12 USC 1828 - Regulations governing insured depository institutions

(a) Representations of deposit insurance 

(1) Insured depository institutions 

(A) In general 
Each insured depository institution shall display at each place of business maintained by that institution a sign or signs relating to the insurance of the deposits of the institution, in accordance with regulations to be prescribed by the Corporation.
(B) Statement to be included 
Each sign required under subparagraph (A) shall include a statement that insured deposits are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government.

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(2) Regulations 
The Corporation shall prescribe regulations to carry out this subsection, including regulations governing the substance of signs required by paragraph (1) and the manner of display or use of such signs.
(3) Penalties 
For each day that an insured depository institution continues to violate paragraph (1) or any regulation issued under paragraph (2), it shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $100, which the Corporation may recover for its use.
(4) False advertising, misuse of FDIC names, and misrepresentation to indicate insured status 

(A) Prohibition on false advertising and misuse of FDIC names 
No person may represent or imply that any deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is insured or guaranteed by the Corporation, if such deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is not insured or guaranteed by the Corporation
(i) by using the terms Federal Deposit, Federal Deposit Insurance, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, any combination of such terms, or the abbreviation FDIC as part of the business name or firm name of any person, including any corporation, partnership, business trust, association, or other business entity; or
(ii) by using such terms or any other terms, sign, or symbol as part of an advertisement, solicitation, or other document.
(B) Prohibition on misrepresentations of insured status 
No person may knowingly misrepresent
(i) that any deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is insured, under this chapter, if such deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is not so insured; or
(ii) the extent to which or the manner in which any deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is insured under this chapter, if such deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is not so insured, to the extent or in the manner represented.
(C) Authority of the appropriate Federal banking agency 
The appropriate Federal banking agency shall have enforcement authority in the case of a violation of this paragraph by any person for which the agency is the appropriate Federal banking agency, or any institution-affiliated party thereof.

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(D) Corporation authority if the appropriate Federal banking agency fails to follow recommendation 

(i) Recommendation The Corporation may recommend in writing to the appropriate Federal banking agency that the agency take any enforcement action authorized under section 1818 of this title for purposes of enforcement of this paragraph with respect to any person for which the agency is the appropriate Federal banking agency or any institution-affiliated party thereof.
(ii) Agency response If the appropriate Federal banking agency does not, within 30 days of the date of receipt of a recommendation under clause (i), take the enforcement action with respect to this paragraph recommended by the Corporation or provide a plan acceptable to the Corporation for responding to the situation presented, the Corporation may take the recommended enforcement action against such person or institution-affiliated party.
(E) Additional authority 
In addition to its authority under subparagraphs (C) and (D), for purposes of this paragraph, the Corporation shall have, in the same manner and to the same extent as with respect to a State nonmember insured bank
(i) jurisdiction over
(I) any person other than a person for which another agency is the appropriate Federal banking agency or any institution-affiliated party thereof; and
(II) any person that aids or abets a violation of this paragraph by a person described in subclause (I); and
(ii) for purposes of enforcing the requirements of this paragraph, the authority of the Corporation under
(I) section 1820 (c) of this title to conduct investigations; and
(II) subsections (b), (c), (d) and (i) of section 1818 of this title to conduct enforcement actions.
(F) Other actions preserved 
No provision of this paragraph shall be construed as barring any action otherwise available, under the laws of the United States or any State, to any Federal or State agency or individual.
(b) Payment of dividends by defaulting depository institutions 
No insured depository institution shall pay any dividends on its capital stock or interest on its capital notes or debentures (if such interest is required to be paid only out of net profits) or distribute any of its capital assets while it remains in default in the payment of any assessment due to the Corporation; and any director or officer of any insured depository institution who participates in the declaration or payment of any such dividend or interest or in any such distribution shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both: Provided, That, if such default is due to a dispute between the insured depository institution and the Corporation over the amount of such assessment, this subsection shall not apply if the insured depository institution deposits security satisfactory to the Corporation for payment upon final determination of the issue.
(c) Merger transactions; consent of banking agencies; emergency approval; notice; uniform standards; antitrust actions; review de novo; limitations; report to Congress; money laundering; applicability 

(1) Except with the prior written approval of the responsible agency, which shall in every case referred to in this paragraph be the Corporation, no insured depository institution shall
(A) merge or consolidate with any noninsured bank or institution;
(B) assume liability to pay any deposits (including liabilities which would be deposits except for the proviso in section 1813 (l)(5) of this title) made in, or similar liabilities of, any noninsured bank or institution; or
(C) transfer assets to any noninsured bank or institution in consideration of the assumption of liabilities for any portion of the deposits made in such insured depository institution.
(2) No insured depository institution shall merge or consolidate with any other insured depository institution or, either directly or indirectly, acquire the assets of, or assume liability to pay any deposits made in, any other insured depository institution except with the prior written approval of the responsible agency, which shall be
(A) the Comptroller of the Currency if the acquiring, assuming, or resulting bank is to be a national bank;
(B) the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System if the acquiring, assuming, or resulting bank is to be a State member bank;
(C) the Corporation if the acquiring, assuming, or resulting bank is to be a State nonmember insured bank (except a savings bank supervised by the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision); and
(D) the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision if the acquiring, assuming, or resulting institution is to be a savings association.
(3) Notice of any proposed transaction for which approval is required under paragraph (1) or (2) (referred to hereafter in this subsection as a merger transaction) shall, unless the responsible agency finds that it must act immediately in order to prevent the probable default of one of the banks or savings associations involved, be published
(A) prior to the granting of approval of such transaction,
(B) in a form approved by the responsible agency,
(C) at appropriate intervals during a period at least as long as the period allowed for furnishing reports under paragraph (4) of this subsection, and
(D) in a newspaper of general circulation in the community or communities where the main offices of the banks or savings associations involved are located, or, if there is no such newspaper in any such community, then in the newspaper of general circulation published nearest thereto.
(4) Reports on competitive factors.— 

