TITLE 5 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER IV - SURVIVOR ANNUITIES

5 USC 8441 - Definitions

For the purpose of this subchapter
(1) the term widow means the surviving wife of an employee, Member, or annuitant, or of a former employee or Member, who
(A) was married to him for at least 9 months immediately before his death; or
(B) is the mother of issue by that marriage;
(2) the term widower means the surviving husband of an employee, Member, or annuitant, or of a former employee or Member, who

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(A) was married to her for at least 9 months immediately before her death; or
(B) is the father of issue by that marriage;
(3) the term dependent, in the case of any child, means that the employee, Member, or annuitant involved was, at the time of death of the employee, Member, or annuitant either living with or contributing to the support of such child, as determined in accordance with such regulations as the Office shall prescribe; and
(4) the term child means
(A) an unmarried dependent child under 18 years of age, including
(i)  an adopted child,
(ii)  a stepchild but only if the stepchild lived with the employee, Member, or annuitant in a regular parent-child relationship,
(iii)  a recognized natural child, and
(iv)  a child who lived with and for whom a petition of adoption was filed by an employee, Member, or annuitant and who is adopted by the widow or widower of the employee, Member, or annuitant after the death of such employee, Member, or annuitant;
(B) such unmarried dependent child regardless of age who is incapable of self-support because of mental or physical disability incurred before age 18; or

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(C) such unmarried dependent child between 18 and 22 years of age who is a student regularly pursuing a full-time course of study or training in residence in a high school, trade school, technical or vocational institute, junior college, college, university, or comparable recognized educational institution.

For the purpose of this paragraph and section 8443, a child whose 22nd birthday occurs before July 1 or after August 31 of a calendar year, and while regularly pursuing such a course of study or training, is deemed to have become 22 years of age on the first day of July after that birthday. A child who is a student is deemed not to have ceased to be a student during an interim between school years if the interim is not more than 5 months and if such child shows to the satisfaction of the Office that such child has a bona fide intention of continuing to pursue a course of study or training in the same or different school during the school semester (or other period into which the school year is divided) immediately after the interim.

5 USC 8442 - Rights of a widow or widower

(a) 
(1) Except as provided in subsection (g), if an annuitant dies and is survived by a widow or widower, the widow or widower is entitled to an annuity equal to 50 percent of an annuity computed under section 8415 with respect to the annuitant, (or one-half thereof, if designated for this purpose under section 8419 of this title), unless
(A) the right to an annuity was waived under section 8416 (a) (and no election was subsequently made under section 8416 (d) nullifying the waiver); or
(B) in the case of a marriage after retirement, the annuitant did not file an election under section 8416 (b) or (c), as the case may be.
(2) A spouse acquired after retirement is entitled to an annuity under this subsection (as provided in paragraph (1)) only upon electing this annuity instead of any other survivor benefit to which such spouse may be entitled under this subchapter or section 8424 or under another retirement system for Government employees.
(b) 
(1) If an employee or Member dies after completing at least 18 months of civilian service creditable under section 8411 and is survived by a widow or widower, the widow or widower is entitled to
(A) an amount equal to the sum of
(i) 50 percent of the final annual rate of basic pay (or of the average pay, if higher) of the employee or Member; and
(ii) $15,000 as adjusted under section 8462 (e); and
(B) if the employee or Member completed at least 10 years of service, an annuity equal to 50 percent of an annuity computed under section 8415 with respect to the employee or Member, but without regard to subsection (f) of such section.
(2) The Office shall prescribe regulations under which the total amount payable to a widow or widower under paragraph (1)(A) may, at the election of the widow or widower, be paid
(A) in a lump sum; or
(B) on a monthly basis
(i) over a period of 3 years beginning on the day after the employees or Members death; or
(ii) over any other period established under the regulations.

Any method of payment provided for under subparagraph (B) shall be designed such that the present value of the benefits provided under such method is actuarially equivalent to the present value of a lump-sum payment under subparagraph (A).

