TITLE 5 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - EXAMINATION, CERTIFICATION, AND APPOINTMENT

5 USC 3301 - Civil service; generally

The President may
(1) prescribe such regulations for the admission of individuals into the civil service in the executive branch as will best promote the efficiency of that service;
(2) ascertain the fitness of applicants as to age, health, character, knowledge, and ability for the employment sought; and
(3) appoint and prescribe the duties of individuals to make inquiries for the purpose of this section.

5 USC 3302 - Competitive service; rules

The President may prescribe rules governing the competitive service. The rules shall provide, as nearly as conditions of good administration warrant, for
(1) necessary exceptions of positions from the competitive service; and
(2) necessary exceptions from the provisions of sections 2951, 3304 (a), 3321, 7202, and 7203 of this title.

Each officer and individual employed in an agency to which the rules apply shall aid in carrying out the rules.

5 USC 3303 - Competitive service; recommendations of Senators or Representatives

An individual concerned in examining an applicant for or appointing him in the competitive service may not receive or consider a recommendation of the applicant by a Senator or Representative, except as to the character or residence of the applicant.

5 USC 3304 - Competitive service; examinations

(a) The President may prescribe rules which shall provide, as nearly as conditions of good administration warrant, for
(1) open, competitive examinations for testing applicants for appointment in the competitive service which are practical in character and as far as possible relate to matters that fairly test the relative capacity and fitness of the applicants for the appointment sought;
(2) noncompetitive examinations when competent applicants do not compete after notice has been given of the existence of the vacancy; and
(3) authority for agencies to appoint, without regard to the provision of sections 3309 through 3318, candidates directly to positions for which
(A) public notice has been given; and
(B) 
(i) the Office of Personnel Management has determined that there exists a severe shortage of candidates or there is a critical hiring need; or
(ii) the candidate is a participant in the Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation (SMART) Defense Defense[1] Education Program under section 2192a of title 10, United States Code.

The Office shall prescribe, by regulation, criteria for identifying such positions and may delegate authority to make determinations under such criteria.

(b) An individual may be appointed in the competitive service only if he has passed an examination or is specifically excepted from examination under section 3302 of this title. This subsection does not take from the President any authority conferred by section 3301 of this title that is consistent with the provisions of this title governing the competitive service.
(c) 
(1) For the purpose of this subsection, the term technician has the meaning given such term by section 8337 (h)(1) of this title.
(2) Notwithstanding a contrary provision of this title or of the rules and regulations prescribed under this title for the administration of the competitive service, an individual who served for at least 3 years as a technician acquires a competitive status for transfer to the competitive service if such individual
(A) is involuntarily separated from service as a technician other than by removal for cause on charges of misconduct or delinquency;
(B) passes a suitable noncompetitive examination; and
(C) transfers to the competitive service within 1 year after separating from service as a technician.
(d) The Office of Personnel Management shall promulgate regulations on the manner and extent that experience of an individual in a position other than the competitive service, such as the excepted service (as defined under section 2103) in the legislative or judicial branch, or in any private or nonprofit enterprise, may be considered in making appointments to a position in the competitive service (as defined under section 2102). In promulgating such regulations OPM shall not grant any preference based on the fact of service in the legislative or judicial branch. The regulations shall be consistent with the principles of equitable competition and merit based appointments.
(e) Employees at any place outside the District of Columbia where the President or the Office of Personnel Management directs that examinations be held shall allow the reasonable use of public buildings for, and in all proper ways facilitate, holding the examinations.
(f) 
(1) Preference eligibles or veterans who have been separated from the armed forces under honorable conditions after 3 years or more of active service may not be denied the opportunity to compete for vacant positions for which the agency making the announcement will accept applications from individuals outside its own workforce under merit promotion procedures.
(2) If selected, a preference eligible or veteran described in paragraph (1) shall receive a career or career-conditional appointment, as appropriate.
(3) This subsection shall not be construed to confer an entitlement to veterans preference that is not otherwise required by law.
(4) The area of consideration for all merit promotion announcements which include consideration of individuals of the Federal workforce shall indicate that preference eligibles and veterans who have been separated from the armed forces under honorable conditions after 3 years or more of active service are eligible to apply. The announcements shall be publicized in accordance with section 3327.
(5) The Office of Personnel Management shall prescribe regulations necessary for the administration of this subsection. The regulations shall ensure that an individual who has completed an initial tour of active duty is not excluded from the application of this subsection because of having been released from such tour of duty shortly before completing 3 years of active service, having been honorably released from such duty.
[1] So in original.