(A) Request for report.— 
In the interests of uniform standards and subject to subparagraph (B), before acting on any application for approval of a merger transaction, the responsible agency shall
(i) request a report on the competitive factors involved from the Attorney General of the United States; and
(ii) provide a copy of the request to the Corporation (when the Corporation is not the responsible agency).
(B) Furnishing of report.— 
The report requested under subparagraph (A) shall be furnished by the Attorney General to the responsible agency
(i) not later than 30 calendar days after the date on which the Attorney General received the request; or
(ii) not later than 10 calendar days after such date, if the requesting agency advises the Attorney General that an emergency exists requiring expeditious action.
(C) Exceptions.— 
A responsible agency may not be required to request a report under subparagraph (A) if
(i) the responsible agency finds that it must act immediately in order to prevent the probable failure of 1 of the insured depository institutions involved in the merger transaction; or
(ii) the merger transaction involves solely an insured depository institution and 1 or more of the affiliates of such depository institution.
(5) The responsible agency shall not approve
(A) any proposed merger transaction which would result in a monopoly, or which would be in furtherance of any combination or conspiracy to monopolize or to attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any part of the United States, or
(B) any other proposed merger transaction whose effect in any section of the country may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly, or which in any other manner would be in restraint of trade, unless it finds that the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served.

In every case, the responsible agency shall take into consideration the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the existing and proposed institutions, and the convenience and needs of the community to be served.

(6) The responsible agency shall immediately notify the Attorney General of any approval by it pursuant to this subsection of a proposed merger transaction. If the agency has found that it must act immediately to prevent the probable failure of one of the insured depository institutions involved, or if the proposed merger transaction is solely between an insured depository institution and 1 or more of its affiliates, and the report on the competitive factors has been dispensed with, the transaction may be consummated immediately upon approval by the agency. If the agency has advised the Attorney General under paragraph (4)(B)(ii) of the existence of an emergency requiring expeditious action and has requested a report on the competitive factors within 10 days, the transaction may not be consummated before the fifth calendar day after the date of approval by the agency. In all other cases, the transaction may not be consummated before the thirtieth calendar day after the date of approval by the agency or, if the agency has not received any adverse comment from the Attorney General of the United States relating to competitive factors, such shorter period of time as may be prescribed by the agency with the concurrence of the Attorney General, but in no event less than 15 calendar days after the date of approval.
(7) 
(A) Any action brought under the antitrust laws arising out of a merger transaction shall be commenced prior to the earliest time under paragraph (6) at which a merger transaction approved under paragraph (5) might be consummated. The commencement of such an action shall stay the effectiveness of the agencys approval unless the court shall otherwise specifically order. In any such action, the court shall review de novo the issues presented.
(B) In any judicial proceeding attacking a merger transaction approved under paragraph (5) on the ground that the merger transaction alone and of itself constituted a violation of any antitrust laws other than section 2 of title 15, the standards applied by the court shall be identical with those that the banking agencies are directed to apply under paragraph (5).
(C) Upon the consummation of a merger transaction in compliance with this subsection and after the termination of any antitrust litigation commenced within the period prescribed in this paragraph, or upon the termination of such period if no such litigation is commenced therein, the transaction may not thereafter be attacked in any judicial proceeding on the ground that it alone and of itself constituted a violation of any antitrust laws other than section 2 of title 15, but nothing in this subsection shall exempt any bank or savings association resulting from a merger transaction from complying with the antitrust laws after the consummation of such transaction.
(D) In any action brought under the antitrust laws arising out of a merger transaction approved by a Federal supervisory agency pursuant to this subsection, such agency, and any State banking supervisory agency having jurisdiction within the State involved, may appear as a part of its own motion and as of right, and be represented by its counsel.
(8) For the purposes of this subsection, the term antitrust laws means the Act of July 2, 1890 (the Sherman Antitrust Act), the Act of October 15, 1914 (the Clayton Act), and any other Acts in pari materia.
(9) Each of the responsible agencies shall include in its annual report to the Congress a description of each merger transaction approved by it during the period covered by the report, along with
(A) the name and total resources of each bank or savings association involved;
(B) whether a report was submitted by the Attorney General under paragraph (4), and, if so, a summary by the Attorney General of the substance of such report; and
(C) a statement by the responsible agency of the basis for its approval.
(10) Until June 30, 1976, the responsible agency shall not grant any approval required by law which has the practical effect of permitting a conversion from the mutual to the stock form of organization, including approval of any application pending on the date of enactment of this subsection, except that this sentence shall not be deemed to limit now or hereafter the authority of the responsible agency to grant approvals in cases where the responsible agency finds that it must act in order to maintain the safety, soundness, and stability of an insured depository institution. The responsible agency may by rule, regulation, or otherwise and under such civil penalties (which shall be cumulative to any other remedies) as it may prescribe take whatever action it deems necessary or appropriate to implement or enforce this subsection.
(11) Money laundering.— 
In every case, the responsible agency, shall take into consideration the effectiveness of any insured depository institution involved in the proposed merger transaction in combatting money laundering activities, including in overseas branches.
(12) The provisions of this subsection do not apply to any merger transaction involving a foreign bank if no party to the transaction is principally engaged in business in the United States.
(d) Branch banks 

