49 USC 5302 - Definitions

(a) In General.— 
Except as otherwise specifically provided, in this chapter, the following definitions apply:
(1) Capital project.— 
The term capital project means a project for
(A) acquiring, constructing, supervising, or inspecting equipment or a facility for use in public transportation, expenses incidental to the acquisition or construction (including designing, engineering, location surveying, mapping, and acquiring rights-of-way), payments for the capital portions of rail trackage rights agreements, transit-related intelligent transportation systems, relocation assistance, acquiring replacement housing sites, and acquiring, constructing, relocating, and rehabilitating replacement housing;
(B) rehabilitating a bus;

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(C) remanufacturing a bus;
(D) overhauling rail rolling stock;
(E) preventive maintenance;
(F) leasing equipment or a facility for use in public transportation, subject to regulations that the Secretary prescribes limiting the leasing arrangements to those that are more cost-effective than purchase or construction;
(G) a public transportation improvement that enhances economic development or incorporates private investment, including commercial and residential development, pedestrian and bicycle access to a public transportation facility, construction, renovation, and improvement of intercity bus and intercity rail stations and terminals, and the renovation and improvement of historic transportation facilities, because the improvement enhances the effectiveness of a public transportation project and is related physically or functionally to that public transportation project, or establishes new or enhanced coordination between public transportation and other transportation, and provides a fair share of revenue for public transportation that will be used for public transportation
(i) including property acquisition, demolition of existing structures, site preparation, utilities, building foundations, walkways, open space, safety and security equipment and facilities (including lighting, surveillance and related intelligent transportation system applications), facilities that incorporate community services such as daycare or health care, and a capital project for, and improving, equipment or a facility for an intermodal transfer facility or transportation mall, except that a person making an agreement to occupy space in a facility under this subparagraph shall pay a reasonable share of the costs of the facility through rental payments and other means; and
(ii) excluding construction of a commercial revenue-producing facility (other than an intercity bus station or terminal) or a part of a public facility not related to public transportation;
(H) the introduction of new technology, through innovative and improved products, into public transportation;
(I) the provision of nonfixed route paratransit transportation services in accordance with section 223 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12143), but only for grant recipients that are in compliance with applicable requirements of that Act, including both fixed route and demand responsive service, and only for amounts not to exceed 10 percent of such recipients annual formula apportionment under sections 5307 and 5311;
(J) crime prevention and security

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(i) including
(I) projects to refine and develop security and emergency response plans;
(II) projects aimed at detecting chemical and biological agents in public transportation;
(III) the conduct of emergency response drills with public transportation agencies and local first response agencies; and
(IV) security training for public transportation employees; but
(ii) excluding all expenses related to operations, other than such expenses incurred in conducting activities described in clauses (i)(III) and (i)(IV);
(K) establishing a debt service reserve, made up of deposits with a bondholders trustee, to ensure the timely payment of principal and interest on bonds issued by a grant recipient to finance an eligible project under this chapter; or
(L) mobility management
(i) consisting of short-range planning and management activities and projects for improving coordination among public transportation and other transportation service providers carried out by a recipient or subrecipient through an agreement entered into with a person, including a governmental entity, under this chapter (other than section 5309); but
(ii) excluding operating public transportation services.
(2) Chief executive officer of a state.— 
The term chief executive officer of a State includes the designee of the chief executive officer.
(3) Emergency regulation.— 
The term emergency regulation means a regulation
(A) that is effective temporarily before the expiration of the otherwise specified periods of time for public notice and comment under section 5334 (b);[1] and
(B) prescribed by the Secretary as the result of a finding that a delay in the effective date of the regulation
(i) would injure seriously an important public interest;
(ii) would frustrate substantially legislative policy and intent; or
(iii) would damage seriously a person or class without serving an important public interest.
(4) Fixed guideway.— 
The term fixed guideway means a public transportation facility
(A) using and occupying a separate right-of-way or rail for the exclusive use of public transportation and other high occupancy vehicles; or
(B) using a fixed catenary system and a right-of-way usable by other forms of transportation.
(5) Individual with a disability.— 
The term individual with a disability means an individual who, because of illness, injury, age, congenital malfunction, or other incapacity or temporary or permanent disability (including an individual who is a wheelchair user or has semiambulatory capability), cannot use effectively, without special facilities, planning, or design, public transportation service or a public transportation facility.
(6) Local governmental authority.— 
The term local governmental authority includes
(A) a political subdivision of a State;
(B) an authority of at least 1 State or political subdivision of a State;
(C) an Indian tribe; and
(D) a public corporation, board, or commission established under the laws of a State.
(7) Mass transportation.— 
The term mass transportation means public transportation.
(8) Net project cost.— 
The term net project cost means the part of a project that reasonably cannot be financed from revenues.
(9) New bus model.— 
The term new bus model means a bus model (including a model using alternative fuel)
(A) that has not been used in public transportation in the United States before the date of production of the model; or
(B) used in public transportation in the United States, but being produced with a major change in configuration or components.
(10) Public transportation.— 
The term public transportation means transportation by a conveyance that provides regular and continuing general or special transportation to the public, but does not include schoolbus, charter, or intercity bus transportation or intercity passenger rail transportation provided by the entity described in chapter 243 (or a successor to such entity).
(11) Regulation.— 
The term regulation means any part of a statement of general or particular applicability of the Secretary designed to carry out, interpret, or prescribe law or policy in carrying out this chapter.
(12) Secretary.— 
The term Secretary means the Secretary of Transportation.
(13) State.— 
The term State means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.
(14) Transit.— 
The term transit means public transportation.
(15) Transit enhancement.— 
The term transit enhancement means, with respect to any project or an area to be served by a project, projects that are designed to enhance public transportation service or use and that are physically or functionally related to transit facilities. Eligible projects are
(A) historic preservation, rehabilitation, and operation of historic public transportation buildings, structures, and facilities (including historic bus and railroad facilities);
(B) bus shelters;
(C) landscaping and other scenic beautification, including tables, benches, trash receptacles, and street lights;
(D) public art;
(E) pedestrian access and walkways;
(F) bicycle access, including bicycle storage facilities and installing equipment for transporting bicycles on public transportation vehicles;
(G) transit connections to parks within the recipients transit service area;
(H) signage; and
(I) enhanced access for persons with disabilities to public transportation.
(16) Urban area.— 
The term urban area means an area that includes a municipality or other built-up place that the Secretary, after considering local patterns and trends of urban growth, decides is appropriate for a local public transportation system to serve individuals in the locality.
(17) Urbanized area.— 
The term urbanized area means an area encompassing a population of not less than 50,000 people that has been defined and designated in the most recent decennial census as an urbanized area by the Secretary of Commerce.
(b) Authority To Modify “Individual With a Disability”.— 
The Secretary may by regulation modify the definition of the term individual with a disability in subsection (a)(5) as it applies to section 5307 (d)(1)(D).
[1] See References in Text note below.