46 USC 8101 - Complement of inspected vessels

(a) The certificate of inspection issued to a vessel under part B of this subtitle shall state the complement of licensed individuals and crew (including lifeboatmen) considered by the Secretary to be necessary for safe operation. A manning requirement imposed on
(1) a sailing school vessel shall consider the participation of sailing school instructors and sailing school students in the operation of that vessel;
(2) a mobile offshore drilling unit shall consider the specialized nature of the unit; and
(3) a tank vessel shall consider the navigation, cargo handling, and maintenance functions of that vessel for protection of life, property, and the environment.
(b) The Secretary may modify the complement, by endorsement on the certificate, for reasons of changed conditions or employment.
(c) A requirement made under this section by an authorized official may be appealed to the Secretary under prescribed regulations.
(d) A vessel to which this section applies may not be operated without having in its service the complement required in the certificate of inspection.
(e) When a vessel is deprived of the service of a member of its complement without the consent, fault, or collusion of the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel, the master shall engage, if obtainable, a number of members equal to the number of those of whose services the master has been deprived. The replacements must be of the same or a higher grade or rating than those whose places they fill. If the master finds the vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage, and replacements are not available to fill all the vacancies, the vessel may proceed on its voyage. Within 12 hours after the vessel arrives at its destination, the master shall report in writing to the Secretary the cause of each deficiency in the complement. A master failing to make the report is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $1,000 for each deficiency.
(f) The owner, charterer, or managing operator of a vessel not manned as required by this section is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $10,000.
(g) A person may not employ an individual as, and an individual may not serve as, a master, mate, engineer, radio officer, or pilot of a vessel to which this part applies or which is subject to inspection under chapter 33 of this title if the individual is not licensed by the Secretary. A person (including an individual) violating this subsection is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate offense.
(h) The owner, charterer, or managing operator of a freight vessel of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title, a small passenger vessel, or a sailing school vessel not manned as required by this section is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $1,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(i) When the 2 next most senior licensed officers on a vessel reasonably believe that the master or individual in charge of the vessel is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug and is incapable of commanding the vessel, the next most senior master, mate, or operator licensed under section 7101 (c)(1) or (3) of this title shall
(1) temporarily relieve the master or individual in charge;
(2) temporarily take command of the vessel;
(3) in the case of a vessel required to have a log under chapter 113 of this title, immediately enter the details of the incident in the log; and
(4) report those details to the Secretary
(A) by the most expeditious means available; and
(B) in written form transmitted within 12 hours after the vessel arrives at its next port.