(3) An amount payable under paragraph (1)(A) shall not be considered to be part of an annuity for purposes of this chapter.
(c) 
(1) If a former employee or Member dies after having separated from the service with title to a deferred annuity under section 8413 but before having established a valid claim for an annuity, and is survived by a widow or widower to whom married on the date of separation, the widow or widower may elect to receive
(A) an annuity under paragraph (2); or
(B) the lump-sum credit, if the widow or widower is the individual who would be entitled to the lump-sum credit and if such widow or widower files application therefor with the Office.
(2) 
(A) 
(i) Subject to clause (ii) and subparagraph (B)(ii), the annuity of the widow or widower is equal to 50 percent of an annuity computed under section 8415 for the former employee or Member.
(ii) 
(I) In computing an amount under section 8415 for a former employee or Member (described in subclause (II)) in order to compute the annuity for a widow or widower under this subsection, the computation under section 8415 shall be made as if the former employee or Member had attained the applicable minimum retirement age under section 8412 (h).
(II) This clause applies with respect to a former employee or Member who dies before having attained the applicable minimum retirement age under section 8412 (h).
(B) 
(i) Notwithstanding the first sentence of subsection (d)(1), the annuity of the widow or widower of a former employee or Member under subparagraph (A)(ii) commences
(I) on the day after the date on which the former employee or Member would have attained age 62 (or, if applicable, either age 60 if the former employee or Member completed at least 20 years of service, or the applicable minimum retirement age (under section 8412 (h)) if the former employee or Member completed at least 30 years of service); or
(II) if the widow or widower so designates in the election, as of the day after the death of the former employee or Member.
(ii) The present value of the annuity of a widow or widower who chooses the earlier commencement date under clause (i)(II) shall be actuarially equivalent to the present value of an annuity computed for the widow or widower, determined as if the commencement date under clause (i)(I) were applicable.
(3) 
(A) Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall apply only in the case of an employee or Member who completes at least 10 years of service.
(B) Nothing in this subsection shall be considered to affect the provisions of this chapter relating to a lump-sum credit in the case of the widow or widower of a former employee or Member who dies after completing less than 10 years of service.
(d) 
(1) The annuity of a widow or widower under this section commences on the day after the death of the individual on whose service such annuity is based. This annuity and the right thereto terminate on the last day of the month before the widow or widower
(A) dies; or
(B) except as provided in paragraph (3), remarries before becoming 55 years of age.
(2) In the case of a widow or widower whose annuity under this section is terminated because of remarriage before becoming 55 years of age, the annuity shall be restored at the same rate commencing on the day the remarriage is dissolved by death, divorce, or annulment, if
(A) the widow or widower elects to receive this annuity instead of any other survivor benefit to which such widow or widower may be entitled (under this subchapter or section 8424 or under another retirement system for Government employees) by reason of the remarriage; and
(B) any lump sum paid on termination of the annuity is returned to the Fund.
(3) Paragraph (1)(B) (relating to termination of a survivor annuity because of a remarriage before age 55) shall not apply if the widow or widower was married for at least 30 years to the individual on whose service the survivor annuity is based.
(e) The requirement in paragraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of section 8441 that the widow or widower of an annuitant, employee, or Member, or of a former employee or Member, have been married to such individual for at least 9 months immediately before the death of the individual in order to qualify as the widow or widower of such individual shall be deemed satisfied in any case in which the individual dies within the applicable 9-month period, if
(1) the death of the individual was accidental; or
(2) the surviving spouse of the individual had been previously married to such individual and subsequently divorced, and the aggregate time married is at least 9 months.
(f) 
(1) Subject to paragraph (4), a survivor who is entitled to an annuity under subsection (a) shall also be entitled to a supplementary annuity under this subsection.
(2) A supplementary annuity under this subsection shall be equal to the lesser of
(A) the amount by which the survivors assumed CSRS annuity exceeds the annuity payable to such survivor under subsection (a); or
(B) the amount determined under paragraph (3).
(3) 
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amount under this paragraph for a survivor is the amount of widows or widowers insurance benefits which would be payable to such survivor under title II of the Social Security Act (without regard to sections 202(e)(7), 202(f)(2), and 203 of such Act) based on the wages and self-employment income of the deceased annuitant, and determined
(i) as of the date on which the annuitant died; and
(ii) as if the survivor had attained age 60 and made application for those benefits under subsection (e) or (f) of section 202 of such Act, as the case may be.
(B) Any computation or determination under this paragraph shall be made in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Social Security Act, except that in computing any primary insurance amount under section 215 of such Act for purposes of determining an amount under this subsection, subparagraphs (A) and (C) of section 8421 (b)(2) shall apply.
(4) A supplementary annuity under this subsection
(A) shall be payable to a survivor only for calendar months ending before the calendar month in which such survivor first satisfies the minimum age requirement under section 202(e)(1)(B)(i) or 202(f)(1)(B)(i) of the Social Security Act, as the case may be;
(B) shall not be payable to a survivor who would not be entitled to benefits under subsection (e) or (f) of section 202 of the Social Security Act based on the wages and self-employment income of the deceased annuitant (determined, as of the date of the annuitants death, as if the survivor had attained age 60 and made appropriate application for benefits, but without regard to any restriction under either such subsection relating to remarriage); and
(C) shall not be payable to a survivor for any calendar month in which such survivor is entitled (or would, on proper application, be entitled) to benefits under section 202(g) of the Social Security Act (relating to mothers and fathers insurance benefits), or under section 202(e) or (f) of such Act by reason of having become disabled, based on the wages and self-employment income of the deceased annuitant.
(5) For the purpose of this subsection, the term assumed CSRS annuity, as used in the case of a survivor, means the amount of the annuity to which such survivor would be entitled under subchapter III of chapter 83 of this title based on the service of the deceased annuitant, determined
(A) as of the day after the date of the annuitants death;
(B) as if the survivor had made appropriate application therefor; and
(C) as if the service of the deceased annuitant were creditable under such subchapter.
(6) An amount payable under this subsection shall be adjusted under section 8462 and shall otherwise be treated under this chapter in the same way as an amount payable under subsection (a).
(g) 
(1) If the widow or widower of an annuitant under section 8452 (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as a disability annuitant) is determined under subsection (a) to be entitled to an annuity based on the service of such disability annuitant, the annuity of the widow or widower shall be equal to 50 percent of the amount determined under paragraph (2) (or one-half thereof if designated for this purpose under section 8419 of this title), rather than of the amount referred to in subsection (a).
(2) 
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amount on which the annuity of the widow or widower of a disability annuitant is based shall be the amount of the annuity to which such disability annuitant was entitled, as computed under section 8452 (including appropriate reduction under subsection (a)(2) of such section and any adjustments under section 8462 allowed under section 8452), as of the day before the date of the disability annuitants death.
(B) 
(i) In the case of a widow or widower entitled to an annuity based on the service of a disability annuitant who dies before age 62, the amount under clause (ii) shall apply instead of the amount which would otherwise apply under subparagraph (A).
(ii) 
(I) Subject to subclause (II), the amount of the annuity to which the disability annuitant was entitled as of the day before the date of death shall be considered to be the amount which would be computed with respect to such disability annuitant under section 8452 (b) if the disability annuitant had attained age 62 on the day before date of death.
(II) For purposes of any such computation under section 8452 (b)(2) pursuant to this clause, creditable service shall (in addition to the service which would otherwise be used under subparagraph (B)(i) of such section) include the period of time between date of death and the date of the sixty-second anniversary of the birth of the annuitant, and average pay shall be adjusted in accordance with subparagraph (B)(ii) of such section only through date of death.
(h) The following rules shall apply notwithstanding any other provision of this section:
(1) The annuity payable under this section to a widow or widower may not exceed the difference between
(A) the amount of the annuity which would otherwise be payable to such widow or widower under this section; and
(B) the amount of the annuity payable to any former spouse of the deceased employee, Member, or annuitant, or former employee or Member, based on an election made under section 8417 (b) or a court order previously issued or agreement previously entered into as described in section 8445 (a).
(2) The amount payable under subsection (b)(1)(A) to a widow or widower may not exceed the difference between
(A) the amount which would otherwise be payable to such widow or widower under such subsection; and
(B) the portion of such amount payable to any former spouse of the deceased employee, Member, or annuitant, or former employee or Member, based on a court order previously issued or agreement previously entered into.
(3) A lump-sum credit under subsection (c)(2) shall be subject to the same terms and conditions as apply with respect to a lump-sum credit under section 8424 (b).

