subpart vii - flexible marketing allotments for sugar

7 USC 1359aa - Definitions

In this subpart:
(1) Human consumption 
The term human consumption, when used in the context of a reference to sugar (whether in the form of sugar, in-process sugar, syrup, molasses, or in some other form) for human consumption, includes sugar for use in human food, beverages, or similar products.
(2) Mainland State 
The term mainland State means a State other than an offshore State.
(3) Market 

(A) In general 
The term market means to sell or otherwise dispose of in commerce in the United States.

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(B) Inclusions 
The term market includes
(i) the forfeiture of sugar under the loan program for sugar established under section 7272 of this title;
(ii) with respect to any integrated processor and refiner, the movement of raw cane sugar into the refining process; and
(iii) the sale of sugar for the production of ethanol or other bioenergy product, if the disposition of the sugar is administered by the Secretary under section 8110 of this title.
(C) Marketing year 
Forfeited sugar described in subparagraph (B)(i) shall be considered to have been marketed during the crop year for which a loan is made under the loan program described in that subparagraph.
(4) Offshore State 
The term offshore State means a sugarcane producing State located outside of the continental United States.
(5) State 
Notwithstanding section 1301 of this title, the term State means
(A) a State;
(B) the District of Columbia; and
(C) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

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(6) United States 
The term United States, when used in a geographical sense, means all of the States.

7 USC 1359bb - Flexible marketing allotments for sugar

(a) Sugar estimates 

(1) In general 
Not later than August 1 before the beginning of each of the 2008 through 2012 crop years for sugarcane and sugar beets, the Secretary shall estimate
(A) the quantity of sugar that will be subject to human consumption in the United States during the crop year;
(B) the quantity of sugar that would provide for reasonable carryover stocks;
(C) the quantity of sugar that will be available from carry-in stocks for human consumption in the United States during the crop year;
(D) the quantity of sugar that will be available from the domestic processing of sugarcane, sugar beets, and in-process beet sugar; and
(E) the quantity of sugars, syrups, and molasses that will be imported for human consumption or to be used for the extraction of sugar for human consumption in the United States during the crop year, whether the articles are under a tariff-rate quota or are in excess or outside of a tariff-rate quota.
(2) Exclusion 
The estimates under this subsection shall not apply to sugar imported for the production of polyhydric alcohol or to any sugar refined and reexported in refined form or in products containing sugar.
(3) Reestimates 
The Secretary shall make reestimates of sugar consumption, stocks, production, and imports for a crop year as necessary, but not later than the beginning of each of the second through fourth quarters of the crop year.
(b) Sugar allotments 

(1) Establishment 
By the beginning of each crop year, the Secretary shall establish for that crop year appropriate allotments under section 1359cc of this title for the marketing by processors of sugar processed from sugar cane or sugar beets or in-process beet sugar (whether the sugar beets or in-process beet sugar was produced domestically or imported) at a level that is
(A) sufficient to maintain raw and refined sugar prices above forfeiture levels so that there will be no forfeitures of sugar to the Commodity Credit Corporation under the loan program for sugar established under section 7272 of this title; but
(B) not less than 85 percent of the estimated quantity of sugar for domestic human consumption for the crop year.
(2) Products 
The Secretary may include sugar products, the majority content of which is sucrose for human consumption, derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, molasses, or sugar in the allotments established under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines it to be appropriate for purposes of this subpart.
(c) Coverage of allotments 

(1) In general 
The marketing allotments under this subpart shall apply to the marketing by processors of sugar intended for domestic human consumption that has been processed from sugar cane, sugar beets, or in-process beet sugar, whether such sugar beets or in-process beet sugar was produced domestically or imported.
(2) Exceptions 
Consistent with the administration of marketing allotments for each of the 2002 through 2007 crop years, the marketing allotments shall not apply to sugar sold
(A) to facilitate the exportation of the sugar to a foreign country, except that the exports of sugar shall not be eligible to receive credits under reexport programs for refined sugar or sugar containing products administered by the Secretary;
(B) to enable another processor to fulfill an allocation established for that processor; or
(C) for uses other than domestic human consumption, except for the sale of sugar for the production of ethanol or other bioenergy if the disposition of the sugar is administered by the Secretary under section 8110 of this title.
(3) Requirement 
The sale of sugar described in paragraph (2)(B) shall be
(A) made prior to May 1; and
(B) reported to the Secretary.
(d) Prohibitions 

(1) In general 
During all or part of any crop year for which marketing allotments have been established, no processor of sugar beets or sugarcane shall market for domestic human consumption a quantity of sugar in excess of the allocation established for the processor, except
(A) to enable another processor to fulfill an allocation established for that other processor; or
(B) to facilitate the exportation of the sugar.
(2) Civil penalty 
Any processor who knowingly violates paragraph (1) shall be liable to the Commodity Credit Corporation for a civil penalty in an amount equal to 3 times the United States market value, at the time of the commission of the violation, of that quantity of sugar involved in the violation.