(1) No State nonmember insured bank shall establish and operate any new domestic branch unless it shall have the prior written consent of the Corporation, and no State nonmember insured bank shall move its main office or any such branch from one location to another without such consent. No foreign bank may move any insured branch from one location to another without such consent. The factors to be considered in granting or withholding the consent of the Corporation under this subsection shall be those enumerated in section 1816 of this title.
(2) No State nonmember insured bank shall establish or operate any foreign branch, except with the prior written consent of the Corporation and upon such conditions and pursuant to such regulations as the Corporation may prescribe from time to time.
(3) Exclusive authority for additional branches.— 

(A) In general.— 
Effective June 1, 1997, a State nonmember bank may not acquire, establish, or operate a branch in any State other than the banks home State (as defined in section 1831u (f)(4)1 of this title) or a State in which the bank already has a branch unless the acquisition, establishment, or operation of a branch in such State by a State nonmember bank is authorized under this subsection or section 1823 (f), 1823 (k), or 1831u of this title.
(B) Retention of branches.— 
In the case of a State nonmember bank which relocates the main office of such bank from 1 State to another State after May 31, 1997, the bank may retain and operate branches within the State which was the banks home State (as defined in section 1831u (f)(4)1 of this title) before the relocation of such office only to the extent the bank would be authorized, under this section or any other provision of law referred to in subparagraph (A), to acquire, establish, or commence to operate a branch in such State if
(i) the bank had no branches in such State; or
(ii) the branch resulted from
(I) an interstate merger transaction approved pursuant to section 1831u of this title; or
(II) a transaction after May 31, 1997, pursuant to which the bank received assistance from the Corporation under section 1823 (c) of this title.
(4) State “opt-in” election to permit interstate branching through de novo branches.— 

(A) In general.— 
Subject to subparagraph (B), the Corporation may approve an application by an insured State nonmember bank to establish and operate a de novo branch in a State (other than the banks home State) in which the bank does not maintain a branch if
(i) there is in effect in the host State a law that
(I) applies equally to all banks; and
(II) expressly permits all out-of-State banks to establish de novo branches in such State; and
(ii) the conditions established in, or made applicable to this paragraph by, subparagraph (B) are met.
(B) Conditions on establishment and operation of interstate branch.— 

(i) Establishment.— 
An application by an insured State nonmember bank to establish and operate a de novo branch in a host State shall be subject to the same requirements and conditions to which an application for a merger transaction is subject under paragraphs (1), (3), and (4) of section 1831u (b) of this title.
(ii) Operation.— 
Subsections (c) and (d)(2) of section 1831u of this title shall apply with respect to each branch of an insured State nonmember bank which is established and operated pursuant to an application approved under this paragraph in the same manner and to the same extent such provisions of such section apply to a branch of a State bank which resulted from a merger transaction under such section 1831u of this title.
(C) “De novo branch” defined.— 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term de novo branch means a branch of a State bank which
(i) is originally established by the State bank as a branch; and
(ii) does not become a branch of such bank as a result of
(I) the acquisition by the bank of an insured depository institution or a branch of an insured depository institution; or
(II) the conversion, merger, or consolidation of any such institution or branch.
(D) “Home state” defined.— 
The term home State means the State by which a State bank is chartered.
(E) “Host state” defined.— 
The term host State means, with respect to a bank, a State, other than the home State of the bank, in which the bank maintains, or seeks to establish and maintain, a branch.
(e) Indemnity insurance 
The Corporation may require any insured depository institution to provide protection and indemnity against burglary, defalcation, and other similar insurable losses. Whenever any insured depository institution refuses to comply with any such requirement the Corporation may contract for such protection and indemnity and add the cost thereof to the assessment otherwise payable by such bank.[2]
(f) Publication of reports 
Whenever any insured depository institution (except a national bank), after written notice of the recommendations of the Corporation based on a report of examination of such insured depository institution by an examiner of the Corporation, shall fail to comply with such recommendations within one hundred and twenty days after such notice, the Corporation shall have the power, and is authorized, to publish only such part of such report of examination as relates to any recommendation not complied with: Provided, That notice of intention to make such publication shall be given to the insured depository institution at least ninety days before such publication is made.
(g) Interest or dividend on demand deposits; definitions; regulation of interest rates 

