TITLE 12 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER V - MISCELLANEOUS

12 USC 1731 - Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 21, 62 Stat. 862, eff. Sept. 1, 1948

Section, acts June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, 512, 48 Stat. 1265; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, 9, 10, 52 Stat. 24, 25; June 28, 1941, ch. 261, 10, 55 Stat. 365, related to penalties. See sections 493, 657, 709, 1006, and 1008 to 1010 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

12 USC 1731a - Penalties

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary is authorized to refuse the benefits of participation (either directly as an insured lender or as a borrower, or indirectly as a builder, contractor, or dealer, or salesman or sales agent for a builder, contractor or dealer) under subchapter I, II, VI, VII, VIII, IXB, or X of this chapter to any person or firm (including but not limited to any individual, partnership, association, trust, or corporation) if the Secretary has determined that such person or firm
(1)  has knowingly or willfully violated any provision of this chapter or of title III of the Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended, or of chapter 37 of title 38, or of any regulation issued by the Secretary under this chapter or by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs under said title III, or chapter 37, or
(2)  has, in connection with any construction, alteration, repair or improvement work financed with assistance under this chapter or under said title III, or chapter 37, or in connection with contracts or financing relating to such work, violated any Federal or State penal statute, or
(3)  has failed materially to properly carry out contractual obligations with respect to the completion of construction, alteration, repair, or improvement work financed with assistance under this chapter or under title III of the Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended, or of chapter 37 of title 38. Before any such determination is made any person or firm with respect to whom such a determination is proposed shall be notified in writing by the Secretary and shall be entitled, upon making a written request to the Secretary, to a written notice specifying charges in reasonable detail and an opportunity to be heard and to be represented by counsel. Determinations made by the Secretary under this section shall be based on the preponderance of the evidence. For the purposes of compliance with this section the Secretarys notice of a proposed determination under this section shall be considered to have been received by the interested person or firm if the notice is properly mailed to the last known address of such person or firm.

12 USC 1731b - Prohibition against transient housing

(a) Intent of Congress 
The Congress declares that it has been its intent since the enactment of this chapter that housing built with the aid of mortgages insured under this chapter is to be used principally for residential use; and that this intent excludes the use of such housing for transient or hotel purposes while such insurance on the mortgage remains outstanding.
(b) Exceptions to prohibition 
Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, no new, existing, or rehabilitated multifamily housing with respect to which a mortgage is insured under this chapter shall be operated for transient or hotel purposes unless
(1)  on or before May 28, 1954, the Secretary has agreed in writing to the rental of all or a portion of the accommodations in the project for transient or hotel purposes (in which case no accommodations in excess of the number so agreed to by the Secretary shall be rented on such basis), or
(2)  the project covered by the insured mortgage is located in an area which the Secretary determines to be a resort area, and the Secretary finds that prior to May 28, 1954, a portion of the accommodations in the project had been made available for rent for transient or hotel purposes (in which case no accommodations in excess of the number which had been made available for such use shall be rented on such basis).
(c) Certification as to use as requisite for insurance; exceptions to prohibition against insuring 
Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, no mortgage with respect to multifamily housing shall be insured under this chapter (except pursuant to a commitment to insure issued prior to August 2, 1954), and (except as to housing coming within the provisions of clause (1) or clause (2) of subsection (b) of this section) no mortgage with respect to multifamily housing shall be insured for an additional term, unless
(1)  the mortgagor certifies under oath that while such insurance remains outstanding he will not rent, or permit the rental of, such housing or any part thereof for transient or hotel purposes, and
(2)  the Secretary has entered into such contract with, or purchased such stock of, the mortgagor as the Secretary deems necessary to enable him to prevent or terminate any use of such property or project for transient or hotel purposes while the mortgage insurance remains outstanding.
(d) Enforcement by Secretary 
The Secretary is authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this section by all appropriate means at his disposal, as to all existing multifamily housing with respect to which a mortgage was insured under this chapter prior to August 2, 1954, as well as to all multifamily housing with respect to which a mortgage is hereafter insured under this chapter: Provided, That no criminal penalty shall, by reason of enactment of this section, be applicable to the rental or operation of any such existing multifamily housing in violation of any provision of subsection (b) of this section at any time prior to August 2, 1954.
(e) Definitions 
As used in this section,
(1)  the term rental for transient or hotel purposes shall have such meaning as prescribed by the Secretary but rental for any period less than thirty days shall in any event constitute rental for such purposes, and
(2)  the term multifamily housing shall mean
(i)  a property held by a mortgagor upon which there are located five or more single family dwellings, or upon which there is located a two-, three-, or four-family dwelling, or
(ii)  a property or project covered by mortgage insured or to be insured under section 1713 of this title, under section 1715e of this title with respect to any property or project of a corporation or trust of the character described in paragraph (1) of subsection (a) thereof, under section 1715k of this title if the mortgage is within the provisions of paragraph (3) (B) of subsection (d) thereof, under section 1715l of this title if the mortgage is within the provisions of paragraph (3) of subsection (d) thereof, under section 1743, 1748b, or 1750g of this title, or
(iii)  a project with respect to which an insurance contract pursuant to subchapter VII of this chapter is outstanding.
(f) Investigation after notice of violation; cease order 
Promptly after receipt of written notice that any portion of any building is being rented or operated in violation of any provision of this section or of any rule or regulation lawfully issued thereunder, the Secretary shall investigate the existence of the facts alleged in the written notice and shall order such violation, if found to exist, to cease forthwith.
(g) Prosecution by Attorney General for continued violation 
If such violation does not cease in accordance with such order, the Secretary shall forward the complaint to the Attorney General of the United States for prosecution of such civil or criminal action, if any, which the Attorney General may find to be involved in such violation.
(h) Judicial procedure for injunction or other order 
Whenever he finds a violation of any provision of this section has occurred or is about to occur, the Attorney General shall petition the district court of the United States or the district court of any Territory or other place subject to United States jurisdiction within whose jurisdictional limits the person doing or committing the acts or practices constituting the alleged violation of this section shall be found, for an order enjoining such acts or practices, and upon a showing by the Attorney General that such acts or practices constituting such violation have been engaged in or are about to be engaged in, a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order, with or without such injunction or restraining order, shall be granted without bond.
(i) Injunctive relief for hotel owners 
Any person owning or operating a hotel within a radius of fifty miles of a place where a violation of any provision of this section has occurred or is about to occur, or any group or association of hotel owners or operators within said fifty-mile radius, at his or their sole charge or cost, may petition any district court of the United States or the district court or any Territory or other place subject to United States jurisdiction within whose jurisdictional limits the person doing or committing the acts or practices constituting the alleged violation of this section shall be found, for an order enjoining such acts or practices, and, upon a showing that such acts or practices constituting such violation have been engaged in or are about to be engaged in, a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order, with or without such injunction or restraining order, shall be granted.
(j) Jurisdiction of district courts 
The several district courts of the United States and the several district courts of the Territories of the United States or other place subject to United States jurisdiction, within whose jurisdictional limits the person doing or committing the acts or practices constituting the alleged violation shall be found, shall, wheresoever such acts or practices may have been done or committed, have full power and jurisdiction to hear, try, and determine such matter under subsections (h) and (i) of this section.

12 USC 1732 - Separability

If any provision of this chapter, or the application thereof to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of the chapter, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

12 USC 1733 - Application of other laws

The provisions of section 1430 (a)(1)1 and 1430b of this title; the seventh paragraph of section 24 of this title; section 371 of this title; subsection (n) of section 77B of the Bankruptcy Act, as amended (49 Stat. 664); section 606i of title 15, continuing and extending the functions of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation; and all other provisions of law establishing rights under mortgages insured in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, shall be held to apply to such chapter, as amended.
[1] See References in Text note below.

12 USC 1734 - Amendment, extension, or increase of commitment amounts

At any time prior to final endorsement for insurance, the Secretary, in his discretion, may amend, extend, or increase the amount of any commitment, provided the mortgage, as finally endorsed for insurance is eligible for insurance under the provisions of this chapter and the rules and regulations thereunder, in effect at the time the original commitment to insure was issued.