5 USC 3304a - Competitive service; career appointment after 3 years temporary service

(a) An individual serving in a position in the competitive service under an indefinite appointment or a temporary appointment pending establishment of a register (other than an individual serving under an overseas limited appointment, or in a position classified above GS15 pursuant to section 5108) acquires competitive status and is entitled to have his appointment converted to a career appointment, without condition, when
(1) he completes, without break in service of more than 30 days, a total of at least 3 years of service in such a position;
(2) he passes a suitable noncompetitive examination;
(3) the appointing authority
(A)  recommends to the Office of Personnel Management that the appointment of the individual be converted to a career appointment and
(B)  certifies to the Office that the work performance of the individual for the past 12 months has been satisfactory; and
(4) he meets Office qualification requirements for the position and is otherwise eligible for career appointment.
(b) The employing agency shall terminate the appointment of an individual serving in a position in the competitive service under an indefinite or temporary appointment described in subsection (a) of this section, not later than 90 days after he has completed the 3-year period referred to in subsection (a)(1) of this section, if, prior to the close of such 90-day period, such individual has not met the requirements and conditions of subparagraphs (2) to (4), inclusive, of subsection (a) of this section.
(c) In computing years of service under subsection (a)(1) of this section for an individual who leaves a position in the competitive service to enter the armed forces and is reemployed in such a position within 120 days after separation under honorable conditions, the period from the date he leaves his position to the date he is reemployed is included.
(d) The Office of Personnel Management may prescribe regulations necessary for the administration of this section.

5 USC 3305 - Competitive service; examinations; when held

(a) The Office of Personnel Management shall hold examinations for the competitive service at least twice a year in each State and territory or possession of the United States where there are individuals to be examined.
(b) The Office shall hold an examination for a position to which an appointment has been made within the preceding 3 years, on the application of an individual who qualifies as a preference eligible under section 2108 (3)(C)(G) of this title. The examination shall be held during the quarter following the application.

5 USC 3306 - Repealed. Pub. L. 95228, 1, Feb. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 25]

Section, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 419, related to apportionment of appointments in the departmental service in the District of Columbia among the States, territories, etc.

5 USC 3307 - Competitive service; maximum-age entrance requirements; exceptions

(a) Except as provided in subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this section appropriated funds may not be used to pay an employee who establishes a maximum-age requirement for entrance into the competitive service.
(b) The Secretary may, with the concurrence of such agent as the President may designate, determine and fix the maximum limit of age within which an original appointment to a position as an air traffic controller may be made.
(c) The Secretary of the Interior may determine and fix the minimum and maximum limits of age within which original appointments to the United States Park Police may be made.
(d) The head of any agency may determine and fix the minimum and maximum limits of age within which an original appointment may be made to a position as a law enforcement officer or firefighter, as defined by section 8331 (20) and (21), respectively, of this title.
(e) The head of an agency may determine and fix the maximum age limit for an original appointment to a position as a firefighter or law enforcement officer, as defined by section 8401 (14) or (17), respectively, of this title.
(f) The Secretary of Energy may determine and fix the maximum age limit for an original appointment to a position as a nuclear materials courier, as defined by section 8331 (27) or 8401 (33).
(g) The Secretary of Homeland Security may determine and fix the maximum age limit for an original appointment to a position as a customs and border protection officer, as defined by section 8401 (36).

