TITLE 12 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - FARM CREDIT ASSOCIATIONS

Part A - Production Credit Associations

12 USC 2071 - Organization and charters

(a) Charter 
Each production credit association shall continue as a Federally chartered instrumentality of the United States.
(b) Organization 

(1) In general 
Production credit associations may be organized by 10 or more farmers or ranchers or producers or harvesters of aquatic products desiring to borrow money under the provisions of this part.
(2) Articles of association 
The proposed articles of association shall be forwarded to the Farm Credit Bank for the district accompanied by an agreement to subscribe on behalf of the association for stock in the bank in such amounts as may be required by the bank.

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(3) Contents of articles 
The articles shall specify in general terms the
(A) objects for which the association is formed;
(B) powers to be exercised by the association in carrying out the functions authorized by this part; and
(C) territory the association proposes to serve.
(4) Signatures 
The articles shall be signed by persons desiring to form such an association and shall be accompanied by a statement signed by each such person establishing eligibility to borrow from the association in which such person will become a stockholder.
(5) Copy to FCA 
A copy of the articles of association shall be forwarded to the Farm Credit Administration with the recommendations of the bank concerning the need for such an association in order to adequately serve the credit needs of eligible persons in the proposed territory and whether that territory includes any area described in the charter of another production credit association.
(6) Denial of charter 
The Farm Credit Administration for good cause shown may deny the charter.
(7) Approval of articles 
On approval of the proposed articles by the Farm Credit Administration, and on the issuance of a charter, the association shall become as of such date a federally chartered body corporate and an instrumentality of the United States.
(8) Powers of FCA 
The Farm Credit Administration shall have the power, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Farm Credit Administration or by prescribing in the terms of the charter, to
(A) provide for the organization of the association;

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(B) provide for the initial amount of stock of the association;
(C) provide for the territory within which the associations operations may be carried on; and
(D) approve amendments to the charter of the association.

12 USC 2072 - Board of directors

Each production credit association shall elect from the voting members of such association, a board of directors of such number, for such terms, with such qualifications, and in such manner as may be required by the bylaws of the association, except that at least one member shall be elected by the other directors, which member shall not be a director, officer, employee, stockholder, or agent of a System institution.

12 USC 2073 - General corporate powers

Each production credit association shall be a body corporate and, subject to supervision by the Farm Credit Bank for the district and regulation by the Farm Credit Administration, shall have the power to
(1) have succession until terminated in accordance with this chapter or any other Act of Congress;
(2) adopt and use a corporate seal;
(3) make contracts;
(4) sue and be sued;
(5) acquire, hold, dispose, and otherwise exercise all of the usual incidents of ownership of real and personal property necessary or convenient to the business of the association;
(6) operate under the direction of the board of directors of the association in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;
(7) subscribe to stock of the bank;
(8) purchase stock of the bank held by other production credit associations and stock of other production credit associations;
(9) contribute to the capital of the bank or other production credit associations;
(10) invest funds of the association as may be approved by the Farm Credit Bank under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration and deposit the current funds and securities of such with the Farm Credit Bank, a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, or any bank insured under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and may pay fees therefor and receive interest thereon as may be agreed;
(11) buy and sell obligations of or insured by the United States or of any agency thereof or of any banks of the Farm Credit System and buy from and sell to such banks, interests in loans and in other financial assistance extended and nonvoting stock, as may be authorized by the Farm Credit Bank in accordance with regulations of the Farm Credit Administration;
(12) borrow money from the Farm Credit Bank, and with the approval of such bank, borrow from and issue notes or other obligations to any commercial bank or other financial institution;
(13) make and participate in loans, accept advance payments, and provide services and other assistance as authorized in this part and charge fees therefor, and when authorized by the bank participate with one or more other Farm Credit System institutions in loans made under this subchapter or other subchapters of this chapter on the basis prescribed in section 2206 of this title;
(14) endorse and become liable on loans discounted or pledged to the Farm Credit Bank;
(15) as may be authorized by the Farm Credit Bank in accordance with regulations of the Farm Credit Administration, agree with other Farm Credit System institutions to share loan or other losses, whether to protect against capital impairment or for any other purpose;
(16) prescribe, by its board of directors, its bylaws that shall be consistent with law, and that shall provide for
(A) the classes of its stock and the manner in which such stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired; and
(B) the manner in which it is to
(i) select officers and employees;
(ii) acquire, hold, and transfer property;
(iii) conduct general business; and
(iv) exercise and enjoy the privileges granted to it by law;
(17) provide by its board of directors for a manager or other chief executive officer, and provide for such other officers or employees as may be necessary, including joint employees as provided in this chapter, define their duties, and require surety bonds or make other provisions against losses occasioned by employees, but no director shall, within one year after the date when such director ceases to be a member of the board, serve as a salaried employee of the association on the board of which he served;
(18) elect by the board of directors of the association a loan committee with power to approve applications for membership in the association and loans or participations or, with the approval of the bank, delegate the approval of applications for membership and loans or participations within specified limits to other committees or to authorized officers and employees of the association;
(19) perform any functions delegated to the association by the bank;
(20) exercise by the board of directors or authorized officers or employees of the association, all such incidental powers as may be necessary or expedient to carry on the business of the association; and
(21) operate as an originator and become certified as a certified facility under subchapter VIII of this chapter.