12 USC 1735 - Payment of certain funds to Treasury

The following funds shall be deemed an indebtedness to the United States of the particular insurance fund involved, and the Secretary is authorized and directed to pay the amount of such indebtedness to the Secretary of the Treasury, with simple interest thereon from the date the funds were advanced to the date of final payment at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the average rate on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States from the date the funds were advanced until the date of final payment
(1) funds made available to the Secretary pursuant to the provisions of sections 1705 and 1708 of this title, exclusive of amounts heretofore refunded, (a) for carrying out this subchapter and section 484d of title 48 with respect to mortgages insured under section 1709 of this title where such funds were credited to the general reinsurance account in the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, and (b) for the payment of salaries and expenses with respect to mortgage insurance under sections 1713 and 1715a of this title where such funds were credited to the Housing Insurance Fund;
(2) funds made available to the Secretary pursuant to sections 1737 and 1748a1 of this title; and
(3) funds made available to the Secretary by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to section 1747i1 of this title.

Payments to the Secretary of the Treasury under this section shall be made in such amounts and at such times as the Secretary determines, after consultations with the Secretary of the Treasury, that funds are available for that purpose, taking into consideration the continued solvency of the funds involved. All payments made pursuant to this section shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

[1] See References in Text note below.

12 USC 1735a - Prepayment of mortgages by nonprofit educational institutions; refunds

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no adjusted premium charge shall be collected in connection with the payment in full, prior to maturity, of any mortgage insured under this chapter, if the mortgagor certifies to the Secretary that the loan was paid in full by or on behalf of a nonprofit educational institution which intends to use the property for educational purposes.
(b) The Secretary shall refund any adjusted premium charge collected subsequent to July 1, 1962, and prior to September 2, 1964, in connection with the payment in full, prior to maturity, of any mortgage insured under this chapter, if the mortgagor under such mortgage makes the certification prescribed by subsection (a) of this section.

12 USC 1735b - Expenditures to correct or reimburse for structural or other major defects in mortgaged homes

(a) Prior to beginning of construction 

(1) The Secretary is authorized to make expenditures under this subsection with respect to any property that
(A) is a condominium unit (including common areas) or is improved by a one-to-four family dwelling;
(B) was approved, before the beginning of construction, for mortgage insurance under this chapter or for guaranty, insurance, or direct loan under chapter 37 of title 38 or was less than a year old at the time of insurance of the mortgage and was covered by a consumer protection or warranty plan acceptable to the Secretary; and
(C) the Secretary finds to have structural defects.
(2) Expenditures under this subsection may be made for
(A)  correcting such defects,
(B)  paying the claims of the owner of the property arising from such defects, or
(C)  acquiring title to the property: Provided, That such authority of the Secretary shall exist only
(A)  if the owner has requested assistance from the Secretary not later than four years (or such shorter time as the Secretary may prescribe) after insurance of the mortgage, and
(B)  if the property is encumbered by a mortgage which is insured under this chapter after September 2, 1964.
(b) Mortgages insured on or after August 1, 1968, but prior to January 1, 1973; requirements; reimbursement from seller; insurance fund chargeable 
The Secretary is authorized to make expenditures to correct, or to reimburse the owner for the correction of, structural or other major defects which so seriously affect use and livability as to create a serious danger to the life or safety of inhabitants of any one, two, three, or four family dwelling which is covered by a mortgage insured under section 1715z of this title or which is located in an older, declining urban area and is covered by a mortgage insured under section 1709 or 1715l of this title on or after August 1, 1968, but prior to January 1, 1973, and which is more than one year old on the date of the issuance of the insurance commitment, if
(1)  the owner requests assistance from the Secretary not later than one year after the insurance of the mortgage, or, in the case of a dwelling covered by a mortgage insured under section 1709 or 1715l of this title the insurance commitment for which was issued on or after August 1, 1968, but prior to January 1, 1973, not more than four months after August 3, 1976, and
(2)  the defect is one that existed on the date of the issuance of the insurance commitment and is one that a proper inspection could reasonably be expected to disclose. The Secretary may require from the seller of any such dwelling an agreement to reimburse him for any payments made pursuant to this subsection with respect to such dwelling. Expenditures pursuant to this subsection shall be made from the insurance fund chargeable for insurance benefits on the mortgage covering the structure to which the expenditures relate. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to cover the costs of such expenditures not otherwise provided for.
(c) Regulations; finality of decision 
The Secretary shall by regulations prescribe the terms and conditions under which expenditures and payments may be made under the provisions of this section, and his decisions regarding such expenditures or payments, and the terms and conditions under which the same are approved or disapproved, shall be final and conclusive and shall not be subject to judicial review.
(d) Mortgages insured on or after January 1, 1973, but prior to August 1, 1976; requirements; reimbursement from seller; insurance fund chargeable 
The Secretary is authorized to make expenditures to correct or to reimburse the owner for the correction of structural or other major defects which so seriously affect use and liveability as to create a serious danger to the life or safety of inhabitants of any one-, two-, three-, or four-family dwelling which is more than one year old on the date of issuance of the insurance commitment, is located in an older, declining urban area, and is covered by a mortgage insured under section 1709 or 1715l of this title on or after January 1, 1973, but prior to August 3, 1976, if
(1)  the owner requests assistance from the Secretary not more than one year after August 3, 1976, and
(2)  the defect is one that existed on the date of the issuance of the insurance commitment and is one that a proper inspection could reasonably have been expected to have disclosed. The Secretary may require from the seller of any such dwelling an agreement to reimburse him for any payments made pursuant to this subsection with respect to such dwelling. Expenditures pursuant to this subsection shall be made from the insurance fund chargeable for insurance benefits on the mortgage covering the structure to which the expenditures relate. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to cover the costs of such expenditures not otherwise provided for.
(e) Report to Congress on effective program for protecting home buyers 
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is authorized and directed to conduct a full and complete investigation and study and report to Congress, with recommendations, not later than March 1, 1977, with respect to an effective program for protecting home buyers from hidden or undisclosed defects seriously affecting the use and livability of the home, which would be applicable to existing homes financed with mortgages insured under this chapter. In the study and report the Secretary shall particularly investigate the need for, cost and feasible structure of, a national home inspection and warranty program, with respect to such homes, to be operated by the Federal Government out of fees assessed on the home buyer and amortized over a period of two years. The Secretarys report shall also present an analysis of alternative Federal programs to meet these needs, and the cost and means of financing such programs. In the report the Secretary shall also outline administrative steps which can be taken to provide disclosure to purchasers of existing homes financed with mortgages insured under this chapter of the actual condition of the home and the types of repairs or replacements likely to be needed within a period of two years, such as repairs or replacement of furnace, roof or major appliances, based on age and useful life expectancy of such appurtenances.

12 USC 1735c - General Insurance Fund

(a) Establishment; purpose; mortgages or loans insurable; transfers to 
There is hereby created a General Insurance Fund which shall be used by the Secretary, on and after August 10, 1965, as a revolving fund for carrying out all the insurance provisions of this chapter with the exception of those specified in subsection (e) of this section. All mortgages or loans insured under this chapter pursuant to commitments issued on or after August 10, 1965, except those specified in subsection (e) of this section, and all loans reported for insurance under section 1703 of this title on or after August 10, 1965, shall be insured under the General Insurance Fund. The Secretary shall transfer to the General Insurance Fund
(1) the assets and liabilities of all insurance accounts and funds, except the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, existing under this chapter immediately prior to August 10, 1965;
(2) all outstanding commitments for insurance issued prior to August 10, 1965, except those specified in subsection (e) of this section;
(3) the insurance on all mortgages and loans insured prior to August 10, 1965, except insurance specified in subsection (e) of this section; and
(4) the insurance of all loans made by approved financial institutions pursuant to section 1703 of this title prior to August 10, 1965.
(b) Expenses chargeable to Fund 
The general expenses of the operations of the Department of Housing and Urban Development relating to mortgages and loans which are the obligation of the General Insurance Fund may be charged to the General Insurance Fund.
(c) Deposit or investment of moneys; purchase of debentures 
Moneys in the General Insurance Fund not needed for the current operations of the Department of Housing and Urban Development with respect to mortgages and loans which are the obligation of the General Insurance Fund shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit of such Fund, or invested in bonds or other obligations of, or in bonds or other obligations guaranteed as to principal and interest by, the United States or any agency of the United States: Provided, That such moneys shall to the maximum extent feasible be invested in such bonds or other obligations the proceeds of which will be used to directly support the residential mortgage market. The Secretary may, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, purchase in the open market debentures issued as obligations of the General Insurance Fund or issued prior to August 10, 1965, under other provisions of this chapter, except debentures issued under the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. Such purchases shall be made at a price which will provide an investment yield of not less than the yield obtainable from other investments authorized by this section. Debentures so purchased shall be canceled and not reissued.
(d) Credits and charges to Fund 
Premium charges, adjusted premium charges, and appraisal and other fees received on account of the insurance of any mortgage or loan which is the obligation of the General Insurance Fund, the receipts derived from the property covered by such mortgages and loans and from the claims, debts, contracts, property, and security assigned to the Secretary in connection therewith, and all earnings on the assets of the Fund shall be credited to the General Insurance Fund. The principal of, and interest paid and to be paid on, debentures which are the obligation of such Fund, cash insurance payments and adjustments, and expenses incurred in the handling, management, renovation, and disposal of properties acquired, in connection with mortgages and loans which are the obligation of such Fund, shall be charged to such Fund.
(e) Restrictions on use of Fund 
The General Insurance Fund shall not be used for carrying out the provisions of section 1709 of this title, except as determined by the Secretary, or the provisions of section 1715e of this title to the extent that they involve mortgages the insurance for which is the obligation of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund created by section 1715e (k) of this title, or the provisions of sections 1715n (e), 1715x (a)(2), 1715z, 1715z–1 and 1715z–21 of this title; and nothing in this section shall apply to or affect any mortgages, loans, commitments, or insurance under such provisions.
(f) Risk assessment 
The Secretary shall undertake an annual assessment of the risks associated with each of the insurance programs comprising the General Insurance Fund, and shall present findings from such review to the Congress in the FHA Annual Management Report.
[1] See References in Text note below.

