alien admitted to the United States to perform agricultural labor pursuant to sections 214(c) and 101(a)(15)(H) of the Immigration and Nationality Act;
(2) domestic service in a private home, local college club, or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority unless performed for a person who paid cash remuneration of $1,000 or more to individuals employed in such domestic service in any calendar quarter in the calendar year or the preceding calendar year;
(3) service not in the course of the employers trade or business performed in any calendar quarter by an employee, unless the cash remuneration paid for such service is $50 or more and such service is performed by an individual who is regularly employed by such employer to perform such service. For purposes of this paragraph, an individual shall be deemed to be regularly employed by an employer during a calendar quarter only if
(A) on each of some 24 days during such quarter such individual performs for such employer for some portion of the day service not in the course of the employers trade or business, or
(B) such individual was regularly employed (as determined under subparagraph (A)) by such employer in the performance of such service during the preceding calendar quarter;
(4) service performed on or in connection with a vessel or aircraft not an American vessel or American aircraft, if the employee is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States;
(5) service performed by an individual in the employ of his son, daughter, or spouse, and service performed by a child under the age of 21 in the employ of his father or mother;
(6) service performed in the employ of the United States Government or of an instrumentality of the United States which is
(A) wholly or partially owned by the United States, or
(B) exempt from the tax imposed by section 3301 by virtue of any provision of law which specifically refers to such section (or the corresponding section of prior law) in granting such exemption;
(7) service performed in the employ of a State, or any political subdivision thereof, or in the employ of an Indian tribe, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned by one or more States or political subdivisions or Indian tribes; and any service performed in the employ of any instrumentality of one or more States or political subdivisions to the extent that the instrumentality is, with respect to such service, immune under the Constitution of the United States from the tax imposed by section 3301;
(8) service performed in the employ of a religious, charitable, educational, or other organization described in section 501 (c)(3) which is exempt from income tax under section 501 (a);
(9) service performed by an individual as an employee or employee representative as defined in section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act (45 U.S.C. 351);
(10) 
(A) service performed in any calendar quarter in the employ of any organization exempt from income tax under section 501 (a) (other than an organization described in section 401 (a)) or under section 521, if the remuneration for such service is less than $50, or
(B) service performed in the employ of a school, college, or university, if such service is performed
(i)  by a student who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes at such school, college, or university, or
(ii)  by the spouse of such a student, if such spouse is advised, at the time such spouse commences to perform such service, that
(I)  the employment of such spouse to perform such service is provided under a program to provide financial assistance to such student by such school, college, or university, and
(II)  such employment will not be covered by any program of unemployment insurance, or
(C) service performed by an individual who is enrolled at a nonprofit or public educational institution which normally maintains a regular faculty and curriculum and normally has a regularly organized body of students in attendance at the place where its educational activities are carried on as a student in a full-time program, taken for credit at such institution, which combines academic instruction with work experience, if such service is an integral part of such program, and such institution has so certified to the employer, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to service performed in a program established for or on behalf of an employer or group of employers, or
(D) service performed in the employ of a hospital, if such service is performed by a patient of such hospital;
(11) service performed in the employ of a foreign government (including service as a consular or other officer or employee or a nondiplomatic representative);
(12) service performed in the employ of an instrumentality wholly owned by a foreign government
(A) if the service is of a character similar to that performed in foreign countries by employees of the United States Government or of an instrumentality thereof; and
(B) if the Secretary of State shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury that the foreign government, with respect to whose instrumentality exemption is claimed, grants an equivalent exemption with respect to similar service performed in the foreign country by employees of the United States Government and of instrumentalities thereof;
(13) service performed as a student nurse in the employ of a hospital or a nurses training school by an individual who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes in a nurses training school chartered or approved pursuant to State law; and service performed as an intern in the employ of a hospital by an individual who has completed a 4 years course in a medical school chartered or approved pursuant to State law;
(14) service performed by an individual for a person as an insurance agent or as an insurance solicitor, if all such service performed by such individual for such person is performed for remuneration solely by way of commission;
(15) 
(A) service performed by an individual under the age of 18 in the delivery or distribution of newspapers or shopping news, not including delivery or distribution to any point for subsequent delivery or distribution;
(B) service performed by an individual in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers, under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such service, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back;
(16) service performed in the employ of an international organization;
(17) service performed by an individual in (or as an officer or member of the crew of a vessel while it is engaged in) the catching, taking, harvesting, cultivating, or farming of any kind of fish, shellfish, crustacea, sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life (including service performed by any such individual as an ordinary incident to any such activity), except
(A) service performed in connection with the catching or taking of salmon or halibut, for commercial purposes, and
(B) service performed on or in connection with a vessel of more than 10 net tons (determined in the manner provided for determining the register tonnage of merchant vessels under the laws of the United States);
(18) service described in section 3121 (b)(20);
(19) Service[3] which is performed by a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(15)(F), (J), (M), or (Q)), and which is performed to carry out the purpose specified in subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q), as the case may be;
(20) service performed by a full time student (as defined in subsection (q)) in the employ of an organized camp
(A) if such camp
(i) did not operate for more than 7 months in the calendar year and did not operate for more than 7 months in the preceding calendar year, or
(ii) had average gross receipts for any 6 months in the preceding calendar year which were not more than 331/3 percent of its average gross receipts for the other 6 months in the preceding calendar year; and
(B) if such full time student performed services in the employ of such camp for less than 13 calendar weeks in such calendar year; or
(21) service performed by a person committed to a penal institution.
(d) Included and excluded service 
For purposes of this chapter, if the services performed during one-half or more of any pay period by an employee for the person employing him constitute employment, all the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment; but if the services performed during more than one-half of any such pay period by an employee for the person employing him do not constitute employment, then none of the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment. As used in this subsection, the term pay period means a period (of not more than 31 consecutive days) for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by the person employing him. This subsection shall not be applicable with respect to services performed in a pay period by an employee for the person employing him, where any of such service is excepted by subsection (c)(9).
(e) State agency 
For purposes of this chapter, the term State agency means any State officer, board, or other authority, designated under a State law to administer the unemployment fund in such State.
(f) Unemployment fund 
For purposes of this chapter, the term unemployment fund means a special fund, established under a State law and administered by a State agency, for the payment of compensation. Any sums standing to the account of the State agency in the Unemployment Trust Fund established by section 904 of the Social Security Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1104), shall be deemed to be a part of the unemployment fund of the State, and no sums paid out of the Unemployment Trust Fund to such State agency shall cease to be a part of the unemployment fund of the State until expended by such State agency. An unemployment fund shall be deemed to be maintained during a taxable year only if throughout such year, or such portion of the year as the unemployment fund was in existence, no part of the moneys of such fund was expended for any purpose other than the payment of compensation (exclusive of expenses of administration) and for refunds of sums erroneously paid into such fund and refunds paid in accordance with the provisions of section 3305 (b); except that
(1) an amount equal to the amount of employee payments into the unemployment fund of a State may be used in the payment of cash benefits to individuals with respect to their disability, exclusive of expenses of administration;
(2) the amounts specified by section 903(c)(2) or 903(d)(4) of the Social Security Act may, subject to the conditions prescribed in such section, be used for expenses incurred by the State for administration of its unemployment compensation law and public employment offices,[4]
(3) nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit deducting any amount from unemployment compensation otherwise payable to an individual and using the amount so deducted to pay for health insurance, or the withholding of Federal, State, or local individual income tax, if the individual elected to have such deduction made and such deduction was made under a program approved by the Secretary of Labor;
(4) amounts may be deducted from unemployment benefits and used to repay overpayments as provided in section 303(g) of the Social Security Act;
(5) [5] amounts may be withdrawn for the payment of short-time compensation under a plan approved by the Secretary of Labor; and
(5) [5] amounts may be withdrawn for the payment of allowances under a self-employment assistance program (as defined in subsection (t)).
(g) Contributions 
For purposes of this chapter, the term contributions means payments required by a State law to be made into an unemployment fund by any person on account of having individuals in his employ, to the extent that such payments are made by him without being deducted or deductible from the remuneration of individuals in his employ.
(h) Compensation 
For purposes of this chapter, the term compensation means cash benefits payable to individuals with respect to their unemployment.
(i) Employee 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employee has the meaning assigned to such term by section 3121 (d), except that paragraph (4) and subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3) shall not apply.
(j) State, United States, and American employer 
For purposes of this chapter
(1) State 
The term State includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
(2) United States 
The term United States when used in a geographical sense includes the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
(3) American employer 
The term American employer means a person who is
(A) an individual who is a resident of the United States,
(B) a partnership, if two-thirds or more of the partners are residents of the United States,
(C) a trust, if all of the trustees are residents of the United States, or
(D) a corporation organized under the laws of the United States or of any State.

An individual who is a citizen of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands (but not otherwise a citizen of the United States) shall be considered, for purposes of this section, as a citizen of the United States.

(k) Agricultural labor 
For purposes of this chapter, the term agricultural labor has the meaning assigned to such term by subsection (g) of section 3121, except that for purposes of this chapter subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4) of such subsection (g) shall be treated as reading: (B) in the employ of a group of operators of farms (or a cooperative organization of which such operators are members) in the performance of service described in subparagraph (A), but only if such operators produced more than one-half of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed;.
[(l) Repealed. Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1212, § 4(c), 68 Stat. 1135] 
(m) American vessel and aircraft 
For purposes of this chapter, the term American vessel means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States; and includes any vessel which is neither documented or numbered under the laws of the United States nor documented under the laws of any foreign country, if its crew is employed solely by one or more citizens or residents of the United States or corporations organized under the laws of the United States or of any State; and the term American aircraft means an aircraft registered under the laws of the United States.
(n) Vessels operated by general agents of United States 
Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (c)(6), service performed by officers and members of the crew of a vessel which would otherwise be included as employment under subsection (c) shall not be excluded by reason of the fact that it is performed on or in connection with an American vessel
(1) owned by or bareboat chartered to the United States and
(2) whose business is conducted by a general agent of the Secretary of Commerce.

For purposes of this chapter, each such general agent shall be considered a legal entity in his capacity as such general agent, separate and distinct from his identity as a person employing individuals on his own account, and the officers and members of the crew of such an American vessel whose business is conducted by a general agent of the Secretary of Commerce shall be deemed to be performing services for such general agent rather than the United States. Each such general agent who in his capacity as such is an employer within the meaning of subsection (a) shall be subject to all the requirements imposed upon an employer under this chapter with respect to service which constitutes employment by reason of this subsection.

(o) Special rule in case of certain agricultural workers 

(1) Crew leaders who are registered or provide specialized agricultural labor 
For purposes of this chapter, any individual who is a member of a crew furnished by a crew leader to perform agricultural labor for any other person shall be treated as an employee of such crew leader
(A) if
(i) such crew leader holds a valid certificate of registration under the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act; or
(ii) substantially all the members of such crew operate or maintain tractors, mechanized harvesting or crop-dusting equipment, or any other mechanized equipment, which is provided by such crew leader; and
(B) if such individual is not an employee of such other person within the meaning of subsection (i).
(2) Other crew leaders 
For purposes of this chapter, in the case of any individual who is furnished by a crew leader to perform agricultural labor for any other person and who is not treated as an employee of such crew leader under paragraph (1)
(A) such other person and not the crew leader shall be treated as the employer of such individual; and
(B) such other person shall be treated as having paid cash remuneration to such individual in an amount equal to the amount of cash remuneration paid to such individual by the crew leader (either on his behalf or on behalf of such other person) for the agricultural labor performed for such other person.
(3) Crew leader 
For purposes of this subsection, the term crew leader means an individual who
(A) furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor for any other person,
(B) pays (either on his behalf or on behalf of such other person) the individuals so furnished by him for the agricultural labor performed by them, and
(C) has not entered into a written agreement with such other person under which such individual is designated as an employee of such other person.
(p) Concurrent employment by two or more em­ployers 
For purposes of sections 3301, 3302, and 3306 (b)(1), if two or more related corporations concurrently employ the same individual and compensate such individual through a common paymaster which is one of such corporations, each such corporation shall be considered to have paid as remuneration to such individual only the amounts actually disbursed by it to such individual and shall not be considered to have paid as remuneration to such individual amounts actually disbursed to such individual by another of such corporations.
(q) Full time student 
For purposes of subsection (c)(20), an individual shall be treated as a full time student for any period
(1) during which the individual is enrolled as a full time student at an educational institution, or
(2) which is between academic years or terms if
(A) the individual was enrolled as a full time student at an educational institution for the immediately preceding academic year or term, and
(B) there is a reasonable assurance that the individual will be so enrolled for the immediately succeeding academic year or term after the period described in subparagraph (A).
(r) Treatment of certain deferred compensation and salary reduction arrangements 