5 USC 3308 - Competitive service; examinations; educational requirements prohibited; exceptions

The Office of Personnel Management or other examining agency may not prescribe a minimum educational requirement for an examination for the competitive service except when the Office decides that the duties of a scientific, technical, or professional position cannot be performed by an individual who does not have a prescribed minimum education. The Office shall make the reasons for its decision under this section a part of its public records.

5 USC 3309 - Preference eligibles; examinations; additional points for

A preference eligible who receives a passing grade in an examination for entrance into the competitive service is entitled to additional points above his earned rating, as follows
(1) a preference eligible under section 2108 (3)(C)(G) of this title10 points; and
(2) a preference eligible under section 2108 (3)(A)(B) of this title5 points.

5 USC 3310 - Preference eligibles; examinations; guards, elevator operators, messengers, and custodians

In examinations for positions of guards, elevator operators, messengers, and custodians in the competitive service, competition is restricted to preference eligibles as long as preference eligibles are available.

5 USC 3311 - Preference eligibles; examinations; crediting experience

In examinations for the competitive service in which experience is an element of qualification, a preference eligible is entitled to credit
(1) for service in the armed forces when his employment in a similar vocation to that for which examined was interrupted by the service; and
(2) for all experience material to the position for which examined, including experience gained in religious, civic, welfare, service, and organizational activities, regardless of whether he received pay therefor.

5 USC 3312 - Preference eligibles; physical qualifications; waiver

(a) In determining qualifications of a preference eligible for examination for, appointment in, or reinstatement in the competitive service, the Office of Personnel Management or other examining agency shall waive
(1) requirements as to age, height, and weight, unless the requirement is essential to the performance of the duties of the position; and
(2) physical requirements if, in the opinion of the Office or other examining agency, after considering the recommendation of an accredited physician, the preference eligible is physically able to perform efficiently the duties of the position.
(b) If an examining agency determines that, on the basis of evidence before it, a preference eligible under section 2108 (3)(C) of this title who has a compensable service-connected disability of 30 percent or more is not able to fulfill the physical requirements of the position, the examining agency shall notify the Office of the determination and, at the same time, the examining agency shall notify the preference eligible of the reasons for the determination and of the right to respond, within 15 days of the date of the notification, to the Office. The Office shall require a demonstration by the appointing authority that the notification was timely sent to the preference eligibles last known address and shall, before the selection of any other person for the position, make a final determination on the physical ability of the preference eligible to perform the duties of the position, taking into account any additional information provided in any such response. When the Office has completed its review of the proposed disqualification on the basis of physical disability, it shall send its findings to the appointing authority and the preference eligible. The appointing authority shall comply with the findings of the Office. The functions of the Office under this subsection may not be delegated.

5 USC 3313 - Competitive service; registers of eligibles

The names of applicants who have qualified in examinations for the competitive service shall be entered on appropriate registers or lists of eligibles in the following order
(1) for scientific and professional positions in GS9 or higher, in the order of their ratings, including points added under section 3309 of this title; and
(2) for all other positions
(A) disabled veterans who have a compensable service-connected disability of 10 percent or more, in order of their ratings, including points added under section 3309 of this title; and
(B) remaining applicants, in the order of their ratings, including points added under section 3309 of this title.

The names of preference eligibles shall be entered ahead of others having the same rating.

5 USC 3314 - Registers; preference eligibles who resigned

A preference eligible who resigns, on request to the Office of Personnel Management, is entitled to have his name placed again on all registers for which he may have been qualified, in the order named by section 3313 of this title.

5 USC 3315 - Registers; preference eligibles furloughed or separated

(a) A preference eligible who has been separated or furloughed without delinquency or misconduct, on request, is entitled to have his name placed on appropriate registers and employment lists for every position for which his qualifications have been established, in the order named by section 3313 of this title. This subsection applies to registers and employment lists maintained by the Office of Personnel Management, an Executive agency, or the government of the District of Columbia.
(b) The Office may declare a preference eligible who has been separated or furloughed without pay under section 7512 of this title to be entitled to the benefits of subsection (a) of this section.

