26 USC 40 - Alcohol used as fuel

(a) General rule 
For purposes of section 38, the alcohol fuels credit determined under this section for the taxable year is an amount equal to the sum of
(1) the alcohol mixture credit, plus
(2) the alcohol credit, plus
(3) in the case of an eligible small ethanol producer, the small ethanol producer credit.

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(b) Definition of alcohol mixture credit, alcohol credit, and small ethanol producer credit 
For purposes of this section, and except as provided in subsection (h)
(1) Alcohol mixture credit 

(A) In general 
The alcohol mixture credit of any taxpayer for any taxable year is 60 cents for each gallon of alcohol used by the taxpayer in the production of a qualified mixture.
(B) Qualified mixture 
The term qualified mixture means a mixture of alcohol and gasoline or of alcohol and a special fuel which
(i) is sold by the taxpayer producing such mixture to any person for use as a fuel, or
(ii) is used as a fuel by the taxpayer producing such mixture.
(C) Sale or use must be in trade or business, etc. 
Alcohol used in the production of a qualified mixture shall be taken into account
(i) only if the sale or use described in subparagraph (B) is in a trade or business of the taxpayer, and
(ii) for the taxable year in which such sale or use occurs.
(D) Casual off-farm production not eligible 
No credit shall be allowed under this section with respect to any casual off-farm production of a qualified mixture.

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(2) Alcohol credit 

(A) In general 
The alcohol credit of any taxpayer for any taxable year is 60 cents for each gallon of alcohol which is not in a mixture with gasoline or a special fuel (other than any denaturant) and which during the taxable year
(i) is used by the taxpayer as a fuel in a trade or business, or
(ii) is sold by the taxpayer at retail to a person and placed in the fuel tank of such persons vehicle.
(B) User credit not to apply to alcohol sold at retail 
No credit shall be allowed under subparagraph (A)(i) with respect to any alcohol which was sold in a retail sale described in subparagraph (A)(ii).
(3) Smaller credit for lower proof alcohol 
In the case of any alcohol with a proof which is at least 150 but less than 190, paragraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) shall be applied by substituting 45 cents for 60 cents.
(4) Small ethanol producer credit 

(A) In general 
The small ethanol producer credit of any eligible small ethanol producer for any taxable year is 10 cents for each gallon of qualified ethanol fuel production of such producer.
(B) Qualified ethanol fuel production 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term qualified ethanol fuel production means any alcohol which is ethanol which is produced by an eligible small ethanol producer, and which during the taxable year
(i) is sold by such producer to another person
(I) for use by such other person in the production of a qualified mixture in such other persons trade or business (other than casual off-farm production),
(II) for use by such other person as a fuel in a trade or business, or
(III) who sells such ethanol at retail to another person and places such ethanol in the fuel tank of such other person, or
(ii) is used or sold by such producer for any purpose described in clause (i).
(C) Limitation 
The qualified ethanol fuel production of any producer for any taxable year shall not exceed 15,000,000 gallons.
(D) Additional distillation excluded 
The qualified ethanol fuel production of any producer for any taxable year shall not include any alcohol which is purchased by the producer and with respect to which such producer increases the proof of the alcohol by additional distillation.
(5) Adding of denaturants not treated as mixture 
The adding of any denaturant to alcohol shall not be treated as the production of a mixture.
(c) Coordination with exemption from excise tax 
The amount of the credit determined under this section with respect to any alcohol shall, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, be properly reduced to take into account any benefit provided with respect to such alcohol solely by reason of the application of section 4041 (b)(2), section 6426, or section 6427 (e).
(d) Definitions and special rules 
For purposes of this section
(1) Alcohol defined 

(A) In general 
The term alcohol includes methanol and ethanol but does not include
(i) alcohol produced from petroleum, natural gas, or coal (including peat), or
(ii) alcohol with a proof of less than 150.
(B) Determination of proof 
The determination of the proof of any alcohol shall be made without regard to any added denaturants.
(2) Special fuel defined 
The term special fuel includes any liquid fuel (other than gasoline) which is suitable for use in an internal combustion engine.
(3) Mixture or alcohol not used as a fuel, etc. 

(A) Mixtures 
If
(i) any credit was determined under this section with respect to alcohol used in the production of any qualified mixture, and
(ii) any person
(I) separates the alcohol from the mixture, or
(II) without separation, uses the mixture other than as a fuel,

then there is hereby imposed on such person a tax equal to 60 cents a gallon (45 cents in the case of alcohol with a proof less than 190) for each gallon of alcohol in such mixture.

(B) Alcohol 
If
(i) any credit was determined under this section with respect to the retail sale of any alcohol, and
(ii) any person mixes such alcohol or uses such alcohol other than as a fuel,

then there is hereby imposed on such person a tax equal to 60 cents a gallon (45 cents in the case of alcohol with a proof less than 190) for each gallon of such alcohol.

(C) Producer credit 
If
(i) any credit was determined under subsection (a)(3), and
(ii) any person does not use such fuel for a purpose described in subsection (b)(4)(B),

then there is hereby imposed on such person a tax equal to 10 cents a gallon for each gallon of such alcohol.