(1) The Board of Directors shall by regulation prohibit the payment of interest or dividends on demand deposits in insured nonmember banks and in insured branches of foreign banks and for such purpose it may define the term demand deposits; but such exceptions from this prohibition shall be made as are now or may hereafter be prescribed with respect to deposits payable on demand in member banks by section 19 of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended, or by regulation of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Board of Directors may from time to time, after consulting with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, prescribe rules governing the advertisement of interest or dividends on deposits by insured nonmember banks (including insured mutual savings banks) on time and savings deposits. The Board of Directors is authorized for the purposes of this subsection to define the terms time deposits and savings deposits, to determine what shall be deemed a payment of interest, and to prescribe such regulations as it may deem necessary to effectuate the purposes of this subsection and to prevent evasions thereof. The provisions of this subsection and of regulations issued thereunder shall also apply, in the discretion of the Board of Directors, to obligations other than deposits that are undertaken by insured nonmember banks or their affiliates. As used in this subsection, the term affiliate has the same meaning as when used in section 221a (b) of this title, except that the term member bank, as used in such section 221a (b), shall be deemed to refer to an insured nonmember bank. During the period commencing on October 15, 1962, and ending on October 15, 1968, the provisions of this subsection shall not apply to the rate of interest which may be paid by insured nonmember banks on time deposits of foreign governments, monetary and financial authorities of foreign governments when acting as such, or international financial institutions of which the United States is a member. The authority conferred by this subsection shall also apply to noninsured banks in any State if the total amount of time and savings deposits held in all such banks in the State, plus the total amount of deposits, shares, and withdrawable accounts held in all building and loan, savings and loan, and homestead associations (including cooperative banks) in the State which are not members of a Federal home loan bank, is more than 20 per centum of the total amount of such deposits, shares, and withdrawable accounts held in all banks, and building and loan, savings and loan, and homestead associations (including cooperative banks) in the State. Such authority shall only be exercised by the Board of Directors with respect to such noninsured banks prior to July 31, 1970, to limit the rates of interest or dividends which such banks may pay on time and savings deposits to maximum rates not lower than 51/2 per centum per annum. Whenever it shall appear to the Board of Directors that any noninsured bank or any affiliate thereof is engaged or has engaged or is about to engage in any acts or practices which constitute or will constitute a violation of the provisions of this subsection or of any regulations thereunder, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion, bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the principal office of the noninsured bank or affiliate thereof is located to enjoin such acts or practices, to enforce compliance with this subsection or any regulations thereunder, or for a combination of the foregoing, and such courts shall have jurisdiction of such actions, and, upon a proper showing, an injunction, restraining order, or other appropriate order may be granted without bond.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), an insured nonmember bank may permit withdrawals to be made automatically from a savings deposit that consists only of funds in which the entire beneficial interest is held by one or more individuals through payment to the bank itself or through transfer of credit to a demand deposit or other account pursuant to written authorization from the depositor to make such payments or transfers in connection with checks or drafts drawn upon the bank, pursuant to terms and conditions prescribed by the Board of Directors.
(h) Penalty for failure to timely pay assessments 

(1) In general 
Subject to paragraph (3), any insured depository institution which fails or refuses to pay any assessment shall be subject to a penalty in an amount of not more than 1 percent of the amount of the assessment due for each day that such violation continues.
(2) Exception in case of dispute 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply if
(A) the failure to pay an assessment is due to a dispute between the insured depository institution and the Corporation over the amount of such assessment; and
(B) the insured depository institution deposits security satisfactory to the Corporation for payment upon final determination of the issue.
(3) Special rule for small assessment amounts 
If the amount of the assessment which an insured depository institution fails or refuses to pay is less than $10,000 at the time of such failure or refusal, the amount of any penalty to which such institution is subject under paragraph (1) shall not exceed $100 for each day that such violation continues.
(4) Authority to modify or remit penalty 
The Corporation, in the sole discretion of the Corporation, may compromise, modify or remit any penalty which the Corporation may assess or has already assessed under paragraph (1) upon a finding that good cause prevented the timely payment of an assessment.
(i) Reduction or retirement of capital stock, notes, or debentures; conversion of insured Federal depository institutions to insured State banks or noninsured institutions; consent of banking agencies; applicability 

(1) No insured State nonmember bank shall, without the prior consent of the Corporation, reduce the amount or retire any part of its common or preferred capital stock, or retire any part of its capital notes or debentures.
(2) No insured Federal depository institution shall convert into an insured State depository institution if its capital stock or its surplus will be less than the capital stock or surplus, respectively, of the converting bank at the time of the shareholders meeting approving such conversion, without the prior written consent of
(A) the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System if the resulting bank is to be a State member bank;
(B) the Corporation if the resulting bank is to be a State nonmember insured bank; and
(C) the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision if the resulting institution is to be an insured State savings association.
(3) Without the prior written consent of the Corporation, no insured depository institution shall convert into a noninsured bank or institution.
(4) In granting or withholding consent under this subsection, the responsible agency shall consider
(A) the financial history and condition of the bank,
(B) the adequacy of its capital structure,
(C) its future earnings prospects,
(D) the general character and fitness of its management,
(E) the convenience and needs of the community to be served, and
(F) whether or not its corporate powers are consistent with the purposes of this chapter.
(j) Restrictions on transactions with affiliates and insiders 

(1) Transactions with affiliates 

(A) In general 
Sections 371c and 371c–1 of this title shall apply with respect to every nonmember insured bank in the same manner and to the same extent as if the nonmember insured bank were a member bank.
(B) “Affiliate” defined 
For the purpose of subparagraph (A), any company that would be an affiliate (as defined in sections 371c and 371c–1 of this title) of a nonmember insured bank if the nonmember insured bank were a member bank shall be deemed to be an affiliate of that nonmember insured bank.
(2) Extensions of credit to officers, directors, and principal shareholders 
Sections 375a and 375b of this title shall apply with respect to every nonmember insured bank in the same manner and to the same extent as if the nonmember insured bank were a member bank.
(3) Avoiding extraterritorial application to foreign banks 