5 USC 3315a - Repealed. Pub. L. 93416, 22(c), Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1150]

Section, added Pub. L. 90–83 § 1(9)(A), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 197, related to registration by Civil Service Commission of employees receiving compensation for injuries for certification for appointment to vacant positions.

5 USC 3316 - Preference eligibles; reinstatement

On request of an appointing authority, a preference eligible who has resigned or who has been dismissed or furloughed may be certified for, and appointed to, a position for which he is eligible in the competitive service, an Executive agency, or the government of the District of Columbia.

5 USC 3317 - Competitive service; certification from registers

(a) The Office of Personnel Management shall certify enough names from the top of the appropriate register to permit a nominating or appointing authority who has requested a certificate of eligibles to consider at least three names for appointment to each vacancy in the competitive service.
(b) When an appointing authority, for reasons considered sufficient by the Office, has three times considered and passed over a preference eligible who was certified from a register, certification of the preference eligible for appointment may be discontinued. However, the preference eligible is entitled to advance notice of discontinuance of certification.

5 USC 3318 - Competitive service; selection from certificates

(a) The nominating or appointing authority shall select for appointment to each vacancy from the highest three eligibles available for appointment on the certificate furnished under section 3317 (a) of this title, unless objection to one or more of the individuals certified is made to, and sustained by, the Office of Personnel Management for proper and adequate reason under regulations prescribed by the Office.
(b) 
(1) If an appointing authority proposes to pass over a preference eligible on a certificate in order to select an individual who is not a preference eligible, such authority shall file written reasons with the Office for passing over the preference eligible. The Office shall make the reasons presented by the appointing authority part of the record of the preference eligible and may require the submission of more detailed information from the appointing authority in support of the passing over of the preference eligible. The Office shall determine the sufficiency or insufficiency of the reasons submitted by the appointing authority, taking into account any response received from the preference eligible under paragraph (2) of this subsection. When the Office has completed its review of the proposed passover, it shall send its findings to the appointing authority and to the preference eligible. The appointing authority shall comply with the findings of the Office.
(2) In the case of a preference eligible described in section 2108 (3)(C) of this title who has a compensable service-connected disability of 30 percent or more, the appointing authority shall at the same time it notifies the Office under paragraph (1) of this subsection, notify the preference eligible of the proposed passover, of the reasons therefor, and of his right to respond to such reasons to the Office within 15 days of the date of such notification. The Office shall, before completing its review under paragraph (1) of this subsection, require a demonstration by the appointing authority that the passover notification was timely sent to the preference eligibles last known address.
(3) A preference eligible not described in paragraph (2) of this subsection, or his representative, shall be entitled, on request, to a copy of
(A) the reasons submitted by the appointing authority in support of the proposed passover, and
(B) the findings of the Office.
(4) In the case of a preference eligible described in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the functions of the Office under this subsection may not be delegated.
(c) When three or more names of preference eligibles are on a reemployment list appropriate for the position to be filled, a nominating or appointing authority may appoint from a register of eligibles established after examination only an individual who qualifies as a preference eligible under section 2108 (3)(C)(G) of this title.

5 USC 3319 - Alternative ranking and selection procedures

(a) The Office, in exercising its authority under section 3304, or an agency to which the Office has delegated examining authority under section 1104 (a)(2), may establish category rating systems for evaluating applicants for positions in the competitive service, under 2 or more quality categories based on merit consistent with regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management, rather than assigned individual numerical ratings.
(b) Within each quality category established under subsection (a), preference-eligibles shall be listed ahead of individuals who are not preference eligibles. For other than scientific and professional positions at GS9 of the General Schedule (equivalent or higher), qualified preference-eligibles who have a compensable service-connected disability of 10 percent or more shall be listed in the highest quality category.
(c) 
(1) An appointing official may select any applicant in the highest quality category or, if fewer than 3 candidates have been assigned to the highest quality category, in a merged category consisting of the highest and the second highest quality categories.
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the appointing official may not pass over a preference-eligible in the same category from which selection is made, unless the requirements of section 3317 (b) or 3318 (b), as applicable, are satisfied.
(d) Each agency that establishes a category rating system under this section shall submit in each of the 3 years following that establishment, a report to Congress on that system including information on
(1) the number of employees hired under that system;
(2) the impact that system has had on the hiring of veterans and minorities, including those who are American Indian or Alaska Natives, Asian, Black or African American, and native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders; and
(3) the way in which managers were trained in the administration of that system.
(e) The Office of Personnel Management may prescribe such regulations as it considers necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