(1) Certain employer contributions treated as wages 
Nothing in any paragraph of subsection (b) (other than paragraph (1)) shall exclude from the term wages
(A) any employer contribution under a qualified cash or deferred arrangement (as defined in section 401 (k)) to the extent not included in gross income by reason of section 402 (e)(3), or
(B) any amount treated as an employer contribution under section 414 (h)(2) where the pickup referred to in such section is pursuant to a salary reduction agreement (whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise).
(2) Treatment of certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans 

(A) In general 
Any amount deferred under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan shall be taken into account for purposes of this chapter as of the later of
(i) when the services are performed, or
(ii) when there is no substantial risk of forfeiture of the rights to such amount.
(B) Taxed only once 
Any amount taken into account as wages by reason of subparagraph (A) (and the income attributable thereto) shall not thereafter be treated as wages for purposes of this chapter.
(C) Nonqualified deferred compensation plan 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term nonqualified deferred compensation plan means any plan or other arrangement for deferral of compensation other than a plan described in subsection (b)(5).
(s) Tips treated as wages 
For purposes of this chapter, the term wages includes tips which are
(1) received while performing services which constitute employment, and
(2) included in a written statement furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a).
(t) Self-employment assistance program 
For the purposes of this chapter, the term self-employment assistance program means a program under which
(1) individuals who meet the requirements described in paragraph (3) are eligible to receive an allowance in lieu of regular unemployment compensation under the State law for the purpose of assisting such individuals in establishing a business and becoming self-employed;
(2) the allowance payable to individuals pursuant to paragraph (1) is payable in the same amount, at the same interval, on the same terms, and subject to the same conditions, as regular unemployment compensation under the State law, except that
(A) State requirements relating to availability for work, active search for work, and refusal to accept work are not applicable to such individuals;
(B) State requirements relating to disqualifying income are not applicable to income earned from self-employment by such individuals; and
(C) such individuals are considered to be unemployed for the purposes of Federal and State laws applicable to unemployment compensation,

as long as such individuals meet the requirements applicable under this subsection;

(3) individuals may receive the allowance described in paragraph (1) if such individuals
(A) are eligible to receive regular unemployment compensation under the State law, or would be eligible to receive such compensation except for the requirements described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2);
(B) are identified pursuant to a State worker profiling system as individuals likely to exhaust regular unemployment compensation; and
(C) are participating in self-employment assistance activities which
(i) include entrepreneurial training, business counseling, and technical assistance; and
(ii) are approved by the State agency; and
(D) are actively engaged on a full-time basis in activities (which may include training) relating to the establishment of a business and becoming self-employed;
(4) the aggregate number of individuals receiving the allowance under the program does not at any time exceed 5 percent of the number of individuals receiving regular unemployment compensation under the State law at such time;
(5) the program does not result in any cost to the Unemployment Trust Fund (established by section 904(a) of the Social Security Act) in excess of the cost that would be incurred by such State and charged to such Fund if the State had not participated in such program; and
(6) the program meets such other requirements as the Secretary of Labor determines to be appropriate.
(u) Indian tribe 
For purposes of this chapter, the term Indian tribe has the meaning given to such term by section 4(e) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b (e)), and includes any subdivision, subsidiary, or business enterprise wholly owned by such an Indian tribe.
[1] So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
[2] So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.
[3] So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.
[4] So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.
[5] So in original. Two pars. (5) have been enacted.

26 USC 3307 - Deductions as constructive payments

Whenever under this chapter or any act of Congress, or under the law of any State, an employer is required or permitted to deduct any amount from the remuneration of an employee and to pay the amount deducted to the United States, a State, or any political subdivision thereof, then for purposes of this chapter the amount so deducted shall be considered to have been paid to the employee at the time of such deduction.

26 USC 3308 - Instrumentalities of the United States

Notwithstanding any other provision of law (whether enacted before or after the enactment of this section) which grants to any instrumentality of the United States an exemption from taxation, such instrumentality shall not be exempt from the tax imposed by section 3301 unless such other provision of law grants a specific exemption, by reference to section 3301 (or the corresponding section of prior law), from the tax imposed by such section.

26 USC 3309 - State law coverage of services performed for nonprofit organizations or governmental entities

(a) State law requirements 
For purposes of section 3304 (a)(6)
(1) except as otherwise provided in subsections (b) and (c), the services to which this paragraph applies are
(A) service excluded from the term employment solely by reason of paragraph (8) of section 3306 (c), and
(B) service excluded from the term employment solely by reason of paragraph (7) of section 3306 (c); and
(2) the State law shall provide that a governmental entity, including an Indian tribe, or any other organization (or group of governmental entities or other organizations) which, but for the requirements of this paragraph, would be liable for contributions with respect to service to which paragraph (1) applies may elect, for such minimum period and at such time as may be provided by State law, to pay (in lieu of such contributions) into the State unemployment fund amounts equal to the amounts of compensation attributable under the State law to such service. The State law may provide safeguards to ensure that governmental entities or other organizations so electing will make the payments required under such elections.
(b) Section not to apply to certain service 
This section shall not apply to service performed
(1) in the employ of
(A)  a church or convention or association of churches,
(B)  an organization which is operated primarily for religious purposes and which is operated, supervised, controlled, or principally supported by a church or convention or association of churches, or
(C)  an elementary or secondary school which is operated primarily for religious purposes, which is described in section 501 (c)(3), and which is exempt from tax under section 501 (a);
(2) by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order;
(3) in the employ of a governmental entity referred to in paragraph (7) of section 3306 (c), if such service is performed by an individual in the exercise of his duties
(A) as an elected official;
(B) as a member of a legislative body, or a member of the judiciary, of a State or political subdivision thereof, or of an Indian tribe;
(C) as a member of the State National Guard or Air National Guard;
(D) as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood, or similar emergency;
(E) in a position which, under or pursuant to the State or tribal law, is designated as
(i)  a major nontenured policymaking or advisory position, or
(ii)  a policymaking or advisory position the performance of the duties of which ordinarily does not require more than 8 hours per week; or
(F) as an election official or election worker if the amount of remuneration received by the individual during the calendar year for services as an election official or election worker is less than $1,000;
(4) in a facility conducted for the purpose of carrying out a program of
(A) rehabilitation for individuals whose earning capacity is impaired by age or physical or mental deficiency or injury, or
(B) providing remunerative work for individuals who because of their impaired physical or mental capacity cannot be readily absorbed in the competitive labor market,

by an individual receiving such rehabilitation or remunerative work;

(5) as part of an unemployment work-relief or work-training program assisted or financed in whole or in part by any Federal agency or an agency of a State or political subdivision thereof or of an Indian tribe, by an individual receiving such work relief or work training; and
(6) by an inmate of a custodial or penal institution.
(c) Nonprofit organizations must employ 4 or more 
This section shall not apply to service performed during any calendar year in the employ of any organization unless on each of some 20 days during such calendar year or the preceding calendar year, each day being in a different calendar week, the total number of individuals who were employed by such organization in employment (determined without regard to section 3306 (c)(8) and by excluding service to which this section does not apply by reason of subsection (b)) for some portion of the day (whether or not at the same moment of time) was 4 or more.
(d) Election by Indian tribe 
The State law shall provide that an Indian tribe may make contributions for employment as if the employment is within the meaning of section 3306 or make payments in lieu of contributions under this section, and shall provide that an Indian tribe may make separate elections for itself and each subdivision, subsidiary, or business enterprise wholly owned by such Indian tribe. State law may require a tribe to post a payment bond or take other reasonable measures to assure the making of payments in lieu of contributions under this section. Notwithstanding the requirements of section 3306 (a)(6), if, within 90 days of having received a notice of delinquency, a tribe fails to make contributions, payments in lieu of contributions, or payment of penalties or interest (at amounts or rates comparable to those applied to all other employers covered under the State law) assessed with respect to such failure, or if the tribe fails to post a required payment bond, then service for the tribe shall not be excepted from employment under section 3306 (c)(7) until any such failure is corrected. This subsection shall apply to an Indian tribe within the meaning of section 4(e) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b (e)).

26 USC 3310 - Judicial review

(a) In general 
Whenever under section 3303 (b) or section 3304 (c) the Secretary of Labor makes a finding pursuant to which he is required to withhold a certification with respect to a State under such section, such State may, within 60 days after the Governor of the State has been notified of such action, file with the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which such State is located or with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, a petition for review of such action. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary of Labor. The Secretary of Labor thereupon shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which he based his action as provided in section 2112 of title 28 of the United States Code.
(b) Findings of fact 
The findings of fact by the Secretary of Labor, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive; but the court, for good cause shown, may remand the case to the Secretary of Labor to take further evidence, and the Secretary of Labor may thereupon make new or modified findings of fact and may modify his previous action, and shall certify to the court the record of the further proceedings. Such new or modified findings of fact shall likewise be conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.
(c) Jurisdiction of court; review 
The court shall have jurisdiction to affirm the action of the Secretary of Labor or to set it aside, in whole or in part. The judgment of the court shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28 of the United States Code.
(d) Stay of Secretary of Labor’s action 

(1) The Secretary of Labor shall not withhold any certification under section 3303 (b) or section 3304 (c) until the expiration of 60 days after the Governor of the State has been notified of the action referred to in subsection (a) or until the State has filed a petition for review of such action, whichever is earlier.
(2) The commencement of judicial proceedings under this section shall stay the Secretary of Labors action for a period of 30 days, and the court may thereafter grant interim relief if warranted, including a further stay of the Secretary of Labors action and including such other relief as may be necessary to preserve status or rights.

26 USC 3311 - Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

TITLE 26 - US CODE - CHAPTER 23A - RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT REPAYMENT TAX

26 USC 3321 - Imposition of tax

(a) General rule 
There is hereby imposed on every rail employer for each calendar month an excise tax, with respect to having individuals in his employ, equal to 4 percent of the total rail wages paid by him during such month.
(b) Tax on employee representatives 

(1) In general 
There is hereby imposed on the income of each employee representative a tax equal to 4 percent of the rail wages paid to him during the calendar month.
(2) Determination of wages 
The rail wages of an employee representative for purposes of paragraph (1) shall be determined in the same manner and with the same effect as if the employee organization by which such employee representative is employed were a rail employer.
(c) Termination if loans to railroad unemployment fund repaid 
The tax imposed by this section shall not apply to rail wages paid on or after the 1st day of any calendar month if, as of such 1st day, there is
(1) no balance of transfers made before October 1, 1985, to the railroad unemployment insurance account under section 10(d) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, and
(2) no unpaid interest on such transfers.

26 USC 3322 - Definitions

(a) Rail employer 
For purposes of this chapter, the term rail employer means any person who is an employer as defined in section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act.
(b) Rail wages 
For purposes of this chapter, the term rail wages means, with respect to any calendar month, so much of the remuneration paid during such month which is subject to contributions under section 8(a) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act.
(c) Employee representative 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employee representative has the meaning given such term by section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act.
(d) Certain rules made applicable 
For purposes of this chapter, rules similar to the rules of section 3307 and 3308 shall apply.

26 USC 3323 - Omitted]

Section, added Pub. L. 98–76, title II, § 231(a), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 427; amended Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, § 13301(b), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 326, contained definitions, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 100–647, § 7106(a). See section 3322 of this title.