12 USC 1735d - Payment of insurance benefits in cash or debentures; borrowing money from Treasury to make payments

(a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter with respect to the payment of insurance benefits, the Secretary is authorized, in his discretion, to pay in cash or in debentures any insurance claim or part thereof which is paid on or after August 10, 1965, on a mortgage or a loan which was insured under any section of this chapter either before or after such date. If payment is made in cash, it shall be in an amount equivalent to the face amount of the debentures that would otherwise be issued plus an amount equivalent to the interest which the debentures would have earned, computed to a date to be established pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary.
(b) The Secretary is authorized to borrow from the Treasury from time to time such amounts as the Secretary shall determine are necessary
(1)  to make payments in cash (in lieu of issuing debentures guaranteed by the United States, as provided in this chapter) pursuant to the provisions of this section, and
(2)  to make payments for reinsured and directly insured losses under subchapter IXC[1] of this chapter: Provided, however, That borrowings to make payments for reinsured and directly insured losses under subchapter IXC[1] of this chapter shall be limited to $250,000,000 or such further sum as the Congress, by joint resolution, may from time to time determine. Notes or other obligations issued by the Secretary in borrowing under this subsection shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the secretary of the Treasury may prescribe. Each sum borrowed pursuant to this subsection shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the issuance of such notes or other obligations.
[1] See References in Text note below.

12 USC 1735e - Acceptance of materials or products used in structures

The Secretary shall adopt a uniform procedure for the acceptance of materials and products to be used in structures approved for mortgages or loans insured under this chapter. Under such procedure any material or product which the Secretary finds is technically suitable for the use proposed shall be accepted. Acceptance of a material or product as technically suitable shall not be deemed to restrict the discretion of the Secretary to determine that a structure, with respect to which a mortgage is executed, is economically sound or an acceptable risk.

12 USC 1735e1 - Use of American materials and products

In the administration of housing assistance programs, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall encourage the use of materials and products mined and produced in the United States.

12 USC 1735f - Water and sewerage facilities

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no mortgage which covers new construction shall be approved for insurance under this chapter (except pursuant to a commitment made prior to August 10, 1965) if the mortgaged property includes housing which is not served by a public or adequate community water and sewerage system: Provided, That this limitation shall be applicable only to property which is not served by a system approved by the Secretary pursuant to subchapter IXA of this chapter, as such subchapter existed immediately before December 15, 1989, and which is situated in an area certified by appropriate local officials to be an area where the establishment of public or adequate community water and sewerage systems is economically feasible: Provided further, That for purposes of this section the economic feasibility of establishing such public or adequate community water and sewerage systems shall be determined without regard to whether such establishment is authorized by law or is subject to approval by one or more local governments or public bodies.

12 USC 1735f1 - Waiver of deduction on assignment of property to Secretary in lieu of foreclosure

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, from and after November 3, 1966, the Secretary, under such terms and conditions as he may approve, may waive all or a part of the 1 per centum deduction otherwise made from insurance benefits with respect to multifamily housing or land development mortgages assigned to him, where the assignment is made at his request in lieu of foreclosure of the mortgage.

12 USC 1735f2 - Uniform rehabilitation standards for housing within and without urban renewal areas

In determining whether properties should be approved by the Secretary prior to rehabilitation and covered by mortgages insured under subchapter II of this chapter, the Secretary shall apply uniform property standards as between properties located outside urban renewal areas and those located within urban renewal areas.

12 USC 1735f3 - Insurance of mortgage proceeds advanced during construction or rehabilitation or prior to final endorsement of project mortgage

The Secretary is authorized to insure mortgage proceeds advanced during construction or rehabilitation or otherwise prior to final endorsement of a project mortgage for the purpose of
(1)  financing improvements to the property and the purchase of materials and building components delivered to the property, and
(2)  providing funds to cover the cost of building components where such components have been assembled and specifically identified for incorporation into the property but are located at a site other than the mortgaged property, with such security as the Secretary may require.

12 USC 1735f4 - Minimum property standards

(a) To the maximum extent feasible, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall promote the use of energy saving techniques through minimum property standards established by him for newly constructed residential housing, other than manufactured homes, subject to mortgages insured under this chapter. Such standards shall establish energy performance requirements that will achieve a significant increase in the energy efficiency of new construction. Such requirements shall be implemented as soon as practicable after November 9, 1978. Following November 30, 1983, the energy performance requirements developed and established by the Secretary under this subsection for newly constructed residential housing, other than manufactured homes, shall be at least as effective in performance as the energy performance requirements incorporated in the minimum property standards that were in effect under this subsection on September 30, 1982.
(b) The Secretary may require that each property, other than a manufactured home, subject to a mortgage insured under this chapter shall, with respect to health and safety, comply with one of the nationally recognized model building codes, or with a State or local building code based on one of the nationally recognized model building codes or their equivalent. The Secretary shall be responsible for determining the comparability of the State and local codes to such model codes and for selecting for compliance purposes an appropriate nationally recognized model building code where no such model code has been duly adopted or where the Secretary determines the adopted code is not comparable.

12 USC 1735f5 - Prohibition against discrimination on account of sex in extension of mortgage assistance; consideration of combined income of husband and wife for purpose of extending mortgage credit; definitions

(a) No federally related mortgage loan, or Federal insurance, guaranty, or other assistance in connection therewith (under this chapter or any other Act), shall be denied to any person on account of sex; and every person engaged in making mortgage loans secured by residential real property shall consider without prejudice the combined income of both husband and wife for the purpose of extending mortgage credit in the form of a federally related mortgage loan to a married couple or either member thereof.
(b) For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the term federally related mortgage loan means any loan which
(1) is secured by residential real property designed principally for the occupancy of from one to four families; and
(2) 
(A) is made in whole or in part by any lender the deposits or accounts of which are insured by any agency of the Federal Government, or is made in whole or in part by any lender which is itself regulated by any agency of the Federal Government; or
(B) is made in whole or in part, or insured, guaranteed, supplemented, or assisted in any way, by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or any other officer or agency of the Federal Government or under or in connection with a housing or urban development program administered by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or a housing or related program administered by any other such officer or agency; or
(C) is eligible for purchase by the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Government National Mortgage Association, or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or from any financial institution from which it could be purchased by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation; or
(D) is made in whole or in part by any creditor, as defined in section 1602 (f) of title 15, who makes or invests in residential real estate loans aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year.

12 USC 1735f6 - Secondary mortgages held by State or local governmental agency on insured properties

In carrying out the provisions of subchapter II of this chapter with respect to insuring mortgages secured by a one- to four-family dwelling unit, the Secretary may not deny such insurance for any such mortgage solely because the dwelling unit which secures such mortgage will be subject to a secondary mortgage or loan made or insured, or other secondary lien held, by any State or local governmental agency or instrumentality under terms and conditions approved by the Secretary.

12 USC 1735f7 - Exemption from State usury laws; applicability

(a) The provisions of the constitution of any State expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, or other charges which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved by lenders and the provisions of any State law expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, or other charges which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved shall not apply to any loan, mortgage, or advance which is insured under subchapter I or II of this chapter.
(b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall apply to loans, mortgages, or advances made or executed in any State until the effective date (after December 21, 1979) of a provision of law of that State limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, or other charges on any such loan, mortgage, or advance.