(A) Transactions with affiliates 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to a foreign bank solely because the foreign bank has an insured branch.
(B) Extensions of credit to officers, directors, and principal shareholders 
Paragraph (2) shall not apply with respect to a foreign bank solely because the foreign bank has an insured branch, but shall apply with respect to the insured branch.
(C) “Foreign bank” defined 
For purposes of this paragraph, the term foreign bank has the same meaning as in section 3101 (7) of this title.
(k) Authority to regulate or prohibit certain forms of benefits to institution-affiliated parties 

(1) Golden parachutes and indemnification payments 
The Corporation may prohibit or limit, by regulation or order, any golden parachute payment or indemnification payment.
(2) Factors to be taken into account 
The Corporation shall prescribe, by regulation, the factors to be considered by the Corporation in taking any action pursuant to paragraph (1) which may include such factors as the following:
(A) Whether there is a reasonable basis to believe that the institution-affiliated party has committed any fraudulent act or omission, breach of trust or fiduciary duty, or insider abuse with regard to the depository institution or covered company that has had a material affect on the financial condition of the institution.
(B) Whether there is a reasonable basis to believe that the institution-affiliated party is substantially responsible for
(i) the insolvency of the depository institution or covered company;
(ii) the appointment of a conservator or receiver for the depository institution; or
(iii) the troubled condition of the depository institution (as defined in the regulations prescribed pursuant to section 1831i (f) of this title).
(C) Whether there is a reasonable basis to believe that the institution-affiliated party has materially violated any applicable Federal or State banking law or regulation that has had a material affect on the financial condition of the institution.
(D) Whether there is a reasonable basis to believe that the institution-affiliated party has violated or conspired to violate
(i) section 215, 656, 657, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1014, 1032, or 1344 of title 18; or
(ii) section 1341 or 1343 of such title affecting a federally insured financial institution.
(E) Whether the institution-affiliated party was in a position of managerial or fiduciary responsibility.
(F) The length of time the party was affiliated with the insured depository institution or covered company, and the degree to which
(i) the payment reasonably reflects compensation earned over the period of employment; and
(ii) the compensation involved represents a reasonable payment for services rendered.
(3) Certain payments prohibited 
No insured depository institution or covered company may prepay the salary or any liability or legal expense of any institution-affiliated party if such payment is made
(A) in contemplation of the insolvency of such institution or covered company or after the commission of an act of insolvency; and
(B) with a view to, or has the result of
(i) preventing the proper application of the assets of the institution to creditors; or
(ii) preferring one creditor over another.
(4) “Golden parachute payment” defined 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) In general 
The term golden parachute payment means any payment (or any agreement to make any payment) in the nature of compensation by any insured depository institution or covered company for the benefit of any institution-affiliated party pursuant to an obligation of such institution or covered company that
(i) is contingent on the termination of such partys affiliation with the institution or covered company; and
(ii) is received on or after the date on which
(I) the insured depository institution or covered company, or any insured depository institution subsidiary of such covered company, is insolvent;
(II) any conservator or receiver is appointed for such institution;
(III) the institutions appropriate Federal banking agency determines that the insured depository institution is in a troubled condition (as defined in the regulations prescribed pursuant to section 1831i (f) of this title);
(IV) the insured depository institution has been assigned a composite rating by the appropriate Federal banking agency or the Corporation of 4 or 5 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System; or
(V) the insured depository institution is subject to a proceeding initiated by the Corporation to terminate or suspend deposit insurance for such institution.
(B) Certain payments in contemplation of an event 
Any payment which would be a golden parachute payment but for the fact that such payment was made before the date referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be treated as a golden parachute payment if the payment was made in contemplation of the occurrence of an event described in any subclause of such subparagraph.
(C) Certain payments not included 
The term golden parachute payment shall not include
(i) any payment made pursuant to a retirement plan which is qualified (or is intended to be qualified) under section 401 of title 26 or other nondiscriminatory benefit plan;
(ii) any payment made pursuant to a bona fide deferred compensation plan or arrangement which the Board determines, by regulation or order, to be permissible; or
(iii) any payment made by reason of the death or disability of an institution-affiliated party.
(5) Other definitions 
For purposes of this subsection
(A) Indemnification payment 
Subject to paragraph (6), the term indemnification payment means any payment (or any agreement to make any payment) by any insured depository institution or covered company for the benefit of any person who is or was an institution-affiliated party, to pay or reimburse such person for any liability or legal expense with regard to any administrative proceeding or civil action instituted by the appropriate Federal banking agency which results in a final order under which such person
(i) is assessed a civil money penalty;
(ii) is removed or prohibited from participating in conduct of the affairs of the insured depository institution; or
(iii) is required to take any affirmative action described in section 1818 (b)(6) of this title with respect to such institution.
(B) Liability or legal expense 
The term liability or legal expense means
(i) any legal or other professional expense incurred in connection with any claim, proceeding, or action;
(ii) the amount of, and any cost incurred in connection with, any settlement of any claim, proceeding, or action; and
(iii) the amount of, and any cost incurred in connection with, any judgment or penalty imposed with respect to any claim, proceeding, or action.
(C) Payment 
The term payment includes
(i) any direct or indirect transfer of any funds or any asset; and
(ii) any segregation of any funds or assets for the purpose of making, or pursuant to an agreement to make, any payment after the date on which such funds or assets are segregated, without regard to whether the obligation to make such payment is contingent on
(I) the determination, after such date, of the liability for the payment of such amount; or
(II) the liquidation, after such date, of the amount of such payment.
(D) Covered company 
The term covered company means any depository institution holding company (including any company required to file a report under section 1843 (f)(6) of this title), or any other company that controls an insured depository institution.
(6) Certain commercial insurance coverage not treated as covered benefit payment 
No provision of this subsection shall be construed as prohibiting any insured depository institution or covered company, from purchasing any commercial insurance policy or fidelity bond, except that, subject to any requirement described in paragraph (5)(A)(iii), such insurance policy or bond shall not cover any legal or liability expense of the institution or covered company which is described in paragraph (5)(A).
(l) Acquisition of foreign banks or entities 
When authorized by State law, a State nonmember insured bank may, but only with the prior written consent of the Corporation and upon such conditions and under such regulations as the Corporation may prescribe from time to time, acquire and hold, directly or indirectly, stock or other evidences of ownership in one or more banks or other entities organized under the law of a foreign country or a dependency or insular possession of the United States and not engaged, directly or indirectly, in any activity in the United States except as, in the judgment of the Board of Directors, shall be incidental to the international or foreign business of such foreign bank or entity; and, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (j) of this section, such State nonmember insured bank may, as to such foreign bank or entity, engage in transactions that would otherwise be covered thereby, but only in the manner and within the limit prescribed by the Corporation by general or specific regulation or ruling.
(m) Activities of savings associations and their subsidiaries 