7 USC 1359cc - Establishment of flexible marketing allotments

(a) In general 
The Secretary shall establish flexible marketing allotments for sugar for any crop year in which the allotments are required under section 1359bb (b) of this title in accordance with this section.
(b) Overall allotment quantity 

(1) In general 
The Secretary shall establish the overall quantity of sugar to be allotted for the crop year (referred to in this subpart as the overall allotment quantity) at a level that is
(A) sufficient to maintain raw and refined sugar prices above forfeiture levels to avoid forfeiture of sugar to the Commodity Credit Corporation; but
(B) not less than a quantity equal to 85 percent of the estimated quantity of sugar for domestic human consumption for the crop year.
(2) Adjustment 
Subject to paragraph (1), the Secretary shall adjust the overall allotment quantity to maintain
(A) raw and refined sugar prices above forfeiture levels to avoid the forfeiture of sugar to the Commodity Credit Corporation; and
(B) adequate supplies of raw and refined sugar in the domestic market.
(c) Marketing allotment for sugar derived from sugar beets and sugar derived from sugarcane 
The overall allotment quantity for the crop year shall be allotted between
(1) sugar derived from sugar beets by establishing a marketing allotment for a crop year at a quantity equal to the product of multiplying the overall allotment quantity for the crop year by 54.35 percent; and
(2) sugar derived from sugarcane by establishing a marketing allotment for a crop year at a quantity equal to the product of multiplying the overall allotment quantity for the crop year by 45.65 percent.
(d) Filling cane sugar and beet sugar allotments 

(1) Cane sugar 
Each marketing allotment for cane sugar established under this section may only be filled with sugar processed from domestically grown sugarcane.
(2) Beet sugar 
Each marketing allotment for beet sugar established under this section may only be filled with sugar domestically processed from sugar beets or in-process beet sugar.
(e) State cane sugar allotments 

(1) In general 
The allotment for sugar derived from sugarcane shall be further allotted, among the States in the United States in which sugarcane is produced, after a hearing (if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers) and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, in a fair and equitable manner as provided in this subsection and section 1359dd (b)(1)(D) of this title.
(2) Offshore allotment 

(A) Collectively 
Prior to the allotment of sugar derived from sugarcane to any other State, 325,000 short tons, raw value shall be allotted to the offshore States.
(B) Individually 
The collective offshore State allotment provided for under subparagraph (A) shall be further allotted among the offshore States in which sugarcane is produced, after a hearing (if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers) and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, in a fair and equitable manner on the basis of
(i) past marketings of sugar, based on the average of the 2 highest years of production of raw cane sugar from the 1996 through 2000 crops;
(ii) the ability of processors to market the sugar covered under the allotments for the crop year; and
(iii) past processings of sugar from sugarcane, based on the 3-year average of the 1998 through 2000 crop years.
(3) Mainland allotment 
The allotment for sugar derived from sugarcane, less the amount provided for under paragraph (2), shall be allotted among the mainland States in the United States in which sugarcane is produced, after a hearing (if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers) and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, in a fair and equitable manner on the basis of
(A) past marketings of sugar, based on the average of the 2 highest years of production of raw cane sugar from the 1996 through 2000 crops;
(B) the ability of processors to market the sugar covered under the allotments for the crop year; and
(C) past processings of sugar from sugarcane, based on the 3 crop years with the greatest processings (in the mainland States collectively) during the 1991 through 2000 crop years.
(f) Filling cane sugar allotments 
Except as provided in section 1359ee of this title, a State cane sugar allotment established under subsection (e) of this section for a crop year may be filled only with sugar processed from sugarcane grown in the State covered by the allotment.
(g) Adjustment of marketing allotments 

(1) Adjustments 

(A) In general 
Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall, based on reestimates under section 1359bb (a)(3) of this title, adjust upward or downward marketing allotments in a fair and equitable manner, as the Secretary determines appropriate, to reflect changes in estimated sugar consumption, stocks, production, or imports.
(B) Limitation 
In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary may not reduce the overall allotment quantity to a quantity of less than 85 percent of the estimated quantity of sugar for domestic human consumption for the crop year.
(2) Allocation to processors 
In the case of any increase or decrease in an allotment, each allocation to a processor of the allotment under section 1359dd of this title, and each proportionate share established with respect to the allotment under section 1359ff (c) of this title, shall be increased or decreased by the same percentage that the allotment is increased or decreased.
(3) Carry-over of reductions 
Whenever a marketing allotment for a crop year is required to be reduced during the crop year under this subsection, if, at the time of the reduction, the quantity of sugar marketed exceeds the processors reduced allocation, the allocation of an allotment next established for the processor shall be reduced by the quantity of the excess sugar marketed.