12 USC 2074 - Production credit association capitalization

(a) In general 
In accordance with section 2154a of this title, each production credit association shall provide, through its bylaws and subject to Farm Credit Administration regulations, for its capitalization and the manner in which its stock shall be issued, held, transferred, and retired and, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, its earnings distributed.
(b) Application of earnings 
At the end of each fiscal year, each production credit association shall apply the amount of the earnings of the association for the fiscal year in excess of the operating expenses of the association (including provision for valuation reserves against loan assets in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles)
(1) first, to the restoration of the impairment (if any) of capital; and
(2) second, to the establishment and maintenance of the surplus accounts, the minimum aggregate amount of which shall be prescribed by the Farm Credit Bank.
(c) Patronage 
When the bylaws of an association so provide and subject to the general directions of the Farm Credit Administration, available net earnings at the end of any fiscal year may be distributed on a patronage basis in stock, participation certificates, or in cash. Any part of the earnings of the fiscal year in excess of the operating expenses for such year held in the surplus account may be allocated to patrons on a patronage basis.

12 USC 2075 - Short- and intermediate-term loans; participation; other financial assistance; terms; conditions; interest; security

(a) Short- and intermediate-term loans 
Each production credit association, under standards prescribed by the board of directors of the Farm Credit Bank of the district, may make, guarantee, or participate with other lenders in short- and intermediate-term loans and other similar financial assistance to
(1) bona fide farmers and ranchers and the producers or harvesters of aquatic products, for agricultural or aquatic purposes and other requirements of such borrowers, including financing for basic processing and marketing directly related to the operations of the borrower and those of other eligible farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products, except that the operations of the borrower shall supply some portion of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended, except that the aggregate of the financing provided by any association for basic processing and marketing directly related to the operations of farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products, if the operations of the applicant supply less than 20 percent of the total processing or marketing for which financing is extended, shall not exceed 15 percent of the total of all outstanding loans of all associations in the district at the end of its preceding fiscal year;
(2) rural residents for housing financing in rural areas, under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration; and
(3) persons furnishing to farmers and ranchers farm-related services directly related to their on-farm operating needs.
(b) Rural housing 

(1) In general 
Rural housing financed under this part shall be for single-family, moderate-priced dwellings and the appurtenances of such not inconsistent with the general quality and standards of housing existing in, or planned or recommended for, the rural area where it is located.
(2) Limitation 
The aggregate of such housing loans in an association to persons other than farmers or ranchers shall not exceed 15 percent of the outstanding loans at the end of its preceding fiscal year except on prior approval by the Farm Credit Bank of the district. The aggregate of such housing loans in any farm credit district shall not exceed 15 percent of the outstanding loans of all associations in the district at the end of the preceding fiscal year.
(3) Rural areas 
For rural housing purposes under this section the term rural areas shall not be defined to include any city or village having a population in excess of 2,500 inhabitants.
(4) Equipment 
Each association may own and lease, or lease with option to purchase, to stockholders of the association equipment needed in the operations of the stockholder.
(c) Interest rates and charges 

(1) In general 
Loans authorized in subsection (a) of this section shall bear such rate or rates of interest as are determined under standards prescribed by the board of the bank subject to the provisions of section 2205 of this title, and shall be made upon such terms, conditions, and upon such security, if any, as shall be authorized in such standards.
(2) Setting of rates 
In setting rates and charges, it shall be the objective to provide the types of credit needed by eligible borrowers, at the lowest reasonable cost on a sound business basis, taking into account the cost of money to the association, necessary reserves and expenses of the association, and services provided to borrowers and members.
(3) Varying rates 
The loan documents may provide for the interest rate or rates to vary from time to time during the repayment period of the loan in accordance with the rate or rates currently being charged by the association.
(4) Prior approval 
Such standards may require prior approval of the bank on certain classes of loans, and may authorize a continuing commitment to a borrower of a line of credit.
(d) Special district rule 

(1) Provision of credit and technical assistance outside service territory 
Notwithstanding any territorial limitation in the charter of a production credit association located in a district in which there are only two such associations, the Farm Credit Administration Board, on request of such association, may permit such association to provide credit and technical assistance to any borrower who is denied credit by the other production credit association in the district if the Board determines that such other production credit association in the district is unduly restrictive in the application of credit standards.
(2) Timing of determination 
If the Farm Credit Administration Board approves the extension of credit and technical assistance under paragraph (1), the association shall approve or deny the application for credit within 90 days after receipt of the application from the borrower.