5 USC 3320 - Excepted service; government of the District of Columbia; selection

The nominating or appointing authority shall select for appointment to each vacancy in the excepted service in the executive branch and in the government of the District of Columbia from the qualified applicants in the same manner and under the same conditions required for the competitive service by sections 3308–3318 of this title. This section does not apply to an appointment required by Congress to be confirmed by, or made with the advice and consent of, the Senate.

5 USC 3321 - Competitive service; probationary period

(a) The President may take such action, including the issuance of rules, regulations, and directives, as shall provide as nearly as conditions of good administration warrant for a period of probation
(1) before an appointment in the competitive service becomes final; and
(2) before initial appointment as a supervisor or manager becomes final.
(b) An individual
(1) who has been transferred, assigned, or promoted from a position to a supervisory or managerial position, and
(2) who does not satisfactorily complete the probationary period under subsection (a)(2) of this section,

shall be returned to a position of no lower grade and pay than the position from which the individual was transferred, assigned, or promoted. Nothing in this section prohibits an agency from taking an action against an individual serving a probationary period under subsection (a)(2) of this section for cause unrelated to supervisory or managerial performance.

(c) Subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply with respect to appointments in the Senior Executive Service or the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Drug Enforcement Administration Senior Executive Service.

5 USC 3322 - Repealed. Pub. L. 95256, 5(b)(1), Apr. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 191]

Section, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 422, related to temporary appointments after age 70 in the competitive service.

5 USC 3323 - Automatic separations; reappointment; reemployment of annuitants

(a) An individual who reaches the retirement age prescribed for automatic separation applicable to him may not be continued in the civil service or in the government of the District of Columbia. An individual separated on account of age under a statute or regulation providing for retirement on account of age is not eligible for appointment in the civil service or in the government of the District of Columbia. The President, when in his judgment the public interest so requires, may except an individual from this subsection by Executive order. This subsection does not apply to an individual named by a statute providing for the continuance of the individual in the civil service or in the government of the District of Columbia.
(b) 
(1) Notwithstanding other statutes, an annuitant, as defined by section 8331 or 8401, receiving annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund is not barred by reason of his retired status from employment in an appointive position for which the annuitant is qualified. An annuitant so reemployed, other than an annuitant reappointed under paragraph (2) of this subsection, serves at the will of the appointing authority.
(2) Subject to such regulations as the Director of the Office of Personnel Management may prescribe, any annuitant to whom the first sentence of paragraph (1) of this subsection applies and who has served as an administrative law judge pursuant to an appointment under section 3105 of this title may be reappointed an administrative law judge under such section for a specified period or for such period as may be necessary for such administrative law judge to conduct and complete the hearing and disposition of one or more specified cases. The provisions of this title that apply to or with respect to administrative law judges appointed under section 3105 of this title shall apply to or with respect to administrative law judges reappointed under such section pursuant to the first sentence of this paragraph.
(c) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, a member of the Foreign Service retired under section 812 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 is not barred by reason of his retired status from employment in a position in the civil service for which he is qualified. An annuitant so reemployed serves at the will of the appointing authority.
(d) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, the Chief of Engineers of the Army, under section 569a of title 33, may employ a retired employee whose expert assistance is needed in connection with river and harbor or flood control works. There shall be deducted from the pay of an employee so reemployed an amount equal to the annuity or retired pay allocable to the period of actual employment.