7 USC 1359dd - Allocation of marketing allotments

(a) Allocation to processors 
Whenever marketing allotments are established for a crop year under section 1359cc of this title, in order to afford all interested persons an equitable opportunity to market sugar under an allotment, the Secretary shall allocate each such allotment among the processors covered by the allotment.
(b) Hearing and notice 

(1) Cane sugar 

(A) In general 
The Secretary shall make allocations for cane sugar after a hearing, if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers, and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, in such manner and in such quantities as to provide a fair, efficient, and equitable distribution of the allocations under this paragraph. Each such allocation shall be subject to adjustment under section 1359cc (g) of this title.
(B) Multiple processor States 
Except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D), the Secretary shall allocate the allotment for cane sugar among multiple cane sugar processors in a single State based on
(i) past marketings of sugar, based on the average of the 2 highest years of production of raw cane sugar from among the 1996 through 2000 crops;
(ii) the ability of processors to market sugar covered by that portion of the allotment allocated for the crop year; and
(iii) past processings of sugar from sugarcane, based on the average of the 3 highest years of production during the 1996 through 2000 crop years.
(C) Talisman processing facility 
In the case of allotments under subparagraph (B) attributable to the operations of the Talisman processing facility before May 13, 2002, the Secretary shall allocate the allotment among processors in the State under subparagraph (A) in accordance with the agreements of March 25 and 26, 1999, between the affected processors and the Secretary of the Interior.
(D) Proportionate share States 
In the case of States subject to section 1359ff (c) of this title, the Secretary shall allocate the allotment for cane sugar among multiple cane sugar processors in a single State based on
(i) past marketings of sugar, based on the average of the 2 highest years of production of raw cane sugar from among the 1997 through 2001 crop years;
(ii) the ability of processors to market sugar covered by that portion of the allotments allocated for the crop year; and
(iii) past processings of sugar from sugarcane, based on the average of the 2 highest crop years of crop production during the 1997 through 2001 crop years.
(E) New entrants 

(i) In general Notwithstanding subparagraphs (B) and (D), the Secretary, on application of any processor that begins processing sugarcane on or after May 13, 2002, and after a hearing (if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers) and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, may provide the processor with an allocation that provides a fair, efficient and equitable distribution of the allocations from the allotment for the State in which the processor is located.
(ii) Proportionate share States In the case of proportionate share States, the Secretary shall establish proportionate shares in a quantity sufficient to produce the sugarcane required to satisfy the allocations.
(iii) Limitations The allotment for a new processor under this subparagraph shall not exceed
(I) in the case of the first crop year of operation of a new processor, 50,000 short tons (raw value); and
(II) in the case of each subsequent crop year of operation of the new processor, a quantity established by the Secretary in accordance with this subparagraph and the criteria described in subparagraph (B) or (D), as applicable.
(iv) New entrant States
(I) In general Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (C) of section 1359cc (e)(3) of this title, to accommodate an allocation under clause (i) to a new processor located in a new entrant mainland State, the Secretary shall provide the new entrant mainland State with an allotment.
(II) Effect on other allotments The allotment to any new entrant mainland State shall be subtracted, on a pro rata basis, from the allotments otherwise allotted to each mainland State under section 1359cc (e)(3) of this title.
(v) Adverse effects Before providing an initial processor allocation or State allotment to a new entrant processor or a new entrant State under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall take into consideration any adverse effects that the provision of the allocation or allotment may have on existing cane processors and producers in mainland States.
(vi) Ability to market Consistent with section 1359cc of this title and this section, any processor allocation or State allotment made to a new entrant processor or to a new entrant State under this subparagraph shall be provided only after the applicant processor, or the applicable processors in the State, have demonstrated the ability to process, produce, and market (including the transfer or delivery of the raw cane sugar to a refinery for further processing or marketing) raw cane sugar for the crop year for which the allotment is applicable.
(vii) Prohibition Not more than 1 processor allocation provided under this subparagraph may be applicable to any individual sugar processing facility.
(F) Transfer of ownership 
If a sugarcane processor is sold or otherwise transferred to another owner or is closed as part of an affiliated corporate group processing consolidation, the Secretary shall transfer the allotment allocation for the processor to the purchaser, new owner, successor in interest, or any remaining processor of an affiliated entity, as applicable, of the processor.
(2) Beet sugar 

(A) In general 
Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph and sections 1359cc (g), 1359ee (b), and 1359ff (b) of this title, the Secretary shall make allocations for beet sugar among beet sugar processors for each crop year that allotments are in effect on the basis of the adjusted weighted average quantity of beet sugar produced by the processors for each of the 1998 through 2000 crop years, as determined under this paragraph.
(B) Quantity 
The quantity of an allocation made for a beet sugar processor for a crop year under subparagraph (A) shall bear the same ratio to the quantity of allocations made for all beet sugar processors for the crop year as the adjusted weighted average quantity of beet sugar produced by the processor (as determined under subparagraphs (C) and (D)) bears to the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors (as so determined).
(C) Weighted average quantity 
Subject to subparagraph (D), the weighted quantity of beet sugar produced by a beet sugar processor during each of the 1998 through 2000 crop years shall be (as determined by the Secretary)
(i) in the case of the 1998 crop year, 25 percent of the quantity of beet sugar produced by the processor during the crop year;
(ii) in the case of the 1999 crop year, 35 percent of the quantity of beet sugar produced by the processor during the crop year; and
(iii) in the case of the 2000 crop year, 40 percent of the quantity of beet sugar produced by the processor (including any quantity of sugar received from the Commodity Credit Corporation) during the crop year.
(D) Adjustments 