12 USC 2076 - Other services

Each production credit association may provide technical assistance to borrowers, applicants, and members and may make available to them at their option such financial related services appropriate to their on-farm and aquatic operations as is determined feasible by the board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, under regulations prescribed by the Farm Credit Administration.

12 USC 2076a - Liens on stock

Except with regard to stock or participation certificates held by other Farm Credit System institutions, each production credit association shall have a first lien on stock and participation certificates the association issues, on allocated surplus, and on investments in equity reserve, for any indebtedness of the holder of the capital investments and, in the case of equity reserves, for charges for association losses in excess of reserves and surpluses.

12 USC 2077 - Taxation

Each production credit association and its obligations are instrumentalities of the United States and as such any and all notes, debentures, and other obligations issued by such associations shall be exempt, both as to principal and interest, from all taxation (except surtaxes, estate, inheritance, and gift taxes) now or hereafter imposed by the United States or any State, territorial, or local taxing authority, except that interest on such obligations shall be subject to Federal income taxation in the hands of the holder.

Part B - Federal Land Bank Associations

12 USC 2091 - Organizations; articles; charters; powers of the Farm Credit Administration

(a) Charter 
Each Federal land bank association shall continue as a federally chartered instrumentality of the United States.
(b) Organization 

(1) In general 
A Federal land bank association may be organized by any group of 10 or more persons desiring to borrow money from a Farm Credit Bank under section 2015 (a) of this title, including persons to whom the Farm Credit Bank has made a loan directly or through an agent and has taken as security real estate located in the territory proposed to be served by the association.
(2) Articles of association 

(A) Description of territory 
The articles of association shall describe the territory within which the association proposes to carry on its operations.
(B) Submission to FCB 
Proposed articles shall be forwarded to the Farm Credit Bank for the district, accompanied by an agreement to subscribe on behalf of the association for stock in accordance with the bylaws of the Farm Credit Bank.
(C) Stock purchase 
Association stock may be paid for by surrendering for cancellation stock in the bank held by a borrower and the issuance of an equivalent amount of stock to such borrower in the association.
(D) Statement 
The articles shall be accompanied by a statement signed by each of the members of the proposed association establishing
(i) the individuals eligibility and request for a Farm Credit Bank loan;
(ii) that the real estate with respect to which the individual desires the loan for is not being served by another Federal land bank association; and
(iii) that the individual is or will become a stockholder in the proposed association.
(E) Submission to FCA 
A copy of the articles of association shall be forwarded to the Farm Credit Administration with the recommendations of the bank concerning the need for the proposed association in order to adequately serve the credit needs of eligible persons in the proposed territory and a statement as to whether or not the territory includes any territory described in the charter of another Federal land bank association.
(3) Denials of charters 
The Farm Credit Administration for good cause shown may deny the charter applied for.
(4) Approval of articles 
On the approval of the proposed articles by the Farm Credit Administration and the issuance of such charter, the association shall become as of such date a federally chartered body corporate and an instrumentality of the United States.
(c) FCA authority on organization 
The Farm Credit Administration shall have power, in the terms of the charter, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Farm Credit Administration
(1) to provide for the organization of the association;
(2) to provide for the initial amount of stock of the association;
(3) to provide for the territory within which the association may carry on its operations; and
(4) to approve amendments to the charter of such association.

12 USC 2092 - Board of directors

Each Federal land bank association shall elect from its voting shareholders a board of directors of such number, for such terms, in such manner, and with such qualifications as may be required by its bylaws except that, at least one member shall be elected by the other directors, which member shall not be a director, officer, employee, stockholder, or agent of a System institution.

