TITLE 10 - US CODE - CHAPTER 37 - GENERAL SERVICE REQUIREMENTS

10 USC 651 - Members: required service

(a) Each person who becomes a member of an armed force, other than a person deferred under the next to the last sentence of section 6(d)(1) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 456 (d)(1)) shall serve in the armed forces for a total initial period of not less than six years nor more than eight years, as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense for the armed forces under his jurisdiction and by the Secretary of Homeland Security for the Coast Guard when it is not operating as service in the Navy, unless such person is sooner discharged under such regulations because of personal hardship. Any part of such service that is not active duty or that is active duty for training shall be performed in a reserve component.
(b) Each person covered by subsection (a) who is not a Reserve, and who is qualified, shall, upon his release from active duty, be transferred to a reserve component of his armed force to complete the service required by subsection (a).
(c) 
(1) For the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary may waive the initial period of required service otherwise established pursuant to subsection (a) in the case of the initial appointment of a commissioned officer in a critically short health professional specialty specified by the Secretary for purposes of this subsection.

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(2) The minimum period of obligated service for an officer under a waiver under this subsection shall be the greater of
(A) two years; or
(B) in the case of an officer who has accepted an accession bonus or executed a contract or agreement for the multiyear receipt of special pay for service in the armed forces, the period of obligated service specified in such contract or agreement.

10 USC 652 - Notice to Congress of proposed changes in units, assignments, etc. to which female members may be assigned

(a) Rule for Ground Combat Personnel Policy.— 

(1) If the Secretary of Defense proposes to make any change described in paragraph (2)(A) or (2)(B) to the ground combat exclusion policy or proposes to make a change described in paragraph (2)(C), the Secretary shall, before any such change is implemented, submit to Congress a report providing notice of the proposed change. Such a change may then be implemented only after the end of a period of 30 days of continuous session of Congress (excluding any day on which either House of Congress is not in session) following the date on which the report is received.
(2) A change referred to in paragraph (1) is a change that
(A) closes to female members of the armed forces any category of unit or position that at that time is open to service by such members;
(B) opens to service by female members of the armed forces any category of unit or position that at that time is closed to service by such members; or
(C) opens or closes to the assignment of female members of the armed forces any military career designator as described in paragraph (6).
(3) The Secretary shall include in any report under paragraph (1)
(A) a detailed description of, and justification for, the proposed change; and
(B) a detailed analysis of legal implication of the proposed change with respect to the constitutionality of the application of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) to males only.
(4) In this subsection, the term ground combat exclusion policy means the military personnel policies of the Department of Defense and the military departments, as in effect on October 1, 1994, by which female members of the armed forces are restricted from assignment to units and positions below brigade level whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground.
(5) For purposes of this subsection, the continuity of a session of Congress is broken only by an adjournment of the Congress sine die.
(6) For purposes of this subsection, a military career designator is one that is related to military operations on the ground as of May 18, 2005, and applies
(A) for enlisted members and warrant officers, to military occupational specialties, specialty codes, enlisted designators, enlisted classification codes, additional skill identifiers, and special qualification identifiers; and
(B) for officers (other than warrant officers), to officer areas of concentration, occupational specialties, specialty codes, designators, additional skill identifiers, and special qualification identifiers.
(b) Other Personnel Policy Changes.— 

(1) Except in a case covered by section 6035 of this title or by subsection (a), whenever the Secretary of Defense proposes to make a change to military personnel policies described in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall, not less than 30 days before such change is implemented, submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives notice, in writing, of the proposed change.
(2) Paragraph (1) applies to a proposed military personnel policy change, other than a policy change covered by subsection (a), that would make available to female members of the armed forces assignment to any of the following that, as of the date of the proposed change, is closed to such assignment:
(A) Any type of unit not covered by subsection (a).
(B) Any class of combat vessel.
(C) Any type of combat platform.

10 USC 653 - Minimum service requirement for certain flight crew positions

(a) Pilots.— 
The minimum service obligation of any member who successfully completes training in the armed forces as a pilot shall be 8 years, if the member is trained to fly fixed-wing jet aircraft, or 6 years, if the member is trained to fly any other type of aircraft.
(b) Navigators and Naval Flight Officers.— 
The minimum service obligation of any member who successfully completes training in the armed forces as a navigator or naval flight officer shall be 6 years.
(c) Definition.— 
In this section, the term service obligation means the period of active duty or, in the case of a member of a reserve component who completed flight training in an active duty for training status as a member of a reserve component, the period of service in an active status in the Selected Reserve required to be served after
(1) completion of undergraduate pilot training, in the case of training as a pilot;
(2) completion of undergraduate navigator training, in the case of training as a navigator; or
(3) completion of undergraduate training as a naval flight officer, in the case of training as a naval flight officer.

