TITLE 25 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER LXXXI - POKAGON BAND OF POTAWATOMI INDIANS

25 USC 1300j - Findings

The Congress finds the following:
(1) The Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians is the descendant of, and political successor to, the signatories of the Treaty of Greenville 1795 (7 Stat. 49); the Treaty of Grouseland 1805 (7 Stat. 91); the Treaty of Spring Wells 1815 (7 Stat. 131); the Treaty of the Rapids of the Miami of Lake Erie 1817 (7 Stat. 160); the Treaty of St. Marys 1818 (7 Stat. 185); the Treaty of Chicago 1821 (7 Stat. 218); the Treaty of the Mississinewa on the Wabash 1826 (7 Stat. 295); the Treaty of St. Joseph 1827 (7 Stat. 305); the Treaty of St. Joseph 1828 (7 Stat. 317); the Treaty of Tippecanoe River 1832 (7 Stat. 399); and the Treaty of Chicago 1833 (7 Stat. 431).
(2) In the Treaty of Chicago 1833, the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians was the only band that negotiated a right to remain in Michigan. The other Potawatomi bands relinquished all lands in Michigan and were required to move to Kansas or Iowa.
(3) Two of the Potawatomi bands later returned to the Great Lakes area, the Forest County Potawatomi of Wisconsin and the Hannahville Indian Community of Michigan.
(4) The Hannahville Indian Community of Michigan, the Forest County Potawatomi Community of Wisconsin, the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Indians of Kansas, and the Citizen Band Potawatomi Indian Tribe of Oklahoma, whose members are also descendants of the signatories to one or more of the aforementioned treaties, have been recognized by the Federal Government as Indian tribes eligible to receive services from the Secretary of the Interior.

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(5) Beginning in 1935, the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians petitioned for reorganization and assistance pursuant to the Act of June 18, 1934 (25 U.S.C. 461 et seq., commonly referred to as the Indian Reorganization Act). Because of the financial condition of the Federal Government during the Great Depression it relied upon the State of Michigan to provide services to the Pokagon Band. Other Potawatomi bands, including the Forest County Potawatomi and the Hannahville Indian Community were provided services pursuant to the Indian Reorganization Act.
(6) Agents of the Federal Government in 1939 made an administrative decision not to provide services or extend the benefits of the Indian Reorganization Act [25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.] to any Indian tribes in Michigans lower peninsula.
(7) Tribes elsewhere, including the Hannahville Indian Community in Michigans upper peninsula, received services from the Federal Government and were extended the benefits of the Indian Reorganization Act [25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.].
(8) The Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians consists of at least 1,500 members who continue to reside close to their ancestral homeland in the St. Joseph River Valley in southwestern Michigan and northern Indiana.
(9) In spite of the denial of the right to organize under the Indian Reorganization Act [25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.], the Pokagon Band has continued to carry out its governmental functions through a Business Committee and Tribal Council from treaty times until today.
(10) The United States Government, the government of the State of Michigan, and local governments have had continuous dealings with the recognized political leaders of the Band from 1795 until the present.

25 USC 1300j1 - Federal recognition

Federal recognition of the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians is hereby affirmed. Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, all Federal laws of general application to Indians and Indian tribes, including the Act of June 18, 1934 (25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.; commonly referred to as the Indian Reorganization Act), shall apply with respect to the Band and its members.

25 USC 1300j2 - Services

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Band and its members shall be eligible, on and after September 21, 1994, for all Federal services and benefits furnished to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Band or the location of the residence of any member on or near an Indian reservation.

25 USC 1300j3 - Tribal membership

Not later than 18 months after September 21, 1994, the Band shall submit to the Secretary membership rolls consisting of all individuals eligible for membership in such Band. The qualifications for inclusion on the membership rolls of the Band shall be determined by the membership clauses in the Bands governing documents, in consultation with the Secretary. Upon completion of the rolls, the Secretary shall immediately publish notice of such in the Federal Register. The Bands shall ensure that such rolls are maintained and kept current.

25 USC 1300j4 - Constitution and governing body

(a) Constitution 

(1) Adoption 
Not later than 24 months after September 21, 1994, the Secretary shall conduct, by secret ballot and in accordance with the provisions of section 476 of this title, an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws for the Band.
(2) Interim governing documents 
Until such time as a new constitution is adopted under paragraph (1), the governing documents in effect on September 21, 1994, shall be the interim governing documents for the Band.
(b) Officials 

(1) Election 
Not later than 6 months after the Band adopts a constitution and bylaws pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall conduct elections by secret ballot for the purpose of electing officials for the Band as provided in the Bands constitution. The election shall be conducted according to the procedures described in subsection (a) of this section, except to the extent that such procedures conflict with the Bands constitution.
(2) Interim government 
Until such time as the Band elects new officials pursuant to paragraph (1), the Bands governing body shall be the governing body in place on September 21, 1994, or any new governing body selected under the election procedures specified in the interim governing documents of the Band.

25 USC 1300j5 - Tribal lands

The Bands tribal land shall consist of all real property, including the land upon which the Tribal Hall is situated, now or on and after September 21, 1994, held by, or in trust for, the Band. The Secretary shall acquire real property for the Band. Any such real property shall be taken by the Secretary in the name of the United States in trust for the benefit of the Band and shall become part of the Bands reservation.

25 USC 1300j6 - Service area

The Bands service area shall consist of the Michigan counties of Allegan, Berrien, Van Buren, and Cass and the Indiana counties of La Porte, St. Joseph, Elkhart, Starke, Marshall, and Kosciusko.

25 USC 1300j7 - Jurisdiction

The Band shall have jurisdiction to the full extent allowed by law over all lands taken into trust for the benefit of the Band by the Secretary. The Band shall exercise jurisdiction over all its members who reside within the service area in matters pursuant to the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (25 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.), as if the members were residing upon a reservation as defined in that Act.

25 USC 1300j7a - Membership list

(a) List of members as of September 1994 
Not later than 120 days after September 21, 1994, the Band shall submit to the Secretary a list of all individuals who, as of September 21, 1994, were members of the Band.
(b) List of individuals eligible for membership 

(1) In general 
Not later than 18 months after September 21, 1994, the Band shall submit to the Secretary a membership roll that contains the names of all individuals eligible for membership in the Band. The Band, in consultation with the Secretary, shall determine whether an individual is eligible for membership in the Band on the basis of provisions in the governing documents of the Band that determine the qualifications for inclusion in the membership roll of the Band.
(2) Publication of notice 
At such time as the roll has been submitted to the Secretary, the Secretary shall immediately publish in the Federal Register a notice of such roll.
(3) Maintenance of roll 
The Band shall ensure that the roll is maintained and kept current.

25 USC 1300j8 - Definitions

For purposes of this subchapter
(1) the term Band means the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians;
(2) the term member means those individuals eligible for enrollment in the Band pursuant to section 1300j–3 of this title; and
(3) the term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.