5 USC 3324 - Appointments to positions classified above GS15

(a) An appointment to a position classified above GS15 pursuant to section 5108 may be made only on approval of the qualifications of the proposed appointee by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management on the basis of qualification standards developed by the agency involved in accordance with criteria specified in regulations prescribed by the Director. This section does not apply to a position
(1) to which appointment is made by the Chief Judge of the United States Tax Court;
(2) to which appointment is made by the President;
(3) to which appointment is made by the Librarian of Congress; or
(4) the incumbent of which is paid from
(A) appropriations for the Executive Office of the President under the heading The White House Office, Special Projects, Council of Economic Advisers, or National Security Council; or
(B) funds appropriated to the President under the heading Emergency Fund for the President by the Treasury, Post Office, and Executive Office Appropriation Act, 1966, or a later statute making appropriations for the same purpose.
(b) The Office may prescribe regulations necessary for the administration of this section.

5 USC 3325 - Appointments to scientific and professional positions

(a) Positions established under section 3104 of this title are in the competitive service. However, appointments to the positions are made without competitive examination on approval of the qualifications of the proposed appointee by the Office of Personnel Management on the basis of standards developed by the agency involved in accordance with criteria specified in regulations prescribed by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management.
(b) This section does not apply to positions established under section 3104 (c).
(c) The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this section.

5 USC 3326 - Appointments of retired members of the armed forces to positions in the Department of Defense

(a) For the purpose of this section, member and Secretary concerned have the meanings given them by section 101 of title 37.
(b) A retired member of the armed forces may be appointed to a position in the civil service in or under the Department of Defense (including a nonappropriated fund instrumentality under the jurisdiction of the armed forces) during the period of 180 days immediately after his retirement only if
(1) the proposed appointment is authorized by the Secretary concerned or his designee for the purpose, and, if the position is in the competitive service, after approval by the Office of Personnel Management;
(2) the minimum rate of basic pay for the position has been increased under section 5305 of this title; or
(3) a state of national emergency exists.
(c) A request by appropriate authority for the authorization, or the authorization and approval, as the case may be, required by subsection (b)(1) of this section shall be accompanied by a statement which shows the actions taken to assure that
(1) full consideration, in accordance with placement and promotion procedures of the department concerned, was given to eligible career employees;
(2) when selection is by other than certification from an established civil service register, the vacancy has been publicized to give interested candidates an opportunity to apply;
(3) qualification requirements for the position have not been written in a manner designed to give advantage to the retired member; and
(4) the position has not been held open pending the retirement of the retired member.

5 USC 3327 - Civil service employment information

(a) The Office of Personnel Management shall provide that information concerning opportunities to participate in competitive examinations conducted by, or under authority delegated by, the Office of Personnel Management shall be made available to the employment offices of the United States Employment Service.
(b) Subject to such regulations as the Office may issue, each agency shall promptly notify the Office and the employment offices of the United States Employment Service of
(1) each vacant position in the agency which is in the competitive service or the Senior Executive Service and for which the agency seeks applications from persons outside the Federal service, and
(2) the period during which applications will be accepted.

As used in this subsection, agency means an agency as defined in section 5102 (a)(1) of this title other than an agency all the positions in which are excepted by statute from the competitive service.

5 USC 3328 - Selective Service registration

(a) An individual
(1) who was born after December 31, 1959, and is or was required to register under section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 453); and
(2) who is not so registered or knowingly and willfully did not so register before the requirement terminated or became inapplicable to the individual,

shall be ineligible for appointment to a position in an Executive agency.

(b) The Office of Personnel Management, in consultation with the Director of the Selective Service System, shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. Such regulations shall include provisions prescribing procedures for the adjudication of determinations of whether a failure to register was knowing and willful. Such procedures shall require that such a determination may not be made if the individual concerned shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the failure to register was neither knowing nor willful. Such procedures may provide that determinations of eligibility under the requirements of this section shall be adjudicated by the Executive agency making the appointment for which the eligibility is determined.