(i) In general The Secretary shall adjust the weighted average quantity of beet sugar produced by a beet sugar processor during the 1998 through 2000 crop years under subparagraph (C) if the Secretary determines that the processor
(I) during the 1996 through 2000 crop years, opened a sugar beet processing factory;
(II) during the 1998 through 2000 crop years, closed a sugar beet processing factory;
(III) during the 1998 through 2000 crop years, constructed a molasses desugarization facility; or
(IV) during the 1998 through 2000 crop years, suffered substantial quality losses on sugar beets stored during any such crop year.
(ii) Quantity The quantity of beet sugar produced by a beet sugar processor under subparagraph (C) shall be
(I) in the case of a processor that opened a sugar beet processing factory, increased by 1.25 percent of the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors during the 1998 through 2000 crop years (without consideration of any adjustment under this subparagraph) for each sugar beet processing factory that is opened by the processor;
(II) in the case of a processor that closed a sugar beet processing factory, decreased by 1.25 percent of the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors during the 1998 through 2000 crop years (without consideration of any adjustment under this subparagraph) for each sugar beet processing factory that is closed by the processor;
(III) in the case of a processor that constructed a molasses desugarization facility, increased by 0.25 percent of the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors during the 1998 through 2000 crop years (without consideration of any adjustment under this subparagraph) for each molasses desugarization facility that is constructed by the processor; and
(IV) in the case of a processor that suffered substantial quality losses on stored sugar beets, increased by 1.25 percent of the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors during the 1998 through 2000 crop years (without consideration of any adjustment under this subparagraph).
(E) Permanent termination of operations of a processor 
If a processor of beet sugar has been dissolved, liquidated in a bankruptcy proceeding, or otherwise has permanently terminated operations (other than in conjunction with a sale or other disposition of the processor or the assets of the processor), the Secretary shall
(i) eliminate the allocation of the processor provided under this section; and
(ii) distribute the allocation to other beet sugar processors on a pro rata basis.
(F) Sale of all assets of a processor to another processor 
If a processor of beet sugar (or all of the assets of the processor) is sold to another processor of beet sugar, the Secretary shall transfer the allocation of the seller to the buyer unless the allocation has been distributed to other sugar beet processors under subparagraph (E).
(G) Sale of factories of a processor to another processor 

(i) Effect of sale Subject to subparagraphs (E) and (F), if 1 or more factories of a processor of beet sugar (but not all of the assets of the processor) are sold to another processor of beet sugar during a crop year, the Secretary shall assign a pro rata portion of the allocation of the seller to the allocation of the buyer to reflect the historical contribution of the production of the sold 1 or more factories to the total allocation of the seller, unless the buyer and the seller have agreed upon the transfer of a different portion of the allocation of the seller, in which case, the Secretary shall transfer that portion agreed upon by the buyer and seller.
(ii) Application of allocation The assignment of the allocation under clause (i) shall apply
(I) during the remainder of the crop year for which the sale described in clause (i) occurs; and
(II) during each subsequent crop year.
(iii) Use of other factories to fill allocation If the assignment of the allocation under clause (i) to the buyer for the 1 or more purchased factories cannot be filled by the production of the 1 or more purchased factories, the remainder of the allocation may be filled by beet sugar produced by the buyer from other factories of the buyer.
(H) New entrants starting production, reopening, or acquiring an existing factory with production history 