(1) Procedures 
When an insured savings association establishes or acquires a subsidiary or when an insured savings association elects to conduct any new activity through a subsidiary that the insured savings association controls, the insured savings association
(A) shall notify the Corporation and the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision not less than 30 days prior to the establishment, or acquisition, of any such subsidiary, and not less than 30 days prior to the commencement of any such activity, and in either case shall provide at that time such information as each such agency may, by regulation, require; and
(B) shall conduct the activities of the subsidiary in accordance with regulations and orders of the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision.
(2) Enforcement powers 
With respect to any subsidiary of an insured savings association:
(A) the Corporation and the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision shall each have, with respect to such subsidiary, the respective powers that each has with respect to the insured savings association pursuant to this section or section 1818 of this title; and
(B) the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision may determine, after notice and opportunity for hearing, that the continuation by the insured savings association of its ownership or control of, or its relationship to, the subsidiary
(i) constitutes a serious risk to the safety, soundness, or stability of the insured savings association, or
(ii) is inconsistent with sound banking principles or with the purposes of this chapter.

Upon making any such determination, the Corporation or the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision shall have authority to order the insured savings association to divest itself of control of the subsidiary. The Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision may take any other corrective measures with respect to the subsidiary, including the authority to require the subsidiary to terminate the activities or operations posing such risks, as the Director may deem appropriate.

(3) Activities incompatible with deposit insurance 

(A) In general 
The Corporation may determine by regulation or order that any specific activity poses a serious threat to the Deposit Insurance Fund. Prior to adopting any such regulation, the Corporation shall consult with the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision and shall provide appropriate State supervisors the opportunity to comment thereon, and the Corporation shall specifically take such comments into consideration. Any such regulation shall be issued in accordance with section 553 of title 5. If the Board of Directors makes such a determination with respect to an activity, the Corporation shall have authority to order that no savings association may engage in the activity directly.
(B) Authority of Director 
This section does not limit the authority of the Office of Thrift Supervision to issue regulations to promote safety and soundness or to enforce compliance with other applicable laws.
(C) Additional authority of FDIC to prevent serious risks to insurance fund 
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Corporation may prescribe and enforce such regulations and issue such orders as the Corporation determines to be necessary to prevent actions or practices of savings associations that pose a serious threat to the Deposit Insurance Fund.
(4) “Subsidiary” defined 
As used in this subsection, the term subsidiary does not include an insured depository institution.
(5) Applicability to certain savings banks 
Subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection do not apply to
(A) any Federal savings bank that was chartered prior to October 15, 1982, as a savings bank under State law, or
(B) a savings association that acquired its principal assets from an institution that was chartered prior to October 15, 1982, as a savings bank under State law.
(n) Calculation of capital 
No appropriate Federal banking agency shall allow any insured depository institution to include an unidentifiable intangible asset in its calculation of compliance with the appropriate capital standard, if such unidentifiable intangible asset was acquired after April 12, 1989, except to the extent permitted under section 1464 (t) of this title.
(o) Real estate lending 

(1) Uniform regulations 
Not more than 9 months after December 19, 1991, each appropriate Federal banking agency shall adopt uniform regulations prescribing standards for extensions of credit that are
(A) secured by liens on interests in real estate; or
(B) made for the purpose of financing the construction of a building or other improvements to real estate.
(2) Standards 