12 USC 1735f7a - State constitution or laws limiting mortgage interest, discount points, and finance or other charges; exemption for obligations made after March 31, 1980

(a) Applicability to loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance; applicability to deposit, account, or obligation 

(1) The provisions of the constitution or the laws of any State expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, finance charges, or other charges which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved shall not apply to any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance which is
(A) secured by a first lien on residential real property, by a first lien on all stock allocated to a dwelling unit in a residential cooperative housing corporation, or by a first lien on a residential manufactured home;
(B) made after March 31, 1980; and
(C) described in section 527(b) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1735f–5 (b)), except that for the purpose of this section
(i) the limitation described in section 527(b)(1) of such Act that the property must be designed principally for the occupancy of from one to four families shall not apply;
(ii) the requirement contained in section 527(b)(1) of such Act that the loan be secured by residential real property shall not apply to a loan secured by stock in a residential cooperative housing corporation or to a loan or credit sale secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home;
(iii) the term federally related mortgage loan in section 527(b) of such Act shall include a credit sale which is secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home and which otherwise meets the definitional requirements of section 527(b) of such Act, as those requirements are modified by this section;
(iv) the term residential loans in section 527(b)(2)(D) of such Act shall also include loans or credit sales secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home;
(v) the requirement contained in section 527(b)(2)(D) of such Act that a creditor make or invest in loans aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year shall not apply to a creditor selling residential manufactured homes financed by loans or credit sales secured by first liens on residential manufactured homes if the creditor has an arrangement to sell such loans or credit sales in whole or in part, or if such loans or credit sales are sold in whole or in part to a lender, institution, or creditor described in section 527(b) of such Act or in this section or a creditor, as defined in section 103(f) of the Truth in Lending Act [15 U.S.C. 1602 (f)], as such section was in effect on the day preceding March 31, 1980, if such creditor makes or invests in residential real estate loans or loans or credit sales secured by first liens on residential manufactured homes aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year; and
(vi) the term lender in section 527(b)(2)(A) of such Act shall also be deemed to include any lender approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for participation in any mortgage insurance program under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], and any individual who finances the sale or exchange of residential real property or a residential manufactured home which such individual owns and which such individual occupies or has occupied as his principal residence.
(2) The provisions of the constitution or law of any State expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved shall not apply to any deposit or account held by, or other obligation of a depository institution. For purposes of this paragraph, the term depository institution means
(i) any insured bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813);
(ii) any mutual savings bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813);
(iii) any savings bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813);
(iv) any insured credit union as defined in section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1752);
(v) any member as defined in section 2 of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (12 U.S.C. 1422); and
(vi) any insured institution as defined in section 4081 of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1730a).
(b) Applicability to loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance made in any State after April 1, 1980 

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the provisions of subsection (a)(1) of this section shall apply to any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance made in any State on or after April 1, 1980.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), the provisions of subsection (a)(1) of this section shall not apply to any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance made in any State after the date (on or after April 1, 1980, and before April 1, 1983) on which such State adopts a law or certifies that the voters of such State have voted in favor of any provision, constitutional or otherwise, which states explicitly and by its terms that such State does not want the provisions of subsection (a)(1) of this section to apply with respect to loans, mortgages, credit sales, and advances made in such State.
(3) In any case in which a State takes an action described in paragraph (2), the provisions of subsection (a)(1) of this section shall continue to apply to
(A) any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance which is made after the date such action was taken pursuant to a commitment therefor which was entered during the period beginning on April 1, 1980, and ending on the date on which such State takes such action; and
(B) any loan, mortgage, or advance which is a rollover of a loan, mortgage, or advance, as described in regulations of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, which was made or committed to be made during the period beginning on April 1, 1980, and ending on the date on which such State takes any action described in paragraph (2).
(4) At any time after March 31, 1980, any State may adopt a provision of law placing limitations on discount points or such other charges on any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance described in subsection (a)(1) of this section.
(c) Applicability to loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance secured by first lien on residential manufactured home 
The provisions of subsection (a)(1) of this section shall not apply to a loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance which is secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home unless the terms and conditions relating to such loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance comply with consumer protection provisions specified in regulations prescribed by the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. Such regulations shall
(1) include consumer protection provisions with respect to balloon payments, prepayment penalties, late charges, and deferral fees;
(2) require a 30-day notice prior to instituting any action leading to repossession or foreclosure (except in the case of abandonment or other extreme circumstances);
(3) require that upon prepayment in full, the debtor shall be entitled to a refund of the unearned portion of the precomputed finance charge in an amount not less than the amount which would be calculated by the actuarial method, except that the debtor shall not be entitled to a refund which is less than $1; and
(4) include such other provisions as the Federal Home Loan Bank Board may prescribe after a finding that additional protections are required.
(d) Implementation of provisions applicable to residential manufactured home 
The provisions of subsection (c) of this section shall not apply to a loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home until regulations required to be issued pursuant to paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (c) of this section take effect, except that the provisions of subsection (c) of this section shall apply in the case of such a loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance made prior to the date on which such regulations take effect if the loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance includes a precomputed finance charge and does not provide that, upon prepayment in full, the refund of the unearned portion of the precomputed finance charge is in an amount not less the amount which would be calculated by the actuarial method, except that the debtor shall not be entitled to a refund which is less than $1. The Federal Home Loan Bank Board shall issue regulations pursuant to the provisions of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (c) of this section that shall take effect prospectively not less than 30 days after publication in the Federal Register and not later than 120 days from March 31, 1980.
(e) Definitions 
For the purpose of this section
(1) a prepayment occurs upon
(A) the refinancing or consolidation of the indebtedness;
(B) the actual prepayment of the indebtedness by the consumer whether voluntarily or following acceleration of the payment obligation by the creditor; or
(C) the entry of a judgment for the indebtedness in favor of the creditor;
(2) the term actuarial method means the method of allocating payments made on a debt between the outstanding balance of the obligation and the precomputed finance charge pursuant to which a payment is applied first to the accrued precomputed finance charge and any remainder is subtracted from, or any deficiency is added to, the outstanding balance of the obligation;
(3) the term precomputed finance charge means interest or a time price differential within the meaning of sections 106(a)(1) and (2) of the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1605 (a)(1) and (2)) as computed by an add-on or discount method; and
(4) the term residential manufactured home means a manufactured home as defined in section 603(6) of the National Mobile Home Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5402 (6)] which is used as a residence.
(f) Rules, regulations, and interpretations 
The Federal Home Loan Bank Board is authorized to issue rules and regulations and to publish interpretations governing the implementation of this section.
(g) Effective date 
This section takes effect on April 1, 1980.
[1] See References in Text note below.

12 USC 1735f8 - Time of payment of premium charges

In carrying out the provisions of subchapters I, II, IV,[1] VII, VIII, IXB, and X of this chapter pertaining to the payment of loan or mortgage insurance premium charges by a financial institution, other mortgagees, or agent thereof to the Federal Government in connection with a loan or mortgage insurance program established pursuant to any of these titles, the Secretary shall require that payment of such premiums be made
(1)  in the case of loans or mortgages respecting one- to four-family residences, promptly upon their receipt from the borrower, and
(2)  in any other case, promptly when due to the Secretary; except that the Secretary may approve payment of such premiums within twenty-four months of such receipt or due date, as appropriate, if the financial institution, mortgagee, or agent thereof pays interest, at a rate specified by the Secretary, to the insurance fund for the period beginning twenty days after receipt from the borrower or after the due date, as appropriate, and ending upon payment of the premiums to the Federal Government.
[1] See References in Text note below.

12 USC 1735f9 - Limitation on commitments to insure loans and mortgages

(a) The authority of the Secretary to enter into commitments to insure loans and mortgages under this chapter shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as are or have been provided in appropriation Acts for such fiscal year.
(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law and subject only to the absence of qualified requests for insurance, to the authority provided in this chapter, and to the limitation in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall enter into commitments to insure mortgages under this chapter with an aggregate principal amount of $110,165,000,000 during fiscal year 1993 and $68,673,868,600 during fiscal year 1994.

12 USC 1735f10 - Purchaser-broker arrangement payments for insurance purposes

In carrying out the provisions of subchapter II of this chapter with respect to insuring mortgages secured by a one- to four-family residence, the Secretary may not exclude from the principal amount which may be insured under such subchapter any sum solely on the basis that such sum is to be paid by the purchaser to a broker who has been the purchasers agent in the purchase of the residence, but the principal amount of the mortgage, when such sum is added, shall not exceed the limitation as to maximum mortgage amount provided in subchapter II of this chapter.