5 USC 3329 - Appointments of military reserve technicians to positions in the competitive service

(a) For the purpose of this section, the term military reserve technician has the meaning given the term military technician (dual status) by section 8401 (30).
(b) The Secretary of Defense shall take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that, except as provided in subsection (d), any military reserve technician who is involuntarily separated from technician service, after completing at least 15 years of such service and 20 years of service creditable under section 12732 of title 10, by reason of ceasing to satisfy the condition described in section 8401 (30)(B)1 shall, if appropriate written application is submitted within 1 year after the date of separation, be provided placement consideration in a position described in subsection (c) through a priority placement program of the Department of Defense.
(c) 
(1) The position for which placement consideration shall be provided to a former military technician under subsection (b) shall be a position
(A) in either the competitive service or the excepted service;
(B) within the Department of Defense; and
(C) in which the person is qualified to serve, taking into consideration whether the employee in that position is required to be a member of a reserve component of the armed forces as a condition of employment.
(2) To the maximum extent practicable, the position shall also be in a pay grade or other pay classification sufficient to ensure that the rate of basic pay of the former military technician, upon appointment to the position, is not less than the rate of basic pay last received by the former military technician for technician service before separation.
(d) This section shall not apply in the case of
(1) an involuntary separation for cause on charges of misconduct or delinquency; or
(2) a technician who, as of the date of application under this section, is eligible for immediate (including for disability) or early retirement under subchapter III of chapter 83 or under chapter 84.
(e) The Secretary of Defense shall, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section.
[1] See References in Text note below.

5 USC 3330 - Government-wide list of vacant positions

(a) For the purpose of this section, the term agency means an Executive agency, excluding the Government Accountability Office and any agency (or unit thereof) whose principal function is the conduct of foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities, as determined by the President.
(b) The Office of Personnel Management shall establish and keep current a comprehensive list of all announcements of vacant positions in the competitive service within each agency that are to be filled by appointment for more than one year and for which applications are being (or will soon be) accepted from outside the agencys work force.
(c) Included for any position listed shall be
(1) a brief description of the position, including its title, tenure, location, and rate of pay;
(2) application procedures, including the period within which applications may be submitted and procedures for obtaining additional information; and
(3) any other information which the Office considers appropriate.
(d) The list shall be available to members of the public.
(e) The Office shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section. Any requirement under this section that agencies notify the Office as to the availability of any vacant positions shall be designed so as to avoid any duplication of information otherwise required to be furnished under section 3327 of this title or any other provision of law.
(f) The Office may, to the extent it determines appropriate, charge such fees to agencies for services provided under this section and for related Federal employment information. The Office shall retain such fees to pay the costs of providing such services and information.