TITLE 26 - US CODE - CHAPTER 24 - COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE ON WAGES

26 USC 3401 - Definitions

(a) Wages 
For purposes of this chapter, the term wages means all remuneration (other than fees paid to a public official) for services performed by an employee for his employer, including the cash value of all remuneration (including benefits) paid in any medium other than cash; except that such term shall not include remuneration paid
(1) for active service performed in a month for which such employee is entitled to the benefits of section 112 (relating to certain combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces of the United States) to the extent remuneration for such service is excludable from gross income under such section; or
(2) for agricultural labor (as defined in section 3121 (g)) unless the remuneration paid for such labor is wages (as defined in section 3121 (a)); or
(3) for domestic service in a private home, local college club, or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority; or
(4) for service not in the course of the employers trade or business performed in any calendar quarter by an employee, unless the cash remuneration paid for such service is $50 or more and such service is performed by an individual who is regularly employed by such employer to perform such service. For purposes of this paragraph, an individual shall be deemed to be regularly employed by an employer during a calendar quarter only if
(A) on each of some 24 days during such quarter such individual performs for such employer for some portion of the day service not in the course of the employers trade or business; or
(B) such individual was regularly employed (as determined under subparagraph (A)) by such employer in the performance of such service during the preceding calendar quarter; or
(5) for services by a citizen or resident of the United States for a foreign government or an international organization; or
(6) for such services, performed by a nonresident alien individual, as may be designated by regulations prescribed by the Secretary; or
[(7) Repealed. Pub. L. 89–809, title I, § 103(k), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1554]
(8) 
(A) for services for an employer (other than the United States or any agency thereof)
(i) performed by a citizen of the United States if, at the time of the payment of such remuneration, it is reasonable to believe that such remuneration will be excluded from gross income under section 911; or
(ii) performed in a foreign country or in a possession of the United States by such a citizen if, at the time of the payment of such remuneration, the employer is required by the law of any foreign country or possession of the United States to withhold income tax upon such remuneration; or
(B) for services for an employer (other than the United States or any agency thereof) performed by a citizen of the United States within a possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico), if it is reasonable to believe that at least 80 percent of the remuneration to be paid to the employee by such employer during the calendar year will be for such services; or
(C) for services for an employer (other than the United States or any agency thereof) performed by a citizen of the United States within Puerto Rico, if it is reasonable to believe that during the entire calendar year the employee will be a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico; or
(D) for services for the United States (or any agency thereof) performed by a citizen of the United States within a possession of the United States to the extent the United States (or such agency) withholds taxes on such remuneration pursuant to an agreement with such possession; or
(9) for services performed by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order; or
(10) 
(A) for services performed by an individual under the age of 18 in the delivery or distribution of newspapers or shopping news, not including delivery or distribution to any point for subsequent delivery or distribution; or
(B) for services performed by an individual in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers, under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such services, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back; or
(11) for services not in the course of the employers trade or business, to the extent paid in any medium other than cash; or
(12) to, or on behalf of, an employee or his beneficiary
(A) from or to a trust described in section 401 (a) which is exempt from tax under section 501 (a) at the time of such payment unless such payment is made to an employee of the trust as remuneration for services rendered as such employee and not as a beneficiary of the trust; or
(B) under or to an annuity plan which, at the time of such payment, is a plan described in section 403 (a); or
(C) for a payment described in section 402 (h)(1) and (2) if, at the time of such payment, it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be entitled to an exclusion under such section for payment; or
(D) under an arrangement to which section 408 (p) applies; or
(E) under or to an eligible deferred compensation plan which, at the time of such payment, is a plan described in section 457 (b) which is maintained by an eligible employer described in section 457 (e)(1)(A),1 or
(13) pursuant to any provision of law other than section 5(c) or 6(1) of the Peace Corps Act, for service performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of such Act; or
(14) in the form of group-term life insurance on the life of an employee; or
(15) to or on behalf of an employee if (and to the extent that) at the time of the payment of such remuneration it is reasonable to believe that a corresponding deduction is allowable under section 217 (determined without regard to section 274 (n)); or
(16) 
(A) as tips in any medium other than cash;
(B) as cash tips to an employee in any calendar month in the course of his employment by an employer unless the amount of such cash tips is $20 or more;[2]
(17) for service described in section 3121 (b)(20);[2]
(18) for any payment made, or benefit furnished, to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment or such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment or benefit from income under section 127, 129, 134 (b)(4), or 134 (b)(5);[2]
(19) for any benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee if at the time such benefit is provided it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such benefit from income under section 74 (c), 108 (f)(4), 117, or 132;[2]
(20) for any medical care reimbursement made to or for the benefit of an employee under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan (within the meaning of section 105 (h)(6));[2]
(21) for any payment made to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment from income under section 106 (b); or
(22) any payment made to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment from income under section 106 (d).

The term wages includes any amount includible in gross income of an employee under section 409A and payment of such amount shall be treated as having been made in the taxable year in which the amount is so includible.

(b) Payroll period 
For purposes of this chapter, the term payroll period means a period for which a payment of wages is ordinarily made to the employee by his employer, and the term miscellaneous payroll period means a payroll period other than a daily, weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, quarterly, semiannual or annual payroll period.
(c) Employee 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employee includes an officer, employee, or elected official of the United States, a State, or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia, or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing. The term employee also includes an officer of a corporation.
(d) Employer 
For purposes of this chapter, the term employer means the person for whom an individual performs or performed any service, of whatever nature, as the employee of such person, except that
(1) if the person for whom the individual performs or performed the services does not have control of the payment of the wages for such services, the term employer (except for purposes of subsection (a)) means the person having control of the payment of such wages, and
(2) in the case of a person paying wages on behalf of a nonresident alien individual, foreign partnership, or foreign corporation, not engaged in trade or business within the United States, the term employer (except for purposes of subsection (a)) means such person.
(e) Number of withholding exemptions claimed 
For purposes of this chapter, the term number of withholding exemptions claimed means the number of withholding exemptions claimed in a withholding exemption certificate in effect under section 3402 (f), or in effect under the corresponding section of prior law, except that if no such certificate is in effect, the number of withholding exemptions claimed shall be considered to be zero.
(f) Tips 
For purposes of subsection (a), the term wages includes tips received by an employee in the course of his employment. Such wages shall be deemed to be paid at the time a written statement including such tips is furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a) or (if no statement including such tips is so furnished) at the time received.
(g) Crew leader rules to apply 
Rules similar to the rules of section 3121 (o) shall apply for purposes of this chapter.
[1] So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.
[2] So in original. Probably should be followed by “or”.

26 USC 3402 - Income tax collected at source

(a) Requirement of withholding 

(1) In general 
Except as otherwise provided in this section, every employer making payment of wages shall deduct and withhold upon such wages a tax determined in accordance with tables or computational procedures prescribed by the Secretary. Any tables or procedures prescribed under this paragraph shall
(A) apply with respect to the amount of wages paid during such periods as the Secretary may prescribe, and
(B) be in such form, and provide for such amounts to be deducted and withheld, as the Secretary determines to be most appropriate to carry out the purposes of this chapter and to reflect the provisions of chapter 1 applicable to such periods.
(2) Amount of wages 
For purposes of applying tables or procedures prescribed under paragraph (1), the term the amount of wages means the amount by which the wages exceed the number of withholding exemptions claimed multiplied by the amount of one such exemption. The amount of each withholding exemption shall be equal to the amount of one personal exemption provided in section 151 (b), prorated to the payroll period. The maximum number of withholding exemptions permitted shall be calculated in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary under this section, taking into account any reduction in withholding to which an employee is entitled under this section.
(b) Percentage method of withholding 

(1) If wages are paid with respect to a period which is not a payroll period, the withholding exemption allowable with respect to each payment of such wages shall be the exemption allowed for a miscellaneous payroll period containing a number of days (including Sundays and holidays) equal to the number of days in the period with respect to which such wages are paid.
(2) In any case in which wages are paid by an employer without regard to any payroll period or other period, the withholding exemption allowable with respect to each payment of such wages shall be the exemption allowed for a miscellaneous payroll period containing a number of days equal to the number of days (including Sundays and holidays) which have elapsed since the date of the last payment of such wages by such employer during the calendar year, or the date of commencement of employment with such employer during such year, or January 1 of such year, whichever is the later.
(3) In any case in which the period, or the time described in paragraph (2), in respect of any wages is less than one week, the Secretary, under regulations prescribed by him, may authorize an employer to compute the tax to be deducted and withheld as if the aggregate of the wages paid to the employee during the calendar week were paid for a weekly payroll period.
(4) In determining the amount to be deducted and withheld under this subsection, the wages may, at the election of the employer, be computed to the nearest dollar.
(c) Wage bracket withholding 

(1) At the election of the employer with respect to any employee, the employer shall deduct and withhold upon the wages paid to such employee a tax (in lieu of the tax required to be deducted and withheld under subsection (a)) determined in accordance with tables prescribed by the Secretary in accordance with paragraph (6).
(2) If wages are paid with respect to a period which is not a payroll period, the amount to be deducted and withheld shall be that applicable in the case of a miscellaneous payroll period containing a number of days (including Sundays and holidays) equal to the number of days in the period with respect to which such wages are paid.
(3) In any case in which wages are paid by an employer without regard to any payroll period or other period, the amount to be deducted and withheld shall be that applicable in the case of a miscellaneous payroll period containing a number of days equal to the number of days (including Sundays and holidays) which have elapsed since the date of the last payment of such wages by such employer during the calendar year, or the date of commencement of employment with such employer during such year, or January 1 of such year, whichever is the later.
(4) In any case in which the period, or the time described in paragraph (3), in respect of any wages is less than one week, the Secretary, under regulations prescribed by him, may authorize an employer to determine the amount to be deducted and withheld under the tables applicable in the case of a weekly payroll period, in which case the aggregate of the wages paid to the employee during the calendar week shall be considered the weekly wages.
(5) If the wages exceed the highest wage bracket, in determining the amount to be deducted and withheld under this subsection, the wages may, at the election of the employer, be computed to the nearest dollar.
(6) In the case of wages paid after December 31, 1969, the amount deducted and withheld under paragraph (1) shall be determined in accordance with tables prescribed by the Secretary. In the tables so prescribed, the amounts set forth as amounts of wages and amounts of income tax to be deducted and withheld shall be computed on the basis of the table for an annual payroll period prescribed pursuant to subsection (a).
(d) Tax paid by recipient 
If the employer, in violation of the provisions of this chapter, fails to deduct and withhold the tax under this chapter, and thereafter the tax against which such tax may be credited is paid, the tax so required to be deducted and withheld shall not be collected from the employer; but this subsection shall in no case relieve the employer from liability for any penalties or additions to the tax otherwise applicable in respect of such failure to deduct and withhold.
(e) Included and excluded wages 
If the remuneration paid by an employer to an employee for services performed during one-half or more of any payroll period of not more than 31 consecutive days constitutes wages, all the remuneration paid by such employer to such employee for such period shall be deemed to be wages; but if the remuneration paid by an employer to an employee for services performed during more than one-half of any such payroll period does not constitute wages, then none of the remuneration paid by such employer to such employee for such period shall be deemed to be wages.
(f) Withholding exemptions 

(1) In general 
An employee receiving wages shall on any day be entitled to the following withholding exemptions:
(A) an exemption for himself unless he is an individual described in section 151 (d)(2);
(B) if the employee is married, any exemption to which his spouse is entitled, or would be entitled if such spouse were an employee receiving wages, under subparagraph (A) or (D), but only if such spouse does not have in effect a withholding exemption certificate claiming such exemption;
(C) an exemption for each individual with respect to whom, on the basis of facts existing at the beginning of such day, there may reasonably be expected to be allowable an exemption under section 151 (c) for the taxable year under subtitle A in respect of which amounts deducted and withheld under this chapter in the calendar year in which such day falls are allowed as a credit;
(D) any allowance to which he is entitled under subsection (m), but only if his spouse does not have in effect a withholding exemption certificate claiming such allowance; and
(E) a standard deduction allowance which shall be an amount equal to one exemption (or more than one exemption if so prescribed by the Secretary) unless
(i)  he is married (as determined under section 7703) and his spouse is an employee receiving wages subject to withholding or
(ii)  he has withholding exemption certificates in effect with respect to more than one employer.

For purposes of this title, any standard deduction allowance under subparagraph (E) shall be treated as if it were denominated a withholding exemption.