12 USC 1735f11 - Review of mortgagee performance and authority to terminate

(a) Periodic review of mortgagee performance 
To reduce losses in connection with single family mortgage insurance programs under this chapter, at least once a year the Secretary shall review the rate of early defaults and claims for insured single family mortgages originated or underwritten by each mortgagee.
(b) Comparison with other mortgagees 
For each mortgagee, the Secretary shall compare the rate of early defaults and claims for insured single family mortgage loans originated or underwritten by the mortgagee in an area with the rate of early defaults and claims for other mortgagees originating or underwriting insured single family mortgage loans in the area. For purposes of this section, the term area means each geographic area in which the mortgagee is authorized by the Secretary to originate insured single family mortgages.
(c) Termination of mortgagee origination approval 

(1) Notwithstanding section 1708 (c) of this title, the Secretary may terminate the approval of a mortgagee to originate or underwrite single family mortgages if the Secretary determines that the mortgage loans originated or underwritten by the mortgagee present an unacceptable risk to the insurance funds. The determination shall be based on the comparison required under subsection (b) of this section and shall be made in accordance with regulations of the Secretary. The Secretary may rely on existing regulations published before this section takes effect.
(2) The Secretary shall give a mortgagee at least 60 days prior written notice of any termination under this subsection. The termination shall take effect at the end of the notice period, unless the Secretary withdraws the termination notice or extends the notice period. If requested in writing by the mortgagee within 30 days of the date of the notice, the mortgagee shall be entitled to an informal conference with the official authorized to issue termination notices on behalf of the Secretary (or a designee of that official). At the informal conference, the mortgagee may present for consideration specific factors that it believes were beyond its control and that caused the excessive default and claim rate.

12 USC 1735f12 - Assurance of adequate processing of applications for loan and mortgage insurance

(a) State offices 
In order to ensure the adequate processing of applications for insurance of loans and mortgages under this chapter, the Secretary shall maintain not less than one office in each State to carry out the provisions of this chapter.
(b) Expedited procedure for RTC properties 
To assist the Resolution Trust Corporation in disposing of the property to which it acquires title and to ensure the timely processing of applications for insurance of loans and mortgages under this chapter that will be used to purchase multifamily residential property from the Resolution Trust Corporation, the Secretary shall establish an expedited procedure for considering such applications.

12 USC 1735f13 - Prohibition of requirement of minimum principal loan amount

A mortgagee or lender may not require, as a condition of providing a loan insured under this chapter or secured by a mortgage insured under this chapter, that the principal amount of the loan exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee or lender.

12 USC 1735f14 - Civil money penalties against mortgagees, lenders, and other participants in FHA programs

(a) In general 

(1) Authority 
If a mortgagee approved under the[1] chapter, a lender holding a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter, or a principal, officer, or employee of such mortgagee or lender, or other person or entity participating in either an insured mortgage or subchapter I loan transaction under this chapter or providing assistance to the borrower in connection with any such loan, including sellers of the real estate involved, borrowers, closing agents, title companies, real estate agents, mortgage brokers, appraisers, loan correspondents and dealers, knowingly and materially violates any applicable provision of subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on the mortgagee or lender, or such other person or entity, in accordance with this section. The penalty under this paragraph shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty, and may be imposed whether or not the Secretary imposes other administrative sanctions. The penalty shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty, and may be imposed whether or not the Secretary imposes other administrative sanctions.
(2) Amount of penalty 
The amount of the penalty, as determined by the Secretary, may not exceed $5,000 for each violation, except that the maximum penalty for all violations by any particular mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity during any 1-year period shall not exceed $1,000,000. Each violation of a[2] the provisions of subsection (b)(1) of this section shall constitute a separate violation with respect to each mortgage or loan application. In the case of a continuing violation, as determined by the Secretary, each day shall constitute a separate violation. In the case of the mortgagees failure to engage in loss mitigation activities, as provided in subsection (b)(1)(I) of this section, the penalty shall be in the amount of three times the amount of any insurance benefits claimed by the mortgagee with respect to any mortgage for which the mortgagee failed to engage in such loss mitigation actions.
(b) Violations for which a penalty may be imposed 

(1) Violations 
The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty under subsection (a) of this section for any knowing and material violation by a mortgagee or lender, as follows:
(A) Except where expressly permitted by statute, regulation, or contract approved by the Secretary, transfer of a mortgage insured under this chapter to a mortgagee not approved by the Secretary, or transfer of a loan to a transferee that is not holding a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter.
(B) Failure of a nonsupervised mortgagee, as defined by the Secretary
(i) to segregate all escrow funds received from a mortgagor for ground rents, taxes, assessments, and insurance premiums; or
(ii) to deposit these funds in a special account with a depository institution whose accounts are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation through the Deposit Insurance Fund, or by the National Credit Union Administration.
(C) Use of escrow funds for any purpose other than that for which they were received.
(D) Submission to the Secretary of information that was false, in connection with any mortgage insured under this chapter, or any loan that is covered by a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter.
(E) With respect to an officer, director, principal, or employee
(i) hiring such an individual whose duties will involve, directly or indirectly, programs administered by the Secretary, while that person was under suspension or withdrawal by the Secretary; or
(ii) retaining in employment such an individual who continues to be involved, directly or indirectly, in programs administered by the Secretary, while that person was under suspension or withdrawal by the Secretary.
(F) Falsely certifying to the Secretary or submitting to the Secretary a false certification by another person or entity.
(G) Failure to comply with an agreement, certification, or condition of approval set forth on, or applicable to
(i) the application of a mortgagee or lender for approval by the Secretary; or
(ii) the notification by a mortgagee or lender to the Secretary concerning establishment of a branch office.
(H) Violation of any provisions of subchapter I, II, or IXA (as such subchapter existed immediately before December 15, 1989) of this chapter or any implementing regulation or handbook that is issued under this chapter.
(I) Failure to engage in loss mitigation actions as provided in section 1715u (a) of this title.
(J) Failure to perform a required physical inspection of the mortgaged property.
(2) Additional violations 
The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty under subsection (a) of this section for any knowing and material violation by a principal, officer, or employee of a mortgagee or lender, or other participants in either an insured mortgage or subchapter I loan transaction under this chapter or provision of assistance to the borrower in connection with any such loan, including sellers of the real estate involved, borrowers, closing agents, title companies, real estate agents, mortgage brokers, appraisers, loan correspondents, and dealers for
(A) submission to the Secretary of information that was false, in connection with any mortgage insured under this chapter, or any loan that is covered by a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter;
(B) falsely certifying to the Secretary or submitting to the Secretary a false certification by another person or entity; or
(C) failure by a loan correspondent or dealer to submit to the Secretary information which is required by regulations or directives in connection with any loan that is covered by a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter.
(3) Notification to Attorney General 
Before taking action to impose a civil money penalty for a violation under paragraph (1)(D) or (F), or paragraph (2)(A), (B), or (C), the Secretary shall inform the Attorney General of the United States.
(c) Agency procedures 

(1) Establishment 
The Secretary shall establish standards and procedures governing the imposition of civil money penalties under subsection (a) of this section. These standards and procedures
(A) shall provide for the Secretary to make the determination to impose the penalty or to use an administrative entity (such as the Mortgagee Review Board, established pursuant to section 1708 (c) of this title) to make the determination;
(B) shall provide for the imposition of a penalty only after the mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity has been given an opportunity for a hearing on the record; and
(C) may provide for review by the Secretary of any determination or order, or interlocutory ruling, arising from a hearing.
(2) Final orders 
If no hearing is requested within 15 days of receipt of the notice of opportunity for hearing, the imposition of the penalty shall constitute a final and unappealable determination. If the Secretary reviews the determination or order, the Secretary may affirm, modify, or reverse that determination or order. If the Secretary does not review the determination or order within 90 days of the issuance of the determination or order, the determination or order shall be final.
(3) Factors in determining amount of penalty 
In determining the amount of a penalty under subsection (a) of this section, consideration shall be given to such factors as the gravity of the offense, any history of prior offenses (including those before December 15, 1989), ability to pay the penalty, injury to the public, benefits received, deterrence of future violations, and such other factors as the Secretary may determine in regulations to be appropriate.
(4) Reviewability of imposition of penalty 
The Secretarys determination or order imposing a penalty under subsection (a) of this section shall not be subject to review, except as provided in subsection (d) of this section.
(d) Judicial review of agency determination 