12 USC 2093 - General corporate powers

Each Federal land bank association shall be a body corporate and, subject to supervision of the Farm Credit Bank for the district and the regulation of the Farm Credit Administration, shall have the power to
(1) adopt and use a corporate seal;
(2) have succession until dissolved under the provisions of this chapter or other Act of Congress;
(3) make contracts;
(4) sue and be sued;
(5) acquire, hold, dispose, and otherwise exercise all of the usual incidents of ownership of real estate and personal property necessary or convenient to the business of the association;
(6) operate under the direction of the board of directors of the association in accordance with this chapter;
(7) provide by its board of directors for a manager or other chief executive officer, and provide for such other officers or employees as may be necessary, including joint employees as provided in this chapter, define the duties of such, and require surety bonds or make other provision against losses occasioned by employees, except that no director shall, within one year after the date when such director ceases to be a member of the board, serve as a salaried employee of the association on the board of which such director served;
(8) prescribe, by its board of directors, its bylaws that shall be consistent with law, and that shall provide for
(A) the classes of its stock and the manner in which such stock shall be issued, transferred, and retired; and
(B) the manner in which it is to
(i) select officers and employees;
(ii) acquire, hold, and transfer property;
(iii) conduct general business; and
(iv) exercise and enjoy the privileges granted to it by law;
(9) accept applications for Farm Credit Bank loans and receive from such bank and disburse to the borrowers the proceeds of such loans;
(10) subscribe to stock of the Farm Credit Bank of the district;
(11) elect by its board of directors a loan committee with power to elect applicants for membership in the association and recommend loans to the Farm Credit Bank, or with the approval of the Farm Credit Bank, delegate the election of applicants for membership and the approval of loans within specified limits to other committees or to authorized employees of the association;
(12) on agreement with the bank, take such additional actions with respect to applications and loans and perform such functions as are vested by law in the Farm Credit Banks as may be agreed to by the association;
(13) endorse and become liable to the bank on loans it makes to association members;
(14) receive such compensation and deduct such sums from loan proceeds with respect to each loan as may be agreed between the association and the bank and make such other charges for services as may be approved by the bank;
(15) provide technical assistance to members, borrowers, applicants, and other eligible persons and make available to them, at their option, such financial related services appropriate to their operations as it determines, with Farm Credit Bank approval, are feasible, under regulations of the Farm Credit Administration;
(16) borrow money from the bank and, with the approval of such bank, borrow from and issue association notes or other obligations to any commercial bank or other financial institution;
(17) buy and sell obligations of or insured by the United States or any agency thereof or of any banks of the Farm Credit System;
(18) invest association funds in such obligations as may be authorized in regulations of the Farm Credit Administration and approved by the bank and deposit securities and current funds of the association with any member bank of the Federal Reserve System, with the Farm Credit Bank, or with any bank insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and pay fees therefor and receive interest thereon as may be agreed;
(19) perform such other function delegated to the association by the Farm Credit Bank of the district;
(20) exercise by its board of directors or authorized officers or agents all such incidental powers as may be necessary or expedient in the conduct of its business;
(21) contribute to the capital of the bank; and
(22) operate as an originator and become certified as a certified facility under subchapter VIII of this chapter.

12 USC 2094 - Federal land bank association capitalization

In accordance with section 2154a of this title, the Federal land bank association shall provide, through its bylaws and subject to Farm Credit Administration regulations, for its capitalization and the manner in which its stock shall be issued, held, transferred, and retired and its earnings distributed.

12 USC 2095 - Repealed. Pub. L. 100399, title IV, 401(v), Aug. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 999

Section, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, § 2.14, as added Pub. L. 100–233, title IV, § 401, Jan. 6, 1988, 101 Stat. 1636, provided that whenever any Federal land bank association was liquidated, a sum equal to its reserve account as required in this chapter was to be paid and become the property of the bank in which such association was a shareholder. A prior section 2095, Pub. L. 92–181, title II, § 2.14, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 600; Pub. L. 99–205, title II, § 205(e)(15), title VI, 605, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1705, 1711, related to application of earnings, restoration of capital impairment, and surplus account, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 100–233, § 401.

12 USC 2096 - Agreements for sharing gains or losses

Each Farm Credit Bank may enter into agreements with Federal land bank associations in its district for sharing the gain or losses on loans or on security held therefor or acquired in liquidation thereof, and associations are authorized to enter into any such agreements and also, subject to bank approval, agreements with other associations in the district for sharing the risk of loss on loans endorsed by each such association. As may be authorized by the bank in accordance with regulations of the Farm Credit Administration, associations also may enter into agreements with other Farm Credit System institutions to share loan and other losses, whether to protect against capital impairment or for any other purpose.

12 USC 2097 - Liens on stock

Each Federal land bank association shall have a first lien on the stock and participation certificates it issues, except on stock or participation certificates held by other Farm Credit System institutions, for the payment of any liability of the stockholder to the association or to the bank, or to both of them.

12 USC 2098 - Taxation

Each Federal land bank association and the capital, reserves, and surplus thereof, and the income derived therefrom, shall be exempt from Federal, State, municipal, and local taxation, except taxes on real estate held by a Federal land bank association to the same extent, according to its value, as other similar property held by other persons is taxed. The mortgages held by the Federal land bank associations and the notes, bonds, debentures, and other obligations issued by the associations shall be considered and held to be instrumentalities of the United States and, as such, they and the income therefrom shall be exempt from all Federal, State, municipal, and local taxation, other than Federal income tax liability of the holder thereof under the Public Debt Act of 1941 (31 U.S.C. 3124).