(2) Exemption certificates 

(A) On commencement of employment 
On or before the date of the commencement of employment with an employer, the employee shall furnish the employer with a signed withholding exemption certificate relating to the number of withholding exemptions which he claims, which shall in no event exceed the number to which he is entitled.
(B) Change of status 
If, on any day during the calendar year, the number of withholding exemptions to which the employee is entitled is less than the number of withholding exemptions claimed by the employee on the withholding exemption certificate then in effect with respect to him, the employee shall within 10 days thereafter furnish the employer with a new withholding exemption certificate relating to the number of withholding exemptions which the employee then claims, which shall in no event exceed the number to which he is entitled on such day. If, on any day during the calendar year, the number of withholding exemptions to which the employee is entitled is greater than the number of withholding exemptions claimed, the employee may furnish the employer with a new withholding exemption certificate relating to the number of withholding exemptions which the employee then claims, which shall in no event exceed the number to which he is entitled on such day.
(C) Change of status which affects next calendar year 
If on any day during the calendar year the number of withholding exemptions to which the employee will be, or may reasonably be expected to be, entitled at the beginning of his next taxable year under subtitle A is different from the number to which the employee is entitled on such day, the employee shall, in such cases and at such times as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe, furnish the employer with a withholding exemption certificate relating to the number of withholding exemptions which he claims with respect to such next taxable year, which shall in no event exceed the number to which he will be, or may reasonably be expected to be, so entitled.
(3) When certificate takes effect 

(A) First certificate furnished 
A withholding exemption certificate furnished the employer in cases in which no previous such certificate is in effect shall take effect as of the beginning of the first payroll period ending, or the first payment of wages made without regard to a payroll period, on or after the date on which such certificate is so furnished.
(B) Furnished to take place of existing certificate 

(i) In general Except as provided in clauses (ii) and (iii), a withholding exemption certificate furnished to the employer in cases in which a previous such certificate is in effect shall take effect as of the beginning of the 1st payroll period ending (or the 1st payment of wages made without regard to a payroll period) on or after the 30th day after the day on which such certificate is so furnished.
(ii) Employer may elect earlier effective date At the election of the employer, a certificate described in clause (i) may be made effective beginning with any payment of wages made on or after the day on which the certificate is so furnished and before the 30th day referred to in clause (i).
(iii) Change of status which affects next year Any certificate furnished pursuant to paragraph (2)(C) shall not take effect, and may not be made effective, with respect to any payment of wages made in the calendar year in which the certificate is furnished.
(4) Period during which certificate remains in effect 
A withholding exemption certificate which takes effect under this subsection, or which on December 31, 1954, was in effect under the corresponding subsection of prior law, shall continue in effect with respect to the employer until another such certificate takes effect under this subsection.
(5) Form and contents of certificate 
Withholding exemption certificates shall be in such form and contain such information as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.
(6) Exemption of certain nonresident aliens 
Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), a nonresident alien individual (other than an individual described in section 3401 (a)(6)(A) or (B)) shall be entitled to only one withholding exemption.
(7) Exemption where certificate with another employer is in effect 
If a withholding exemption certificate is in effect with respect to one employer, an employee shall not be entitled under a certificate in effect with any other employer to any withholding exemption which he has claimed under such first certificate.
(g) Overlapping pay periods, and payment by agent or fiduciary 
If a payment of wages is made to an employee by an employer
(1) with respect to a payroll period or other period, any part of which is included in a payroll period or other period with respect to which wages are also paid to such employee by such employer, or
(2) without regard to any payroll period or other period, but on or prior to the expiration of a payroll period or other period with respect to which wages are also paid to such employee by such employer, or
(3) with respect to a period beginning in one and ending in another calendar year, or
(4) through an agent, fiduciary, or other person who also has the control, receipt, custody, or disposal of, or pays, the wages payable by another employer to such employee,

the manner of withholding and the amount to be deducted and withheld under this chapter shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary under which the withholding exemption allowed to the employee in any calendar year shall approximate the withholding exemption allowable with respect to an annual payroll period.

(h) Alternative methods of computing amount to be withheld 
The Secretary may, under regulations prescribed by him, authorize
(1) Withholding on basis of average wages 
An employer
(A) to estimate the wages which will be paid to any employee in any quarter of the calendar year,
(B) to determine the amount to be deducted and withheld upon each payment of wages to such employee during such quarter as if the appropriate average of the wages so estimated constituted the actual wages paid, and
(C) to deduct and withhold upon any payment of wages to such employee during such quarter (and, in the case of tips referred to in subsection (k), within 30 days thereafter) such amount as may be necessary to adjust the amount actually deducted and withheld upon the wages of such employee during such quarter to the amount required to be deducted and withheld during such quarter without regard to this subsection.
(2) Withholding on basis of annualized wages 
An employer to determine the amount of tax to be deducted and withheld upon a payment of wages to an employee for a payroll period by
(A) multiplying the amount of an employees wages for a payroll period by the number of such payroll periods in the calendar year,
(B) determining the amount of tax which would be required to be deducted and withheld upon the amount determined under subparagraph (A) if such amount constituted the actual wages for the calendar year and the payroll period of the employee were an annual payroll period, and
(C) dividing the amount of tax determined under subparagraph (B) by the number of payroll periods (described in subparagraph (A)) in the calendar year.
(3) Withholding on basis of cumulative wages 
An employer, in the case of any employee who requests to have the amount of tax to be withheld from his wages computed on the basis of his cumulative wages, to
(A) add the amount of the wages to be paid to the employee for the payroll period to the total amount of wages paid by the employer to the employee during the calendar year,
(B) divide the aggregate amount of wages computed under subparagraph (A) by the number of payroll periods to which such aggregate amount of wages relates,
(C) compute the total amount of tax that would have been required to be deducted and withheld under subsection (a) if the average amount of wages (as computed under subparagraph (B)) had been paid to the employee for the number of payroll periods to which the aggregate amount of wages (computed under subparagraph (A)) relates,
(D) determine the excess, if any, of the amount of tax computed under subparagraph (C) over the total amount of tax deducted and withheld by the employer from wages paid to the employee during the calendar year, and
(E) deduct and withhold upon the payment of wages (referred to in subparagraph (A)) to the employee an amount equal to the excess (if any) computed under subparagraph (D).
(4) Other methods 
An employer to determine the amount of tax to be deducted and withheld upon the wages paid to an employee by any other method which will require the employer to deduct and withhold upon such wages substantially the same amount as would be required to be deducted and withheld by applying subsection (a) or (c), either with respect to a payroll period or with respect to the entire taxable year.
(i) Changes in withholding 

(1) In general 
The Secretary may by regulations provide for increases in the amount of withholding otherwise required under this section in cases where the employee requests such changes.
(2) Treatment as tax 
Any increased withholding under paragraph (1) shall for all purposes be considered tax required to be deducted and withheld under this chapter.
(j) Noncash remuneration to retail commission salesman 
In the case of remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for services performed by an individual as a retail salesman for a person, where the service performed by such individual for such person is ordinarily performed for remuneration solely by way of cash commission an employer shall not be required to deduct or withhold any tax under this subchapter with respect to such remuneration, provided that such employer files with the Secretary such information with respect to such remuneration as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.
(k) Tips 
In the case of tips which constitute wages, subsection (a) shall be applicable only to such tips as are included in a written statement furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053 (a), and only to the extent that the tax can be deducted and withheld by the employer, at or after the time such statement is so furnished and before the close of the calendar year in which such statement is furnished, from such wages of the employee (excluding tips, but including funds turned over by the employee to the employer for the purpose of such deduction and withholding) as are under the control of the employer; and an employer who is furnished by an employee a written statement of tips (received in a calendar month) pursuant to section 6053 (a) to which paragraph (16)(B) of section 3401 (a) is applicable may deduct and withhold the tax with respect to such tips from any wages of the employee (excluding tips) under his control, even though at the time such statement is furnished the total amount of the tips included in statements furnished to the employer as having been received by the employee in such calendar month in the course of his employment by such employer is less than $20. Such tax shall not at any time be deducted and withheld in an amount which exceeds the aggregate of such wages and funds (including funds turned over under section 3102 (c)(2) or section 3202 (c)(2)) minus any tax required by section 3102 (a) or section 3202 (a) to be collected from such wages and funds.
(l) Determination and disclosure of marital status 

(1) Determination of status by employer 
For purposes of applying the tables in subsections (a) and (c) to a payment of wages, the employer shall treat the employee as a single person unless there is in effect with respect to such payment of wages a withholding exemption certificate furnished to the employer by the employee after the date of the enactment of this subsection indicating that the employee is married.
(2) Disclosure of status by employee 
An employee shall be entitled to furnish the employer with a withholding exemption certificate indicating he is married only if, on the day of such furnishing, he is married (determined with the application of the rules in paragraph (3)). An employee whose marital status changes from married to single shall, at such time as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe, furnish the employer with a new withholding exemption certificate.
(3) Determination of marital status 
For purposes of paragraph (2), an employee shall on any day be considered
(A) as not married, if
(i)  he is legally separated from his spouse under a decree of divorce or separate maintenance, or
(ii)  either he or his spouse is, or on any preceding day within the calendar year was, a nonresident alien; or
(B) as married, if
(i)  his spouse (other than a spouse referred to in subparagraph (A)) died within the portion of his taxable year which precedes such day, or
(ii)  his spouse died during one of the two taxable years immediately preceding the current taxable year and, on the basis of facts existing at the beginning of such day, the employee reasonably expects, at the close of his taxable year, to be a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2 (a)).
(m) Withholding allowances 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, an employee shall be entitled to additional withholding allowances or additional reductions in withholding under this subsection. In determining the number of additional withholding allowances or the amount of additional reductions in withholding under this subsection, the employee may take into account (to the extent and in the manner provided by such regulations)
(1) estimated itemized deductions allowable under chapter 1 (other than the deductions referred to in section 151 and other than the deductions required to be taken into account in determining adjusted gross income under section 62 (a) (other than paragraph (10) thereof)),
(2) estimated tax credits allowable under chapter 1, and
(3) such additional deductions (including the additional standard deduction under section 63 (c)(3) for the aged and blind) and other items as may be specified by the Secretary in regulations.
(n) Employees incurring no income tax liability 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an employer shall not be required to deduct and withhold any tax under this chapter upon a payment of wages to an employee if there is in effect with respect to such payment a withholding exemption certificate (in such form and containing such other information as the Secretary may prescribe) furnished to the employer by the employee certifying that the employee
(1) incurred no liability for income tax imposed under subtitle A for his preceding taxable year, and
(2) anticipates that he will incur no liability for income tax imposed under subtitle A for his current taxable year.

The Secretary shall by regulations provide for the coordination of the provisions of this subsection with the provisions of subsection (f).

(o) Extension of withholding to certain payments other than wages 

(1) General rule 
For purposes of this chapter (and so much of subtitle F as relates to this chapter)
(A) any supplemental unemployment compensation benefit paid to an individual,
(B) any payment of an annuity to an individual, if at the time the payment is made a request that such annuity be subject to withholding under this chapter is in effect, and
(C) any payment to an individual of sick pay which does not constitute wages (determined without regard to this subsection), if at the time the payment is made a request that such sick pay be subject to withholding under this chapter is in effect,

shall be treated as if it were a payment of wages by an employer to an employee for a payroll period.

(2) Definitions 

(A) Supplemental unemployment compensation benefits 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term supplemental unemployment compensation benefits means amounts which are paid to an employee, pursuant to a plan to which the employer is a party, because of an employees involuntary separation from employment (whether or not such separation is temporary), resulting directly from a reduction in force, the discontinuance of a plant or operation, or other similar conditions, but only to the extent such benefits are includible in the employees gross income.
(B) Annuity 
For purposes of this subsection, the term annuity means any amount paid to an individual as a pension or annuity.
(C) Sick pay 
For purposes of this subsection, the term sick pay means any amount which
(i) is paid to an employee pursuant to a plan to which the employer is a party, and
(ii) constitutes remuneration or a payment in lieu of remuneration for any period during which the employee is temporarily absent from work on account of sickness or personal injuries.
(3) Amount withheld from annuity payments or sick pay 
If a payee makes a request that an annuity or any sick pay be subject to withholding under this chapter, the amount to be deducted and withheld under this chapter from any payment to which such request applies shall be an amount (not less than a minimum amount determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) specified by the payee in such request. The amount deducted and withheld with respect to a payment which is greater or less than a full payment shall bear the same relation to the specified amount as such payment bears to a full payment.
(4) Request for withholding 
A request that an annuity or any sick pay be subject to withholding under this chapter
(A) shall be made by the payee in writing to the person making the payments and shall contain the social security number of the payee,
(B) shall specify the amount to be deducted and withheld from each full payment, and
(C) shall take effect
(i) in the case of sick pay, with respect to payments made more than 7 days after the date on which such request is furnished to the payor, or
(ii) in the case of an annuity, at such time (after the date on which such request is furnished to the payor) as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe.

Such a request may be changed or terminated by furnishing to the person making the payments a written statement of change or termination which shall take effect in the same manner as provided in subparagraph (C). At the election of the payor, any such request (or statement of change or revocation) may take effect earlier than as provided in subparagraph (C).

(5) Special rule for sick pay paid pursuant to certain collective-bargaining agreements 
In the case of any sick pay paid pursuant to a collective-bargaining agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers which contains a provision specifying that this paragraph is to apply to sick pay paid pursuant to such agreement and contains a provision for determining the amount to be deducted and withheld from each payment of such sick pay
(A) the requirement of paragraph (1)(C) that a request for withholding be in effect shall not apply, and
(B) except as provided in subsection (n), the amounts to be deducted and withheld under this chapter shall be determined in accordance with such agreement.