(A) Criteria 
In prescribing standards under paragraph (1), the agencies shall consider
(i) the risk posed to the Deposit Insurance Fund by such extensions of credit;
(ii) the need for safe and sound operation of insured depository institutions; and
(iii) the availability of credit.
(B) Variations permitted 
In prescribing standards under paragraph (1), the appropriate Federal banking agencies may differentiate among types of loans
(i) as may be required by Federal statute;
(ii) as may be warranted, based on the risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund; or
(iii) as may be warranted, based on the safety and soundness of the institutions.
(3) Loan evaluation standard 
No appropriate Federal banking agency shall adversely evaluate an investment or a loan made by an insured depository institution, or consider such a loan to be nonperforming, solely because the loan is made to or the investment is in commercial, residential, or industrial property, unless such investment or loan may affect the institutions safety and soundness.
(4) Effective date 
The regulations adopted under paragraph (1) shall become effective not later than 15 months after December 19, 1991. Such regulations shall continue in effect except as uniformly amended by the appropriate Federal banking agencies, acting in concert.
(p) Periodic review of capital standards 
Each appropriate Federal banking agency shall, in consultation with the other Federal banking agencies, biennially review its capital standards for insured depository institutions to determine whether those standards require sufficient capital to facilitate prompt corrective action to prevent or minimize loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund, consistent with section 1831o of this title.
(q) Sovereign risk 
Section 633 of this title shall apply to every nonmember insured bank in the same manner and to the same extent as if the nonmember insured bank were a member bank.
(r) Subsidiary depository institutions as agents for certain affiliates 

(1) In general 
Any bank subsidiary of a bank holding company may receive deposits, renew time deposits, close loans, service loans, and receive payments on loans and other obligations as an agent for a depository institution affiliate.
(2) Bank acting as agent is not a branch 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a bank acting as an agent in accordance with paragraph (1) for a depository institution affiliate shall not be considered to be a branch of the affiliate.
(3) Prohibitions on activities 
A depository institution may not
(A) conduct any activity as an agent under paragraph (1) or (6) which such institution is prohibited from conducting as a principal under any applicable Federal or State law; or
(B) as a principal, have an agent conduct any activity under paragraph (1) or (6) which the institution is prohibited from conducting under any applicable Federal or State law.
(4) Existing authority not affected 
No provision of this subsection shall be construed as affecting
(A) the authority of any depository institution to act as an agent on behalf of any other depository institution under any other provision of law; or
(B) whether a depository institution which conducts any activity as an agent on behalf of any other depository institution under any other provision of law shall be considered to be a branch of such other institution.
(5) Agency relationship required to be consistent with safe and sound banking practices 
An agency relationship between depository institutions under paragraph (1) or (6) shall be on terms that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices and all applicable regulations of any appropriate Federal banking agency.
(6) Affiliated insured savings associations 
An insured savings association which was an affiliate of a bank on July 1, 1994, may conduct activities as an agent on behalf of such bank in the same manner as an insured bank affiliate of such bank may act as agent for such bank under this subsection to the extent such activities are conducted only in
(A) any State in which
(i) the bank is not prohibited from operating a branch under any provision of Federal or State law; and
(ii) the savings association maintained an office or branch and conducted business as of July 1, 1994; or
(B) any State in which
(i) the bank is not expressly prohibited from operating a branch under a State law described in section 1831u (a)(2) of this title; and
(ii) the savings association maintained a main office and conducted business as of July 1, 1994.
(s) Prohibition on certain affiliations 

(1) In general 
No depository institution may be an affiliate of, be sponsored by, or accept financial support, directly or indirectly, from any Government-sponsored enterprise.
(2) Exception for members of a Federal home loan bank 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to the membership of a depository institution in a Federal home loan bank.
(3) Routine business financing 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to advances or other forms of financial assistance provided by a Government-sponsored enterprise pursuant to the statutes governing such enterprise.
(4) Student loans 

(A) In general 
This subsection shall not apply to any arrangement between the Holding Company (or any subsidiary of the Holding Company other than the Student Loan Marketing Association) and a depository institution, if the Secretary approves the affiliation and determines that
(i) the reorganization of such Association in accordance with section 1087–3 of title 20 will not be adversely affected by the arrangement;
(ii) the dissolution of the Association pursuant to such reorganization will occur before the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date on which such arrangement is consummated or on such earlier date as the Secretary deems appropriate: Provided, That the Secretary may extend this period for not more than 1 year at a time if the Secretary determines that such extension is in the public interest and is appropriate to achieve an orderly reorganization of the Association or to prevent market disruptions in connection with such reorganization, but no such extensions shall in the aggregate exceed 2 years;
(iii) the Association will not purchase or extend credit to, or guarantee or provide credit enhancement to, any obligation of the depository institution;
(iv) the operations of the Association will be separate from the operations of the depository institution; and
(v) until the dissolution date (as that term is defined in section 1087–3 of title 20) has occurred, such depository institution will not use the trade name or service mark Sallie Mae in connection with any product or service it offers if the appropriate Federal banking agency for such depository institution determines that
(I) the depository institution is the only institution offering such product or service using the Sallie Mae name; and
(II) such use would result in the depository institution having an unfair competitive advantage over other depository institutions.
(B) Terms and conditions 
In approving any arrangement referred to in subparagraph (A) the Secretary may impose any terms and conditions on such an arrangement that the Secretary considers appropriate, including
(i) imposing additional restrictions on the issuance of debt obligations by the Association; or
(ii) restricting the use of proceeds from the issuance of such debt.
(C) Additional limitations 
In the event that the Holding Company (or any subsidiary of the Holding Company) enters into such an arrangement, the value of the Associations investment portfolio shall not at any time exceed the lesser of
(i) the value of such portfolio on the date of the enactment of this subsection; or
(ii) the value of such portfolio on the date such an arrangement is consummated. The term investment portfolio shall mean all investments shown on the consolidated balance sheet of the Association other than
(I) any instrument or assets described in section 1087–2 (d) of title 20, as such section existed on the day before the date of the repeal of such section;
(II) any direct noncallable obligations of the United States or any agency thereof for which the full faith and credit of the United States is pledged; or
(III) cash or cash equivalents.
(D) Enforcement 
The terms and conditions imposed under subparagraph (B) may be enforced by the Secretary in accordance with section 1087–3 of title 20.
(E) Definitions 
For purposes of this paragraph, the following definition shall apply
(i) Association; Holding Company Notwithstanding any provision in section 1813 of this title, the terms Association and Holding Company have the same meanings as in section 1087–3 (i) of title 20.
(ii) Secretary The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Treasury.
(5) “Government-sponsored enterprise” defined 
For purposes of this subsection, the term Government-sponsored enterprise has the meaning given to such term in section 1404(e)(1)(A) of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989.
(t) Recordkeeping requirements 