5 USC 8443 - Rights of a child

(a) 
(1) If an employee or Member dies after completing at least 18 months of civilian service which is creditable under section 8411, or an annuitant dies, each surviving child is, for any month, entitled to an annuity equal to
(A) the amount by which the applicable amount under paragraph (2) for such month exceeds the applicable amount under paragraph (3) for such month, divided by
(B) the number of children entitled to a payment under this section for such month.
(2) The applicable amount under this paragraph for any month is the total amount to which the surviving child or children (as the case may be) of the annuitant, employee, or Member would be entitled for such month under subchapter III of chapter 83 (including any adjustment based on section 8340) based on the service of such annuitant, employee, or Member, if the service of such annuitant, employee, or Member were creditable under such subchapter.
(3) The applicable amount under this paragraph for any month is the total amount of childs insurance benefits which are payable (or would, on proper application, be payable) under title II of the Social Security Act for such month based on the wages and self-employment income of such annuitant, employee, or Member.
(b) The annuity of a child under this subchapter
(1) commences on the day after the annuitant, employee, or Member dies;
(2) commences or resumes on the first day of the month in which the child later becomes or again becomes a student as described by section 8441 (4), if any lump sum paid is returned to the Fund; or
(3) commences or resumes on the first day of the month in which the child later becomes or again becomes incapable of self-support because of a mental or physical disability incurred before age 18 (or a later recurrence of such disability), if any lump sum paid is returned to the Fund. This annuity and the right thereto terminate on the last day of the month before the child
(A) becomes 18 years of age unless then a student as described or incapable of self-support;
(B) becomes capable of self-support after becoming 18 years of age unless then such a student;
(C) becomes 22 years of age if then such a student and capable of self-support;
(D) ceases to be such a student after becoming 18 years of age unless then incapable of self-support; or
(E) dies or marries;