The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to sick pay paid pursuant to any agreement to any individual unless the social security number of such individual is furnished to the payor and the payor is furnished with such information as is necessary to determine whether the payment is pursuant to the agreement and to determine the amount to be deducted and withheld.

(6) Coordination with withholding on designated distributions under section 3405 
This subsection shall not apply to any amount which is a designated distribution (within the meaning of section 3405 (e)(1)).
(p) Voluntary withholding agreements 

(1) Certain Federal payments 

(A) In general 
If, at the time a specified Federal payment is made to any person, a request by such person is in effect that such payment be subject to withholding under this chapter, then for purposes of this chapter and so much of subtitle F as relates to this chapter, such payment shall be treated as if it were a payment of wages by an employer to an employee.
(B) Amount withheld 
The amount to be deducted and withheld under this chapter from any payment to which any request under subparagraph (A) applies shall be an amount equal to the percentage of such payment specified in such request. Such a request shall apply to any payment only if the percentage specified is 7 percent, any percentage applicable to any of the 3 lowest income brackets in the table under section 1 (c), or such other percentage as is permitted under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(C) Specified Federal payments 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term specified Federal payment means
(i) any payment of a social security benefit (as defined in section 86 (d)),
(ii) any payment referred to in the second sentence of section 451 (d) which is treated as insurance proceeds,
(iii) any amount which is includible in gross income under section 77 (a), and
(iv) any other payment made pursuant to Federal law which is specified by the Secretary for purposes of this paragraph.
(D) Requests for withholding 
Rules similar to the rules that apply to annuities under subsection (o)(4) shall apply to requests under this paragraph and paragraph (2).
(2) Voluntary withholding on unemployment benefits 
If, at the time a payment of unemployment compensation (as defined in section 85 (b)) is made to any person, a request by such person is in effect that such payment be subject to withholding under this chapter, then for purposes of this chapter and so much of subtitle F as relates to this chapter, such payment shall be treated as if it were a payment of wages by an employer to an employee. The amount to be deducted and withheld under this chapter from any payment to which any request under this paragraph applies shall be an amount equal to 10 percent of such payment.
(3) Authority for other voluntary withholding 
The Secretary is authorized by regulations to provide for withholding
(A) from remuneration for services performed by an employee for the employees employer which (without regard to this paragraph) does not constitute wages, and
(B) from any other type of payment with respect to which the Secretary finds that withholding would be appropriate under the provisions of this chapter,

if the employer and employee, or the person making and the person receiving such other type of payment, agree to such withholding. Such agreement shall be in such form and manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe. For purposes of this chapter (and so much of subtitle F as relates to this chapter), remuneration or other payments with respect to which such agreement is made shall be treated as if they were wages paid by an employer to an employee to the extent that such remuneration is paid or other payments are made during the period for which the agreement is in effect.

(q) Extension of withholding to certain gambling winnings 

(1) General rule 
Every person, including the Government of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentalities of the foregoing, making any payment of winnings which are subject to withholding shall deduct and withhold from such payment a tax in an amount equal to the product of the third lowest rate of tax applicable under section 1 (c) and such payment.
(2) Exemption where tax otherwise withheld 
In the case of any payment of winnings which are subject to withholding made to a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation, the tax imposed under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any such payment subject to tax under section 1441 (a) (relating to withholding on nonresident aliens) or tax under section 1442 (a) (relating to withholding on foreign corporations).
(3) Winnings which are subject to withholding 
For purposes of this subsection, the term winnings which are subject to withholding means proceeds from a wager determined in accordance with the following:
(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), proceeds of more than $5,000 from a wagering transaction, if the amount of such proceeds is at least 300 times as large as the amount wagered.
(B) State-conducted lotteries 
Proceeds of more than $5,000 from a wager placed in a lottery conducted by an agency of a State acting under authority of State law, but only if such wager is placed with the State agency conducting such lottery, or with its authorized employees or agents.
(C) Sweepstakes, wagering pools, certain pari­mutuel pools, jai alai, and lotteries 
Proceeds of more than $5,000 from
(i) a wager placed in a sweepstakes, wagering pool, or lottery (other than a wager described in subparagraph (B)), or
(ii) a wagering transaction in a parimutuel pool with respect to horse races, dog races, or jai alai if the amount of such proceeds is at least 300 times as large as the amount wagered.
(4) Rules for determining proceeds from a wager 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) proceeds from a wager shall be determined by reducing the amount received by the amount of the wager, and
(B) proceeds which are not money shall be taken into account at their fair market value.
(5) Exception for bingo, keno, and slot machines 
The tax imposed under paragraph (1) shall not apply to winnings from a slot machine, keno, and bingo.
(6) Statement by recipient 
Every person who is to receive a payment of winnings which are subject to withholding shall furnish the person making such payment a statement, made under the penalties of perjury, containing the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of the person receiving the payment and of each person entitled to any portion of such payment.
(7) Coordination with other sections 
For purposes of sections 3403 and 3404 and for purposes of so much of subtitle F (except section 7205) as relates to this chapter, payments to any person of winnings which are subject to withholding shall be treated as if they were wages paid by an employer to an employee.
(r) Extension of withholding to certain taxable payments of Indian casino profits 

(1) In general 
Every person, including an Indian tribe, making a payment to a member of an Indian tribe from the net revenues of any class II or class III gaming activity conducted or licensed by such tribe shall deduct and withhold from such payment a tax in an amount equal to such payments proportionate share of the annualized tax.
(2) Exception 
The tax imposed by paragraph (1) shall not apply to any payment to the extent that the payment, when annualized, does not exceed an amount equal to the sum of
(A) the basic standard deduction (as defined in section 63 (c)) for an individual to whom section 63 (c)(2)(C)1 applies, and
(B) the exemption amount (as defined in section 151 (d)).
(3) Annualized tax 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term annualized tax means, with respect to any payment, the amount of tax which would be imposed by section 1 (c) (determined without regard to any rate of tax in excess of the fourth lowest rate of tax applicable under section 1 (c)) on an amount of taxable income equal to the excess of
(A) the annualized amount of such payment, over
(B) the amount determined under paragraph (2).
(4) Classes of gaming activities, etc. 
For purposes of this subsection, terms used in paragraph (1) which are defined in section 4 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this subsection, shall have the respective meanings given such terms by such section.
(5) Annualization 
Payments shall be placed on an annualized basis under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(6) Alternate withholding procedures 
At the election of an Indian tribe, the tax imposed by this subsection on any payment made by such tribe shall be determined in accordance with such tables or computational procedures as may be specified in regulations prescribed by the Secretary (in lieu of in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3)).
(7) Coordination with other sections 
For purposes of this chapter and so much of subtitle F as relates to this chapter, payments to any person which are subject to withholding under this subsection shall be treated as if they were wages paid by an employer to an employee.
(s) Exemption from withholding for any vehicle fringe benefit 

(1) Employer election not to withhold 
The employer may elect not to deduct and withhold any tax under this chapter with respect to any vehicle fringe benefit provided to any employee if such employee is notified by the employer of such election (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe). The preceding sentence shall not apply to any vehicle fringe benefit unless the amount of such benefit is included by the employer on a statement timely furnished under section 6051.
(2) Employer must furnish W–2 
Any vehicle fringe benefit shall be treated as wages from which amounts are required to be deducted and withheld under this chapter for purposes of section 6051.
(3) Vehicle fringe benefit 
For purposes of this subsection, the term vehicle fringe benefit means any fringe benefit
(A) which constitutes wages (as defined in section 3401), and
(B) which consists of providing a highway motor vehicle for the use of the employee.
(t) Extension of withholding to certain payments made by Government entities 

(1) General rule 
The Government of the United States, every State, every political subdivision thereof, and every instrumentality of the foregoing (including multi-State agencies) making any payment to any person providing any property or services (including any payment made in connection with a government voucher or certificate program which functions as a payment for property or services) shall deduct and withhold from such payment a tax in an amount equal to 3 percent of such payment.
(2) Property and services subject to withholding 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any payment
(A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), which is subject to withholding under any other provision of this chapter or chapter 3,
(B) which is subject to withholding under section 3406 and from which amounts are being withheld under such section,
(C) of interest,
(D) for real property,
(E) to any governmental entity subject to the requirements of paragraph (1), any tax-exempt entity, or any foreign government,
(F) made pursuant to a classified or confidential contract described in section 6050M (e)(3),
(G) made by a political subdivision of a State (or any instrumentality thereof) which makes less than $100,000,000 of such payments annually,
(H) which is in connection with a public assistance or public welfare program for which eligibility is determined by a needs or income test, and
(I) to any government employee not otherwise excludable with respect to their services as an employee.
(3) Coordination with other sections 
For purposes of sections 3403 and 3404 and for purposes of so much of subtitle F (except section 7205) as relates to this chapter, payments to any person for property or services which are subject to withholding shall be treated as if such payments were wages paid by an employer to an employee.
[1] See References in Text note below.

26 USC 3403 - Liability for tax

The employer shall be liable for the payment of the tax required to be deducted and withheld under this chapter, and shall not be liable to any person for the amount of any such payment.

26 USC 3404 - Return and payment by governmental employer

If the employer is the United States, or a State, or political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia, or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing, the return of the amount deducted and withheld upon any wages may be made by any officer or employee of the United States, or of such State, or political subdivision, or of the District of Columbia, or of such agency or instrumentality, as the case may be, having control of the payment of such wages, or appropriately designated for that purpose.

26 USC 3405 - Special rules for pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income

(a) Periodic payments 

(1) Withholding as if payment were wages 
The payor of any periodic payment (as defined in subsection (e)(2)) shall withhold from such payment the amount which would be required to be withheld from such payment if such payment were a payment of wages by an employer to an employee for the appropriate payroll period.
(2) Election of no withholding 
An individual may elect to have paragraph (1) not apply with respect to periodic payments made to such individual. Such an election shall remain in effect until revoked by such individual.
(3) When election takes effect 
Any election under this subsection (and any revocation of such an election) shall take effect as provided by subsection (f)(3) of section 3402 for withholding exemption certificates.
(4) Amount withheld where no withholding exemption certificate in effect 
In the case of any payment with respect to which a withholding exemption certificate is not in effect, the amount withheld under paragraph (1) shall be determined by treating the payee as a married individual claiming 3 withholding exemptions.
(b) Nonperiodic distribution 

(1) Withholding 
The payor of any nonperiodic distribution (as defined in subsection (e)(3)) shall withhold from such distribution an amount equal to 10 percent of such distribution.
(2) Election of no withholding 

(A) In general 
An individual may elect not to have paragraph (1) apply with respect to any nonperiodic distribution.
(B) Scope of election 
An election under subparagraph (A)
(i) except as provided in clause (ii), shall be on a distribution-by-distribution basis, or
(ii) to the extent provided in regulations, may apply to subsequent nonperiodic distributions made by the payor to the payee under the same arrangement.
(c) Eligible rollover distributions 

(1) In general 
In the case of any designated distribution which is an eligible rollover distribution
(A) subsections (a) and (b) shall not apply, and
(B) the payor of such distribution shall withhold from such distribution an amount equal to 20 percent of such distribution.
(2) Exception 
Paragraph (1)(B) shall not apply to any distribution if the distributee elects under section 401 (a)(31)(A) to have such distribution paid directly to an eligible retirement plan.
(3) Eligible rollover distribution 
For purposes of this subsection, the term eligible rollover distribution has the meaning given such term by section 402 (f)(2)(A).
(d) Liability for withholding 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the payor of a designated distribution (as defined in subsection (e)(1)) shall withhold, and be liable for, payment of the tax required to be withheld under this section.
(2) Plan administrator liable in certain cases 

(A) In general 
In the case of any plan to which this paragraph applies, paragraph (1) shall not apply and the plan administrator shall withhold, and be liable for, payment of the tax unless the plan administrator
(i) directs the payor to withhold such tax, and
(ii) provides the payor with such information as the Secretary may require by regulations.
(B) Plans to which paragraph applies 
This paragraph applies to any plan described in, or which at any time has been determined to be described in
(i) section 401 (a),
(ii) section 403 (a),
(iii) section 301(d) of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975, or
(iv) section 457 (b) and which is maintained by an eligible employer described in section 457 (e)(1)(A).
(e) Definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this section
(1) Designated distribution 

(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term designated distribution means any distribution or payment from or under
(i) an employer deferred compensation plan,
(ii) an individual retirement plan (as defined in section 7701 (a)(37)), or
(iii) a commercial annuity.
(B) Exceptions 
The term designated distribution shall not include
(i) any amount which is wages without regard to this section,
(ii) the portion of a distribution or payment which it is reasonable to believe is not includible in gross income, and
(iii) any amount which is subject to withholding under subchapter A of chapter 3 (relating to withholding of tax on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations) by the person paying such amount or which would be so subject but for a tax treaty, or
(iv) any distribution described in section 404 (k)(2).

