42 USC 13925 - Definitions and grant provisions

(a) Definitions 
In this subchapter:
(1) Courts 
The term courts means any civil or criminal, tribal, and Alaska Native Village, Federal, State, local or territorial court having jurisdiction to address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking, including immigration, family, juvenile, and dependency courts, and the judicial officers serving in those courts, including judges, magistrate judges, commissioners, justices of the peace, or any other person with decisionmaking authority.
(2) Child abuse and neglect 
The term child abuse and neglect means any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caregiver with intent to cause death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. This definition shall not be construed to mean that failure to leave an abusive relationship, in the absence of other action constituting abuse or neglect, is itself abuse or neglect.
(3) Community-based organization 
The term community-based organization means an organization that

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(A) focuses primarily on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;
(B) has established a specialized culturally specific program that addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;
(C) has a primary focus on underserved populations (and includes representatives of these populations) and domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; or
(D) obtains expertise, or shows demonstrated capacity to work effectively, on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking through collaboration.
(4) Child maltreatment 
The term child maltreatment means the physical or psychological abuse or neglect of a child or youth, including sexual assault and abuse.
(5) Court-based and court-related personnel 
The term court-based and court-related personnel mean persons working in the court, whether paid or volunteer, including
(A) clerks, special masters, domestic relations officers, administrators, mediators, custody evaluators, guardians ad litem, lawyers, negotiators, probation, parole, interpreters, victim assistants, victim advocates, and judicial, administrative, or any other professionals or personnel similarly involved in the legal process;
(B) court security personnel;
(C) personnel working in related, supplementary offices or programs (such as child support enforcement); and
(D) any other court-based or community-based personnel having responsibilities or authority to address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking in the court system.