whichever occurs first. On the death of the surviving wife or husband, or former wife or husband, or termination of the annuity of a child, the annuity of any other child or children shall be recomputed and paid as though the wife or husband, former wife or husband, or child had not survived the annuitant, employee, or Member. If the annuity of a child under this subchapter terminates under subparagraph (E) because of marriage, then, if such marriage ends, such annuity shall resume on the first day of the month in which it ends, but only if any lump sum paid is returned to the Fund, and that individual is not otherwise ineligible for such annuity.

5 USC 8444 - Rights of a named individual with an insurable interest

The annuity of a survivor named under section 8420 (a) is 55 percent of the reduced annuity of the retired employee or Member determined under paragraph (2) of such section 8420 (a). The annuity of the survivor commences on the day after the retired employee or Member dies. This annuity and the right thereto terminate on the last day of the month before the survivor dies.

5 USC 8445 - Rights of a former spouse

(a) Subject to subsections (b) through (e), a former spouse of a deceased employee, Member, or annuitant (or of a former employee or Member who dies after having separated from the service with title to a deferred annuity under section 8413 but before having established a valid claim for annuity) is entitled to an annuity under this section, if and to the extent expressly provided for in an election under section 8417 (b), or in the terms of any decree of divorce or annulment or any court order or court-approved property settlement agreement incident to such decree.
(b) 
(1) The annuity payable to a former spouse under this section may not exceed the difference between
(A) the amount applicable in the case of such former spouse, as determined under paragraph (2); and
(B) the amount of any annuity payable under this section to any other former spouse of the employee, Member, or annuitant, or former employee or Member, based on an election previously made under section 8417 (b), or a court order previously issued or agreement previously entered into as described in subsection (a).
(2) The applicable amount, for purposes of paragraph (1)(A) in the case of a former spouse, is the amount of the annuity which would be payable under the provisions of section 8442 (including subsection (f) of such section, but without regard to subsection (h) of such section) if such former spouse were a widow or widower entitled to an annuity under such provisions based on the service of the deceased employee, Member, or annuitant, or former employee or Member.
(c) The commencement and termination of an annuity payable under this section shall be governed by the terms of the applicable order, decree, agreement, or election, as the case may be, except that any such annuity
(1) shall not commence before
(A) the day after the employee, Member, or annuitant, or former employee or Member, dies; or
(B) the first day of the second month beginning after the date on which the Office receives written notice of the order, decree, agreement, or election, as the case may be, together with such additional information or documentation as the Office may prescribe;

whichever is later; and

(2) except as provided in subsection (h), shall terminate no later than the last day of the month before the former spouse remarries before becoming 55 years of age or dies.
(d) For purposes of this chapter, a modification in a decree, order, agreement, or election referred to in subsection (a) shall not be effective
(1) if such modification is made after the retirement or death of the employee, Member, or annuitant, or former employee or Member, concerned; and
(2) to the extent that such modification involves an annuity under this section.
(e) For purposes of this chapter, a decree, order, agreement, or election referred to in subsection (a) shall not be effective, in the case of a former spouse, to the extent that it is inconsistent with any joint waiver previously executed with respect to such former spouse under section 8416 (a).
(f) 
(1) Any amount under section 8442 (b)(1)(A) which would otherwise be payable to a widow or widower based on the service of another individual shall be paid (in whole or in part) by the Office to a former spouse of such individual if and to the extent expressly provided for in the terms of a court decree of divorce, annulment, or legal separation, or the terms of a court order or court-approved property settlement incident to any decree of divorce, annulment, or legal separation.
(2) Paragraph (1) shall apply only to payments made by the Office after the date of receipt in the Office of written notice of such decree, order, or agreement, and such additional information and documentation as the Office may prescribe.
(g) Any payment under this section to a person bars recovery by any other person.
(h) 
(1) Subsection (c)(2) (to the extent that it provides for termination of a survivor annuity because of a remarriage before age 55) shall not apply if the former spouse was married for at least 30 years to the individual on whose service the survivor annuity is based.
(2) A remarriage described in paragraph (1) shall not be taken into account for purposes of section 8419 (b)(1)(B) or any other provision of this chapter which the Office may by regulation identify in order to carry out the purposes of this subsection.