(1) In general 
After exhausting all administrative remedies established by the Secretary under subsection (c)(1) of this section, a mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity against whom the Secretary has imposed a civil money penalty under subsection (a) of this section may obtain a review of the penalty and such ancillary issues (such as any administrative sanctions under 24 C.F.R. parts 24 and 25) as may be addressed in the notice of determination to impose a penalty under subsection (c)(1)(A) of this section in the appropriate court of appeals of the United States, by filing in such court, within 20 days after the entry of such order or determination, a written petition praying that the Secretarys determination or order be modified or be set aside in whole or in part.
(2) Objections not raised in hearing 
The court shall not consider any objection that was not raised in the hearing conducted pursuant to subsection (c)(1) of this section unless a demonstration is made of extraordinary circumstances causing the failure to raise the objection. If any party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the court that additional evidence not presented at the hearing is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to present such evidence at the hearing, the court shall remand the matter to the Secretary for consideration of the additional evidence.
(3) Scope of review 
The decisions, findings, and determinations of the Secretary shall be reviewed pursuant to section 706 of title 5.
(4) Order to pay penalty 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any such review, the court shall have the power to order payment of the penalty imposed by the Secretary.
(e) Action to collect penalty 
If any mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity fails to comply with the Secretarys determination or order imposing a civil money penalty under subsection (a) of this section, after the determination or order is no longer subject to review as provided by subsections (c)(1) and (d) of this section, the Secretary may request the Attorney General of the United States to bring an action in an appropriate United States district court to obtain a monetary judgment against the mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity and such other relief as may be available. The monetary judgment may, in the courts discretion, include the attorneys fees and other expenses incurred by the United States in connection with the action. In an action under this subsection, the validity and appropriateness of the Secretarys determination or order imposing the penalty shall not be subject to review.
(f) Settlement by Secretary 
The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit any civil money penalty which may be, or has been, imposed under this section.
(g) “Knowingly” defined 
The term knowingly means having actual knowledge of or acting with deliberate ignorance of or reckless disregard for the prohibitions under this section.
(h) Regulations 
The Secretary shall issue such regulations as the Secretary deems appropriate to implement this section.
(i) Deposit of penalties in insurance funds 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all civil money penalties collected under this section shall be deposited in the appropriate insurance fund or funds established under this chapter, as determined by the Secretary.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “this”.
[2] So in original. The word “a” probably should not appear.

12 USC 1735f15 - Civil money penalties against multifamily mortgagors

(a) In general 
The penalties set forth in this section shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty, and may be imposed whether or not the Secretary imposes other administrative sanctions. The Secretary may not impose penalties under this section for violations a material cause of which are the failure of the Department, an agent of the Department, or a public housing agency to comply with existing agreements.
(b) Penalty for violation of agreement as condition of transfer of physical assets, flexible subsidy loan, capital improvement loan, modification of mortgage terms, or workout agreement 

(1) Authority 
Whenever a mortgagor of property that includes 5 or more living units and that has a mortgage insured, co-insured, or held pursuant to this chapter, who has agreed in writing, as a condition of a transfer of physical assets, a flexible subsidy loan, a capital improvement loan, a modification of the mortgage terms, or a workout agreement, to use nonproject income to make cash contributions for payments due under the note and mortgage, for payments to the reserve for replacements, to restore the project to good physical condition, or to pay other project liabilities, knowingly and materially fails to comply with any of these commitments, the Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on that mortgagor, on a general partner of a partnership mortgagor, or on any officer or director of a corporate mortgagor in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(2) Amount of penalty 
The amount of the penalty, as determined by the Secretary, for a violation of this subsection may not exceed the amount of the loss the Secretary would experience at a foreclosure sale, or a sale after foreclosure, of the property involved.
(c) Other violations 

(1) (A) Liable parties 

(A) (A) Liable parties 
The Secretary may also impose a civil money penalty under this section on
(i) any mortgagor of a property that includes 5 or more living units and that has a mortgage insured, coinsured, or held pursuant to this chapter;
(ii) any general partner of a partnership mortgagor of such property;
(iii) any officer or director of a corporate mortgagor;
(iv) any agent employed to manage the property that has an identity of interest with the mortgagor, with the general partner of a partnership mortgagor, or with any officer or director of a corporate mortgagor of such property; or
(v) any member of a limited liability company that is the mortgagor of such property or is the general partner of a limited partnership mortgagor or is a partner of a general partnership mortgagor.
(B) Violations 
A penalty may be imposed under this section upon any liable party under subparagraph (A) that knowingly and materially takes any of the following actions:
(i) Conveyance, transfer, or encumbrance of any of the mortgaged property, or permitting the conveyance, transfer, or encumbrance of such property, without the prior written approval of the Secretary.
(ii) Assignment, transfer, disposition, or encumbrance of any personal property of the project, including rents, other revenues, or contract rights, or paying out any funds, except for reasonable operating expenses and necessary repairs, without the prior written approval of the Secretary.
(iii) Conveyance, assignment, or transfer of any beneficial interest in any trust holding title to the property, or the interest of any general partner in a partnership owning the property, or any right to manage or receive the rents and profits from the mortgaged property, without the prior written approval of the Secretary.
(iv) Remodeling, adding to, reconstructing, or demolishing any part of the mortgaged property or subtracting from any real or personal property of the project, without the prior written approval of the Secretary.
(v) Requiring, as a condition of the occupancy or leasing of any unit in the project, any consideration or deposit other than the prepayment of the first months rent, plus a security deposit in an amount not in excess of 1 months rent, to guarantee the performance of the covenants of the lease.
(vi) Not holding any funds collected as security deposits separate and apart from all other funds of the project in a trust account, the amount of which at all times equals or exceeds the aggregate of all outstanding obligations under the account.
(vii) Payment for services, supplies, or materials which exceeds $500 and substantially exceeds the amount ordinarily paid for such services, supplies, or materials in the area where the services are rendered or the supplies or materials furnished.
(viii) Failure to maintain at any time the mortgaged property, equipment, buildings, plans, offices, apparatus, devices, books, contracts, records, documents, and other related papers (including failure to keep copies of all written contracts or other instruments which affect the mortgaged property) in reasonable condition for proper audit and for examination and inspection at any reasonable time by the Secretary or any duly authorized agents of the Secretary.
(ix) Failure to maintain the books and accounts of the operations of the mortgaged property and of the project in accordance with requirements prescribed by the Secretary.
(x) Failure to furnish the Secretary, by the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the first day after the completion of each fiscal year (unless the Secretary has approved an extension of the 90-day period in writing), with a complete annual financial report, in accordance with requirements prescribed by the Secretary, including requirements that the report be
(I) based upon an examination of the books and records of the mortgagor;
(II) prepared and certified to by an independent public accountant or a certified public accountant (unless the Secretary has waived this requirement in writing); and
(III) certified to by the mortgagor or an authorized representative of the mortgagor.

The Secretary shall approve an extension where the mortgagor demonstrates that failure to comply with this clause is due to events beyond the control of the mortgagor.

(xi) At the request of the Secretary, the agents of the Secretary, the employees of the Secretary, or the attorneys of the Secretary, failure to furnish monthly occupancy reports or failure to provide specific answers to questions upon which information is sought relative to income, assets, liabilities, contracts, the operation and condition of the property, or the status of the mortgage.
(xii) Failure to make promptly all payments due under the note and mortgage, including mortgage insurance premiums, tax and insurance escrow payments, and payments to the reserve for replacements when there is adequate project income available to make such payments.
(xiii) Failure to maintain the premises, accommodations, any living unit in the project, and the grounds and equipment appurtenant thereto in good repair and condition in accordance with regulations and requirements of the Secretary, except that nothing in this clause shall have the effect of altering the provisions of an existing regulatory agreement or federally insured mortgage on the property.
(xiv) Failure, by a mortgagor, a general partner of a partnership mortgagor, or an officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, to provide management for the project that is acceptable to the Secretary pursuant to regulations and requirements of the Secretary.
(xv) Failure to provide access to the books, records, and accounts related to the operations of the mortgaged property and of the project.

The pay out of surplus cash, as defined by and provided for in the regulatory agreement, shall not constitute a violation of this subsection.