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(6) Domestic violence 
The term domestic violence includes felony or misdemeanor crimes of violence committed by a current or former spouse of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, by a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim as a spouse, by a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction receiving grant monies, or by any other person against an adult or youth victim who is protected from that persons acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction.
(7) Dating partner 
The term dating partner refers to a person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the abuser, and where the existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on a consideration of
(A) the length of the relationship;
(B) the type of relationship; and
(C) the frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.
(8) Dating violence 
The term dating violence means violence committed by a person
(A) who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim; and
(B) where the existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on a consideration of the following factors:
(i) The length of the relationship.
(ii) The type of relationship.
(iii) The frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.
(9) Elder abuse 
The term elder abuse means any action against a person who is 50 years of age or older that constitutes the willful
(A) infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or cruel punishment with resulting physical harm, pain, or mental anguish; or
(B) deprivation by a person, including a caregiver, of goods or services with intent to cause physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness.
(10) Indian 
The term Indian means a member of an Indian tribe.
(11) Indian country 
The term Indian country has the same meaning given such term in section 1151 of title 18.
(12) Indian housing 
The term Indian housing means housing assistance described in the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 et seq., as amended).
(13) Indian tribe 
The term Indian tribe means a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.
(14) Indian law enforcement 
The term Indian law enforcement means the departments or individuals under the direction of the Indian tribe that maintain public order.
(15) Law enforcement 
The term law enforcement means a public agency charged with policing functions, including any of its component bureaus (such as governmental victim services programs), including those referred to in section 2802 of title 25.
(16) Legal assistance 
The term legal assistance includes assistance to adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in
(A) family, tribal, territorial, immigration, employment, administrative agency, housing matters, campus administrative or protection or stay away order proceedings, and other similar matters; and
(B) criminal justice investigations, prosecutions and post-trial matters (including sentencing, parole, and probation) that impact the victims safety and privacy.
(17) Linguistically and culturally specific services 
The term linguistically and culturally specific services means community-based services that offer full linguistic access and culturally specific services and resources, including outreach, collaboration, and support mechanisms primarily directed toward underserved communities.
(18) Personally identifying information or personal information 
The term personally identifying information or personal information means individually identifying information for or about an individual including information likely to disclose the location of a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including
(A) a first and last name;
(B) a home or other physical address;
(C) contact information (including a postal, e-mail or Internet protocol address, or telephone or facsimile number);
(D) a social security number; and
(E) any other information, including date of birth, racial or ethnic background, or religious affiliation, that, in combination with any of subparagraphs (A) through (D), would serve to identify any individual.
(19) Prosecution 
The term prosecution means any public agency charged with direct responsibility for prosecuting criminal offenders, including such agencys component bureaus (such as governmental victim services programs).
(20) Protection order or restraining order 
The term protection order or restraining order includes
(A) any injunction, restraining order, or any other order issued by a civil or criminal court for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, sexual violence or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person, including any temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding so long as any civil order was issued in response to a complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of a person seeking protection; and
(B) any support, child custody or visitation provisions, orders, remedies, or relief issued as part of a protection order, restraining order, or stay away injunction pursuant to State, tribal, territorial, or local law authorizing the issuance of protection orders, restraining orders, or injunctions for the protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.
(21) Rural area and rural community 
The term rural area and rural community mean
(A) any area or community, respectively, no part of which is within an area designated as a standard metropolitan statistical area by the Office of Management and Budget; or
(B) any area or community, respectively, that is
(i) within an area designated as a metropolitan statistical area or considered as part of a metropolitan statistical area; and
(ii) located in a rural census tract.
(22) Rural State 
The term rural State means a State that has a population density of 52 or fewer persons per square mile or a State in which the largest county has fewer than 150,000 people, based on the most recent decennial census.
(23) Sexual assault 
The term sexual assault means any conduct proscribed by chapter 109A of title 18, whether or not the conduct occurs in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States or in a Federal prison and includes both assaults committed by offenders who are strangers to the victim and assaults committed by offenders who are known or related by blood or marriage to the victim.
(24) Stalking 
The term stalking means engaging in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to
(A) fear for his or her safety or the safety of others; or
(B) suffer substantial emotional distress.
(25) State 
The term State means each of the several States and the District of Columbia, and except as otherwise provided, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
(26) State domestic violence coalition 
The term State domestic violence coalition means a program determined by the Administration for Children and Families under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (42 U.S.C. 10410 (b)).
(27) State sexual assault coalition 
The term State sexual assault coalition means a program determined by the Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 280b et seq.).
(28) Territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition 
The term territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition means a program addressing domestic or sexual violence that is
(A) an established nonprofit, nongovernmental territorial coalition addressing domestic violence or sexual assault within the territory; or
(B) a nongovernmental organization with a demonstrated history of addressing domestic violence or sexual assault within the territory that proposes to incorporate as a nonprofit, nongovernmental territorial coalition.
(29) Tribal coalition 
The term tribal coalition means
(A) an established nonprofit, nongovernmental tribal coalition addressing domestic violence and sexual assault against American Indian or Alaskan Native women; or
(B) individuals or organizations that propose to incorporate as nonprofit, nongovernmental tribal coalitions to address domestic violence and sexual assault against American Indian or Alaska Native women.
(30) Tribal government 
The term tribal government means
(A) the governing body of an Indian tribe; or
(B) a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.
(31) Tribal nonprofit organization 
The term tribal nonprofit organization means
(A) a victim services provider that has as its primary purpose to assist Native victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and
(B) staff and leadership of the organization must include persons with a demonstrated history of assisting American Indian or Alaska Native victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.
(32) Tribal organization 
The term tribal organization means
(A) the governing body of any Indian tribe;
(B) any legally established organization of Indians which is controlled, sanctioned, or chartered by such governing body of a tribe or tribes to be served, or which is democratically elected by the adult members of the Indian community to be served by such organization and which includes the maximum participation of Indians in all phases of its activities; or
(C) any tribal nonprofit organization.
(33) Underserved populations 
The term underserved populations includes populations underserved because of geographic location, underserved racial and ethnic populations, populations underserved because of special needs (such as language barriers, disabilities, alienage status, or age), and any other population determined to be underserved by the Attorney General or by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as appropriate.
(34) Victim advocate 
The term victim advocate means a person, whether paid or serving as a volunteer, who provides services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or dating violence under the auspices or supervision of a victim services program.
(35) Victim assistant 
The term victim assistant means a person, whether paid or serving as a volunteer, who provides services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or dating violence under the auspices or supervision of a court or a law enforcement or prosecution agency.
(36) Victim services or victim service provider 
The term victim services or victim service provider means a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that assists domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victims, including rape crisis centers, domestic violence shelters, faith-based organizations, and other organizations, with a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.
(37) Youth 
The term youth means teen and young adult victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.
(b) Grant conditions 

