TITLE 5 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - TRAVEL AND SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES; MILEAGE ALLOWANCES

5 USC 5701 - Definitions

Except as otherwise provided in section 5707 (d),1 for the purpose of this subchapter
(1) agency means
(A) an Executive agency;
(B) a military department;
(C) an office, agency, or other establishment in the legislative branch;

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(D) an office, agency, or other establishment in the judicial branch; and
(E) the government of the District of Columbia; but does not include
(i) a Government controlled corporation;
(ii) a Member of Congress; or
(iii) an office or committee of either House of Congress or of the two Houses;
(2) employee means an individual employed in or under an agency including an individual employed intermittently in the Government service as an expert or consultant and paid on a daily when-actually-employed basis and an individual serving without pay or at $1 a year;
(3) subsistence means lodging, meals, and other necessary expenses for the personal sustenance and comfort of the traveler;
(4) per diem allowance means a daily payment instead of actual expenses for subsistence and fees or tips to porters and stewards;
(5) Government means the Government of the United States and the government of the District of Columbia; and
(6) continental United States means the several States and the District of Columbia, but does not include Alaska or Hawaii.
[1] See References in Text note below.

5 USC 5702 - Per diem; employees traveling on official business

(a) 
(1) Under regulations prescribed pursuant to section 5707 of this title, an employee, when traveling on official business away from the employees designated post of duty, or away from the employees home or regular place of business (if the employee is described in section 5703 of this title), is entitled to any one of the following:
(A) a per diem allowance at a rate not to exceed that established by the Administrator of General Services for travel within the continental United States, and by the President or his designee for travel outside the continental United States;
(B) reimbursement for the actual and necessary expenses of official travel not to exceed an amount established by the Administrator for travel within the continental United States or an amount established by the President or his designee for travel outside the continental United States; or
(C) a combination of payments described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph.
(2) Any per diem allowance or maximum amount of reimbursement shall be established, to the extent feasible, by locality.
(3) For travel consuming less than a full day, the payment prescribed by regulation shall be allocated in such manner as the Administrator may prescribe.
(b) 
(1) Under regulations prescribed pursuant to section 5707 of this title, an employee who is described in subsection (a) of this section and who abandons the travel assignment prior to its completion
(A) because of an incapacitating illness or injury which is not due to the employees own misconduct is entitled to reimbursement for expenses of transportation to the employees designated post of duty, or home or regular place of business, as the case may be, and to payments pursuant to subsection (a) of this section until that location is reached; or
(B) because of a personal emergency situation (such as serious illness, injury, or death of a member of the employees family, or an emergency situation such as fire, flood, or act of God), may be allowed, with the approval of an appropriate official of the agency concerned, reimbursement for expenses of transportation to the employees designated post of duty, or home or regular place of business, as the case may be, and payments pursuant to subsection (a) of this section until that location is reached.
(2) 
(A) Under regulations prescribed pursuant to section 5707 of this title, an employee who is described in subsection (a) of this section and who, with the approval of an appropriate official of the agency concerned, interrupts the travel assignment prior to its completion for a reason specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection, may be allowed (subject to the limitation provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph)
(i) reimbursement for expenses of transportation to the location where necessary medical services are provided or the emergency situation exists,
(ii) payments pursuant to subsection (a) of this section until that location is reached, and
(iii) such reimbursement and payments for return to such assignment.
(B) The reimbursement which an employee may be allowed pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall be the employees actual costs of transportation to the location where necessary medical services are provided or the emergency exists, and return to assignment from such location, less the costs of transportation which the employee would have incurred had such travel begun and ended at the employees designated post of duty, or home or regular place of business, as the case may be. The payments which an employee may be allowed pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall be based on the additional time (if any) which was required for the employees transportation as a consequence of the transportations having begun and ended at a location on the travel assignment (rather than at the employees designated post of duty, or home or regular place of business, as the case may be).
(3) Subject to the limitations contained in regulations prescribed pursuant to section 5707 of this title, an employee who is described in subsection (a) of this section and who interrupts the travel assignment prior to its completion because of an incapacitating illness or injury which is not due to the employees own misconduct is entitled to payments pursuant to subsection (a) of this section at the location where the interruption occurred.
(c) This section does not apply to a justice or judge, except to the extent provided by section 456 of title 28.

5 USC 5703 - Per diem, travel, and transportation expenses; experts and consultants; individuals serving without pay

An employee serving intermittently in the Government service as an expert or consultant and paid on a daily when-actually-employed basis, or serving without pay or at $1 a year, may be allowed travel or transportation expenses, under this subchapter, while away from his home or regular place of business and at the place of employment or service.