5 USC 3330a - Preference eligibles; administrative redress

(a) 
(1) 
(A) A preference eligible who alleges that an agency has violated such individuals rights under any statute or regulation relating to veterans preference may file a complaint with the Secretary of Labor.
(B) A veteran described in section 3304 (f)(1) who alleges that an agency has violated such section with respect to such veteran may file a complaint with the Secretary of Labor.
(2) 
(A) A complaint under this subsection must be filed within 60 days after the date of the alleged violation.
(B) Such complaint shall be in writing, be in such form as the Secretary may prescribe, specify the agency against which the complaint is filed, and contain a summary of the allegations that form the basis for the complaint.
(3) The Secretary shall, upon request, provide technical assistance to a potential complainant with respect to a complaint under this subsection.
(b) 
(1) The Secretary of Labor shall investigate each complaint under subsection (a).
(2) In carrying out any investigation under this subsection, the Secretarys duly authorized representatives shall, at all reasonable times, have reasonable access to, for purposes of examination, and the right to copy and receive, any documents of any person or agency that the Secretary considers relevant to the investigation.
(3) In carrying out any investigation under this subsection, the Secretary may require by subpoena the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of documents relating to any matter under investigation. In case of disobedience of the subpoena or contumacy and on request of the Secretary, the Attorney General may apply to any district court of the United States in whose jurisdiction such disobedience or contumacy occurs for an order enforcing the subpoena.
(4) Upon application, the district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to issue writs commanding any person or agency to comply with the subpoena of the Secretary or to comply with any order of the Secretary made pursuant to a lawful investigation under this subsection and the district courts shall have jurisdiction to punish failure to obey a subpoena or other lawful order of the Secretary as a contempt of court.
(c) 
(1) 
(A) If the Secretary of Labor determines as a result of an investigation under subsection (b) that the action alleged in a complaint under subsection (a) occurred, the Secretary shall attempt to resolve the complaint by making reasonable efforts to ensure that the agency specified in the complaint complies with applicable provisions of statute or regulation relating to veterans preference.
(B) The Secretary of Labor shall make determinations referred to in subparagraph (A) based on a preponderance of the evidence.
(2) If the efforts of the Secretary under subsection (b) with respect to a complaint under subsection (a) do not result in the resolution of the complaint, the Secretary shall notify the person who submitted the complaint, in writing, of the results of the Secretarys investigation under subsection (b).
(d) 
(1) If the Secretary of Labor is unable to resolve a complaint under subsection (a) within 60 days after the date on which it is filed, the complainant may elect to appeal the alleged violation to the Merit Systems Protection Board in accordance with such procedures as the Merit Systems Protection Board shall prescribe, except that in no event may any such appeal be brought
(A) before the 61st day after the date on which the complaint is filed; or
(B) later than 15 days after the date on which the complainant receives written notification from the Secretary under subsection (c)(2).
(2) An appeal under this subsection may not be brought unless
(A) the complainant first provides written notification to the Secretary of such complainants intention to bring such appeal; and
(B) appropriate evidence of compliance with subparagraph (A) is included (in such form and manner as the Merit Systems Protection Board may prescribe) with the notice of appeal under this subsection.
(3) Upon receiving notification under paragraph (2)(A), the Secretary shall not continue to investigate or further attempt to resolve the complaint to which the notification relates.
(e) 
(1) This section shall not be construed to prohibit a preference eligible from appealing directly to the Merit Systems Protection Board from any action which is appealable to the Board under any other law, rule, or regulation, in lieu of administrative redress under this section.
(2) A preference eligible may not pursue redress for an alleged violation described in subsection (a) under this section at the same time the preference eligible pursues redress for such violation under any other law, rule, or regulation.

5 USC 3330b - Preference eligibles; judicial redress

(a) In lieu of continuing the administrative redress procedure provided under section 3330a (d), a preference eligible, or a veteran described by section 3330a (a)(1)(B) with respect to a violation described by such section, may elect, in accordance with this section, to terminate those administrative proceedings and file an action with the appropriate United States district court not later than 60 days after the date of the election.
(b) An election under this section may not be made
(1) before the 121st day after the date on which the appeal is filed with the Merit Systems Protection Board under section 3330a (d); or
(2) after the Merit Systems Protection Board has issued a judicially reviewable decision on the merits of the appeal.
(c) An election under this section shall be made, in writing, in such form and manner as the Merit Systems Protection Board shall by regulation prescribe. The election shall be effective as of the date on which it is received, and the administrative proceeding to which it relates shall terminate immediately upon the receipt of such election.

5 USC 3330c - Preference eligibles; remedy

(a) If the Merit Systems Protection Board (in a proceeding under section 3330a) or a court (in a proceeding under section 3330b) determines that an agency has violated a right described in section 3330a, the Board or court (as the case may be) shall order the agency to comply with such provisions and award compensation for any loss of wages or benefits suffered by the individual by reason of the violation involved. If the Board or court determines that such violation was willful, it shall award an amount equal to backpay as liquidated damages.
(b) A preference eligible who prevails in an action under section 3330a or 3330b shall be awarded reasonable attorney fees, expert witness fees, and other litigation expenses.