(i) Definition of new entrant
(I) In general In this subparagraph, the term new entrant means an individual, corporation, or other entity that
(aa) does not have an allocation of the beet sugar allotment under this subpart;
(bb) is not affiliated with any other individual, corporation, or entity that has an allocation of beet sugar under this subpart (referred to in this clause as a third party); and
(cc) will process sugar beets produced by sugar beet growers under contract with the new entrant for the production of sugar at the new or re-opened factory that is the basis for the new entrant allocation.
(II) Affiliation For purposes of subclause (I)(bb), a new entrant and a third party shall be considered to be affiliated if
(aa) the third party has an ownership interest in the new entrant;
(bb) the new entrant and the third party have owners in common;
(cc) the third party has the ability to exercise control over the new entrant by organizational rights, contractual rights, or any other means;
(dd) the third party has a contractual relationship with the new entrant by which the new entrant will make use of the facilities or assets of the third party; or
(ee) there are any other similar circumstances by which the Secretary determines that the new entrant and the third party are affiliated.
(ii) Allocation for a new entrant that has constructed a new factory or reopened a factory that was not operated since before 1998 If a new entrant constructs a new sugar beet processing factory, or acquires and reopens a sugar beet processing factory that last processed sugar beets prior to the 1998 crop year and there is no allocation currently associated with the factory, the Secretary shall
(I) assign an allocation for beet sugar to the new entrant that provides a fair and equitable distribution of the allocations for beet sugar so as to enable the new entrant to achieve a factory utilization rate comparable to the factory utilization rates of other similarly-situated processors; and
(II) reduce the allocations for beet sugar of all other processors on a pro rata basis to reflect the allocation to the new entrant.
(iii) Allocation for a new entrant that has acquired an existing factory with a production history
(I) In general If a new entrant acquires an existing factory that has processed sugar beets from the 1998 or subsequent crop year and has a production history, on the mutual agreement of the new entrant and the company currently holding the allocation associated with the factory, the Secretary shall transfer to the new entrant a portion of the allocation of the current allocation holder to reflect the historical contribution of the production of the 1 or more sold factories to the total allocation of the current allocation holder, unless the new entrant and current allocation holder have agreed upon the transfer of a different portion of the allocation of the current allocation holder, in which case, the Secretary shall transfer that portion agreed upon by the new entrant and the current allocation holder.
(II) Prohibition In the absence of a mutual agreement described in subclause (I), the new entrant shall be ineligible for a beet sugar allocation.
(iv) Appeals Any decision made under this subsection may be appealed to the Secretary in accordance with section 1359ii of this title.

7 USC 1359ee - Reassignment of deficits

(a) Estimates of deficits 
At any time allotments are in effect under this subpart, the Secretary, from time to time, shall determine whether (in view of then-current inventories of sugar, the estimated production of sugar and expected marketings, and other pertinent factors) any processor of sugarcane will be unable to market the sugar covered by the portion of the State cane sugar allotment allocated to the processor and whether any processor of sugar beets will be unable to market sugar covered by the portion of the beet sugar allotment allocated to the processor.
(b) Reassignment of deficits 

(1) Cane sugar 
If the Secretary determines that any sugarcane processor who has been allocated a share of a State cane sugar allotment will be unable to market the processors allocation of the States allotment for the crop year
(A) the Secretary first shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit to the allocations for other processors within that State, depending on the capacity of each other processor to fill the portion of the deficit to be assigned to it and taking into account the interests of producers served by the processors;
(B) if after the reassignments the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit proportionately to the allotments for other cane sugar States, depending on the capacity of each other State to fill the portion of the deficit to be assigned to it, with the reassigned quantity to each State to be allocated among processors in that State in proportion to the allocations of the processors;
(C) if after the reassignments the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit to the Commodity Credit Corporation and shall sell such quantity of sugar from inventories of the Corporation unless the Secretary determines that such sales would have a significant effect on the price of sugar; and
(D) if after the reassignments and sales, the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the remainder to imports of raw cane sugar.
(2) Beet sugar 
If the Secretary determines that a sugar beet processor who has been allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment will be unable to market that allocation
(A) the Secretary first shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit to the allotments for other sugar beet processors, depending on the capacity of each other processor to fill the portion of the deficit to be assigned to it and taking into account the interests of producers served by the processors;
(B) if after the reassignments the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit to the Commodity Credit Corporation and shall sell such quantity of sugar from inventories of the Corporation unless the Secretary determines that such sales would have a significant effect on the price of sugar; and
(C) if after the reassignments and sales, the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the remainder to imports of raw cane sugar.
(3) Corresponding increase 
The allocation of each processor receiving a reassigned quantity of an allotment under this subsection for a crop year shall be increased to reflect the reassignment.

7 USC 1359ff - Provisions applicable to producers

(a) Processor assurances 

(1) In general 
If allotments for a crop year are allocated to processors under section 1359dd of this title, the Secretary shall obtain from the processors such assurances as the Secretary considers adequate that the allocation will be shared among producers served by the processor in a fair and equitable manner that adequately reflects producers production histories.
(2) Arbitration 

(A) In general 
Any dispute between a processor and a producer, or group of producers, with respect to the sharing of the allocation to the processor shall be resolved through arbitration by the Secretary on the request of either party.
(B) Period 
The arbitration shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be
(i) commenced not more than 45 days after the request; and
(ii) completed not more than 60 days after the request.
(b) Sugar beet processing facility closures 