5 USC 5704 - Mileage and related allowances

(a) 
(1) Under regulations prescribed under section 5707 of this title, an employee who is engaged on official business for the Government is entitled to a rate per mile established by the Administrator of General Services, instead of the actual expenses of transportation, for the use of a privately owned automobile when that mode of transportation is authorized or approved as more advantageous to the Government. In any year in which the Internal Revenue Service establishes a single standard mileage rate for optional use by taxpayers in computing the deductible costs of operating their automobiles for business purposes, the rate per mile established by the Administrator shall not exceed the single standard mileage rate established by the Internal Revenue Service.
(2) Under regulations prescribed under section 5707 of this title, an employee who is engaged on official business for the Government is entitled to a rate per mile established by the Administrator of General Services, instead of the actual expenses of transportation, for the use of a privately owned airplane or a privately owned motorcycle when that mode of transportation is authorized or approved as more advantageous to the Government.
(b) A determination that travel by a privately owned vehicle is more advantageous to the Government is not required under subsection (a) of this section when payment on a mileage basis is limited to the cost of travel by common carrier including per diem.
(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, in any case in which an employee who is engaged on official business for the Government chooses to use a privately owned vehicle in lieu of a Government vehicle, payment on a mileage basis is limited to the cost of travel by a Government vehicle.
(d) In addition to the rate per mile authorized under subsection (a) of this section, the employee may be reimbursed for
(1) parking fees;
(2) ferry fees;
(3) bridge, road, and tunnel costs; and
(4) airplane landing and tie-down fees.

5 USC 5705 - Advancements and deductions

An agency may advance, through the proper disbursing official, to an employee entitled to per diem or mileage allowances under this subchapter, a sum considered advisable with regard to the character and probable duration of the travel to be performed. A sum advanced and not used for allowable travel expenses is recoverable from the employee or his estate by
(1) setoff against accrued pay, retirement credit, or other amount due the employee;
(2) deduction from an amount due from the United States; and
(3) such other method as is provided by law.

5 USC 5706 - Allowable travel expenses

Except as otherwise permitted by this subchapter or by statutes relating to members of the uniformed services, only actual and necessary travel expenses may be allowed to an individual holding employment or appointment under the United States.

5 USC 5706a - Subsistence and travel expenses for threatened law enforcement personnel

(a) Under regulations prescribed pursuant to section 5707 of this title, when the life of an employee who serves in a law enforcement, investigative, or similar capacity, or members of such employees immediate family, is threatened as a result of the employees assigned duties, the head of the agency concerned may approve appropriate subsistence payments for the employee or members of the employees family (or both) while occupying temporary living accommodations at or away from the employees designated post of duty.
(b) When a situation described in subsection (a) of this section requires the employee or members of the employees family (or both) to be temporarily relocated away from the employees designated post of duty, the head of the agency concerned may approve transportation expenses to and from such alternate location.

5 USC 5706b - Interview expenses

An individual being considered for employment by an agency may be paid travel or transportation expenses under this subchapter for travel to and from pre-employment interviews determined necessary by the agency.

5 USC 5706c - Reimbursement for taxes incurred on money received for travel expenses

(a) Under regulations prescribed pursuant to section 5707 of this title, the head of an agency or department, or his or her designee, may use appropriations or other funds available to the agency for administrative expenses, for the reimbursement of Federal, State, and local income taxes incurred by an employee of the agency or by an employee and such employees spouse (if filing jointly), for any travel or transportation reimbursement made to an employee for which reimbursement or an allowance is provided.
(b) Reimbursements under this section shall include an amount equal to all income taxes for which the employee and spouse, as the case may be, would be liable due to the reimbursement for the taxes referred to in subsection (a). In addition, reimbursements under this section shall include penalties and interest, for the tax years 1993 and 1994 only, as a result of agencies failing to withhold the appropriate amounts for tax liabilities of employees affected by the change in the deductibility of travel expenses made by Public Law 102486.