(2) Amount of penalty 
A penalty imposed for a violation under this subsection, as determined by the Secretary, may not exceed $25,000.
(d) Agency procedures 

(1) Establishment 
The Secretary shall establish standards and procedures governing the imposition of civil money penalties under subsections (b) and (c) of this section. These standards and procedures
(A) shall provide for the Secretary or other department official (such as the Assistant Secretary for Housing) to make the determination to impose a penalty;
(B) shall provide for the imposition of a penalty only after the mortgagor, general partner of a partnership mortgagor, officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, or identity of interest agent employed to manage the property has been given an opportunity for a hearing on the record; and
(C) may provide for review by the Secretary of any determination or order, or interlocutory ruling, arising from a hearing.
(2) Final orders 
If no hearing is requested within 15 days of receipt of the notice of opportunity for hearing, the imposition of the penalty shall constitute a final and unappealable determination. If the Secretary reviews the determination or order, the Secretary may affirm, modify, or reverse that determination or order. If the Secretary does not review the determination or order within 90 days of the issuance of the determination or order, the determination or order shall be final.
(3) Factors in determining amount of penalty 
In determining the amount of a penalty under subsection (b) or (c) of this section, consideration shall be given to such factors as the gravity of the offense, any history of prior offenses (including offenses occurring before December 15, 1989), ability to pay the penalty, injury to the tenants, injury to the public, benefits received, deterrence of future violations, and such other factors as the Secretary may determine in regulations to be appropriate.
(4) Reviewability of imposition of penalty 
The Secretarys determination or order imposing a penalty under subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall not be subject to review, except as provided in subsection (e) of this section.
(5) Payment of penalty 
No payment of a civil money penalty levied under this section shall be payable out of project income.
(e) Judicial review of agency determination 

(1) In general 
After exhausting all administrative remedies established by the Secretary under subsection (d)(1) of this section, an entity or person against whom the Secretary has imposed a civil money penalty under subsection (b) or (c) of this section may obtain a review of the penalty and such ancillary issues as may be addressed in the notice of determination to impose a penalty under subsection (d)(1)(A) of this section in the appropriate court of appeals of the United States, by filing in such court, within 20 days after the entry of such order or determination, a written petition praying that the Secretarys order or determination be modified or be set aside in whole or in part.
(2) Objections not raised in hearing 
The court shall not consider any objection that was not raised in the hearing conducted pursuant to subsection (d)(1) of this section unless a demonstration is made of extraordinary circumstances causing the failure to raise the objection. If any party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the court that additional evidence not presented at such hearing is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to present such evidence at the hearing, the court shall remand the matter to the Secretary for consideration of such additional evidence.
(3) Scope of review 
The decisions, findings, and determinations of the Secretary shall be reviewed pursuant to section 706 of title 5.
(4) Order to pay penalty 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any such review, the court shall have the power to order payment of the penalty imposed by the Secretary.
(f) Civil money penalties against multifamily mortgagors, general partners of partnership mortgagors, officers and directors of corporate mortgagors, and certain managing agents 
If a mortgagor, general partner of a partnership mortgagor, officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, or identity of interest agent employed to manage the property fails to comply with the Secretarys determination or order imposing a civil money penalty under subsection (b) or (c) of this section, after the determination or order is no longer subject to review as provided by subsections (d)(1) and (e) of this section, the Secretary may request the Attorney General of the United States to bring an action in an appropriate United States district court to obtain a monetary judgment against the mortgagor, general partner of a partnership mortgagor, officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, or identity of interest agent employed to manage the property and such other relief as may be available. The monetary judgment may, in the courts discretion, include the attorneys fees and other expenses incurred by the United States in connection with the action. In an action under this subsection, the validity and appropriateness of the Secretarys determination or order imposing the penalty shall not be subject to review.
(g) Settlement by Secretary 
The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit any civil money penalty which may be, or has been, imposed under this section.
(h) “Knowingly” defined 
The term knowingly means having actual knowledge of or acting with deliberate ignorance of or reckless disregard for the prohibitions under this section.
(i) Regulations 
The Secretary shall issue such regulations as the Secretary deems appropriate to implement this section.
(j) Deposit of penalties in insurance funds 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all civil money penalties collected under this section shall be deposited in the fund established under section 1715z–1a (j) of this title.
(k) Identity of interest managing agent 
In this section, the terms agent employed to manage the property that has an identity of interest and identity of interest agent mean an entity
(1) that has management responsibility for a project;
(2) in which the ownership entity, including its general partner or partners (if applicable) and its officers or directors (if applicable), has an ownership interest; and
(3) over which the ownership entity exerts effective control.

12 USC 1735f16 - Annual audited financial statements

With respect to fiscal year 1989 and for every fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary shall make available to the public a financial statement of the insurance funds established under this chapter that will present their financial condition on a cash and accrual basis, consistent with generally accepted accounting principles. Each financial statement shall be audited by an independent accounting firm selected by the Secretary and the results of such audit shall be made available to the public.

12 USC 1735f17 - Examinations and sanctions for certain violations

(a) Examinations and sanctions 

(1) In connection with any examination of a mortgagee approved by the Secretary pursuant to this chapter, the Secretary shall assess the performance of the mortgagee in meeting the requirements of sections 1709 (t),1 1715n (a)(7)(B),1 and 1735f–13 of this title. Where the Secretary determines that a mortgagee is not in compliance with these requirements, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Mortgagee Review Board for investigation and appropriate action.
(2) Not later than 180 days after November 28, 1990, the Secretary shall by notice establish a procedure under which
(A)  any person may file a request that the Secretary determine whether a mortgagee is in compliance with sections 1709 (t),1 1715n (a)(7)(B),1 and 1735f–13 of this title,
(B)  the Secretary shall inform the person of the disposition of the request, and
(C)  the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the disposition of any case referred by the Secretary to the Mortgagee Review Board. Such procedures shall be established by regulation under section 553 of title 5. The Secretary shall issue regulations based on the initial notice before the expiration of the 8-month period beginning on the date of the notice.
(3) Omitted.
(b) Monitoring and review 
The Secretary shall continually monitor and undertake a thorough review of the implementation of this section to assess the impact of the section on the lending practices of mortgagees and the availability of mortgages insured under this chapter. The Secretary shall monitor the availability of credit, the number and type of lenders participating in the program, whether there is any change in the composition or practices of such lenders and any other factors the Secretary considers appropriate. The Secretary shall submit to the Congress findings detailing the results of such monitoring and review not later than 18 months after November 28, 1990.
[1] See References in Text note below.

12 USC 1735f18 - Information regarding early defaults and foreclosures on insured mortgages

(a) In general 
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall collect and maintain information regarding early defaults on mortgages as provided under this section. The Secretary shall make such information available for public inspection upon request. Information shall be collected quarterly with respect to each applicable collection period (as such term is defined in subsection (c) of this section) and shall be available for inspection not more than 30 days after the conclusion of the calendar quarter relating to each such period. Information shall first be made available under this section for the applicable collection period relating to the first calendar quarter ending more than 180 days after November 28, 1990.
(b) Contents 

(1) Mortgage lender analysis 
Information collected under this section shall include, for each lender originating mortgages during the applicable collection period that are insured pursuant to section 1709 of this title and secured by property in a designated census tract, the following information with respect to such mortgages:
(A) The name of the lender and the number of each designated census tract in which the lender originated 1 or more such mortgages during the applicable collection period.
(B) The total number of such mortgages originated by such lender during the applicable collection period in each designated census tract and the number of mortgages originated each year in each designated census tract.
(C) The total number of defaults and foreclosures on such mortgages during the applicable collection period in each designated census tract and the number of defaults and foreclosures in each designated census tract in each year of the period.
(D) For each designated census tract, the percentage of such lenders total insured mortgages originated during each year of the applicable collection period (with respect to properties within such census tract) on which defaults or foreclosures have occurred during the applicable collection period.
(E) The total of all such originations, defaults, and foreclosures on insured mortgages originated by such lender during the applicable collection period for all designated census tracts and the percentage of the total number of such lenders insured mortgage originations on which defaults or foreclosures have occurred during the applicable collection period.
(2) Other information 
Information collected under this section shall also include the following:
(A) For each lender referred to under paragraph (1), the total number of insured mortgages originated by the lender secured by properties not located in a designated census tract, the total number of defaults and foreclosures on such mortgages, and the percentage of such mortgages originated on which defaults or foreclosures occurred during the applicable collection period.
(B) For each designated census tract, the total number of mortgages originated during the applicable collection period that are insured pursuant to section 1709 of this title, the number of defaults and foreclosures occurring on such mortgages during such period, and the percentage of the total insured mortgage originations during the period on which defaults or foreclosures occurred.
(c) Annual reports 
The Secretary shall submit to the Congress annually a report containing the information collected and maintained under subsection (b) of this section for the relevant year.
(d) Definitions 
For purposes of this section:
(1) Applicable collection period 
The term applicable collection period means the 5-year period ending on the last day of the calendar quarter for which information under this section is collected.
(2) Designated census tract 
The term designated census tract means a census tract located within a metropolitan statistical area, as defined pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary of Commerce.