(1) In general 
If a sugar beet processing facility is closed and the sugar beet growers that previously delivered beets to the facility elect to deliver their beets to another processing company, the growers may petition the Secretary to modify allocations under this subpart to allow the delivery.
(2) Increased allocation for processing company 
The Secretary may increase the allocation to the processing company to which the growers elect to deliver their sugar beets, with the approval of the processing company, to a level that does not exceed the processing capacity of the processing company, to accommodate the change in deliveries.
(3) Decreased allocation for closed company 
The increased allocation shall be deducted from the allocation to the company that owned the processing facility that has been closed and the remaining allocation shall be unaffected.
(4) Timing 
The determinations of the Secretary on the issues raised by the petition shall be made within 60 days after the filing of the petition.
(c) Proportionate shares of certain allotments 

(1) Definition of seed 

(A) In general 
In this subsection, the term seed means only those varieties of seed that are dedicated to the production of sugarcane from which is produced sugar for human consumption.
(B) Exclusion 
The term seed does not include seed of a high-fiber cane variety dedicated to other uses, as determined by the Secretary[1]
(2) In general 

(A) States affected 
In any case in which a State allotment is established under section 1359cc (f) of this title and there are in excess of 250 sugarcane producers in the State (other than Puerto Rico), the Secretary shall make a determination under subparagraph (B).
(B) Determination 
The Secretary shall determine, for each State allotment described in subparagraph (A), whether the production of sugarcane, in the absence of proportionate shares, will be greater than the quantity needed to enable processors to fill the allotment and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar.
(3) Establishment of proportionate shares 
If the Secretary determines under paragraph (2) that the quantity of sugar produced from sugarcane produced by producers in the area covered by a State allotment for a crop year will be in excess of the quantity needed to enable processors to fill the allotment for the crop year and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar, the Secretary shall establish a proportionate share for each sugarcane-producing farm that limits the acreage of sugarcane that may be harvested on the farm for sugar or seed during the crop year the allotment is in effect as provided in this subsection. Each such proportionate share shall be subject to adjustment under paragraph (8) and section 1359cc (g) of this title.
(4) Method of determining 
For purposes of determining proportionate shares for any crop of sugarcane:
(A) The Secretary shall establish the States per-acre yield goal for a crop of sugarcane at a level (not less than the average per-acre yield in the State for the 2 highest years from among the 1999, 2000, and 2001 crop years, as determined by the Secretary) that will ensure an adequate net return per pound to producers in the State, taking into consideration any available production research data that the Secretary considers relevant.
(B) The Secretary shall adjust the per-acre yield goal by the average recovery rate of sugar produced from sugarcane by processors in the State.
(C) The Secretary shall convert the State allotment for the crop year involved into a State acreage allotment for the crop by dividing the State allotment by the per-acre yield goal for the State, as established under subparagraph (A) and as further adjusted under subparagraph (B).
(D) The Secretary shall establish a uniform reduction percentage for the crop by dividing the State acreage allotment, as determined for the crop under subparagraph (C), by the sum of all adjusted acreage bases in the State, as determined by the Secretary.
(E) The uniform reduction percentage for the crop, as determined under subparagraph (D), shall be applied to the acreage base for each sugarcane-producing farm in the State to determine the farms proportionate share of sugarcane acreage that may be harvested for sugar or seed.
(5) Acreage base 
For purposes of this subsection, the acreage base for each sugarcane-producing farm shall be determined by the Secretary, as follows:
(A) The acreage base for any farm shall be the number of acres that is equal to the average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or seed on the farm in the 2 highest of the 1999, 2000, and 2001 crop years.
(B) Acreage planted to sugarcane that producers on a farm were unable to harvest to sugarcane for sugar or seed because of drought, flood, other natural disaster, or other condition beyond the control of the producers may be considered as harvested for the production of sugar or seed for purposes of this paragraph.
(6) Violation 

(A) In general 
Whenever proportionate shares are in effect in a State for a crop of sugarcane, producers on a farm shall not knowingly harvest, or allow to be harvested, for sugar or seed an acreage of sugarcane in excess of the farms proportionate share for the crop year, or otherwise violate proportionate share regulations issued by the Secretary under section 1359hh (a) of this title.
(B) Determination of violation 
No producer shall be considered to have violated subparagraph (A) unless the processor of the sugarcane harvested by such producer from acreage in excess of the proportionate share of the farm markets an amount of sugar that exceeds the allocation of such processor for a crop year.
(C) Civil penalty 
Any producer on a farm who violates subparagraph (A) by knowingly harvesting, or allowing to be harvested, an acreage of sugarcane for sugar in excess of the farms proportionate share shall be liable to the Commodity Credit Corporation for a civil penalty equal to one and one-half times the United States market value of the quantity of sugar that is marketed by the processor of such sugarcane in excess of the allocation of such processor for the crop year. The Secretary shall prorate penalties imposed under this subparagraph in a fair and equitable manner among all the producers of sugarcane harvested from excess acreage that is acquired by such processor.
(7) Waiver 
Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraph, the Secretary may authorize the county and State committees established under section 590h (b) of title 16 to waive or modify deadlines and other proportionate share requirements in cases in which lateness or failure to meet the other requirements does not affect adversely the operation of proportionate shares.
(8) Adjustments 
Whenever the Secretary determines that, because of a natural disaster or other condition beyond the control of producers that adversely affects a crop of sugarcane subject to proportionate shares, the amount of sugar from sugarcane produced by producers subject to the proportionate shares will not be sufficient to enable processors in the State to meet the States cane sugar allotment and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar, the Secretary may uniformly allow producers to harvest an amount of sugarcane in excess of their proportionate share, or suspend proportionate shares entirely, as necessary to enable processors to meet the State allotment and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar.
[1] So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