5 USC 5707 - Regulations and reports

(a) 
(1) The Administrator of General Services shall prescribe regulations necessary for the administration of this subchapter, except that the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall prescribe such regulations with respect to official travel by employees of the judicial branch of the Government.
(2) Regulations promulgated to implement section 5702 or 5706a of this title shall be transmitted to the appropriate committees of the Congress and shall not take effect until 30 days after such transmittal.
(b) The Administrator of General Services shall prescribe the mileage reimbursement rates for use on official business of privately owned airplanes, privately owned automobiles, and privately owned motorcycles while engaged on official business as provided for in section 5704 of this title as follows:
(1) 
(A) The Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Defense, and representatives of organizations of employees of the Government, shall conduct periodic investigations of the cost of travel and the operation of privately owned vehicles to employees while engaged on official business, and shall report the results of such investigations to Congress at least once a year.
(B) In conducting the periodic investigations, the Administrator shall review and analyze among other factors
(i) depreciation of original vehicle cost;
(ii) gasoline and oil (excluding taxes);
(iii) maintenance, accessories, parts, and tires;
(iv) insurance; and
(v) State and Federal taxes.
(2) 
(A) The Administrator shall issue regulations under this section which
(i) shall prescribe a mileage reimbursement rate which reflects the current costs as determined by the Administrator of operating privately owned automobiles, and which shall not exceed, as provided in section 5704 (a)(1) of this title, the single standard mileage rate established by the Internal Revenue Service, and
(ii) shall prescribe mileage reimbursement rates which reflect the current costs as determined by the Administrator of operating privately owned airplanes and motorcycles.
(B) At least once each year after the issuance of the regulations described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the Administrator shall determine, based upon the results of the cost investigation, specific figures, each rounded to the nearest half cent, of the average, actual cost per mile during the period for the use of a privately owned airplane, automobile, and motorcycle.
(C) The Administrator shall report the specific figures to Congress not later than five working days after the Administrator makes the cost determination. Each such report shall be printed in the Federal Register.
(D) The mileage reimbursement rates contained in the regulations prescribed under this section shall be adjusted within thirty days following the submission of the report under subparagraph (C) of this paragraph.
(c) The Administrator of General Services shall periodically, but at least every 2 years, submit to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget an analysis of estimated total agency payments for such items as travel and transportation of people, average costs and duration of trips, and purposes of official travel; and of estimated total agency payments for employee relocation. This analysis shall be based on a sampling survey of agencies each of which spent more than $5,000,000 during the previous fiscal year on travel and transportation payments, including payments for employee relocation. Agencies shall provide to the Administrator the necessary information in a format prescribed by the Administrator and approved by the Director.

5 USC 5707a - Adherence to fire safety guidelines in establishing rates and discounts for lodging expenses

(a) 
(1) For the purpose of making payments under this chapter for lodging expenses incurred in a State, each agency shall ensure that not less than 90 percent of the commercial-lodging room nights for employees of that agency for a fiscal year are booked in approved places of public accommodation.
(2) Each agency shall establish explicit procedures to satisfy the percentage requirement of paragraph (1).
(3) An agency shall be considered to be in compliance with the percentage requirement of paragraph (1) until September 30, 2002, and after that date if travel arrangements of the agency, whether made for civilian employees, members of the uniformed services, or foreign service personnel, are made through travel management processes designed to book commercial lodging in approved places of public accommodation, whenever available.
(b) Studies or surveys conducted for the purposes of establishing per diem rates for lodging expenses under this chapter shall be limited to approved places of public accommodation. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply with respect to studies and surveys that are conducted in any jurisdiction that is not a State.
(c) The Administrator of General Services may not include in any directory which lists lodging accommodations any hotel, motel, or other place of public accommodation that is not an approved place of public accommodation.
(d) The Administrator of General Services shall include in each directory which lists lodging accommodations a description of the access and safety devices, including appropriate emergency alerting devices, which each listed place of public accommodation provides for guests who are hearing-impaired or visually or physically handicapped.
(e) The Administrator of General Services may take any additional actions the Administrator determines appropriate to facilitate the ability of employees traveling on official business to stay at approved places of public accommodation.
(f) For purposes of this section:
(1) The term agency does not include the government of the District of Columbia.
(2) The term approved places of public accommodation means hotels, motels, and other places of public accommodation that are listed by the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency as meeting the requirements of the fire prevention and control guidelines described in section 29 of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974 (15 U.S.C. 2225).
(3) The term State means any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, or any other territory or possession of the United States.

5 USC 5708 - Effect on other statutes

This subchapter does not modify or repeal
(1) any statute providing for the traveling expenses of the President;
(2) any statute providing for mileage allowances for Members of Congress;
(3) any statute fixing or permitting rates higher than the maximum rates established under this subchapter; or
(4) any appropriation statute item for examination of estimates in the field.

5 USC 5709 - Air evacuation patients: furnished subsistence

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and under regulations prescribed under section 5707 of this title, an employee and his dependents may be furnished subsistence without charge while being evacuated as a patient by military aircraft of the United States.

5 USC 5710 - Authority for travel expenses test programs

(a) 
(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, under a test program which the Administrator of General Services determines to be in the interest of the Government and approves, an agency may pay through the proper disbursing official for a period not to exceed 24 months any necessary travel expenses in lieu of any payment otherwise authorized or required under this subchapter. An agency shall include in any request to the Administrator for approval of such a test program an analysis of the expected costs and benefits and a set of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the program.
(2) Any test program conducted under this section shall be designed to enhance cost savings or other efficiencies that accrue to the Government.
(3) Nothing in this section is intended to limit the authority of any agency to conduct test programs.
(b) The Administrator shall transmit a copy of any test program approved by the Administrator under this section to the appropriate committees of the Congress at least 30 days before the effective date of the program.
(c) An agency authorized to conduct a test program under subsection (a) shall provide to the Administrator and the appropriate committees of the Congress a report on the results of the program no later than 3 months after completion of the program.
(d) No more than 10 test programs under this section may be conducted simultaneously.
(e) The authority to conduct test programs under this section shall expire 7 years after the date of the enactment of the Travel and Transportation Reform Act of 1998.