23 USC 114 - Construction

(a) Construction Work In General.— 
The construction of any Federal-aid highway or a portion of a Federal-aid highway shall be undertaken by the respective State transportation departments or under their direct supervision. The Secretary shall have the right to conduct such inspections and take such corrective action as the Secretary determines to be appropriate. The construction work and labor in each State shall be performed under the direct supervision of the State transportation department and in accordance with the laws of that State and applicable Federal laws. Construction may be begun as soon as funds are available for expenditure pursuant to subsection (a) of section 118 of this title. After July 1, 1973, the State transportation department shall not erect on any project where actual construction is in progress and visible to highway users any informational signs other than official traffic control devices conforming with standards developed by the Secretary of Transportation.
(b) Convict Labor and Convict Produced Materials.— 

(1) Limitation on convict labor.— 
Convict labor shall not be used in construction of highways or portions of highways located on a Federal-aid system unless it is labor performed by convicts who are on parole, supervised release, or probation.
(2) Limitation on convict produced materials.— 
Materials produced after July 1, 1991, by convict labor may only be used in such construction

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(A) if such materials are produced by convicts who are on parole, supervised release, or probation from a prison; or
(B) if such materials are produced by convicts in a qualified prison facility and the amount of such materials produced in such facility for use in such construction during any 12-month period does not exceed the amount of such materials produced in such facility for use in such construction during the 12-month period ending July 1, 1987.
(3) Qualified prison facility defined.— 
As used in this subsection, qualified prison facility means any prison facility in which convicts, during the 12-month period ending July 1, 1987, produced materials for use in construction of highways or portions of highways located on a Federal-aid system.
(c) Construction Work in Alaska.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary shall ensure that a worker who is employed on a remote project for the construction of a highway or portion of a highway located on a Federal-aid system in the State of Alaska and who is not a domiciled resident of the locality shall receive meals and lodging.
(2) Lodging.— 
The lodging under paragraph (1) shall be in accordance with section 1910.142 of title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (relating to temporary labor camp requirements).
(3) Per diem.— 

(A) In general.— 
Contractors are encouraged to use commercial facilities and lodges on remote projects, however, when such facilities are not available, per diem in lieu of room and lodging may be paid on remote Federal highway projects at a basic rate of $75.00 per day or part of a day the worker is employed on the project. Where the contractor provides or furnishes room and lodging or pays a per diem, the cost of the amount shall not be considered a part of wages and shall be excluded from the calculation of wages.
(B) Secretary of labor.— 
Such per diem rate shall be adopted by the Secretary of Labor for all applicable remote Federal highway projects in Alaska.
(C) Exception.— 
Per diem shall not be allowed on any of the following remote projects for the construction of a highway or portion of a highway located on a Federal-aid system:

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(i) West of Livengood on the Elliot Highway.
(ii) Mile 0 on the Dalton Highway to the North Slope of Alaska; north of Mile 20 on the Taylor Highway.
(iii) East of Chicken on the Top of the World Highway and south of Tetlin Junction to the Alaska Canadian border.
(4) Definitions.— 
In this subsection, the following definitions apply:
(A) Remote.— 
The term remote, as used with respect to a project, means that the project is 65 road miles or more from the international airport in Fairbanks, Anchorage, or Juneau, Alaska, as the case may be, or is inaccessible by road in a 2-wheel drive vehicle.
(B) Resident.— 
The term resident, as used with respect to a project, means a person living within 65 road miles of the midpoint of the project for at least 12 consecutive months prior to the award of the project.