For purposes of clause (ii), any distribution or payment from or under an individual retirement plan (other than a Roth IRA) shall be treated as includible in gross income.

(2) Periodic payment 
The term periodic payment means a designated distribution which is an annuity or similar periodic payment.
(3) Nonperiodic distribution 
The term nonperiodic distribution means any designated distribution which is not a periodic payment.
[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 102–318, title V, § 521(b)(38), July 3, 1992, 106 Stat. 312] 
(5) Employer deferred compensation plan 
The term employer deferred compensation plan means any pension, annuity, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan or other plan deferring the receipt of compensation.
(6) Commercial annuity 
The term commercial annuity means an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract issued by an insurance company licensed to do business under the laws of any State.
(7) Plan administrator 
The term plan administrator has the meaning given such term by section 414 (g).
(8) Maximum amount withheld 
The maximum amount to be withheld under this section on any designated distribution shall not exceed the sum of the amount of money and the fair market value of other property (other than securities of the employer corporation) received in the distribution. No amount shall be required to be withheld under this section in the case of any designated distribution which consists only of securities of the employer corporation and cash (not in excess of $200) in lieu of financial shares. For purposes of this paragraph, the term securities of the employer corporation has the meaning given such term by section 402 (e)(4)(E).
(9) Separate arrangements to be treated separately 
If the payor has more than 1 arrangement under which designated distributions may be made to any individual, each such arrangement shall be treated separately.
(10) Time and manner of election 

(A) In general 
Any election and any revocation under this section shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe.
(B) Payor required to notify payee of rights to elect 

(i) Periodic payments The payor of any periodic payment
(I) shall transmit to the payee notice of the right to make an election under subsection (a) not earlier than 6 months before the first of such payments and not later than when making the first of such payments,
(II) if such a notice is not transmitted under subclause (I) when making such first payment, shall transmit such a notice when making such first payment, and
(III) shall transmit to payees, not less frequently than once each calendar year, notice of their rights to make elections under subsection (a) and to revoke such elections.
(ii) Nonperiodic distributions The payor of any nonperiodic distribution shall transmit to the payee notice of the right to make any election provided in subsection (b) at the time of the distribution (or at such earlier time as may be provided in regulations).
(iii) Notice Any notice transmitted pursuant to this subparagraph shall be in such form and contain such information as the Secretary shall prescribe.
(11) Withholding includes deduction 
The terms withholding, withhold, and withheld include deducting, deduct, and deducted.
(12) Failure to provide correct TIN 
If
(A) a payee fails to furnish his TIN to the payor in the manner required by the Secretary, or
(B) the Secretary notifies the payor before any payment or distribution that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect,

no election under subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2) shall be treated as in effect and subsection (a)(4) shall not apply to such payee.

(13) Election may not be made with respect to certain payments outside the United States or its possessions 

(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in the case of any periodic payment or nonperiodic distribution which is to be delivered outside of the United States and any possession of the United States, no election may be made under subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2) with respect to such payment.
(B) Exception 
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the recipient certifies to the payor, in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe, that such person is not
(i) a United States citizen or a resident alien of the United States, or
(ii) an individual to whom section 877 applies.
(f) Withholding to be treated as wage withholding under section 3402 for other purposes 
For purposes of this chapter (and so much of subtitle F as relates to this chapter)
(1) any designated distribution (whether or not an election under this section applies to such distribution) shall be treated as if it were wages paid by an employer to an employee with respect to which there has been withholding under section 3402, and
(2) in the case of any designated distribution not subject to withholding under this section by reason of an election under this section, the amount withheld shall be treated as zero.

26 USC 3406 - Backup withholding

(a) Requirement to deduct and withhold 

(1) In general 
In the case of any reportable payment, if
(A) the payee fails to furnish his TIN to the payor in the manner required,
(B) the Secretary notifies the payor that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect,
(C) there has been a notified payee underreporting described in subsection (c), or
(D) there has been a payee certification failure described in subsection (d),

then the payor shall deduct and withhold from such payment a tax equal to the product of the fourth lowest rate of tax applicable under section 1 (c) and such payment.

(2) Subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (1) apply only to interest and dividend payments 
Subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (1) shall apply only to reportable interest or dividend payments.
(b) Reportable payment, etc. 
For purposes of this section
(1) Reportable payment 
The term reportable payment means
(A) any reportable interest or dividend payment, and
(B) any other reportable payment.
(2) Reportable interest or dividend payment 

(A) In general 
The term reportable interest or dividend payment means any payment of a kind, and to a payee, required to be shown on a return required under
(i) section 6049 (a) (relating to payments of interest),
(ii) section 6042 (a) (relating to payments of dividends), or
(iii) section 6044 (relating to payments of patronage dividends) but only to the extent such payment is in money.
(B) Special rule for patronage dividends 
For purposes of subparagraphs (C) and (D) of subsection (a)(1), the term reportable interest or dividend payment shall not include any payment to which section 6044 (relating to patronage dividends) applies unless 50 percent or more of such payment is in money.
(3) Other reportable payment 
The term other reportable payment means any payment of a kind, and to a payee, required to be shown on a return required under
(A) section 6041 (relating to certain information at source),
(B) section 6041A (a) (relating to payments of remuneration for services),
(C) section 6045 (relating to returns of brokers),
(D) section 6050A (relating to reporting requirements of certain fishing boat operators), but only to the extent such payment is in money and represents a share of the proceeds of the catch, or
(E) section 6050N (relating to payments of royalties).
(4) Whether payment is of reportable kind determined without regard to minimum amount 
The determination of whether any payment is of a kind required to be shown on a return described in paragraph (2) or (3) shall be made without regard to any minimum amount which must be paid before a return is required.
(5) Exception for certain small payments 
To the extent provided in regulations, the term reportable payment shall not include any payment which
(A) does not exceed $10, and
(B) if determined for a 1-year period, would not exceed $10.
(6) Other reportable payments include payments described in section 6041 (a) or 6041A (a) only where aggregate for calendar year is $600 or more 
Any payment of a kind required to be shown on a return required under section 6041 (a) or 6041A (a) which is made during any calendar year shall be treated as a reportable payment only if
(A) the aggregate amount of such payment and all previous payments described in such sections by the payor to the payee during such calendar year equals or exceeds $600,
(B) the payor was required under section 6041 (a) or 6041A (a) to file a return for the preceding calendar year with respect to payments to the payee, or
(C) during the preceding calendar year, the payor made reportable payments to the payee with respect to which amounts were required to be deducted and withheld under subsection (a).
(7) Exception for certain window payments of interest, etc. 
For purposes of subparagraphs (C) and (D) of subsection (a)(1), the term reportable interest or dividend payment shall not include any payment
(A) in redemption of a coupon on a bearer instrument or in redemption of a United States savings bond, or
(B) to the extent provided in regulations, of interest on instruments similar to those described in subparagraph (A).

The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of determining whether there is payee underreporting described in subsection (c).

(c) Notified payee underreporting with respect to interest and dividends 

(1) Notified payee underreporting 
If
(A) the Secretary determines with respect to any payee that there has been payee underreporting,
(B) at least 4 notices have been mailed by the Secretary to the payee (over a period of at least 120 days) with respect to the underreporting, and
(C) in the case of any payee who has filed a return for the taxable year, any deficiency of tax attributable to such failure has been assessed,

the Secretary may notify payors of reportable interest or dividend payments with respect to such payee of the requirement to deduct and withhold under subsection (a)(1)(C) (but not the reasons for the withholding under subsection (a)(1)(C)).

(2) Payee underreporting defined 
For purposes of this section, there has been payee underreporting if for any taxable year the Secretary determines that
(A) the payee failed to include in his return of tax under chapter 1 for such year any portion of a reportable interest or dividend payment required to be shown on such return, or
(B) the payee may be required to file a return for such year and to include a reportable interest or dividend payment in such return, but failed to file such return.
(3) Determination by secretary to stop (or not to start) withholding 

(A) In general 
If the Secretary determines that
(i) there was no payee underreporting,
(ii) any payee underreporting has been corrected (and any tax, penalty, or interest with respect to the payee underreporting has been paid),
(iii) withholding under subsection (a)(1)(C) has caused (or would cause) undue hardship to the payee and it is unlikely that any payee underreporting by such payee will occur again, or
(iv) there is a bona fide dispute as to whether there has been any payee underreporting,

then the Secretary shall take the action described in subparagraph (B).

(B) Secretary to take action to stop (or not to start) withholding 
For purposes of subparagraph (A), if at the time of the Secretarys determination under subparagraph (A)
(i) no notice has been given under paragraph (1) to any payor with respect to the underreporting, the Secretary shall not give any such notice, or
(ii) if such notice has been given, the Secretary shall
(I) provide the payee with a written certification that withholding under subsection (a)(1)(C) is to stop, and
(II) notify the applicable payors (and brokers) that such withholding is to stop.
(C) Time for taking action where notice to payor has been given 
In any case where notice has been given under paragraph (1) to any payor with respect to any underreporting, if the Secretary makes a determination under subparagraph (A) during the 12-month period ending on October 15 of any calendar year
(i) except as provided in clause (ii), the Secretary shall take the action described in subparagraph (B)(ii) to bring about the stopping of withholding no later than December 1 of such calendar year, or
(ii) in the case of
(I) a no payee underreporting determination under clause (i) of subparagraph (A), or
(II) a hardship determination under clause (iii) of subparagraph (A),

such action shall be taken no later than the 45th day after the day on which the Secretary made the determination.

(D) Opportunity to request determination 
The Secretary shall prescribe procedures under which
(i) a payee may request a determination under subparagraph (A), and
(ii) the payee may provide information with respect to such request.
(4) Payor notifies payee of withholding because of payee underreporting 
Any payor required to withhold any tax under subsection (a)(1)(C) shall, at the time such withholding begins, notify the payee of such withholding.
(5) Payee may be required to notify Secretary who his payors and brokers are 
For purposes of this section, the Secretary may require any payee of reportable interest or dividend payments who is subject to withholding under subsection (a)(1)(C) to notify the Secretary of
(A) all payors from whom the payee receives reportable interest or dividend payments, and
(B) all brokers with whom the payee has accounts which may involve reportable interest or dividend payments.

The Secretary may notify any such broker that such payee is subject to withholding under subsection (a)(1)(C).

(d) Interest and dividend backup withholding applies to new accounts and instruments unless payee certifies that he is not subject to such withholding 

(1) In general 
There is a payee certification failure unless the payee has certified to the payor, under penalty of perjury, that such payee is not subject to withholding under subsection (a)(1)(C).
(2) Special rules for readily tradable instruments 

(A) In general 
Subsection (a)(1)(D) shall apply to any reportable interest or dividend payment to any payee on any readily tradable instrument if (and only if) the payor was notified by a broker under subparagraph (B) or no certification was provided to the payor by the payee under paragraph (1) and
(i) such instrument was acquired directly by the payee from the payor, or
(ii) such instrument is held by the payor as nominee for the payee.
(B) Broker notifies payor 
If
(i) a payee acquires any readily tradable instrument through a broker, and
(ii) with respect to such acquisition
(I) the payee fails to furnish his TIN to the broker in the manner required under subsection (a)(1)(A),
(II) the Secretary notifies such broker before such acquisition that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect,
(III) the Secretary notifies such broker before such acquisition that such payee is subject to withholding under subsection (a)(1)(C), or
(IV) the payee does not provide a certification to such broker under subparagraph (C),

such broker shall, within such period as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations (but not later than 15 days after such acquisition), notify the payor that such payee is subject to withholding under subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of subsection (a)(1), respectively.

(C) Time for payee to provide certification to broker 
In the case of any readily tradable instrument acquired by a payee through a broker, the certification described in paragraph (1) may be provided by the payee to such broker
(i) at any time after the payees account with the broker was established and before the acquisition of such instrument, or
(ii) in connection with the acquisition of such instrument.
(3) Exception for existing accounts, etc. 
This subsection and subsection (a)(1)(D) shall not apply to any reportable interest or dividend payment which is paid or credited
(A) in the case of interest or any other amount of a kind reportable under section 6049, with respect to any account (whatever called) established before January 1, 1984, or with respect to any instrument acquired before January 1, 1984,
(B) in the case of dividends or any other amount reportable under section 6042, on any stock or other instrument acquired before January 1, 1984, or
(C) in the case of patronage dividends or other amounts of a kind reportable under section 6044, with respect to any membership acquired, or contract entered into, before January 1, 1984.
(4) Exception for readily tradable instruments acquired through existing brokerage accounts 
Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) shall not apply with respect to a readily tradable instrument which was acquired through an account with a broker if
(A) such account was established before January 1, 1984, and
(B) during 1983, such broker bought or sold instruments for the payee (or acted as a nominee for the payee) through such account.