(1) Requirements 
Each appropriate Federal banking agency, after consultation with and consideration of the views of the Commission, shall establish recordkeeping requirements for banks relying on exceptions contained in paragraphs (4) and (5) of section 78c (a) of title 15. Such recordkeeping requirements shall be sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the terms of such exceptions and be designed to facilitate compliance with such exceptions.
(2) Availability to Commission; confidentiality 
Each appropriate Federal banking agency shall make any information required under paragraph (1) available to the Commission upon request. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Commission shall not be compelled to disclose any such information. Nothing in this paragraph shall authorize the Commission to withhold information from Congress, or prevent the Commission from complying with a request for information from any other Federal department or agency or any self-regulatory organization requesting the information for purposes within the scope of its jurisdiction, or complying with an order of a court of the United States in an action brought by the United States or the Commission. For purposes of section 552 of title 5, this paragraph shall be considered a statute described in subsection (b)(3)(B) of such section 552.
(3) Definition 
As used in this subsection the term Commission means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
(u) Limitation on claims 

(1) In general 
No person may bring a claim against any Federal banking agency (including in its capacity as conservator or receiver) for the return of assets of an affiliate or controlling shareholder of the insured depository institution transferred to, or for the benefit of, an insured depository institution by such affiliate or controlling shareholder of the insured depository institution, or a claim against such Federal banking agency for monetary damages or other legal or equitable relief in connection with such transfer, if at the time of the transfer
(A) the insured depository institution is subject to any direction issued in writing by a Federal banking agency to increase its capital; and
(B) for that portion of the transfer that is made by an entity covered by section 1844 (g) of this title or section 1831v of this title, the Federal banking agency has followed the procedure set forth in such section.
(2) Definition of claim 
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term claim
(A) means a cause of action based on Federal or State law that
(i) provides for the avoidance of preferential or fraudulent transfers or conveyances; or
(ii) provides similar remedies for preferential or fraudulent transfers or conveyances; and
(B) does not include any claim based on actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud pursuant to such a fraudulent transfer or conveyance law.
(v) Loans by insured institutions on their own stock 

(1) General prohibition 
No insured depository institution may make any loan or discount on the security of the shares of its own capital stock.
(2) Exclusion 
For purposes of this subsection, an insured depository institution shall not be deemed to be making a loan or discount on the security of the shares of its own capital stock if it acquires the stock to prevent loss upon a debt previously contracted for in good faith.
(w) Written employment references may contain suspicions of involvement in illegal activity 

(1) Authority to disclose information 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any insured depository institution, and any director, officer, employee, or agent of such institution, may disclose in any written employment reference relating to a current or former institution-affiliated party of such institution which is provided to another insured depository institution in response to a request from such other institution, information concerning the possible involvement of such institution-affiliated party in potentially unlawful activity.
(2) Information not required 
Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed, by itself, to create any affirmative duty to include any information described in paragraph (1) in any employment reference referred to in paragraph (1).
(3) Malicious intent 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, voluntary disclosure made by an insured depository institution, and any director, officer, employee, or agent of such institution, under this subsection concerning potentially unlawful activity that is made with malicious intent, shall not be shielded from liability from the person identified in the disclosure.
(4) Definition 
For purposes of this subsection, the term insured depository institution includes any uninsured branch or agency of a foreign bank.
(x) Privileges not affected by disclosure to banking agency or supervisor 

(1) In general 
The submission by any person of any information to any Federal banking agency, State bank supervisor, or foreign banking authority for any purpose in the course of any supervisory or regulatory process of such agency, supervisor, or authority shall not be construed as waiving, destroying, or otherwise affecting any privilege such person may claim with respect to such information under Federal or State law as to any person or entity other than such agency, supervisor, or authority.
(2) Rule of construction 
No provision of paragraph (1) may be construed as implying or establishing that
(A) any person waives any privilege applicable to information that is submitted or transferred under any circumstance to which paragraph (1) does not apply; or
(B) any person would waive any privilege applicable to any information by submitting the information to any Federal banking agency, State bank supervisor, or foreign banking authority, but for this subsection.
[1] See References in Text note below.
[2] So in original. Probably should be “insured depository institution”.