10 USC 654 - Policy concerning homosexuality in the armed forces

(a) Findings.— 
Congress makes the following findings:
(1) Section 8 of article I of the Constitution of the United States commits exclusively to the Congress the powers to raise and support armies, provide and maintain a Navy, and make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.
(2) There is no constitutional right to serve in the armed forces.
(3) Pursuant to the powers conferred by section 8 of article I of the Constitution of the United States, it lies within the discretion of the Congress to establish qualifications for and conditions of service in the armed forces.
(4) The primary purpose of the armed forces is to prepare for and to prevail in combat should the need arise.
(5) The conduct of military operations requires members of the armed forces to make extraordinary sacrifices, including the ultimate sacrifice, in order to provide for the common defense.
(6) Success in combat requires military units that are characterized by high morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion.
(7) One of the most critical elements in combat capability is unit cohesion, that is, the bonds of trust among individual service members that make the combat effectiveness of a military unit greater than the sum of the combat effectiveness of the individual unit members.
(8) Military life is fundamentally different from civilian life in that
(A) the extraordinary responsibilities of the armed forces, the unique conditions of military service, and the critical role of unit cohesion, require that the military community, while subject to civilian control, exist as a specialized society; and
(B) the military society is characterized by its own laws, rules, customs, and traditions, including numerous restrictions on personal behavior, that would not be acceptable in civilian society.
(9) The standards of conduct for members of the armed forces regulate a members life for 24 hours each day beginning at the moment the member enters military status and not ending until that person is discharged or otherwise separated from the armed forces.
(10) Those standards of conduct, including the Uniform Code of Military Justice, apply to a member of the armed forces at all times that the member has a military status, whether the member is on base or off base, and whether the member is on duty or off duty.
(11) The pervasive application of the standards of conduct is necessary because members of the armed forces must be ready at all times for worldwide deployment to a combat environment.
(12) The worldwide deployment of United States military forces, the international responsibilities of the United States, and the potential for involvement of the armed forces in actual combat routinely make it necessary for members of the armed forces involuntarily to accept living conditions and working conditions that are often spartan, primitive, and characterized by forced intimacy with little or no privacy.
(13) The prohibition against homosexual conduct is a longstanding element of military law that continues to be necessary in the unique circumstances of military service.
(14) The armed forces must maintain personnel policies that exclude persons whose presence in the armed forces would create an unacceptable risk to the armed forces high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion that are the essence of military capability.
(15) The presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion that are the essence of military capability.
(b) Policy.— 
A member of the armed forces shall be separated from the armed forces under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense if one or more of the following findings is made and approved in accordance with procedures set forth in such regulations:
(1) That the member has engaged in, attempted to engage in, or solicited another to engage in a homosexual act or acts unless there are further findings, made and approved in accordance with procedures set forth in such regulations, that the member has demonstrated that
(A) such conduct is a departure from the members usual and customary behavior;
(B) such conduct, under all the circumstances, is unlikely to recur;
(C) such conduct was not accomplished by use of force, coercion, or intimidation;
(D) under the particular circumstances of the case, the members continued presence in the armed forces is consistent with the interests of the armed forces in proper discipline, good order, and morale; and
(E) the member does not have a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts.
(2) That the member has stated that he or she is a homosexual or bisexual, or words to that effect, unless there is a further finding, made and approved in accordance with procedures set forth in the regulations, that the member has demonstrated that he or she is not a person who engages in, attempts to engage in, has a propensity to engage in, or intends to engage in homosexual acts.
(3) That the member has married or attempted to marry a person known to be of the same biological sex.
(c) Entry Standards and Documents.— 

(1) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the standards for enlistment and appointment of members of the armed forces reflect the policies set forth in subsection (b).
(2) The documents used to effectuate the enlistment or appointment of a person as a member of the armed forces shall set forth the provisions of subsection (b).
(d) Required Briefings.— 
The briefings that members of the armed forces receive upon entry into the armed forces and periodically thereafter under section 937 of this title (article 137 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice) shall include a detailed explanation of the applicable laws and regulations governing sexual conduct by members of the armed forces, including the policies prescribed under subsection (b).
(e) Rule of Construction.— 
Nothing in subsection (b) shall be construed to require that a member of the armed forces be processed for separation from the armed forces when a determination is made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense that
(1) the member engaged in conduct or made statements for the purpose of avoiding or terminating military service; and
(2) separation of the member would not be in the best interest of the armed forces.
(f) Definitions.— 
In this section:
(1) The term homosexual means a person, regardless of sex, who engages in, attempts to engage in, has a propensity to engage in, or intends to engage in homosexual acts, and includes the terms gay and lesbian.
(2) The term bisexual means a person who engages in, attempts to engage in, has a propensity to engage in, or intends to engage in homosexual and heterosexual acts.
(3) The term homosexual act means
(A) any bodily contact, actively undertaken or passively permitted, between members of the same sex for the purpose of satisfying sexual desires; and
(B) any bodily contact which a reasonable person would understand to demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in an act described in subparagraph (A).

10 USC 655 - Designation of persons having interest in status of a missing member

(a) The Secretary concerned shall, upon the enlistment or appointment of a person in the armed forces, require that the person specify in writing the person or persons, if any, other than that persons primary next of kin or immediate family, to whom information on the whereabouts and status of the member shall be provided if such whereabouts and status are investigated under chapter 76 of this title. The Secretary shall periodically, and whenever the member is deployed as part of a contingency operation or in other circumstances specified by the Secretary, require that such designation be reconfirmed, or modified, by the member.
(b) The Secretary concerned shall, upon the request of a member, permit the member to revise the person or persons specified by the member under subsection (a) at any time. Any such revision shall be in writing.