The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to any readily tradable instrument acquired through such account after the broker was notified by the Secretary that the payee is subject to withholding under subsection (a)(1)(C).

(e) Period for which withholding is in effect 

(1) Failure to furnish TIN 
In the case of any failure by a payee to furnish his TIN to a payor in the manner required, subsection (a) shall apply to any reportable payment made by such payor during the period during which the TIN has not been furnished in the manner required. The Secretary may require that a TIN required to be furnished under subsection (a)(1)(A) be provided under penalties of perjury only with respect to interest, dividends, patronage dividends, and amounts subject to broker reporting.
(2) Notification of incorrect number 
In any case in which the Secretary notifies the payor that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect, subsection (a) shall apply to any reportable payment made by such payor
(A) after the close of the 30th day after the day on which the payor received such notification, and
(B) before the payee furnishes another TIN in the manner required.
(3) Notified payee underreporting described in subsection (c) 

(A) In general 
In the case of any notified payee underreporting described in subsection (c), subsection (a) shall apply to any reportable interest or dividend payment made
(i) after the close of the 30th day after the day on which the payor received notification from the Secretary of such underreporting, and
(ii) before the stop date.
(B) Stop date 
For purposes of this subsection, the term stop date means the determination effective date or, if later, the earlier of
(i) the day on which the payor received notification from the Secretary under subsection (c)(3)(B) to stop withholding, or
(ii) the day on which the payor receives from the payee a certification provided by the Secretary under subsection (c)(3)(B).
(C) Determination effective date 
For purposes of this subsection
(i) In general Except as provided in clause (ii), the determination effective date of any determination under subsection (c)(3)(A) which is made during the 12-month period ending on October 15 of any calendar year shall be the first January 1 following such October 15.
(ii) Determination that there was no underreporting; hardship In the case of any determination under clause (i) or (iii) of subsection (c)(3)(A), the determination effective date shall be the date on which the Secretarys determination is made.
(4) Failure to provide certification that payee is not subject to withholding 

(A) In general 
In the case of any payee certification failure described in subsection (d)(1), subsection (a) shall apply to any reportable interest or dividend payment made during the period during which the certification described in subsection (d)(1) has not been furnished to the payor.
(B) Special rule for readily tradable instruments acquired through broker where notification 
In the case of any readily tradable instrument acquired by the payee through a broker, the period described in subparagraph (A) shall start with payments to the payee made after the close of the 30th day after the payor receives notification from a broker under subsection (d)(2)(B).
(5) 30-day grace periods 

(A) Start-up 
If the payor elects the application of this subparagraph with respect to the payee, subsection (a) shall also apply to any reportable payment made during the 30-day period described in paragraph (2)(A), (3)(A), or (4)(B).
(B) Stopping 
Unless the payor elects not to have this subparagraph apply with respect to the payee, subsection (a) shall also apply to any reportable payment made after the close of the period described in paragraph (1), (2), or (4) (as the case may be) and before the 30th day after the close of such period. A similar rule shall also apply with respect to the period described in paragraph (3)(A) where the stop date is determined under clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (3)(B).
(C) Election of shorter grace period 
The payor may elect a period shorter than the grace period set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B), as the case may be.
(f) Confidentiality of information 

(1) In general 
No person may use any information obtained under this section (including any failure to certify under subsection (d)) except for purposes of meeting any requirement under this section or (subject to the safeguards set forth in section 6103) for purposes permitted under section 6103.
(2) Cross reference 
For provision providing for civil damages for violation of paragraph (1), see section 7431.
(g) Exceptions 

(1) Payments to certain payees 
Subsection (a) shall not apply to any payment made to
(A) any organization or governmental unit described in subparagraph (B), (C), (D), (E), or (F) of section 6049 (b)(4), or
(B) any other person specified in regulations.
(2) Amounts for which withholding otherwise required 
Subsection (a) shall not apply to any amount for which withholding is otherwise required by this title.
(3) Exemption while waiting for TIN 
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for exemptions from the tax imposed by subsection (a) during the period during which a person is waiting for receipt of a TIN.
(h) Other definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this section
(1) Obviously incorrect number 
A person shall be treated as failing to furnish his TIN if the TIN furnished does not contain the proper number of digits.
(2) Payee furnishes 2 incorrect TINs 
If the payee furnishes the payor 2 incorrect TINs in any 3-year period, the payor shall, after receiving notice of the second incorrect TIN, treat the payee as not having furnished another TIN under subsection (e)(2)(B) until the day on which the payor receives notification from the Secretary that a correct TIN has been furnished.
(3) Joint payees 
Except to the extent otherwise provided in regulations, any payment to joint payees shall be treated as if all the payment were made to the first person listed in the payment.
(4) Payor defined 
The term payor means, with respect to any reportable payment, a person required to file a return described in paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (b) with respect to such payment.
(5) Broker 

(A) In general 
The term broker has the meaning given to such term by section 6045 (c)(1).
(B) Only 1 broker per acquisition 
If, but for this subparagraph, there would be more than 1 broker with respect to any acquisition, only the broker having the closest contact with the payee shall be treated as the broker.
(C) Payor not treated as broker 
In the case of any instrument, such term shall not include any person who is the payor with respect to such instrument.
(D) Real estate broker not treated as a broker 
Except as provided by regulations, such term shall not include any real estate broker (as defined in section 6045 (e)(2)).
(6) Readily tradable instrument 
The term readily tradable instrument means
(A) any instrument which is part of an issue any portion of which is traded on an established securities market (within the meaning of section 453 (f)(5)), and
(B) except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any instrument which is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers making a market.
(7) Original issue discount 
To the extent provided in regulations, rules similar to the rules of paragraph (6) of section 6049 (d) shall apply.
(8) Requirement of notice to payee 
Whenever the Secretary notifies a payor under paragraph (1)(B) of subsection (a) that the TIN furnished by any payee is incorrect, the Secretary shall at the same time furnish a copy of such notice to the payor, and the payor shall promptly furnish such copy to the payee.
(9) Requirement of notice to Secretary 
If the Secretary notifies a payor under paragraph (1)(B) of subsection (a) that the TIN furnished by any payee is incorrect and such payee subsequently furnishes another TIN to the payor, the payor shall promptly notify the Secretary of the other TIN so furnished.
(10) Coordination with other sections 
For purposes of section 31, this chapter (other than section 3402 (n)), and so much of subtitle F (other than section 7205) as relates to this chapter, payments which are subject to withholding under this section shall be treated as if they were wages paid by an employer to an employee (and amounts deducted and withheld under this section shall be treated as if deducted and withheld under section 3402).
(i) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.

3451 to 3456. Repealed. Pub. L. 9867, title I, 102(a), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369]

Section 3451, Pub. L. 97–248, title III, § 301, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 576, set forth withholding requirements respecting income tax collected at source on interest, dividends, and patronage dividends. Section 3452, Pub. L. 97–248, title III, § 301, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 577, related to exemptions from withholding requirements. Section 3453, Pub. L. 97–248, title III, § 301, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 579; Pub. L. 97–354, § 3(i)(1), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1690, defined payor. Section 3454, Pub. L. 97–248, title III, § 301, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 580; Pub. L. 97–354, § 3(i)(2), (3), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1690; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, § 547(b)(3), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2200, defined the terms interest, dividend, and patronage dividend. Section 3455, Pub. L. 97–248, title III, § 301, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 583, set forth definitions and other special rules. Section 3456, Pub. L. 97–248, title III, § 301, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 585, set forth administrative provisions.

TITLE 26 - US CODE - CHAPTER 25 - GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO EMPLOYMENT TAXES

26 USC 3501 - Collection and payment of taxes

(a) General rule 
The taxes imposed by this subtitle shall be collected by the Secretary and shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States as internal-revenue collections.
(b) Taxes with respect to non-cash fringe benefits 
The taxes imposed by this subtitle with respect to non-cash fringe benefits shall be collected (or paid) by the employer at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Secretary by regulations.

26 USC 3502 - Nondeductibility of taxes in computing taxable income

(a) The taxes imposed by section 3101 of chapter 21, and by sections 3201 and 3211 of chapter 22 shall not be allowed as a deduction to the taxpayer in computing taxable income under subtitle A.
(b) The tax deducted and withheld under chapter 24 shall not be allowed as a deduction either to the employer or to the recipient of the income in computing taxable income under subtitle A.

26 USC 3503 - Erroneous payments

Any tax paid under chapter 21 or 22 by a taxpayer with respect to any period with respect to which he is not liable to tax under such chapter shall be credited against the tax, if any, imposed by such other chapter upon the taxpayer, and the balance, if any, shall be refunded.

26 USC 3504 - Acts to be performed by agents

In case a fiduciary, agent, or other person has the control, receipt, custody, or disposal of, or pays the wages of an employee or group of employees, employed by one or more employers, the Secretary, under regulations prescribed by him, is authorized to designate such fiduciary, agent, or other person to perform such acts as are required of employers under this title and as the Secretary may specify. Except as may be otherwise prescribed by the Secretary, all provisions of law (including penalties) applicable in respect of an employer shall be applicable to a fiduciary, agent, or other person so designated but, except as so provided, the employer for whom such fiduciary, agent, or other person acts shall remain subject to the provisions of law (including penalties) applicable in respect of employers.

26 USC 3505 - Liability of third parties paying or providing for wages

(a) Direct payment by third parties 
For purposes of sections 3102, 3202, 3402, and 3403, if a lender, surety, or other person, who is not an employer under such sections with respect to an employee or group of employees, pays wages directly to such an employee or group of employees, employed by one or more employers, or to an agent on behalf of such employee or employees, such lender, surety, or other person shall be liable in his own person and estate to the United States in a sum equal to the taxes (together with interest) required to be deducted and withheld from such wages by such employer.
(b) Personal liability where funds are supplied 
If a lender, surety, or other person supplies funds to or for the account of an employer for the specific purpose of paying wages of the employees of such employer, with actual notice or knowledge (within the meaning of section 6323 (i)(1)) that such employer does not intend to or will not be able to make timely payment or deposit of the amounts of tax required by this subtitle to be deducted and withheld by such employer from such wages, such lender, surety, or other person shall be liable in his own person and estate to the United States in a sum equal to the taxes (together with interest) which are not paid over to the United States by such employer with respect to such wages. However, the liability of such lender, surety, or other person shall be limited to an amount equal to 25 percent of the amount so supplied to or for the account of such employer for such purpose.
(c) Effect of payment 
Any amounts paid to the United States pursuant to this section shall be credited against the liability of the employer.

26 USC 3506 - Individuals providing companion sitting placement services

(a) In general 
For purposes of this subtitle, a person engaged in the trade or business of putting sitters in touch with individuals who wish to employ them shall not be treated as the employer of such sitters (and such sitters shall not be treated as employees of such person) if such person does not pay or receive the salary or wages of the sitters and is compensated by the sitters or the persons who employ them on a fee basis.
(b) Definition 
For purposes of this section, the term sitters means individuals who furnish personal attendance, companionship, or household care services to children or to individuals who are elderly or disabled.
(c) Regulations 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this section.

26 USC 3507 - Advance payment of earned income credit

(a) General rule 
Except as otherwise provided in this section, every employer making payment of wages to an employee with respect to whom an earned income eligibility certificate is in effect shall, at the time of paying such wages, make an additional payment to such employee equal to such employees earned income advance amount.
(b) Earned income eligibility certificate 
For purposes of this title, an earned income eligibility certificate is a statement furnished by an employee to the employer which
(1) certifies that the employee will be eligible to receive the credit provided by section 32 for the taxable year,
(2) certifies that the employee has 1 or more qualifying children (within the meaning of section 32 (c)(3)) for such taxable year,
(3) certifies that the employee does not have an earned income eligibility certificate in effect for the calendar year with respect to the payment of wages by another employer, and
(4) states whether or not the employees spouse has an earned income eligibility certificate in effect.

For purposes of this section, a certificate shall be treated as being in effect with respect to a spouse if such a certificate will be in effect on the first status determination date following the date on which the employee furnishes the statement in question.