7 USC 1359gg - Special rules

(a) Transfer of acreage base history 

(1) Transfer authorized 
For the purpose of establishing proportionate shares for sugarcane farms under section 1359ff (c) of this title, the Secretary, on application of any producer, with the written consent of all owners of a farm, may transfer the acreage base history of the farm to any other parcels of land of the applicant.
(2) Converted acreage base 

(A) In general 
Sugarcane acreage base established under section 1359ff (c) of this title that has been or is converted to nonagricultural use on or after May 13, 2002, may be transferred to other land suitable for the production of sugarcane that can be delivered to a processor in a proportionate share State in accordance with this paragraph.
(B) Notification 
Not later than 90 days after the Secretary becomes aware of a conversion of any sugarcane acreage base to a nonagricultural use, the Secretary shall notify the 1 or more affected landowners of the transferability of the applicable sugarcane acreage base.
(C) Initial transfer period 
The owner of the base attributable to the acreage at the time of the conversion shall be afforded 90 days from the date of the receipt of the notification under subparagraph (B) to transfer the base to 1 or more farms owned by the owner.
(D) Grower of record 
If a transfer under subparagraph (C) cannot be accomplished during the period specified in that subparagraph, the grower of record with regard to the acreage base on the date on which the acreage was converted to nonagricultural use shall
(i) be notified; and
(ii) have 90 days from the date of the receipt of the notification to transfer the base to 1 or more farms operated by the grower.
(E) Pool distribution 

(i) In general If transfers under subparagraphs (B) and (C) cannot be accomplished during the periods specified in those subparagraphs, the county committee of the Farm Service Agency for the applicable county shall place the acreage base in a pool for possible assignment to other farms.
(ii) Acceptance of requests After providing reasonable notice to farm owners, operators, and growers of record in the county, the county committee shall accept requests from owners, operators, and growers of record in the county.
(iii) Assignment The county committee shall assign the acreage base to other farms in the county that are eligible and capable of accepting the acreage base, based on a random drawing from among the requests received under clause (ii).
(F) Statewide reallocation 

(i) In general Any acreage base remaining unassigned after the transfers and processes described in subparagraphs (A) through (E) shall be made available to the State committee of the Farm Service Agency for allocation among the remaining county committees in the State representing counties with farms eligible for assignment of the base, based on a random drawing.
(ii) Allocation Any county committee receiving acreage base under this subparagraph shall allocate the acreage base to eligible farms using the process described in subparagraph (E).
(G) Status of reassigned base 
After acreage base has been reassigned in accordance with this subparagraph, the acreage base shall
(i) remain on the farm; and
(ii) be subject to the transfer provisions of paragraph (1).
(b) Preservation of acreage base history 
If for reasons beyond the control of a producer on a farm, the producer is unable to harvest an acreage of sugarcane for sugar or seed with respect to all or a portion of the proportionate share established for the farm under section 1359ff (c) of this title, the Secretary, on the application of the producer and with the written consent of all owners of the farm, may preserve for a period of not more than 5 consecutive years the acreage base history of the farm to the extent of the proportionate share involved. The Secretary may permit the proportionate share to be redistributed to other farms, but no acreage base history for purposes of establishing acreage bases shall accrue to the other farms by virtue of the redistribution of the proportionate share.
(c) Revisions of allocations and proportionate shares 
The Secretary, after such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, may revise or amend any allocation of a marketing allotment under section 1359dd of this title, or any proportionate share established or adjusted for a farm under section 1359ff (c) of this title, on the same basis as the initial allocation or proportionate share was required to be established.
(d) Transfers of mill allocations 

(1) Transfer authorized 
A producer in a proportionate share State, upon written consent from all affected crop-share owners (or the representative of the affected crop-share owners) of a farm may deliver sugarcane to another processing company if the additional delivery, when combined with such other processing companys existing deliveries, does not exceed the processing capacity of the company.
(2) Allocation adjustment 
Notwithstanding section 1359dd of this title, the Secretary shall adjust the allocations of each of such processing companies affected by a transfer under paragraph (1) to reflect the change in deliveries, based on
(A) the number of acres of sugarcane base being transferred; and
(B) the pro rata amount of allocation at the processing company holding the applicable allocation that equals the contribution of the grower to allocation of the processing company for the sugarcane acreage base being transferred.