(1) Match 
No matching funds shall be required for any grant or subgrant made under this Act for
(A) any tribe, territory, or victim service provider; or
(B) any other entity, including a State, that
(i) petitions for a waiver of any match condition imposed by the Attorney General or the Secretaries of Health and Human Services or Housing and Urban Development; and
(ii) whose petition for waiver is determined by the Attorney General or the Secretaries of Health and Human Services or Housing and Urban Development to have adequately demonstrated the financial need of the petitioning entity.
(2) Nondisclosure of confidential or private information 

(A) In general 
In order to ensure the safety of adult, youth, and child victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their families, grantees and subgrantees under this subchapter shall protect the confidentiality and privacy of persons receiving services.
(B) Nondisclosure 
Subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), grantees and subgrantees shall not
(i) disclose any personally identifying information or individual information collected in connection with services requested, utilized, or denied through grantees and subgrantees programs; or
(ii) reveal individual client information without the informed, written, reasonably time-limited consent of the person (or in the case of an unemancipated minor, the minor and the parent or guardian or in the case of persons with disabilities, the guardian) about whom information is sought, whether for this program or any other Federal, State, tribal, or territorial grant program, except that consent for release may not be given by the abuser of the minor, person with disabilities, or the abuser of the other parent of the minor.
(C) Release 
If release of information described in subparagraph (B) is compelled by statutory or court mandate
(i) grantees and subgrantees shall make reasonable attempts to provide notice to victims affected by the disclosure of information; and
(ii) grantees and subgrantees shall take steps necessary to protect the privacy and safety of the persons affected by the release of the information.
(D) Information sharing 
Grantees and subgrantees may share
(i) nonpersonally identifying data in the aggregate regarding services to their clients and nonpersonally identifying demographic information in order to comply with Federal, State, tribal, or territorial reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements;
(ii) court-generated information and law-enforcement generated information contained in secure, governmental registries for protection order enforcement purposes; and
(iii) law enforcement- and prosecution-generated information necessary for law enforcement and prosecution purposes.
(E) Oversight 
Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Attorney General from disclosing grant activities authorized in this Act to the chairman and ranking members of the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate exercising Congressional oversight authority. All disclosures shall protect confidentiality and omit personally identifying information, including location information about individuals.
(3) Approved activities 
In carrying out the activities under this subchapter, grantees and subgrantees may collaborate with and provide information to Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies to reduce or eliminate domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.
(4) Non-supplantation 
Any Federal funds received under this subchapter shall be used to supplement, not supplant, non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for activities under this subchapter.
(5) Use of funds 
Funds authorized and appropriated under this subchapter may be used only for the specific purposes described in this subchapter and shall remain available until expended.
(6) Reports 
An entity receiving a grant under this subchapter shall submit to the disbursing agency a report detailing the activities undertaken with the grant funds, including and providing additional information as the agency shall require.
(7) Evaluation 
Federal agencies disbursing funds under this subchapter shall set aside up to 3 percent of such funds in order to conduct
(A) evaluations of specific programs or projects funded by the disbursing agency under this subchapter or related research; or
(B) evaluations of promising practices or problems emerging in the field or related research, in order to inform the agency or agencies as to which programs or projects are likely to be effective or responsive to needs in the field.
(8) Nonexclusivity 
Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to prohibit male victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking from receiving benefits and services under this subchapter.
(9) Prohibition on tort litigation 
Funds appropriated for the grant program under this subchapter may not be used to fund civil representation in a lawsuit based on a tort claim. This paragraph should not be construed as a prohibition on providing assistance to obtain restitution in a protection order or criminal case.
(10) Prohibition on lobbying 
Any funds appropriated for the grant program shall be subject to the prohibition in section 1913 of title 18, relating to lobbying with appropriated moneys.
(11) Technical assistance 
Of the total amounts appropriated under this subchapter, not less than 3 percent and up to 8 percent, unless otherwise noted, shall be available for providing training and technical assistance relating to the purposes of this subchapter to improve the capacity of the grantees, subgrantees, and other entities. If there is a demonstrated history that the Office on Violence Against Women has previously set aside amounts greater than 8 percent for technical assistance and training relating to grant programs authorized under this subchapter, the Office has the authority to continue setting aside amounts greater than 8 percent.