(c) Earned income advance amount 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this title, the term earned income advance amount means, with respect to any payroll period, the amount determined
(A) on the basis of the employees wages from the employer for such period, and
(B) in accordance with tables prescribed by the Secretary.

In the case of an employee who is a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the earned income advance amount shall be determined by taking into account such employees earned income as determined for purposes of section 32.

(2) Advance amount tables 
The tables referred to in paragraph (1)(B)
(A) shall be similar in form to the tables prescribed under section 3402 and, to the maximum extent feasible, shall be coordinated with such tables, and
(B) if the employee is not married, or if no earned income eligibility certificate is in effect with respect to the spouse of the employee, shall treat the credit provided by section 32 as if it were a credit
(i) of not more than 60 percent of the credit percentage in effect under section 32 (b)(1) for an eligible individual with 1 qualifying child and with earned income not in excess of the earned income amount in effect under section 32 (b)(2) for such an eligible individual, which
(ii) phases out at 60 percent of the phaseout percentage in effect under section 32 (b)(1) for such an eligible individual between the phaseout amount in effect under section 32 (b)(2) for such an eligible individual and the amount of earned income at which the credit under section 32 (a) phases out for such an eligible individual, or
(C) if an earned income eligibility certificate is in effect with respect to the spouse of the employee, shall treat the credit as if it were a credit determined under subparagraph (B) by substituting 1/2 of the amounts of earned income described in such subparagraph for such amounts.
(d) Payments to be treated as payments of withholding and FICA taxes 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this title, payments made by an employer under subsection (a) to his employees for any payroll period
(A) shall not be treated as the payment of compensation, and
(B) shall be treated as made out of
(i) amounts required to be deducted and withheld for the payroll period under section 3401 (relating to wage withholding), and
(ii) amounts required to be deducted for the payroll period under section 3102 (relating to FICA employee taxes), and
(iii) amounts of the taxes imposed for the payroll period under section 3111 (relating to FICA employer taxes),

as if the employer had paid to the Secretary, on the day on which the wages are paid to the employees, an amount equal to such payments.

(2) Advance payments exceed taxes due 
In the case of any employer, if for any payroll period the aggregate amount of earned income advance payments exceeds the sum of the amounts referred to in paragraph (1)(B), each such advance payment shall be reduced by an amount which bears the same ratio to such excess as such advance payment bears to the aggregate amount of all such advance payments.
(3) Employer may make full advance payments 
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations under which an employer may elect (in lieu of any application of paragraph (2))
(A) to pay in full all earned income advance amounts, and
(B) to have additional amounts paid by reason of this paragraph treated as the advance payment of taxes imposed by this title.
(4) Failure to make advance payments 
For purposes of this title (including penalties), failure to make any advance payment under this section at the time provided therefor shall be treated as the failure at such time to deduct and withhold under chapter 24 an amount equal to the amount of such advance payment.
(e) Furnishing and taking effect of certificates 
For purposes of this section
(1) When certificate takes effect 

(A) First certificate furnished 
An earned income eligibility certificate furnished the employer in cases in which no previous such certificate had been in effect for the calendar year shall take effect as of the beginning of the first payroll period ending, or the first payment of wages made without regard to a payroll period, on or after the date on which such certificate is so furnished (or if later, the first day of the calendar year for which furnished).
(B) Later certificate 
An earned income eligibility certificate furnished the employer in cases in which a previous such certificate had been in effect for the calendar year shall take effect with respect to the first payment of wages made on or after the first status determination date which occurs at least 30 days after the date on which such certificate is so furnished, except that at the election of the employer such certificate may be made effective with respect to any payment of wages made on or after the date on which such certificate is so furnished. For purposes of this section, the term status determination date means January 1, May 1, July 1, and October 1 of each year.
(2) Period during which certificate remains in effect 
An earned income eligibility certificate which takes effect under this section for any calendar year shall continue in effect with respect to the employee during such calendar year until revoked by the employee or until another such certificate takes effect under this section.
(3) Change of status 

(A) Requirement to revoke or furnish new certificate 
If, after an employee has furnished an earned income eligibility certificate under this section, there has been a change of circumstances which has the effect of
(i) making the employee ineligible for the credit provided by section 32 for the taxable year, or
(ii) causing an earned income eligibility certificate to be in effect with respect to the spouse of the employee,

the employee shall, within 10 days after such change in circumstances, furnish the employer with a revocation of such certificate or with a new certificate (as the case may be). Such a revocation (or such a new certificate) shall take effect under the rules provided by paragraph (1)(B) for a later certificate and shall be made in such form as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe.

(B) Certificate no longer in effect 
If, after an employee has furnished an earned income eligibility certificate under this section which certifies that such a certificate is in effect with respect to the spouse of the employee, such a certificate is no longer in effect with respect to such spouse, then the employee may furnish the employer with a new earned income eligibility certificate.
(4) Form and contents of certificate 
Earned income eligibility certificates shall be in such form and contain such other information as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.
(5) Taxable year defined 
The term taxable year means the last taxable year of the employee under subtitle A beginning in the calendar year in which the wages are paid.
(f) Internal Revenue Service notification 
The Internal Revenue Service shall take such steps as may be appropriate to ensure that taxpayers who have 1 or more qualifying children and who receive a refund of the credit under section 32 are aware of the availability of earned income advance amounts under this section.

26 USC 3508 - Treatment of real estate agents and direct sellers

(a) General rule 
For purposes of this title, in the case of services performed as a qualified real estate agent or as a direct seller
(1) the individual performing such services shall not be treated as an employee, and
(2) the person for whom such services are performed shall not be treated as an employer.
(b) Definitions 
For purposes of this section
(1) Qualified real estate agent 
The term qualified real estate agent means any individual who is a sales person if
(A) such individual is a licensed real estate agent,
(B) substantially all of the remuneration (whether or not paid in cash) for the services performed by such individual as a real estate agent is directly related to sales or other output (including the performance of services) rather than to the number of hours worked, and
(C) the services performed by the individual are performed pursuant to a written contract between such individual and the person for whom the services are performed and such contract provides that the individual will not be treated as an employee with respect to such services for Federal tax purposes.
(2) Direct seller 
The term direct seller means any person if
(A) such person
(i) is engaged in the trade or business of selling (or soliciting the sale of) consumer products to any buyer on a buy-sell basis, a deposit-commission basis, or any similar basis which the Secretary prescribes by regulations, for resale (by the buyer or any other person) in the home or otherwise than in a permanent retail establishment,
(ii) is engaged in the trade or business of selling (or soliciting the sale of) consumer products in the home or otherwise than in a permanent retail establishment, or
(iii) is engaged in the trade or business of the delivering or distribution of newspapers or shopping news (including any services directly related to such trade or business),
(B) substantially all the remuneration (whether or not paid in cash) for the performance of the services described in subparagraph (A) is directly related to sales or other output (including the performance of services) rather than to the number of hours worked, and
(C) the services performed by the person are performed pursuant to a written contract between such person and the person for whom the services are performed and such contract provides that the person will not be treated as an employee with respect to such services for Federal tax purposes.
(3) Coordination with retirement plans for self­employed 
This section shall not apply for purposes of subtitle A to the extent that the individual is treated as an employee under section 401 (c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).

26 USC 3509 - Determination of employers liability for certain employment taxes

(a) In general 
If any employer fails to deduct and withhold any tax under chapter 24 or subchapter A of chapter 21 with respect to any employee by reason of treating such employee as not being an employee for purposes of such chapter or subchapter, the amount of the employers liability for
(1) Withholding taxes 
Tax under chapter 24 for such year with respect to such employee shall be determined as if the amount required to be deducted and withheld were equal to 1.5 percent of the wages (as defined in section 3401) paid to such employee.
(2) Employee social security tax 
Taxes under subchapter A of chapter 21 with respect to such employee shall be determined as if the taxes imposed under such subchapter were 20 percent of the amount imposed under such subchapter without regard to this subparagraph.
(b) Employer’s liability increased where employer disregards reporting requirements 

(1) In general 
In the case of an employer who fails to meet the applicable requirements of section 6041 (a), 6041A, or 6051 with respect to any employee, unless such failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, subsection (a) shall be applied with respect to such employee
(A) by substituting 3 percent for 1.5 percent in paragraph (1); and
(B) by substituting 40 percent for 20 percent in paragraph (2).
(2) Applicable requirements 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term applicable requirements means the requirements described in paragraph (1) which would be applicable consistent with the employers treatment of the employee as not being an employee for purposes of chapter 24 or subchapter A of chapter 21.
(c) Section not to apply in cases of intentional dis­regard 
This section shall not apply to the determination of the employers liability for tax under chapter 24 or subchapter A of chapter 21 if such liability is due to the employers intentional disregard of the requirement to deduct and withhold such tax.
(d) Special rules 
For purposes of this section
(1) Determination of liability 
If the amount of any liability for tax is determined under this section
(A) the employees liability for tax shall not be affected by the assessment or collection of the tax so determined,
(B) the employer shall not be entitled to recover from the employee any tax so determined, and
(C) sections[1] 3402(d) and section 6521 shall not apply.
(2) Section not to apply where employer deducts wage but not social security taxes 
This section shall not apply to any employer with respect to any wages if
(A) the employer deducted and withheld any amount of the tax imposed by chapter 24 on such wages, but
(B) failed to deduct and withhold the amount of the tax imposed by subchapter A of chapter 21 with respect to such wages.
(3) Section not to apply to certain statutory employees 
This section shall not apply to any tax under subchapter A of chapter 21 with respect to an individual described in subsection (d)(3) of section 3121 (without regard to whether such individual is described in paragraph (1) or (2) of such subsection).
[1] So in original. Probably should be “section”.

26 USC 3510 - Coordination of collection of domestic service employment taxes with collection of income taxes

(a) General rule 
Except as otherwise provided in this section
(1) returns with respect to domestic service employment taxes shall be made on a calendar year basis,
(2) any such return for any calendar year shall be filed on or before the 15th day of the fourth month following the close of the employers taxable year which begins in such calendar year, and
(3) no requirement to make deposits (or to pay installments under section 6157) shall apply with respect to such taxes.
(b) Domestic service employment taxes subject to estimated tax provisions 

(1) In general 
Solely for purposes of section 6654, domestic service employment taxes imposed with respect to any calendar year shall be treated as a tax imposed by chapter 2 for the taxable year of the employer which begins in such calendar year.
(2) Employers not otherwise required to make estimated payments 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any employer for any calendar year if
(A) no credit for wage withholding is allowed under section 31 to such employer for the taxable year of the employer which begins in such calendar year, and
(B) no addition to tax would (but for this section) be imposed under section 6654 for such taxable year by reason of section 6654 (e).
(3) Annualization 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, appropriate adjustments shall be made in the application of section 6654 (d)(2) in respect of the amount treated as tax under paragraph (1).
(4) Transitional rule 
In the case of any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1998, no addition to tax shall be made under section 6654 with respect to any underpayment to the extent such underpayment was created or increased by this section.
(c) Domestic service employment taxes 
For purposes of this section, the term domestic service employment taxes means
(1) any taxes imposed by chapter 21 or 23 on remuneration paid for domestic service in a private home of the employer, and
(2) any amount withheld from such remuneration pursuant to an agreement under section 3402 (p).

For purposes of this subsection, the term domestic service in a private home of the employer includes domestic service described in section 3121 (g)(5).

(d) Exception where employer liable for other employment taxes 
To the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, this section shall not apply to any employer for any calendar year if such employer is liable for any tax under this subtitle with respect to remuneration for services other than domestic service in a private home of the employer.
(e) General regulatory authority 
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section. Such regulations may treat domestic service employment taxes as taxes imposed by chapter 1 for purposes of coordinating the assessment and collection of such employment taxes with the assessment and collection of domestic employers income taxes.
(f) Authority to enter into agreements to collect State unemployment taxes 

(1) In general 
The Secretary is hereby authorized to enter into an agreement with any State to collect, as the agent of such State, such States unemployment taxes imposed on remuneration paid for domestic service in a private home of the employer. Any taxes to be collected by the Secretary pursuant to such an agreement shall be treated as domestic service employment taxes for purposes of this section.
(2) Transfers to State account 
Any amount collected under an agreement referred to in paragraph (1) shall be transferred by the Secretary to the account of the State in the Unemployment Trust Fund.
(3) Subtitle F made applicable 
For purposes of subtitle F, any amount required to be collected under an agreement under paragraph (1) shall be treated as a tax imposed by chapter 23.
(4) State 
For purposes of this subsection, the term State has the meaning given such term by section 3306 (j)(1).