12 USC 1735f19 - Partial payment of claims on defaulted mortgages and in connection with mortgage restructuring

(a) Defaulted mortgages 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the Secretary is requested to accept assignment of a mortgage insured by the Secretary that covers a multifamily housing project (as such term is defined in section 1701z–11 (b) of this title) or a health care facility (including a nursing home, intermediate care facility, or board and care home (as those terms are defined in section 1715w of this title), a hospital (as that term is defined in section 1715z–7 of this title), or a group practice facility (as that term is defined in section 1749aaa–5 of this title)) and the Secretary determines that partial payment would be less costly to the Federal Government than other reasonable alternatives for maintaining the low-income character of the project, or for keeping the health care facility operational to serve community needs, the Secretary may request the mortgagee, in lieu of assignment, to
(1) accept partial payment of the claim under the mortgage insurance contract; and
(2) recast the mortgage, under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may determine.
(b) Existing mortgages 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary, in connection with a mortgage restructuring under section 514 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997, may make a one time, nondefault partial or full payment of claim under one or more mortgage insurance contracts, which shall include a determination by the Secretary or the participating administrative entity, in accordance with the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997, of the market value of the project and a restructuring of the mortgage, under such terms and conditions as are permitted by section 517(a) of such Act.
(c) Repayment 
As a condition to a partial claim payment under this section, the mortgagor shall agree to repay to the Secretary the amount of such payment and such obligation shall be secured by a second mortgage on the property on such terms and conditions as the Secretary may determine.

12 USC 1735f20 - Authorization of appropriations for General and Special Risk Insurance Funds

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 1994 and 1995, to be allocated in any manner that the Secretary determines appropriate, for the following costs incurred in conjunction with programs authorized under the General Insurance Fund, as provided by section 1735c of this title, and the Special Risk Insurance Fund, as provided by section 1715z–3 of this title:
(1) The cost to the Government, as defined in section 661a1 of title 2, of new insurance commitments.
(2) The cost to the Government, as defined in section 661a1 of title 2, of modifications to existing loans, loan guarantees, or insurance commitments.
(3) The cost to the Government, as defined in section 661a1 of title 2, of loans provided under section 1701z–11 (f) of this title.
(4) The costs of the rehabilitation of multifamily housing projects (as defined in section 1701z–11 (b) of this title) upon disposition by the Secretary.
[1] See References in Text note below.

12 USC 1735g - Mortgage relief for homeowners who are unemployed as result of closing of Federal installation

(a) Definitions 
For the purposes of this section
(1) The term mortgage means a mortgage which
(A)  is insured under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], or
(B)  secures a home loan guaranteed or insured under the Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 or chapter 37 of title 38.
(2) The term Federal mortgage agency means
(A) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development when used in connection with mortgages insured under the National Housing Act, and
(B) the Secretary of Veterans Affairs when used in connection with mortgages securing home loans guaranteed or insured under the Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 or chapter 37 of title 38.
(3) The term distressed mortgagor means an individual who
(A) was employed by the Federal Government at, or was assigned as a serviceman to, a military base or other Federal installation and whose employment or service at such base or installation was terminated subsequent to November 1, 1964, as the result of the closing (in whole or in part) of such base or installation; and
(B) is the owner-occupant of a dwelling situated at or near such base or installation and upon which there is a mortgage securing a loan which is in default because of the inability of such individual to make payments due under such mortgage.
(b) Application for, issuance and expiration of certificate of moratorium 

(1) Any distressed mortgagor, for the purpose of avoiding foreclosure of his mortgage, may apply to the appropriate Federal mortgage agency for a determination that suspension of his obligation to make payments due under such mortgage during a temporary period is necessary in order to avoid such foreclosure.
(2) Upon receipt of an application made under this subsection by a distressed mortgagor, the Federal mortgage agency shall issue to such mortgagor a certificate of moratorium if it determines, after consultation with the interested mortgagee, that such action is necessary to avoid foreclosure.
(3) Prior to the issuance to any distressed mortgagor of a certificate of moratorium under paragraph (2), the Federal mortgage agency, the mortgagor, and the mortgagee shall enter into a binding agreement under which
(A) the mortgagor will be required to make payments to such agency, after the expiration of such certificate, in an aggregate amount equal to the amount paid by such agency on behalf of such mortgagor as provided in subsection (c) of this section, together with interest thereon at a rate not to exceed the rate provided in the mortgage; the manner and time in which such payments shall be made to be determined by the Federal mortgage agency having due regard for the purposes sought to be achieved by this section; and
(B) the Federal mortgage agency will be subrogated to the rights of the mortgagee to the extent of payments made pursuant to such certificate, which rights, however, shall be subject to the prior right of the mortgagee to receive the full amount payable under the mortgage.
(4) Any certificate of moratorium issued under this subsection shall expire on whichever of the following dates is the earliest
(A) two years from the date on which such certificate was issued;
(B) thirty days after the date on which the mortgagor gives notice in writing to the Federal mortgage agency that he is able to resume his obligation to make payments due under his mortgage; or
(C) thirty days after the date on which the Federal mortgage agency determines that the mortgagor to whom such certificate was issued has ceased to be a distressed mortgagor as defined in subsection (a)(3) of this section.
(c) Notice to mortgagee of assumption of mortgagor’s obligation by agency; amount of payments; suspension of payments by mortgagor; prohibition against further action to enforce or collect payments; liability of mortgagor upon expiration of certificate; notice of expiration of certificate 

(1) Whenever a Federal mortgage agency issues a certificate of moratorium to any distressed mortgagor with respect to any mortgage, it shall transmit to the mortgagee a copy of such certificate, together with a notice stating that, while such certificate is in effect, such agency will assume the obligation of such mortgagor to make payments due under the mortgage.
(2) Payments made by any Federal mortgage agency pursuant to a certificate of moratorium issued under this section with respect to the mortgage of any distressed mortgagor may include, in addition to the payments referred to in paragraph (1), an amount equal to the unpaid payments under such mortgage prior to the issuance of such certificate, plus a reasonable allowance for foreclosure costs actually paid by the mortgagee if a foreclosure action was dismissed as a result of the issuance of a moratorium certificate. Payments by the Federal mortgage agency may also include payments of taxes and insurance premiums on the mortgaged property as deemed necessary when these items are not provided for through payments to a tax and insurance account held by the interested mortgagee.
(3) While any certificate of moratorium issued under this section is in effect with respect to the mortgage of any distressed mortgagor, no further payments due under the mortgage shall be required of such mortgagor, and no action (legal or otherwise) shall be taken or maintained by the mortgagee to enforce or collect such payments. Upon the expiration of such certificate, the mortgagor shall again be liable for the payment of all amounts due under the mortgage in accordance with its terms.
(4) Each Federal mortgage agency shall give prompt notice in writing to the interested mortgagor and mortgagee of the expiration of any certificate of moratorium issued by it under this section.
(d) Regulations 
The Federal mortgage agencies are authorized to issue such individual and joint regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section and to insure the uniform administration thereof.
(e) Fund for extending financial assistance to distressed mortgagors 
There shall be in the Treasury
(1)  a fund which shall be available to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for the purpose of extending financial assistance in behalf of distressed mortgagors as provided in subsection (c) of this section, and for paying administrative expenses incurred in connection with such assistance, and
(2)  a fund which shall be available to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for the same purpose, except administrative expenses. The capital of each such fund shall consist of such sums as may, from time to time, be appropriated thereto, and any sums so appropriated shall remain available until expended. Receipts arising from the programs of assistance under subsection (c) of this section shall be credited to the funds from which such assistance was extended. Moneys in either of such funds not needed for current operations, as determined by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, as the case may be, shall be invested in bonds or other obligations of the United States, or paid into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

12 USC 1735h - Repealed. Pub. L. 89754, title X, 1013(j), Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1292

Section, Pub. L. 89–117, title I, § 108(a)(d), (f), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 460, 461, provided for acquisition of property at or near military bases which have been ordered to be closed. See section 3374 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.