7 USC 1359hh - Regulations; violations; publication of Secretarys determinations; jurisdiction of the courts; United States attorneys

(a) Regulations 
The Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation, as appropriate, shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the authority vested in the Secretary in administering this subpart.
(b) Violation 
Any person knowingly violating any regulation of the Secretary issued under subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation.
(c) Publication in Federal Register 
Each determination issued by the Secretary to establish, adjust, or suspend allotments under this subpart shall be promptly published in the Federal Register and shall be accompanied by a statement of the reasons for the determination.
(d) Jurisdiction of courts; United States attorneys 

(1) Jurisdiction of courts 
The several district courts of the United States are vested with jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain any person from violating, this subpart or any regulation issued thereunder.
(2) United States attorneys 
Whenever the Secretary shall so request, it shall be the duty of the several United States attorneys, in their respective districts, to institute proceedings to enforce the remedies and to collect the penalties provided for in this subpart. The Secretary may elect not to refer to a United States attorney any violation of this subpart or regulation when the Secretary determines that the administration and enforcement of this subpart would be adequately served by written notice or warning to any person committing the violation.
(e) Nonexclusivity of remedies 
The remedies and penalties provided for in this subpart shall be in addition to, and not exclusive of, any remedies or penalties existing at law or in equity.

7 USC 1359ii - Appeals

(a) In general 
An appeal may be taken to the Secretary from any decision under section 1359dd of this title establishing allocations of marketing allotments, or under section 1359ff or 1359gg (d) of this title, by any person adversely affected by reason of any such decision.
(b) Procedure 

(1) Notice of appeal 
Any such appeal shall be taken by filing with the Secretary, within 20 days after the decision complained of is effective, notice in writing of the appeal and a statement of the reasons therefor. Unless a later date is specified by the Secretary as part of the Secretarys decision, the decision complained of shall be considered to be effective as of the date on which announcement of the decision is made. The Secretary shall deliver a copy of any notice of appeal to each person shown by the records of the Secretary to be adversely affected by reason of the decision appealed, and shall at all times thereafter permit any such person to inspect and make copies of appellants reasons for the appeal and shall on application permit the person to intervene in the appeal.
(2) Hearing 
The Secretary shall provide each appellant an opportunity for a hearing before an administrative law judge in accordance with sections 554 and 556 of title 5. The expenses for conducting the hearing shall be reimbursed by the Commodity Credit Corporation.

7 USC 1359jj - Administration

(a) Use of certain agencies 
In carrying out this subpart, the Secretary may use the services of local committees of sugar beet or sugarcane producers, sugarcane processors, or sugar beet processors, State and county committees established under section 590h (b) of title 16, and the departments and agencies of the United States Government.
(b) Use of Commodity Credit Corporation 
The Secretary shall use the services, facilities, funds, and authorities of the Commodity Credit Corporation to carry out this subpart.

7 USC 1359kk - Administration of tariff rate quotas

(a) Establishment 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2) and notwithstanding any other provision of law, at the beginning of the quota year, the Secretary shall establish the tariff-rate quotas for raw cane sugar and refined sugars at the minimum level necessary to comply with obligations under international trade agreements that have been approved by Congress.
(2) Exception 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to specialty sugar.
(b) Adjustment 

(1) Before April 1 
Before April 1 of each fiscal year, if there is an emergency shortage of sugar in the United States market that is caused by a war, flood, hurricane, or other natural disaster, or other similar event as determined by the Secretary
(A) the Secretary shall take action to increase the supply of sugar in accordance with sections 1359cc (b)(2) and 1359ee (b) of this title, including an increase in the tariff-rate quota for raw cane sugar to accommodate the reassignment to imports; and
(B) if there is still a shortage of sugar in the United States market, and marketing of domestic sugar has been maximized, and domestic raw cane sugar refining capacity has been maximized, the Secretary may increase the tariff-rate quota for refined sugars sufficient to accommodate the supply increase, if the further increase will not threaten to result in the forfeiture of sugar pledged as collateral for a loan under section 7272 of this title.
(2) On or after April 1 
On or after April 1 of each fiscal year
(A) the Secretary may take action to increase the supply of sugar in accordance with sections 1359cc (b)(2) and 1359ee (b) of this title, including an increase in the tariff-rate quota for raw cane sugar to accommodate the reassignment to imports; and
(B) if there is still a shortage of sugar in the United States market, and marketing of domestic sugar has been maximized, the Secretary may increase the tariff-rate quota for raw cane sugar if the further increase will not threaten to result in the forfeiture of sugar pledged as collateral for a loan under section 7272 of this title.

7 USC 1359ll - Period of effectiveness

(a) In general 
This subpart shall be effective only for the 2008 through 2012 crop years for sugar.
(b) Transition 
The Secretary shall administer flexible marketing allotments for sugar for the 2007 crop year for sugar on the terms and conditions provided in this subpart as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this section.