(D) Applicable laws 
All provisions of law, including penalties, shall, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with this section, apply in respect of any tax imposed under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) as if such tax were imposed by section 4081 and not by this chapter.
(4) Volume of alcohol 
For purposes of determining under subsection (a) the number of gallons of alcohol with respect to which a credit is allowable under subsection (a), the volume of alcohol shall include the volume of any denaturant (including gasoline) which is added under any formulas approved by the Secretary to the extent that such denaturants do not exceed 5 percent of the volume of such alcohol (including denaturants).
(5) Pass-thru in the case of estates and trusts 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of subsection (d) of section 52 shall apply.
(e) Termination 

(1) In general 
This section shall not apply to any sale or use
(A) for any period after December 31, 2010, or
(B) for any period before January 1, 2011, during which the rates of tax under section 4081 (a)(2)(A) are 4.3 cents per gallon.
(2) No carryovers to certain years after expiration 
If this section ceases to apply for any period by reason of paragraph (1), no amount attributable to any sale or use before the first day of such period may be carried under section 39 by reason of this section (treating the amount allowed by reason of this section as the first amount allowed by this subpart) to any taxable year beginning after the 3-taxable-year period beginning with the taxable year in which such first day occurs.
(f) Election to have alcohol fuels credit not apply 

(1) In general 
A taxpayer may elect to have this section not apply for any taxable year.
(2) Time for making election 
An election under paragraph (1) for any taxable year may be made (or revoked) at any time before the expiration of the 3-year period beginning on the last date prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year (determined without regard to extensions).
(3) Manner of making election 
An election under paragraph (1) (or revocation thereof) shall be made in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.
(g) Definitions and special rules for eligible small ethanol producer credit 
For purposes of this section
(1) Eligible small ethanol producer 
The term eligible small ethanol producer means a person who, at all times during the taxable year, has a productive capacity for alcohol (as defined in subsection (d)(1)(A) without regard to clauses (i) and (ii)) not in excess of 60,000,000 gallons.
(2) Aggregration 1 rule 
For purposes of the 15,000,000 gallon limitation under subsection (b)(4)(C) and the 60,000,000 gallon limitation under paragraph (1), all members of the same controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 267 (f)) and all persons under common control (within the meaning of section 52 (b) but determined by treating an interest of more than 50 percent as a controlling interest) shall be treated as 1 person.
(3) Partnership, S corporations, and other pass-thru entities 
In the case of a partnership, trust, S corporation, or other pass-thru entity, the limitations contained in subsection (b)(4)(C) and paragraph (1) shall be applied at the entity level and at the partner or similar level.
(4) Allocation 
For purposes of this subsection, in the case of a facility in which more than 1 person has an interest, productive capacity shall be allocated among such persons in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe.
(5) Regulations 
The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary
(A) to prevent the credit provided for in subsection (a)(3) from directly or indirectly benefiting any person with a direct or indirect productive capacity of more than 60,000,000 gallons of alcohol during the taxable year, or
(B) to prevent any person from directly or indirectly benefiting with respect to more than 15,000,000 gallons during the taxable year.
(6) Allocation of small ethanol producer credit to patrons of cooperative 

(A) Election to allocate 

(i) In general In the case of a cooperative organization described in section 1381 (a), any portion of the credit determined under subsection (a)(3) for the taxable year may, at the election of the organization, be apportioned pro rata among patrons of the organization on the basis of the quantity or value of business done with or for such patrons for the taxable year.
(ii) Form and effect of election An election under clause (i) for any taxable year shall be made on a timely filed return for such year. Such election, once made, shall be irrevocable for such taxable year. Such election shall not take effect unless the organization designates the apportionment as such in a written notice mailed to its patrons during the payment period described in section 1382 (d).
(B) Treatment of organizations and patrons 

(i) Organizations The amount of the credit not apportioned to patrons pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall be included in the amount determined under subsection (a)(3) for the taxable year of the organization.
(ii) Patrons The amount of the credit apportioned to patrons pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall be included in the amount determined under such subsection for the first taxable year of each patron ending on or after the last day of the payment period (as defined in section 1382 (d)) for the taxable year of the organization or, if earlier, for the taxable year of each patron ending on or after the date on which the patron receives notice from the cooperative of the apportionment.
(iii) Special rules for decrease in credits for taxable year If the amount of the credit of the organization determined under such subsection for a taxable year is less than the amount of such credit shown on the return of the organization for such year, an amount equal to the excess of
(I) such reduction, over
(II) the amount not apportioned to such patrons under subparagraph (A) for the taxable year,

shall be treated as an increase in tax imposed by this chapter on the organization. Such increase shall not be treated as tax imposed by this chapter for purposes of determining the amount of any credit under this chapter or for purposes of section 55.

(h) Reduced credit for ethanol blenders 

(1) In general 
In the case of any alcohol mixture credit or alcohol credit with respect to any sale or use of alcohol which is ethanol during calendar years 2001 through 2010
(A) subsections (b)(1)(A) and (b)(2)(A) shall be applied by substituting the blender amount for 60 cents,
(B) subsection (b)(3) shall be applied by substituting the low-proof blender amount for 45 cents and the blender amount for 60 cents, and
(C) subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (d)(3) shall be applied by substituting the blender amount for 60 cents and the low-proof blender amount for 45 cents.
(2) Amounts 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the blender amount and the low-proof blender amount shall be determined in accordance with the following table:
[1] So in original. Probably should be “Aggregation”.